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Sample records for small-scale farmers healthy

  1. Thai indigenous cattle production provided a sustainable alternative for the benefit of small-scale farmers, healthy food and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Thailand, there were 5.66 million indigenous cattle and 1.76 million of their crosses. Farmers raised these cattle integrated with crop and fish in livestock-crop-fish integrated farming systems. These farming systems are in small scales for efficient utilization of available resources and for maximisation of production of diversified products per unit area to increase the income of the farmers and enhance food production. Thai indigenous cattle meat have more specific nutrient that are beneficial for consumers, such as omega 3, omega 6, and CLA. Furthermore, farmers use cattle manures as fertilizer for crop production, production of plankton for the fish and biogas/electric power used in the household. Additionally, Thai indigenous cattle are used for draught power. Consequently, Thai indigenous cattle increased food production and there was minimal cattle waste on farms thus, we could keep the environment clean and green. Performance data, meat quality, compost production, biogas production, and draught animal and reference were collected from 103 smallholder farmers in the northern part of Thailand, northeastern, central and southern parts of Thailand during October 2005 to September 2007. Growth and reproductive performance: Thai indigenous cattle had various skin and hair colour such as red, light brown, black, piebald, and only Kow-Lamphun cattle in northern part of Thailand, orange-pink skin and white hair colour. Their navels were not slackened but attached to the belly. Their dewlaps were also not slacken. The average birth weight was 19.6 kg and the weaning weight at 200 d of age was 137.96 kg. They had good characteristics of heat tolerance, disease resistance, and high fertility traits. They were the main red-meat source for consumers. Thai indigenous cattle were main source of red meat for consumption in Thailand. They produced high Omega 3 and Omega 6 in red meat, so their meat was the main source of protein and healthy food.Other utility of Thai indigenous cattle integrated farming system: Farmer raised on average 31.95 heads of Thai indigenous cattle on each farm integrated with crops (rice, corn, pineapple, sugar cane) and fish (striped catfish, catfish, tilapia, crucian carp). Cattle were fed on natural grass, rice straw as the main feed and other by-product from crops. Farmers used cattle manure to replaced chemical fertilizer and produced compost, which was used as fertilizer for crop production. Farmers also used manure to produce plankton for fish. They harvested 85.19 ton of crop production by using compost from manure and produced 0.25 ton per rai, which was less than the average country production (0.40 ton/rai). Average fish production was 100.00 kg per farm per year (147.06 kg/rai), which was similar to fish feeding with manure and concentrate (142.67 kg/rai). By integrating production in livestock-crop-fish, farming systems on small-scale, farmers produced safety food and gain their income. In addition, they could prevent air pollution, and global warming, leading to clean environment. (author)

  2. A Success Story of Organizing Small Scale Farmers in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Managing agricultural landscapes for reducing carbon dioxide emissions is believed to be a Payment for Environmental Services mechanism (PES) of major significance after the 2012 Kyoto Protocol era. The big number of small scale farmers in the developing countries, and not least in SSA, will through this have a chance to contribute to national development, but to also enhance their own livelihood. The big problem of relying on small scale farmers is an organization model that ensures endurance a...

  3. Export horticulture – empowering female small-scale farmers in Kenya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Export horticulture is one of Kenya’s most dynamic sectors, with the Mount Kenya Region playing a crucial role as a result of its professional large- and small-scale production and marketing structures. The sector is consequently referred to as a “success story of African regional development” (Dolan and Sutherland 2002: 1. A qualitative case study was carried out to understand the impacts on gender inequality of the integration of horticultural smallholdings into the fresh fruit and vegetable (FFV supply chain to the European market. It will be outlined how export horticulture affects female small-scale farmers with reference to local distribution channels, the organisation of the farm as a group or an individual player, and the specific organisation of labour on the farm. The focus here is on the traditional division of labour, ownership and mobility patterns, as well as knowledge and income. The study shows that the influence of the integration in the FFV chain on gender inequality is conditioned by both the type of relations to the buyers and the internal and institutional organisation of the smallholding. Surprisingly, in some areas of the primarily male-dominated rural society, an integration in the form of outgrower schemes that resembles Gereffi et al.’s model of a captive value chain, with women farmers exclusively responsible for export production, can enhance gender equality, as women gradually gain more decision-making power and greater independence.

  4. Effect of a Food Crop Development Project on Livelihood of Small-Scale Maize Farmers, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Vinay-Vadillo; José Alfredo Villagómez-Cortés; María Rebeca Acosta-Rodríguez; Clément Rocher

    2012-01-01

    The Food Crop Development Project (FCDP) was introduced with the aim of improving farm incomes, household food security, nutrition and reducing poverty among small-scale farmers. This study sought to find answers to the questions of whether the project improved farmers’ access to credit, improved maize output or whether small-scale maize farmers adopted the improved maize production practices and how it impacted on maize production. Descriptive survey was conducted and using multi-stage rando...

  5. Small-scale Farmer’s Perception on the Impact of Grazing Livestock Animals on Crop Production in Abuja, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajah Julius

    2012-01-01

    The production of crops and livestock animals in Nigeria is not mutually exclusive hence a study was conducted to determine small-scale crop farmers’ perception of the impact of grazing livestock animals like cattle, goat, sheep and domestic fowls on crop production in Abuja, Nigeria. A multi-stage technique was adopted for sample selection while semi-structured questionnaires were used for data collection. A total of 384 small-scale crop farmers were randomly interviewed in four agricultural...

  6. Tanzania’s Small-Scale Sunflower Farmers: Upgrading the Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Enock S. Ugulumu; Eno L. Inanga

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire using a psychometric scale investigated how small-scale sunflower farmers perceive the role of building relationships based on demand-driven upgrades, such as knowledge, skills, technology, and support services within the value chain. The study focused on small-scale sunflower farmers in the Singida region of Tanzania. The survey was conducted in twelve Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives (AMCOs) with 229 respondents. The respondents had positive opinions about creating co...

  7. Diversity of shifting cultivation cycles among small-scale farmers in Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Van Damme; Vladimir Verner; Lucie Banoutova; Jan Banout; Bohdan Lojka

    2011-01-01

    Although shifting cultivation is practiced by millions of farmers, it is often blamed for caus-ing deforestation and keeping farmers in pov-erty. Our study focused on the Amazon basin, where small-scale farmers widely practice shift- ing cultivation. The objective was to identify the diversity in land use after initial slash-and- burn land clearing among migrant peasants. Our research aimed at documenting typical crop sequences, plant species composition and specific lengths of particular pha...

  8. Ulcer Type of Disease in the Fishes of Small-Scale Farmer`s Pond in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M.B.R. Chowdhury; Muniruzzaman, M.; U.A. Zahura; K.Z.A. Habib; M.D. Khatun

    2003-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate ulcer type of disease in the small-scale rural poor fish farmer?s pond and to suggest a low-cost treatment measure. In total 20 ponds of 10 different sites were selected in the district of Mymensingh for treatment and control ones. Fishes were sampled on monthly basis starting from September 2000 and continued until April 2001 to examine their disease condition. Ulcer type of disease with expression of lesions was detected by spot observation followed by ...

  9. Effect of a Food Crop Development Project on Livelihood of Small-Scale Maize Farmers, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Vinay-Vadillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Food Crop Development Project (FCDP was introduced with the aim of improving farm incomes, household food security, nutrition and reducing poverty among small-scale farmers. This study sought to find answers to the questions of whether the project improved farmers’ access to credit, improved maize output or whether small-scale maize farmers adopted the improved maize production practices and how it impacted on maize production. Descriptive survey was conducted and using multi-stage random sampling procedure a final sample of 130 farmers was selected. The results indicated that participation in FCDP had a positive and significant but moderate relationship with maize output. More participants reported having easy access to credit than nonparticipants with chi-square value of 17.29 being highly significant indicating the possible relationship between ease of access to credit and participation in FCDP. The OLS stepwise regression analysis showed that participation, farm size and ease of access to credit were the main predictors of maize output while participation, income and household size were also the main predictors of food security. Thus, FCDP helped to improve the livelihoods of maize farmers in the study area. The policy implication of these findings is that subsidized agricultural input projects like the FCDP, have the potential to improve food security and farm incomes of peasant households.

  10. Use of ICT in Securing Marketing Information among Small Scale Farmers in Niger State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Job N. Nmadu; Fatima. A. Aiyelitsoya; Halima Sallawu

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of information communication technology (ICT) on securing marketing information among small scale farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 90 respondents through the use of structured questionnaire. The information collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression technique. Results of the analysis showed that majority of the respondents were in their active age of production and were married. Most of the respon...

  11. Extension Strategy Development and Training Needs for Small Scale Commercial Poultry Farmers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Olawale Farayola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study ascertained Small Scale Commercial poultry farmers’ needs on improved production techniques in Osogbo Local Government Area of Osun State. A purposive sampling technique was used to select sixty (60 poultry farmers. Findings revealed that the percentages of poultry farmers that need training on various poultry production techniques are as follows: housing system (83.3%, feeds and feeding strategies (87%, disease/parasites prevention and control (80%; handling skills (80% and marketing strategies (88.3%. Findings also showed that (13.3% of the poultry farmers hired labour for the business, (53.3% are making use of family/relatives for the business while (28.3% of the respondents employed both labour and family together. Marital status, level of education and awareness of improved poultry production techniques were significant (X2 = 6.136, P<0.05 and X2 =19.679, P<0.05. Also there was no significant relationship between farmers’ awareness of poultry production techniques and training needs (X2 =1.016, P<0.05. It is recommended that seminar/workshops should be regularly organized for the poultry farmers’ on the best practices that will save the cost of feeds and reduce mortality in their poultry production techniques.

  12. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only redu...

  13. Worth assessment of information and their access points by small scale cassava farmers in Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Osikabor; I. O., Oladele; I, Ogunlade.

    Full Text Available This study determined the access, worth assessment and use of information by small-scale farmers in Oyo State. The study described socio-economic characteristics of small-scale cassava farmers; ascertained information access point preferences and analyzed information worth assessment. A multi stage [...] sampling was used to select 360 respondents and data were collected through pre-tested and face validated questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.88. The results show that majority of the cassava farmers (76.4%) had low access to information and 85.6% rated cassava innovation packages as of low worth. The most frequently used access point is oral communication (83%), which was also rated highest in motivation ability (77.7%), regularity (96.3%) and relevance of information (83.4%). Radio was rated as the most persistent (68.5%). social participation, farm size and use of hired labour had a statistically significant effect on access to information (p

  14. A Comparative Study of Marketing Problems Faced by Small-scale Crop Farmers in Botswana and Kenya. Is There a Way out?

    OpenAIRE

    P.T. Mburu; S.K. Massimo

    2005-01-01

    Most governments in third world countries including sub Saharan Africa, tend to either neglect or fail to the avail the necessary resources to small-scale farmers to enable such farmers attain any meaningful development. The small-scale farmers contribute the biggest percentage of the national food requirement compared to large-scale farmers who produce largely for international markets. Besides, small-scale farmers contribute to the creation of employment, development of agro-based industrie...

  15. Use of ICT in Securing Marketing Information among Small Scale Farmers in Niger State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job N. Nmadu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the use of information communication technology (ICT on securing marketing information among small scale farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 90 respondents through the use of structured questionnaire. The information collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression technique. Results of the analysis showed that majority of the respondents were in their active age of production and were married. Most of the respondents obtained their information from radio, television, and newspaper. The finding also indicated that the years spent in school and not the educational achievement is what is likely to increase the probability of awareness. Problems identified with regards to the usage of ICTs by the respondents include language barrier, poverty, and illiteracy. It was therefore recommended that government and nongovernmental organizations should collaborate to include ICT workshop and training in farmer education programmes, encourage programmes like NYSC ICT volunteer group, and translate technology to local languages.

  16. The Right to Food Sovereignty for Small Scale Farmers: Case Study of Farming Cooperatives in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Groenmeyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper on small scale farmers focuses on the right to food sovereignty in South Africa. Food sovereignty is defined as the fundamental democratic right to shape agricultural and food policy from the bottom up. Africa is the hardest hit by climate change because it depends on natural resources where small-scale agriculture is the dominant method of food production, except in South Africa where commercial agriculture dominates. This has direct links to climate change discourse reveals that ...

  17. Resource Use and Technical Efficiency of Small Scale Poultry Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    P.C. IKE

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the factors that affect poultry production among small scale poultry farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria. Thirty six respondents were sampled from a list of poultry farmers derived from Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme Office. The Cob Douglas stochastic production function was used to determine factors that affect poultry output as well as the factors that affect the technical efficiency of poultry production. Farm size (p = 0.05), capital input (p = 0.01), labour...

  18. Ulcer Type of Disease in the Fishes of Small-Scale Farmer`s Pond in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B.R. Chowdhury

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to investigate ulcer type of disease in the small-scale rural poor fish farmer?s pond and to suggest a low-cost treatment measure. In total 20 ponds of 10 different sites were selected in the district of Mymensingh for treatment and control ones. Fishes were sampled on monthly basis starting from September 2000 and continued until April 2001 to examine their disease condition. Ulcer type of disease with expression of lesions was detected by spot observation followed by laboratory examination. A number of suspective bacterial pathogens were recovered from the lesions and kidney of diseased fishes, viz., Cirrhinus cirrhosus, Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Barbodes gonionotus, Pangasius hypophthalamus. Fungal isolates especially Aphanomyces sp., Saprolegnia sp. and Achlya sp. were recovered from the lesions and affected muscles of the sampled fishes. A number of recovered bacterial isolates were detected as pathogenic among which Aeromonas hydrophila, Ah-11 and A. veronii biover sobria were recognized as high virulent isolates. In the case of fungal isolates Aphanomyces sp. and Saprolegnia sp. were detected as pathogenic. Prevalence of disease outbreak was found to be very low where preventive treatment measures were taken with salt and lime (1:1, 1 kg/decimal. In the winter months (January and February, the disease outbreaks were found to be very high in the non-treated (control ponds, whereas in the treated ponds prevalence of infection were significantly low. In laboratory based treatment trial, antibiotic renamycin was found to be effective against bacterial invasion at a dose of 50mg/kg body wt/day applying for five days. In the case of fungal infection, the diseased fishes were found to be cured within five days by one hour bath in 0.5% salt and lime suspension at a ratio of 1:1 applying for 3 days.

  19. Demand for Agricultural Extension Services among Small-Scale Maize Farmers: Micro-Level Evidence from Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gido, Eric O.; Sibiko, Kenneth W.; Ayuya, Oscar I.; Mwangi, Joseph K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine the level and determinants of demand for extension services among small-scale maize farmers in Kenya. Design/methodology/approach: Based on an exploratory research design, primary data were collected from a sample of 352 households through face-to-face interviews. Focus group discussions were…

  20. The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthoni Thuo, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow sugarcane…

  1. Small scale farmers’ access to and participation in markets : The case of the P4P program in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Skjöldevald, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand how small scale farmers navigate the market to access and participate in the formal maize market to improve their revenue, utilising the case of the P4P program inKenya. The empirical material was collected during fieldwork in Kenya. Qualitative methods were found to be the most suitable for this thesis. The methods that was utilised were a case study strategy, semi structured interviews, focus groups, observations and analysis of secondary sources....

  2. A Success Story of Organizing Small Scale Farmers in Kenya : It's Possible Replication for the Payment of Environmental Services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Managing agricultural landscapes for reducing carbon dioxide emissions is believed to be a Payment for Environmental Services mechanism (PES) of major significance after the 2012 Kyoto Protocol era. The big number of small scale farmers in the developing countries, and not least in SSA, will through this have a chance to contribute to national development, but to also enhance their own livelihood. The big problem of relying on small scale farmers is an organization model that ensures endurance and reliability. The Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA) has through almost 50 years been successful in integrating 600.000 smallholders in the tea production making tea number one income earner in Kenya and enhancing the livelihoods of the involved contract growers. The article argues that lessons should be learned from the success of KTDA in possibly replicating the organizational model to other crops, but not least to be used in PES schemes. The article emphasizes vertical integration and production diversification, enabling market conditions, and democratization as the main factors in KTDA’s success that could possibly be replicated in promoting small scale farmers participating in the post-Kyoto carbon trade.

  3. Socio Economic Determinants of the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers: Evidence from Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah K. Okuthe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to examine the influence of socio economic factors on the adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external input agriculture and extreme forms of traditional low external input agriculture. The main components of INRM in Ndhiwa division are chemical fertilizer, animal manure, green manure, stover lines and agro forestry. However the adoption of these technologies appears to be low resulting to probably the low production. It is not understood well why farmers who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, either do not adopt or adopt the technologies and then abandon. An ex-post-facto survey design which utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used in the study. For quantitative data collection, a sample of 220 small scale farmers selected using systematic random sampling from the small scale farmers in the Division were engaged. For qualitative data, 40 small scale farmers and 37 Key Informants selected using purposive sampling from the division were used. Results of the study indicated that households education status, gender, access to credit and membership in social groups were important variables which had positively and significantly influenced adoption of INRM technologies. The overall finding of the study underlined the high importance of institutional support in the areas of extension, strengthening social groups and improving market and credit condition to enhance adoption of INRM technologies. The study will be significant to planners, policy makers, researchers, extension and farmers to build the case for interventions on INRM within the development sector for improved and sustainable agriculture and rural development.

  4. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Madsen, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70±0.84 Escherichia coli (log) cfu/ml on average in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Efficiency indices and indicators of poor performance among emerging small-scale pig farmers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japhta M. Mokoele

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Limpopo is a very important area for pig production in terms of animal populations and contributions to transboundary animal disease spread. Emerging small-scale pig farmers (ESSPF are being encouraged to establish operations and spread in South Africa; however, for these farmers to perform optimally, they need to understand the basics of animal agriculture and contribute to enhancing biosecurity and efficient production systems. In the present study, the limitations to efficient production amongst ESSPF were evaluated and some improvements were suggested. It was found that the ESSPF are dominated by males and include a large percentage of older persons. A total of 26.54% of these farmers have post-matriculation qualifications. Undefined and indigenous breeds still dominate their animal genetics. The animal health technicians are the preferred channels by which farmers report diseases to the authorities (52.47% and only one out of five (20.37% will preferably report a disease situation direct to a veterinarian. These farmers do not vaccinate their stock, and knowledge of biosecurity is poor. Antimicrobials, especially tetracyclines, are abused. Animals that are slaughtered within the community or sold at local sale points, pension pay stations and auction markets are likely candidates for disease spread. It is recommended that the younger generations are retained and incentivised in animal agriculture. Improved training on management, health, biosecurity and better market access must be provided for the ESSPF, whilst efforts should made to consolidate these farmers into small cooperatives. The current government agricultural support system will need to be reworked to benefit the resource-poor farmers. Collaborative efforts in disease reporting and management among veterinarians, animal health technicians and extension officers will become necessary. Finally, the creation of a progressive quality grading system for ESSPF should be planned by the industry and this should be attached to a reward system that will encourage these farmers to target good farming practice.

  6. Skills based constraints and complexities affecting small-scale-entrepreneurship: A case of communal cattle farmers in Vhembe District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates constraints and complexities affecting entrepreneurial and Agri-business small-scale farming success and sustainability in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The respondent entrepreneur farmers were purposively selected (n=55 amongst 183 other farmers in the district for primary data collection through a semi-structured cross-language (Tshivenda questionnaire. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs also formed part of data collection instruments. The results of this paper revealed that the entrepreneur farmers’ formal school educational levels and basic literacy skills in addition; subtraction; multiplication and division were reasonably higher while technological skills in farm risk management and production, and managerial competence in business financial skills; budgeting and marketing were low. Government sponsored extension service could be employed to improve some of these deficient skills through skills training amongst the entrepreneur farmers. Since the study area is in the proximity of the University of Venda and Madzivhandila Agricultural Colleges, these institutions could be enlisted to provide skills training to the entrepreneur farmers.

  7. Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Böller, Marianne; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2014-05-01

    Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. However, at the current price for a ton of carbon, the potential to earn significant carbon credits is limited. Therefore carbon storage should not be seen as a goal in itself. Potential for earning carbon credits and generating further benefits lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrub land and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. Therefore, soil management has to be addressed from a holistic understanding of the livelihoods of small-scale farmers. This includes a detailed understanding of the constraints in farming, as well as the motivation behind farming. The aim of this study is the identification of intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of soil quality, farm management and the constraints and motivations regarding farming. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity of land while at the same time building up landscape carbon stocks. They furthermore show the importance of carefully choosing the way new farming techniques are introduced, as many farmers are afraid of trying something new.

  8. Poultry production and rural poverty among small-scale farmers in Mzimba District of Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Assa, Maganga

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of participating in poultry production on household income and rural poverty in Mzimba district, Malawi. The study utilizes cross-sectional farm level household data collected in 2011. The paper computes income-based poverty measures and investigates their sensitivity to the use of different poverty lines. Robust poverty comparisons across the poultry and non-poultry farmers reveal that poverty is in fact higher for the non-poultry compared to the poultry farmers...

  9. Assessment of Small Scale Farmers’ Skills Regarding Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in District Sargodha-Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ejaz Ashraf; Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza; Samiullah,; Muhammad Younis

    2012-01-01

    Asurvey study was conducted to assess the knowledge/awareness level in IPM technology among farmers. Fourvillages were randomly selected from Sargodha district fordata collection. Thirteen farmers from each village wereselected randomly and sample size was 52 respondents. Morethan 92% of respondents have no advisory services eitherfrom public or private sector. The findings imply that respondentsneed knowledge for all levels of competence in IPM technology.They need to get high-level of compe...

  10. Determinants of Market Participation among Small-scale Pineapple Farmers in Kericho County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Sigei, Geoffrey; Bett, Hillary; Kibet, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Marketing agricultural produce is important amongst smallholder farmers because they derive benefits such as income and rural employment. In developing countries like Kenya, most smallholder farmers are characterized by poor market participation because they lack market information on pineapple marketing. In Bureti district; pineapples have been perceived to have high market value, resulting in trade-offs with staple food. Despite pineapples market value, its market participation has not been...

  11. Evaluation of the appropriateness of certain grain production technologies for small-scale farmers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.P.N., du Toit; E.A., Nemadodzi.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a combination of both modern, high-input technologies and low-input technologies in a context based technology development approach. These technologies are: improved maize varieties; row planting; legumes in the cropping system; reduced tillage practices and weed control. Although [...] some adaptations are needed, none of the innovations in the program failed the test of appropriateness completely. According to the findings Open Pollinated Varieties (OPV's), although intensively promoted, were only preferred by 35% of the farmers while hybrid seed was preferred by 59% of the farmers. The majority of farmers (63%) indicated that they do plant maize in rows with a mechanised planter; despite high labour costs 59% of farmers still control weeds by hand and 61% of the respondents do realise the economic advantage of reduced tillage practices but still does not implement the practices. The strong linkages between all role players and active farmer participation are probably the most important reasons for the fact that farmers are still enthusiastic and eager to continue with the program.

  12. A Comparative Study of Marketing Problems Faced by Small-scale Crop Farmers in Botswana and Kenya. Is There a Way out?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Mburu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most governments in third world countries including sub Saharan Africa, tend to either neglect or fail to the avail the necessary resources to small-scale farmers to enable such farmers attain any meaningful development. The small-scale farmers contribute the biggest percentage of the national food requirement compared to large-scale farmers who produce largely for international markets. Besides, small-scale farmers contribute to the creation of employment, development of agro-based industries, improvement of social welfare and the contribution to economic advancement of most developing countries. The development of this sector depends mainly on the availability of ready markets particularly the development of the marketing mix using the original 4P`s of marketing. Any business aims at offering consumers needed products that are competitive, available, well packaged and distributed according to consumer preferences. Pricing, distribution and promotion issues should also be incorporated in order to boost sales of locally produced products in preference to imported goods. With proper management and marketing improvement in this sector, most African countries could increase food production and cease to be dependent on food relief aid from donors. A comparative study approach was used to compile this study comparing the problems of small-scale farmers in Botswana and Kenya. We made use of available secondary data form publications in the two countries. This study aimed at finding out whether marketing problems faced by small-scale farmers in Botswana also affect their Kenyan counterparts and suggest possible solutions.

  13. Climate Change in the High Andes:implications and adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, C.; Nicklin, C.; O. Dangles; Vanek, S.; Sherwood, S.G.; Halloy, S.; Garrett, K.A.; Forbes, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Global climate change represents a major threat to sustainable farming in the Andes. Farmers have used local ecological knowledge and intricate production systems to cope, adapt and reorganize to meet climate uncertainty and risk, which have always been a fact of life. Those traditional systems are generally highly resilient, but the predicted effects, rates and variability of climate change may push them beyond their range of adaptability. This article examines the extent of actual...

  14. EFFECT OF MICRO FINANCE ON POVERTY REDUCTION OF SMALL SCALE FARMERS OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ahmad SAEED

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study revealed the impact of micro finance with regard to poverty alleviation, employment generation opportunities, upraise in the standards of living of the small farmers of Pakistan along with the access of such finances and their financial cost. Small farmers often rely on the loans and finance from the formal and informal sources of finance. There is low rate of sustainability in the micro finance sector. These schemes remain for a small time period. Another challenge is that there is a need of replicable and scalable model. There is also a requirement of formalization of informal credit source which count for higher. There is high need of reducing the ambiguities in obtaining the credit from these sources. With respect to agriculture, the proportion of finance should be increase with the proportion to its contribution to the economy. The data for this study has been collected through a selfstructured questionnaire and respondents are small farmers who are availing the micro finance facility for any source; informal, formal or semi – informal. The data collected form 150 respondent from Sahiwal and Multan Region. The data has been analyzed through regression and correlation method with the use of SPSS for checking the relationship and impact of micro finance on the living of poor and employment generation. This paper also concluded that the financial cost of such finances is having significant role on the success of such schemes. The research is a contribution to the financial sector to set their focus according to the quality and quantity of micro credit to the agriculture sector.

  15. Assessment of Small Scale Farmers’ Skills Regarding Integrated Pest Management (IPM in District Sargodha-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejaz Ashraf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Asurvey study was conducted to assess the knowledge/awareness level in IPM technology among farmers. Fourvillages were randomly selected from Sargodha district fordata collection. Thirteen farmers from each village wereselected randomly and sample size was 52 respondents. Morethan 92% of respondents have no advisory services eitherfrom public or private sector. The findings imply that respondentsneed knowledge for all levels of competence in IPM technology.They need to get high-level of competence for application ofthis technology in the field. In addition, they have littleexposure to long-term training opportunities due to loweducation level for applications of this technology. More than77% of respondents think that government agricultural policiesand no access to information sources regarding integrated pestmanagement at grass-root level are main constraints. Thefindings from correlation and regression analyses indicate thatage and knowledge/awareness level are negatively correlated.It may be concluded that elder respondents have less adaptabilityto new ideas and techniques as compared to young respondents.However, training and information, education, and experienceplay a significant role in enhancing the knowledge/awarenesslevel of respondents in IPM technology.

  16. ANALYSIS OF PIG PROFILES ON SMALL-SCALE PIG FARMERS IN MANOKWARI-WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Iyai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the profiles of pig farming systems. Participatory situation analysis was employed to gain data relating to pig profiles in the urban and rural areas of Manokwari. Due to the interests of combining many correlated data, multivariate analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA was performed. Cluster Analysis using Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering was applied for analysis of merge samples based on similarity in components’ composition across sites. There were various twelve classes of pig profiles in Manokwari. In principal component of the first axis correlation of several components shows strong positive relation e.g. in piglets, sows, and total herd size. Status of region in the first axis of PCA (P1 through which pigs were raised had negative correlation, including grower, household member and pig production. In the second axis (P2, negative correlations were shown in piglets, grower, boars, total herd size and the Pig Production Potential (PPP. Status of region has underpinned profiles of pigs. Several farmers were able to manage their farm continuity in a steady composition. Selling pigs was the main aim and few farmers play a role as pure breeder.

  17. The impact of mobile phones on knowledge access and transfer of small-scale horticultural farmers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krone, Madlen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the main economic activity in Tanzania and the country´s largest employer, providing livelihood for at least 80 % of the economically active population. Many studies have identified key challenges facing the sector for Africa in general – among these lack of access to knowledge. For agricultural producers, access to knowledge is important for an improved productivity and competitiveness. The fast diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICT such as mobile phones across Africa in the last years has resulted in an improved access and transfer of agricultural knowledge. Studies have shown that rural actors like farmers in remote areas even use mobile phones for their farming business. Based on qualitative interviews in the Mwanza Region in northwestern Tanzania, this study aims to identify and categorise the different types of knowledge which are transferred via mobile phones. Our results show that mobile phones enlarge the ability of farmers to access business-relevant knowledge at an increasing spatial scale. However, the effects of the use depend on the type of knowledge and other factors. The results add to existing studies by deepening the understanding of the benefits of ICT on knowledge access and transfer for the context of rural small-scale framers in Tanzania.

  18. Small-Scale Farmer Initiatives for Irrigating the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was undertaken in Machakos , Kitui, Makueni, Mwingi and Baringo districts to Identify the major systems currently being employed with a view to assessing there performance. In Machakos, Kitui, Makueni and Mwingi districts, the main sources of water were small earth dams (micro dams), with water harnessed from run off and nearby uncultivated or grazing lands. In Baringo district, the main source of water was adam constructed across a seasonal river called Wesegess. All micro dams were excavated by their owners using mainly manual labour and skills acquired from neighbours, supplemented by owner's initiates. In the areas in Eastern province, only horticultural crops are irrigated. In Baringo district, grain and horticultural crops than in grain crops underscoring their higher water demand and importance in the household cas flow. The main irrigation system employed in the Eastern province was spot, whereas furrows was widely used in Baringo district. Availability of water within the farm freed labour from fetching water long distances and shortened walking distances for livestock. It also facilitated cultivation of high value crops to improve farmers' household cash economy

  19. A Study of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Relating to Brucellosis among Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in an Urban and Peri-Urban Area of Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of knowledge, attitudes and practices among urban livestock farmers could have a significant impact on the reduction of many zoonotic infections in urban farming. This study aimed to describe and evaluate weak areas in knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to brucellosis among urban and peri-urban small-scale dairy farmers in a low income country to generate information essential for control programmes and public health interventions. The cross-sectional study was conduc...

  20. Survey of the Current Status of Weed Control and Herbicide Usage by the Small-Scale Commercial Vegetable Farmers in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetable production in Kenya is a market that has grown very rapidly in the decade due to increased demand in the local and international markets. This has led to an increase in hectarerage planted to vegetable thus leading in labour shortage due urban migration of potential casual labourers especially the youth. This has resulted to inadequate labour for weed control especially at the critical period. The objectives of this study were to find out the problems encountered by farmers in their bid to control weeds and whether they considered weeds as their major problem. The survey was conducted in Kikuyu, Lari and Kinango divisions where intensive vegetable farming is done by small-scale farmers for commercial purposes. The farmers were randomly selected and interviews conducted in their farms, based on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method. The results obtained showed that the farmers who previously relied on manual labour for weed control were increasingly using herbicides for weed control. The adoption of herbicide technology by these small scale farmers was out of their own initiative, either due to labour shortage or because one had a special weed problem that had defied other methods of control.From the information obtained it was clear that locally generated data information on herbicide use by small-scale farmers is seriously lacking for most if not all vegetable crops

  1. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given landscape under several existing and new carbon offset methodologies. In this presentation, we will discuss our initial encouraging results on the basis of which our wider team now seeks to identify and recommend policies that the local governments to be able to scale up climate smart agriculture to larger jurisdictional levels.

  2. Understanding the dynamics of multi-stakeholder innovation systems and the opportunities for joint learning by small scale farmers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. B., Stevens; B., Letty.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a European Union funded project called JOLISAA (Joint Learning in Innovation Systems in African Agriculture), the nature of smallholder oriented innovation systems have been explored in terms of partnerships, triggers that have given rise to them and the nature of the innovations themselves. [...] The main objective was to analyse a broad diversity of multi-stakeholder agricultural innovation processes involving smallholders. The analysis of 11 cases documented comprises innovation bundles composed of technical, organisational and institutional innovations. The eleven cases documented showed that six exhibited nontechnical innovation processes frequently related to market access as well as to inputs and services. Triggers that drive smallholders and other stakeholders to initiate innovation processes include environment stress, introduction of new technologies, identification of market change as well as policy or regulatory changes. The cases that have been documented show a variation of stakeholders responsible for initiating the process. In some cases it was smallholders approaching other stakeholders for assistance with addressing a challenge, while in other cases it was researchers or extensionists who undertook to develop an innovation to address a challenge that they had encountered through their interaction with smallholders. All documented cases have involved the contribution of ideas, knowledge and skills by at least three different types of stakeholders and the role of local knowledge has been acknowledge through the study. Out of the eleven cases three cases have been selected for a collaborative case assessment which strives to assess further key issues such as actual roles and contributions of various role-players, the dynamics of the innovation process and outcome. Several opportunities arise for joint learning with small scale farmers.

  3. AN AGRI-FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL TO ENHANCE THE BUSINESS SKILLS OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS USING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Sutopo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, small-scale vegetable farmers experience problems in improving the safety and quality of vegetables for supplying high-class consumers in modern retailers. Farmer Group and/or Cooperative (FGC should be able to assist its members to meet the relevant provisions of modern retail on product specifications, delivery terms, and internal business requirements. This study proposed an agri-food supply chain (ASC model that involves the corporate social responsibility (CSR activities to enhance the business skills of the FGC as supplier of modern retailer. Multi-objective optimization programming is developed to determine the amount and timing of supply, level of farmers training skills, quality improvement target, and the CSR total cost. The results show that the proposed model can be used to determine the priority of programs in order to empower farmers' groups as modern retail suppliers.

  4. Exploring the role of sugarcane in small-scale farmers' livelihoods in the Noodsberg area, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. J, Cockburn; H. C, Coetzee; J, Van den Berg; D. E, Conlong; J, Witthöft.

    Full Text Available Participatory, mixed-methods research was conducted to study the role of sugarcane in small-scale sugarcane farmers' livelihoods in the Noodsberg area, KwaZulu-Natal. Thirty-five farmers were visited at their homes and data was collected through semi-structured interviews, participatory sketch mappi [...] ng, matrix scoring activities and informal field-based discussions. Results indicated that sugarcane was a key livelihood resource providing employment and income, and it generated more income than any other single agricultural enterprise. It was considered the most important crop in most households, even though it was grown within a diverse agricultural system including maize, beans, taro (amadumbe) and potatoes. Considering the important role of sugarcane as a cash crop in farmers' livelihoods, further development of land to sugarcane in the Noodsberg area will continue to reduce poverty and improve the livelihoods of farmers.

  5. An analysis of the Mngcunube "hands-on” mentorship program for small-scale stock farmers in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A J, Jordaan.

    Full Text Available The Elundini program included small-scale livestock farmers in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The program's data analyses and the impact on farmers and the economy were evaluated. Since program inception, sheep mortality decreased from >20% to 3%. Lamb weaning rates were approximately one lamb for [...] every two ewes (50%). Farmers' annual income increased from R650.00 to R20,956.00 (R1.00~ $0.15) with a total net gain of >R56 million for the region. Strict mentor management principles and payment for services were fundamental to the program's success. The impact of the program was immediately apparent and farmers were willing to pay for mentorship and treatments, provided they experience the benefits.

  6. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda : a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Thomsen, Jane F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the past years there has been an increase in the use of pesticides in developing countries. This study describes pesticide use among small-scale farmers in Uganda and analyses predictors of pesticide poisoning (intoxication) symptoms. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. Some 317 small-scale farmers in two districts in Uganda were interviewed about pesticide use, knowledge and attitude, symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene. The risk of reporting symptoms was analysed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The most frequently used pesticides belonged to WHO class II. The farmers had poor knowledge about pesticide toxicity, and the majority did not use appropriate PPE nor good hygiene when handling pesticides. There was no significant association between the number of times of spraying with pesticides and self-reported symptoms of pesticide poisoning. The only significant association was between blowing and sucking the nozzle of the knapsack sprayer and self-reported symptoms of pesticide intoxication (OR: 2.13. 95% CI: 1.09 - 4.18). CONCLUSION: Unlike the practice in several other developing countries, small-scale farmers in Uganda do not use the most hazardous pesticides (WHO class 1a and 1b). However use of WHO class II pesticides and those of lower toxicity is seen in combination with inadequate knowledge and practice among the farmers. This poses a danger of acute intoxications, chronic health problems and environmental pollution. Training of farmers in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods, use of proper hygiene and personal protective equipment when handling pesticides should be promoted.

  7. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Agro-chemical Technology by Small-scale Farmers in Kwali Area Council of Abuja FCT, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, M.; Ibrahim, H. I.; Salau, E. S.; Kaura, A. G.; Age, A. I.

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine factors influencing the adoption of agro-chemicals technology by small-scale farmers in Kwali area council, of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used to collect data for the study. Ten respondents were randomly selected from each of the eight districts making the area council giving a total of eighty respondents. Statistical tools involving means, frequency and percentage were used to analyze the data. Ordin...

  8. What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

  9. A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis among small-scale dairy farmers in an urban and peri-urban area of Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of knowledge, attitudes and practices among urban livestock farmers could have a significant impact on the reduction of many zoonotic infections in urban farming. This study aimed to describe and evaluate weak areas in knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to brucellosis among urban and peri-urban small-scale dairy farmers in a low income country to generate information essential for control programmes and public health interventions. The cross-sectional study was conducted during six weeks in 2011. The study subjects were small-scale dairy farmers living in the urban and peri-urban area of the capital Dushanbe in Tajikistan. In total, 441 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with questions about demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis. Descriptive statistics were used and a logistic regression model applied to evaluate potential predictors to knowledge about brucellosis. The majority (85%) of the farmers had never heard of brucellosis. Low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of brucellosis (P = < 0.001). Respondents who talked about animal health issues with family members or friends were less likely to have heard of brucellosis compared to those who often talked to veterinarians (P = 0.03). Sixty three per cent of the participants wanted more information about brucellosis. Seventeen per cent sold unpasteurized dairy products on a regular basis direct to consumers. Almost 30% of the households consumed unpasteurized dairy products on regular basis. A majority of the respondents did not use any protection when handling cows having an abortion or when dealing with aborted materials. Poor knowledge, high-risk behaviours and a willingness to learn more strengthens the logic for including health education as part of control programmes. PMID:25668783

  10. Interactive Design of Farm Conversion : linking Agricultural Research and Farmer Learning for Sustainable Small Scale Horticulture Production in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: interactive conversion design / vegetable production / small farms / sustainable farming / Colombia / learning processes / facilitation / agricultural research methodsEconomic and ecological pressure on small farmer production in Colombia has increased since the globalisation of trade in the early 1990s. Although the climate allows for year-round production, the farmers live precariously due to a high dependence on external inputs, poor access to different sources of information on...

  11. BT cotton in South Africa : adoption and the impact on farm incomes amongst small-scale and large-scale farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Gouse, Marnus; Kirsten, Johann F.; Jenkins, L.; Gouse, Marthinus

    2003-01-01

    South Africa is one of few developing countries, and the only one in Africa that has adopted genetically modified crops for commercial production. The very impressive adoption rate of insect-resistant cotton in South Africa can be attributed to different benefits enjoyed by adopters. This article focuses on the reasons and effects of Bt cotton adoption by large-scale and small-scale cotton farmers in South Africa and considers the impact of the adoption on yields, cost and profit. In addition...

  12. Fishing Farmers or Farming Fishers? Fishing Typology of Inland Small-Scale Fishing Households and Fisheries Management in Singkarak Lake, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood sources. The nature of their livelihood strategies is discussed for each identified group. This helps to understand the complexity and diversity of small-scale fishers, particularly in the study area which is still poorly known. This paper concludes with policy implication and possible management initiatives for environmentally prudent policy aiming at improvement of fishers' livelihood.

  13. Helping small-scale farmers in the semi-arid tropics: Linking participatory research, traditional research and simulation modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to link necessary research skills to increase the range of options available to resource-poor farmers in the study area. The research consisted of on-station research to evaluate and understand cropping-system options resulting from insertion of a legume crop into the sorghum and castor system, on-farm research whereby farmers evaluate cropping-system options that are of interest to them, use of 15N as a label to help understand the nitrogen (N) balance of the various options, and cropping-systems simulation to examine long-term climatic risks from possible options. Particular attention was placed on the option of sorghum/pigeon pea intercrops, and on quantifying the inputs of N from animal manure and by the pigeon-pea component. We were also interested in the process of linking on-station to on-farm research, and simulation modelling to the cropping system research. One important outcome was that different groups identified different problems and posed different questions. The problems identified and questions raised were examined by use of scenario analyses run for ten to thirty years which contrasted the existing practice with a range of alternative practices. The simulations were useful in guiding the design of on-farm experiments. Other likely outcomes are the setting of low-rate fertilizer recommendations specifically for the semi-arid tropics, the marketing of small packs of fertilizers, and increased use of manure resources for crop production. (author)

  14. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  15. Induced innovation and productivity-enhancing, resource-conserving technologies in Central America : The supply of soil conservation practices and small-scale farmers? adoption in Guatemala and El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Zurek, Monika Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Aim of the study is to investigate the adoption behavior of small-scale farmers in Central America with respect to soil conservation technologies that combine soil protection with productivity enhancing aspects. In two case studies, carried out in the Polochic Valley in Guatemala and the county of Nueva Concepción, El Salvador, farmers were surveyed with regard to soil erosion problems on their farm, the use of soil conservation practices and a number of household characteristics. Particular ...

  16. Perceptions of Brazilian small-scale farmers about genetically modified crops / As percepções de pequenos agricultores brasileiros sobre os cultivos geneticamente modificados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla, Almeida; Luisa, Massarani; Ildeu de Castro, Moreira.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é investigar as percepções de pequenos agricultores brasileiros acerca dos cultivos geneticamente modificados com base em 15 grupos focais, envolvendo 111 indivíduos. A análise do corpus revela percepções heterogêneas em relação a essas culturas, moldadas por diversos fatores [...] , incluindo as perspectivas econômicas e preocupações com o impacto sobre a saúde e o meio ambiente. Há muitas dúvidas sobre esses efeitos entre os agricultores, que estão interessados ??em receber informação neutra sobre o tema. Essas incertezas os afeta mais como consumidores, visto que preferem comer alimentos não transgênicos, do que como produtores, quando privilegiam outros aspectos, especialmente econômicos, ao decidir o que cultivar. Embora a maioria acredite que deva ter voz em tomadas de decisão referentes a questões agrícolas, poucos têm feito esforços nesse sentido. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este artículo es investigar las percepciones de pequeños agricultores brasileños acerca de los cultivos transgénicos, con base en 15 grupos focales, involucrando a 111 individuos. El análisis del corpus revela percepciones heterogéneas con respecto a estos cultivos, debido a muchos fa [...] ctores, incluyendo las perspectivas económicas y preocupaciones con el impacto sobre la salud y el medio ambiente. Los agricultores expresan deseo de recibir información imparcial sobre el tema, sobre el cual tienen muchas dudas. Las incertidumbres los afecta más como consumidores, visto que afirman preferir comer alimentos no transgénicos, que como productores, momento en que privilegian otros aspectos, especialmente económicos, al decidir lo que cultivar. Aunque la mayoría acredite que deba tener voz en las tomadas de decisión referentes a temas agrícolas, pocos han hecho esfuerzos en esta dirección. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to investigate the perceptions of small-scale farmers in Brazil towards genetically modified (GM) crops based on a sample of 15 focus groups involving 111 individuals. The analysis of the corpus shows heterogeneous perceptions regarding these crops, shaped by diverse factors [...] , including economic prospects and concerns with the impact on health and the environment. There are many misgivings about these effects among the farmers, who are keen to receive unbiased information on the topic. These uncertainties affect them more as consumers, as most would prefer eating GM-free food, than as producers, as they consider other aspects, especially economic feasibility, when deciding what to grow. Although most farmers believe they should have a voice in decision-making on agricultural issues, few have made concerted efforts to be heard.

  17. Small-scale Farmer Access to International Agri-Food Chains : a BOP-Based Reflection on the Need for Socially Embedded Innovation in the Coffee and Flower Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Danse, M.G.; Vellema, S.

    2007-01-01

    Internationalisation of agro-food chains offers agricultural sectors in developing economies prospects in profitable and competitive international markets. Market access strategies often seem to assume poverty alleviation as one of the outcomes. This paper aims to be more precise about the required conditions for linking small-scale farmers and micro and small enterprises to markets and agri-food chains from a pro-poor perspective. In particular, the increasingly strong emphasis on compliance...

  18. Small-scale farmers, certification schemes and private standards: is there a business case? : costs and benefits of certification and verification systems for small-scale producers in cocoa, coffee, cotton, fruit and vegetable sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kuit, M.; Waarts, Y.R.

    2014-01-01

    Certification of agricultural products is an increasingly common tool that is expected to contribute to agricultural improvement, farmer well-being, poverty alleviation, reduced environmental impact and food safety. In an increasingly competitive market, processors, manufacturers and retailers use certification to demonstrate their green and sustainable credentials and differentiate their products. In some commodity sectors, such as coffee and cocoa, products certified as sustainable are on t...

  19. Effectiveness of Agricultural Training Centers’ Curriculum in Promoting Adoption of Agricultural Technologies: Evidence from Small-scale Potato Farmers in Nyandarua County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Nyamwamu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural Training Centres (ATCs promote crop and livestock development by providing extension information to farmers and serving as models of improved crop and livestock husbandry practices. Although potato farmers in Nyandarua County were trained on potato production technologies, their average yield was ? 16 tonnes per hectare compared to the national potential of 30 tonnes. This study therefore sought to determine the effectiveness of ATCs’ curriculum in promoting farmers’ adoption of selected potato production technologies in Nyandarua County in Kenya. A survey design was used. Primary data was collected from 136 farmers trained at ATCs on potato production using interview schedules. The respondents were sampled through a five-stage technique. The data was analysed using T-test and ANOVA, then summarized into percentages. Study results showed that adoption of recommended potato production technologies produced high yields compared to traditional technologies. It was therefore concluded that ATCs’ curriculum was effective in promoting farmers’ adoption of potato seed selection, planting, crop protection and harvesting technologies. It is recommended that ATCs’ curriculum prioritise demonstrations that show the influence of clean seed, fertilizer application, timely harvesting and spacing on potato yields. Further, campaigns should be held to educate farmers on the importance of potato dehaulming to promote its adoption. In addition, farmer-based seed production programs should be started in the County aimed at ensuring ready availability of seed.

  20. Fish trade, food and income security: an overview of the constraints and barriers faced by small-scale fishers, farmers and traders in the Lower Mekong Basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, S.R.; Nguyet, M., Le

    2006-01-01

    As riparian governments advoate freer trade and develop physical infrastructure, trade networks, including for aquatic living animals, trade will likely become more efficient through largers investment by fewer traders. Whether this trade efficiency and economic growth are accompanied with a progressive distributional change, among farmers and fishers, is currently under debate. Without a clearer policy agenda that reflects the diversity and social nature of fish trade relations at the local ...

  1. Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orewa, S. I.

    The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha) and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65%) of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

  2. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.; F.N. Emuh; Ezeonu, O.

    2014-01-01

    The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%), noise pollution (98.3%), bush burning (93.3%), land degradation/pollution (87.5%), water pollution (80.3%), air pollution (62.5%), massive deforestation (62.5%) and acid rain (52.5%) were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the stu...

  3. Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    S.I. Orewa

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil pal...

  4. Healthy sand : a farmers initiative on soil protection and ecosystem service management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Annemieke; Verzandvoort, Simone; Kuikman, Peter; Stuka, Jason; Morari, Francesco; Rienks, Willem; Stokkers, Jan; Hesselink, Bertus; Lever, Henk

    2015-04-01

    In a small region in the Netherlands a group of dairy farmers (cooperated in a foundation HOE Duurzaam) cooperates with the drinking water company and together aim for a more healthy soil. They farm a sandy soil, which is in most of the parcels low in organic matter. The local farmers perceive loss of soil fertility and blame loss of soil organic matter for that. All farmers expect that increasing the soil organic matter content will retain more nitrates in the soil, leading to a reduction in nitrate leaching and a higher nutrient availability for the crops, forage and grass and probably low urgency for grassland renewal. The drinking water company in the area also has high expectations that a higher SOM content does relate to higher quality of the (drinking) water and lower costs to clean and filter the water to meet drinking water quality requirements. Most farmers in the area face suboptimal moisture conditions and thrive for increasing the soil organic matter content and improving the soil structure as key factors to relieve, soil moisture problems both in dry (drought) and wet (flooding) periods. A better water holding capacity of the soil provides benefits for the regional water board as this reduces leaching and run-off. The case study, which is part of the Recare-project, at first glance deals with soil management and technology to improve soil quality. However, the casus in fact deals with social innovation. The real challenge to this group of neighbours, farmers within a small region, and to science is how to combine knowledge and experience on soil management for increasing the content of soil organic matter and how to recognize the ecosystem services that are provided by the adapted and more 'healthy' soils. And also how to formalize relations between costs and benefits of measures taken in the field and how these could be financially rewarded from an agreed and acceptable financial awarding scheme based on payments for securing soil carbon stocks and increasing carbon fluxes to soils. In the presentation we want to discuss • what choices in optimal farming practices and strategy for Dutch farmers help to increase soil organic matter content in the soil in the next 5-10 years? • What role can the foundation play in organising the practices and the payment for extra activities, collecting results and present them to benefitting stakeholders? • What valuation of ecosystem service and which payment scheme would satisfy the needs of both farmers as recipient and water board and regional government as beneficiaries and financing body for ecosystem service provided for.

  5. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  6. Small scale and microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture, after explaining the limitations of the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) method, describes the small scale dosimetry for electrons and photons as well as the basis for the microdosimetry. The techniques for doses calculations are outlined

  7. Contract farming and its impact on income and livelihoods for small-scale farmers: Case study in Vietnam Kontraktacja i jej wp?yw na dochód i utrzymanie rolników produkuj?cych na ma?? skal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nham Phong Tuan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Contract farming has been expected as one of the measures to facilitate participation of farmers in the production of agriculture commercially, adding more values to agricultural produces. Mixed evidence in Vietnam however, has been shown on the well-known ad-vantage of the contract farming to small farmers such as reduce the cost to access to market, accessing credit, obtaining information on market opportunities or new technologies, pur-chasing certain inputs and accessing product markets and reducing price fluctuations. The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of contract farming to farmers and to deter-mine policies to facilitate farmer entry into beneficial contractual relationships. In addition to the literature review, one intensive case study of contract farming practices with commodity was conducted. The results from the study have direct relevance to work of agencies and organizations working to promote the welfare of small holding farmers, either through prac-tical field support or through policy advocacy.

  8. Current Scenario of the Small-scale Broiler Farming in Bangladesh: Potentials for the Future Projection

    OpenAIRE

    Kaniz Quamrun Nahar Chhabi; Sasaki Takashi; Md Saiful Islam

    2010-01-01

    In Bangladesh, there are two types of broiler farming of which contract broiler farming is still under trial while independent small-scale broiler farming is dominant and performed for the development of broiler sector. The present study examined the potentials of small-scale independent broiler farms and farmers’ economic behavior in relation to farm size. Farm size is found to be closely related to farmers’ behavior and attitude. Farmers’ behavior and attitude appeared to be very crucial fa...

  9. Thai indigenous cattle production provide a sustainable alternative for the benefit of smallscale farmers, healthy food, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Thailand, there are 5.66 million Thai indigenous cattle and their crossbred derivatives (1.76 million cows). The Department of Livestock Development (DLD) has a policy to conserve and use Thai indigenous cattle as the genetic base for establishing and developing new breeds of beef cattle. The objectives of this study were to study the production performance, carcass quality, healthy food production, economic potential, and environmental impacts of four breeds of Thai indigenous cattle (Kow-Lamphun, Kho-Esarn, Kho-Lan, and Kho-Chon cattle). Data were collected from two studies: i) 1 220 cattle from an experimental trial in DLD part, and ii) 390 cattle kept by smallholders in Northern, Northeastern, Central, and Southern parts of Thailand between October 2004 and September 2008. Data were adjusted by group, location, month, and year to analyse for the above parameters. Kho-Lan and Kho-Esarn cattle had the highest weaning weight and preweaning daily weight gains while Kow-Lamphun cattle had the highest Omega 3 (8.98%) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) levels in their meat (0.02%), and produced the highest net incomes (306 915.80 Baht/y). Through the conservation and use policies of the DLD, Thai indigenous cattle provided various advantages for farmers, consumers, and environment. (author)

  10. The Use of Rainfall Forecasts as a Decision Guide for Small-Scale Farming in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeletsi, M. E.; Mellaart, E. A. R.; Mpandeli, N. S.; Hamandawana, H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: New innovative ways of communicating agrometeorological information are needed to help farmers, especially subsistence/small-scale farmers, to cope with the high climate variability experienced in most parts of southern Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The article introduces an early warning system for farmers. It utilizes short…

  11. Sustainable Small-Scale Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ingram

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For at least the past 8000 years, small-scale farmers in semi-arid environments have had to mitigate shortfalls in crop production due to variation in precipitation and stream flow. To reduce their vulnerability to a shortfall in their food supply, small-scale farmers developed short-term strategies, including storage and community-scale sharing, to mitigate inter-annual variation in crop production, and long-term strategies, such as migration, to mitigate the effects of sustained droughts. We use the archaeological and paleoclimatic records from A.D. 900-1600 in two regions of the American Southwest to explore the nature of variation in the availability of water for crops, and the strategies that enhanced the resilience of prehistoric agricultural production to climatic variation. Drawing on information concerning contemporary small-scale farming in semi-arid environments, we then suggest that the risk coping and mitigation strategies that have endured for millennia are relevant to enhancing the resilience of contemporary farmers' livelihoods to environmental and economic perturbations.

  12. Soil Properties as Influenced by Soil Fertility Management in Small Scale Maize Farms in Njoro, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    N.W. Mungai; Bationo, A.; B. Waswa

    2009-01-01

    Most farmers are aware of soil fertility gradients within their farms which influence their management decisions and further accentuate these variations. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of soil amendments on soil properties under farmers management. Soil sampling was done in 37 small scale maize farms in Njoro Division of Nakuru District at 0-20 cm depth. Results of a structured questionnaire showed that 65% of the farmers used inorganic fertilizers predominately diam...

  13. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements classification inherited a lot of its structure from the existing system and rendered requirements that transcended the framework laid out by the existing system almost invisible. As a result, the requirements clas...

  14. Small Scale High Speed Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Adam P. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd J. (Inventor); Lehman, Matthew K. (Inventor); Mehra, Amitav (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A small scale, high speed turbomachine is described, as well as a process for manufacturing the turbomachine. The turbomachine is manufactured by diffusion bonding stacked sheets of metal foil, each of which has been pre-formed to correspond to a cross section of the turbomachine structure. The turbomachines include rotating elements as well as static structures. Using this process, turbomachines may be manufactured with rotating elements that have outer diameters of less than four inches in size, and/or blading heights of less than 0.1 inches. The rotating elements of the turbomachines are capable of rotating at speeds in excess of 150 feet per second. In addition, cooling features may be added internally to blading to facilitate cooling in high temperature operations.

  15. Small scale helium liquefaction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed two small-scale helium liquefaction systems that provide solutions for liquid helium usage in laboratories. These helium liquefaction systems use two-stage pulse tube cryocoolers to provide cooling at 4 K. The cold head/liquefier resides inside of the neck of a dewar. The room temperature helium gas to be liquefied enters the neck of the dewar and is efficiently pre-cooled down to 5-6 K by means of the regenerators and pulse tubes of the cold head before being liquefied. Two models of liquefaction system, LHeP12 and LHeP18, produce liquid helium from room temperature gas with the rates of >12 L/day and 18 L/day.

  16. Are small-scale irrigators water use efficient? Evidence from lake Naivasha basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njiraini, Georgina W; Guthiga, Paul M

    2013-11-01

    With increasing water scarcity and competing uses and users, water use efficiency is becoming increasingly important in many parts of developing countries. The lake Naivasha basin has an array of different water users and uses ranging from large scale export market agriculture, urban domestic water users to small holder farmers. The small scale farmers are located in the upper catchment areas and form the bulk of the users in terms of area and population. This study used farm household data to explore the overall technical efficiency, irrigation water use efficiency and establish the factors influencing water use efficiency among small scale farmers in the Lake Naivasha basin in Kenya. Data envelopment analysis, general algebraic and modeling system, and Tobit regression methods were used in analyzing cross sectional data from a sample of 201 small scale irrigation farmers in the lake Naivasha basin. The results showed that on average, the farmers achieved only 63 % technical efficiency and 31 % water use efficiency. This revealed that substantial inefficiencies occurred in farming operations among the sampled farmers. To improve water use efficiency, the study recommends that more emphasis be put on orienting farmers toward appropriate choice of irrigation technologies, appropriate choice of crop combinations in their farms, and the attainment of desirable levels of farm fragmentation. PMID:23954914

  17. Are Small-Scale Irrigators Water Use Efficient? Evidence from Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njiraini, Georgina W.; Guthiga, Paul M.

    2013-11-01

    With increasing water scarcity and competing uses and users, water use efficiency is becoming increasingly important in many parts of developing countries. The lake Naivasha basin has an array of different water users and uses ranging from large scale export market agriculture, urban domestic water users to small holder farmers. The small scale farmers are located in the upper catchment areas and form the bulk of the users in terms of area and population. This study used farm household data to explore the overall technical efficiency, irrigation water use efficiency and establish the factors influencing water use efficiency among small scale farmers in the Lake Naivasha basin in Kenya. Data envelopment analysis, general algebraic and modeling system, and Tobit regression methods were used in analyzing cross sectional data from a sample of 201 small scale irrigation farmers in the lake Naivasha basin. The results showed that on average, the farmers achieved only 63 % technical efficiency and 31 % water use efficiency. This revealed that substantial inefficiencies occurred in farming operations among the sampled farmers. To improve water use efficiency, the study recommends that more emphasis be put on orienting farmers toward appropriate choice of irrigation technologies, appropriate choice of crop combinations in their farms, and the attainment of desirable levels of farm fragmentation.

  18. Climate change impacts and adaptations on small-scale livestock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruvinga, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimated the impacts of climate change and adaptations on small-scale livestock production. The study is based on a survey of 1484 small-scale livestock rural farmers across the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Regression estimates finds that with warming, the probability of choosing the following species increases; goats, dual purpose chicken (DPC, layers, donkeys and ducks. High precipitation increases the probability of choosing the following animals; beef, goats, DPC and donkeys. Further, socio-economic estimates indicate that livestock selection choices are also conditioned by gender, age, marital status, education and household size. The paper therefore concluded that as climate changes, rural farmers switch their livestock combinations as a coping strategy. Unfortunately, rural farmers face a limited preferred livestock selection pool that is combatable to harsh climate which might translate to a bleak future for rural livestock farmers.

  19. A small scale honey dehydrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R S; Hans, V S; Singh, Sukhmeet; Pal Singh, Parm; Dhaliwal, S S

    2015-10-01

    A small scale honey dehydrator has been designed, developed, and tested to reduce moisture content of honey below 17 %. Experiments have been conducted for honey dehydration by using drying air at ambient temperature, 30 and 40 °C and water at 35, 40 and 45 °C. In this dehydrator, hot water has been circulated in a water jacket around the honey container to heat honey. The heated honey has been pumped through a sieve to form honey streams through which drying air passes for moisture removal. The honey streams help in increasing the exposed surface area of honey in contact with drying air, thus resulting in faster dehydration of honey. The maximum drying rate per square meter area of honey exposed to drying air was found to be 197.0 g/h-m(2) corresponding to the drying air and water temperature of 40 and 45 °C respectively whereas it was found to be minimum (74.8 g/h-m(2)) corresponding to the drying air at ambient temperature (8-17 °C) and water at 35 °C. The energy cost of honey moisture content reduction from 25.2 to 16.4 % was Rs. 6.20 to Rs. 17.36 (US $ 0.10 to US $ 0.28 (One US $ = 62.00 Indian Rupee on February, 2014) per kilogram of honey. PMID:26396418

  20. Weed control practices on Costa Rican coffee farms: is herbicide use necessary for small-scale producers?

    OpenAIRE

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents research conducted during two coffee farming seasons in Costa Rica. The study examined coffee farmers’ weed management practices and is presented in the form of a case study of small-scale farmers’ use of labor and herbicides in weed management practices. Over 200 structured interviews were conducted with coffee farmers concerning their use of hired labor and family labor, weed management activities, support services, and expectations about the future o...

  1. Quality management in small-scale production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality control for the planning before small-scale production and the process control during the production are conducted according the related standards and the documents in quality management system of NPIC.This paper briefly introduces the quality control for the small-scale production of several products, and proposes some issues interested and recommendations. (author)

  2. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F.; Joergensen, P.F. [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  3. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs

  4. Productivity and Profitability Layer Chicken Farm Using Small Scale Feed Mill Production in Sidrap Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Irmasusanti; Isbandi; B.W.H.E. Prasetiyono; A.R. Siregar

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine differences in productivity and profitability of layer poultry farm that used small scale feed mill production quality Indonesia National Standard (SNI) and not based on SNI. The research survey was conducted to 30 layer farmers in Sidrap district that used feed produced by small scale factory by interview and observation. Primary and secondary data obtained were used to answer the research objective. Respondences characteristic, productivity, r...

  5. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  6. SMALL SCALE ETHANOL DRYING - PHASE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    This program exceeded all key milestones. Using cellulose Waste, CMS demonstrated novel ethanol drying membranes via small scale dephlegmation process that yields fuel grade ethanol (FGE) at a lower cost than large switch grass ethanol plants. This success yields positive valu...

  7. Management of broadleaved weeds in small-scale in an on-farm perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-farm trial was conducted at eight different sites in Rongai and Njoro areas of Nakuru district and only six of the sites were finally harvested. The study was mainly to evaluate different weed control methods to offer a variety of recommendations for small scale wheat farmers. Of the treatments tested Buctril Mc out performed all the treatments except for Ariane. Cultural methods of control seemed to be inferior to almost all the chemical control. (author)

  8. SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES BENEFICIAL FOR GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Khullar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial growth is important for any economy whether developing or under developed. It has more significance for a developing economy like India which has abundant labour but is short of capital. Small scale industries provide an excellent opportunity of growth to the unskilled labour. This research tells us about the significant and dynamic role Small Scale Industries can have in developing economy like India. They not only provide huge employment opportunities at comparatively lower capital cost than big industries. These small industries help in the in the Industrialization of rural and backward areas reducing regional imbalances leading to equitable distribution of income and wealth. These industries are basically capital deficient, growth can be achieved in these economies by utilizing the labour power. After agriculture its these industries where maximum number people are engaged and most of the developing economies are agriculture based.

  9. Economy of small-scale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic requirement for profitable generation of power and heat is sufficient and even heat load. The investment required by a plant based on cogeneration is always higher than that of a plant producing only heat, and hence the full time operation of the plant should be ensured since the beginning of the plant operational age. The second requirement for profitable operation of a small-scale power plant is the homogenous heat and power consumption profiles. Because the plants always cause remarkable capital costs and other fixed costs it is important to make an economic survey of the costs before the decision making in the preliminary planning phase. The presentation gives a review of the factors effecting on the economy of small-scale power plant, the distribution of the costs, and the methods used for investigation of the economy are reviewed

  10. Cogeneration and cooling in small scale applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teji, Darshan Singh.

    1990-03-01

    While the cost of electricity has risen steadily this decade, the cost of natural gas in the Phoenix area has fallen 15 percent over the last three years. It is believed that this gap between natural gas and electric costs will continue to widen in the foreseeable future. At the same time that natural gas is becoming relatively less expensive, the price of cogeneration equipment using natural gas is also declining. Each year the technology pushes the cogeneration systems to smaller sizes and lower prices. As a results of these price trends, cogenerated energy may now be less expensive than electric grid energy, even in the small-scale building applications of concern to local governments. The barriers to small-scale cogeneration are the lack of usage for the engine waste heat and the short duration of the electrical load (10 to 12 hours per day). 26 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Small Scale Cosmological Perturbations: An Analytic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wayne; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    1995-01-01

    Through analytic techniques verified by numerical calculations, we establish general relations between the matter and cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra and their dependence on cosmological parameters on small scales. Fluctuations in the CMB, baryons, cold dark matter (CDM), and neutrinos receive a boost at horizon crossing. Baryon drag on the photons causes alternating acoustic peak heights in the CMB and is uncovered in its bare form under the photon diffusion...

  12. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and i...

  13. Small-scale clumps of dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Berezinsky, V. S.; V. I. Dokuchaev; Yu. N. Eroshenko

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale clumps of dark matter are gravitationally bounded structures that have masses comparable to or lower than stellar masses and consist of noninteracting or weakly interacting dark matter particles. In this paper, the current knowledge about the formation and evolution of such structures is reviewed, various types of spectra of primordial cosmological perturbations are considered, and various dark matter models are discussed. Depending on the particular spectrum typ...

  14. Small-scale rural bakery; Maaseudun pienleipomo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkula, R.; Malin, A.; Reisbacka, A.; Rytkoenen, A.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the study was to clarify how running a small-scale bakery can provide a farming enterprise with its primary or secondary source of livelihood. A questionnaire and interviews were conducted to clarify the current situation concerning small-scale rural bakeries. The experimental part of the study looked into different manners of production, devices used in preparing and processing of doughs, and baking of different kinds of pastries in different types of ovens in laboratory conditions. Based on the results obtained, solutions serving as examples were formulated for small-scale bakeries run with various modes and methods of production. Additionally, market reviews were conducted concerning appropriate equipment for small-scale bakeries. Baking for commercial purposes on the farm is still something new as ca. 80 % of the enterprises covered by the study had operated for no more than five years. Many entrepreneurs (ca. 70 %) expressed a need for supplementary knowledge from some field related to baking. Rural bakeries are small-scale operations with one-person enterprises amounting to 69 % and two-person enterprises to 29 %. Women are primarily responsible for baking. On average, the enterprises baked seven different products, but the amounts baked were usually small. In the experimental part of the study, loaves of rye bread were baked using five different types and sizes of oven accommodating 5-22 loaves of rye bread at the one time. The oven type was found not to affect bread structure. The energy consumption for one ovenful varied between 2.4 and 7.0 kWh, i.e. 0.25-0.43 kWh per kilo. When baking rolls (30-140 rolls at a time), the power consumption varied between 1.2 and 3.5 kWh, i.e. 0.32-0.53 kWh per kilo. The other devices included in the comparative study were an upright deep-freezer, a multi-temperature cabinet and a fermenting cabinet. Furthermore, making rolls by hand was compared to using a machine for the same job, and likewise manual flattening of Danish pastry dough was compared to doing using a machine. In addition to these, partial delayed baking and the method employing deep-freezing of raw products were compared to direct baking (of 21 loaves of rye bread, 140 small buns and 60 Danish pastries). Depending on the method, the time consumed varied between 4 h and 4 h 40 min. The advantage of delayed baking and deep-freezing of raw products may be seen in that the time consumed in making small buns and Danish pastries (ca. 1 h 20 min) can be spent at a less busy point in time and thereby concentrate on baking when the demand for bakery products is at its peak. Based on the results of the study, three functional spatial solutions were formulated for small-scale bakeries of different sizes and types. The functioning of the premises, machines, equipment, the usage of worker time, ergonomics, economic factors, quality of production, and microbiological safety were taken into consideration in the planning. (orig.) 29 refs.

  15. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  16. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  17. Small scale processing of oilfruits and oilseeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, H.J.; Korthals Altes, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    The book aims at closing an information gap on small scale or intermediate technologies for vegetable oil extraction. These technologies have been developed by various institutions and are presented in the hope that they might contribute to more appropriate solutions and generate additional income for families, self-help groups and cooperatives, particularly in rural Africa. Apart from the technical equipment, agronomic and socio-economic aspects are covered and case studies financially analyzed. For those active in rural development, the book provides ideas for project identification and possible implementation. (orig.).

  18. To Practice Mobility : on a Small Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2015-01-01

    Children’s perspectives are practically absent in new mobility studies. In this article, I wish to describe and analyze how a number of children handle having to move between homes, parents and siblings, and how they practically, emotionally and socially navigate in this changeable landscape. My aim is to explore mobility as an embodied and emotional practice in which children employ different strategies. I focus on bodily micro practices, routines and coping strategies, the intermediate space that occurs on their continual journeys, and the feeling of being dispensable. It is an ethnographic exploration of how mobile and domestic lives are intertwined – on a small scale.

  19. Adopting small-scale production of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengvard, Maria; Palm, Jenny (Linkoeping Univ., Dept. of Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping (Sweden)). e-mail: maria.tengvard@liu.se

    2009-07-01

    In Sweden in 2008, a 'new' concept for small-scale electricity production attracted massive media attention. This was mainly due to the efforts of Swedish company Egen El, which is marketing small-scale photovoltaics (PVs) and wind turbines to households, both homeowners and tenants. Their main selling point is simplicity: their products are so easy to install that everyone can do it. Autumn 2008 also saw IKEA announce that within three years it would market solar panels. How, then, do households perceive these products? Why would households choose to buy them? How do households think about producing their own electricity? Analysis of material based on in-depth interviews with members of 20 households reveals that environmental concerns supply the main motive for adopting PVs or micro wind power generation. In some cases, the adopting households have an extensively ecological lifestyle and such adoption represents a way to take action in the energy area. For some, this investment is symbolic: a way of displaying environmental consciousness or setting an example to others. For still others, the adoption is a protest against 'the system' with its large dominant actors or is a way to become self-sufficient. These microgeneration installations are rejected mainly on economic grounds; other motives are respect for neighbours and difficulties finding a place to install a wind turbine.

  20. Profitability of small-scale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several small-scale power plants have been constructed in Finland during the last few years. Fuel oil and natural gas has been used as a fuel in diesel plants, natural gas in gas-turbine plants, and peat and industrial waste wood in solid fuel fired plants. Larger towns have already acquired combined power and heat generation either in their own power plants or in cooperation with industry. A usual mean of cooperation has been buying of district heat from industrial back-pressure power plants. Numerous small district heat loads still rely on separate heat production. The cheap price of electric power, caused by the good water and nuclear power conditions and long-term delivery contracts, has rendered the construction of small-scale power plants. The fuel prices have been stable for the last few years. The most significant changes have been caused by changing of exchange rate of the Finnish mark and the fuel taxation. Two power plant are reviewed in detail: 6/17 MW peat fired steam power plant and 6/6 MW oil fueled diesel power plant. The electricity prices of these two have been compared with coal condensing power and the electricity tariffs. The price comparisons have been made using the present price level. Energia-Ekono has compiled a new simulation program ELMO, operating in PC-WINDOWS environment, for simulation of cogeneration

  1. Impact of improved technologies on small-scale soybean production: empirical evidence from benue state, nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study examined the impact of improved technologies on the lives of small-scale soybean farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. A total of 160 respondents were selected using simple random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Tobit model and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Findings revealed that 35.6% of the respondents were between 31 and 40 years old, 40.6% had household size of between 6 and 10 members. Majority of the respondents were male, married, and had secondary school education. Tobit analysis revealed that farmers socioeconomic characteristics which include gender, educational status and farming experience; and farmers knowledge on soybean innovations were significant factors determining the adoption of improved soybean production technologies. These factors were statistically significant at p=0.05. The adoption of improved soybean technologies has had a clear positive impact on farmers belief on soybean innovations. The major problems facing farmers in the adoption of improved soybean production technologies according to Kruskal-Wallis ranking were high cost of inputs, problem of labour availability and lack of credit/loan. The results of this study provide a strong case for the promotion of soybean as a solution for malnutrition and a means of poverty alleviation for poor people. (author)

  2. Quality management in the Pangasius export supply chain in Vietnam : the case of small-scale Pangasius farming in the Mekong River Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Khoi, Le Nguyen Doan,

    2011-01-01

    The thesis focuses on three areas: quality control at farm level, quality assurance at chain level, and the business relationships at farm level. The objective of this thesis is to explore the major challenges for the present quality management system to assure safety and quality standards in the export supply chain of small-scale fish farming in Vietnam. The findings show that problems of small-scale farmers involved in export supply chain can be dealt with through developing business re...

  3. Seropositivity and risk factors for Brucella in dairy cows in urban and peri-urban small-scale farming in Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Sattori, Izzatullo; Magnusson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we assessed and mapped the seroprevalence of brucellosis in small-scale dairy farming in an urban and peri-urban area of Tajikistan and investigated factors associated with seropositivity. As urban and peri-urban farming is both an opportunity to improve the livelihood for small-scale farmers and a potential public health hazard, studies are warranted to reveal possible peculiarities in the epidemiology of brucellosis in this type of dairy farming. In total, 904...

  4. Small-scale clumps of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-scale clumps of dark matter are gravitationally bounded structures that have masses comparable to or lower than stellar masses and consist of noninteracting or weakly interacting dark matter particles. In this paper, the current knowledge about the formation and evolution of such structures is reviewed, various types of spectra of primordial cosmological perturbations are considered, and various dark matter models are discussed. Depending on the particular spectrum type, dark matter clumps may differ considerably in their formation processes and ultimate characteristics. The role of clumps in experiments on indirect detection of dark matter particles via their annihilation products is discussed. A number of astrophysical problems and phenomena that are related to dark matter clumps are examined. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. Small-Scale Features in Pulsating Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah; Jaynes, Allison N.; Knudsen, David J.; Trondsen, Trond; Lessard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the offphase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

  6. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years. PMID:25646464

  7. Local soil fertility management on small-scale farming systems for sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namriah, Kilowasid, Laode Muhammad Harjoni

    2015-09-01

    The sustainability of small-scale farming systems on marginal lands is still being a topic of debate in scientific and institutional communities. To address this, a study was conducted to find a method of sustaining the productivity of marginal lands for food crop production. Agricultural practices (fallow and traditional cultivation) used by the local small-scale farmers in managing soil fertility to meet the natural biological processes above and below the ground were studied in Muna Island Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Participatory approach was used to gather data and information on soil and land as well as to collect soil macrofauna. The results showed that the practices of local small-scale farmers are based on local soil and land suitability. Organic materials are the source of nutrient inputs to sustain the productivity of their lands by fallowing, burning natural vegetation, putting back the crop residues, doing minimum tillage and mix- and inter-crops. In conclusion, the sustainability of local small-scale farming systems will be established by knowing and understanding local soil and land classification systems and preferred crops being planted. Following the nature of fallow and monitoring soil macrofauna diversity and abundance, all preferred crops should be planted during rainy season with different time of harvest until the next rainy season. Therefore, soils are still covered with crops during dry season. It was suggested that planting time should be done in the rainy season. Doing more researches in other locations with different socio-cultural, economical, and ecological conditions is suggested to validate and refine the method.

  8. Integrating science with farmer knowledge: Sorghum diversity management in north-east Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kudadjie, C.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:   Convergence of sciences, diversity management, experimentation, farmer knowledge, genetic diversity, Ghana, plant variation, private sector, research, Sorghum bicolor (L.)Moench, small-scale farmers, seed quality.Sub-optimal impact of agricultural research is connected to lack of involvement of farmers. This is especially true forAfricawhere problems are diverse and complex. Farmer participation might help research to become better focused and resulting technologies more adopted. ...

  9. Beyond the field : Impact of Farmer Field Schools on food security and poverty alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleør, Helene Bie; Larsen, Anna Folke

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the impact of a farmer field school intervention among small scale farmers in Northers Tanzania. Unlike previous farmer field school evaluations, we go beyond the immediate agricultural impact and estimate the impact of farmer field school participation in the pre-specified development objects, namely poverty alleviation and food security among participating households. We wxploit the implementation design of a gradual project roll-out to establish a quasi-experimen...

  10. Improving Agricultural Water Management through Low-Cost Small-Scale Irrigation Technologies in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture is the second largest contributor to Kenya's gross domestic product and accounts for about 24% of GDP and 50% of revenue from exports. About half of Kenya's total agricultural output is subsistence production and farming provides employment to about 70% of the population. Approximately 80% of Kenyan farmland is classified as arid and semi-arid, with low and erratic rainfall, and food production is low with frequent crop failures. In order to ensure food security and sustainable farmer livelihoods there is an urgent need to improve agricultural water management practices that ensure optimal water use efficiency. A promising option is the use of low-cost small-scale irrigation technologies that are affordable for resource poor farmers. Through an IAEA technical cooperation project, the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) has developed low-cost small-scale irrigation technologies to improve water- and nutrient use efficiencies of high-value crops, including cucumber, tomato, kale and lettuce. Yields of these crops were compared under rain-fed conditions, with irrigation using traditional hand-watering method and small-scale drip irrigation. Using the soil moisture neutron probe to determine the soil water content at any time during the growing season and the optimal timing and amount of water to be applied, KARI devised and employed small-scale low-cost drip irrigation technologies and compared yields under a variety of water management applications. Using these technologies, tomato yields of 9.7 t/ha were obtained under rain-fed conditions (with 221 mm of rainfall), 13.0 t/ha with traditional hand watering of 927 mm and 32 t/ha when applying 510 mm of water using small-scale drip irrigation, hence increasing the yield by 3.3 and 2.5 times, compared to rain-fed and hand watering, respectively. In the latter case, this yield increase was obtained despite a 45% reduction in the amount of water applied to the crop. Results also showed that a total of 580 t/ha of tomatoes can be obtained under the more optimal water and nutrient conditions provided in locally constructed greenhouses, where the 15N stable isotopic tracer was used to determine the fate of nitrogen (N) fertilisers in soils and tomato plants. Information obtained indicates that as much as 50% of the applied nitrogen can be saved when applied through drip irrigation while at the same time tomato yield could be maintained. A training manual for extension workers on the use of these drip irrigation systems has been developed, and training and dissemination of these technologies have been conducted through farmers' field days and discussion groups.

  11. Small-scale clad-effects study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Small-Scale Clad Effects Study of the HSST Program was initiated to study the interaction of stainless cladding with flaws initiated in and propagating in base metal. From the designer's viewpoint stainless cladding is primarily viewed as a corrosion- and crud-prevention measure in light-water reactor vessel design, and except for its effect upon fatigue in thermal transients, its effect upon structural integrity has heretofore been largely disregarded. With the more recent focus of safety studies upon LOCA scenarios that emphasize the behavior of small flaws, it has become evident that stainless cladding may have a key role in the propagation and/or arrest of propagating flaws. A complicating factor in understanding the role of stainless cladding in this setting is its fracture toughness as a function of radiation dose and as a function of fabrication process for which meager data exist. The initial phase of this study has attempted to address this question by testing stainless-clad specimens that had been subjected to heat treatments to simulate beginning-of-life and end-of-life toughness conditions to fast-running cracks

  12. Slip Dynamics in Small Scale Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Robert; Derlet, Peter; Greer, Julia; Volkert, Cynthia

    2015-03-01

    Classical work showed that dislocation velocities are strongly dependent on applied stress. Numerous experiments have validated this for individual or groups of dislocations in macroscopic crystals by using imaging techniques combined with either mechanical data or time resolved topological data. Developments in small scale mechanical testing allow to correlate the intermittency of collective dislocation motion with the mechanical response. Discrete forward surges in displacement can be related to dislocation avalanches, which are triggered by the evolving dislocation sub-structure. We study the spatiotemporal characteristics of intermittent plastic flow in quasi-statically sheared single crystalline Au crystals with diameters between 300 nm and 10000 nm, whose displacement bursts were recorded at several kHz (Scripta Mater. 2013, 69, 586; Small, available online). Both the crystallographic slip magnitude, as well as the velocity of the slip events are exhibiting power-law scaling as. The obtained slip velocity distribution has a cubic decay at high values, and a saturated flat shoulder at lower velocities. No correlation between the slip velocity and the applied stress or plastic strain is found. Further, we present DD-simulations that are supportive of our experimental findings. The simulations suggest that the dynamics of the internal stress fields dominate the evolving dislocation structure leading to velocities that are insensitive to the applied stress - a regime indicative of microplasticity.

  13. Small-scale solar magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observed properties of small-scale solar magnetic fields are reviewed. Most of the magnetic flux in the photosphere is in the form of strong fields of about 100-200 mT (1-2kG), which have remarkably similar properties regardless of whether they occur in active or quite regions. These fields are associated with strong atmospheric heating. Flux concentrations decay at a rate of about 107Wbs-1, independent of the amount of flux in the decaying structure. The decay occurs by smaller flux fragments breaking loose from the larger ones i.e. a transfer of magnetic flux from smaller to larger Fourier wave numbers, into the wave-number regime where ohmic diffusion becomes significant. This takes place in a time-scale much shorter than the length of the solar cycle. The field amplification occurs mainly below the solar surface, since very little magnetic flux appears in diffuse form in the photosphere, and the life-time of the smallest flux elements is very short. The observations further suggest that most of the magnetic flux in quiet regions is supplied directly from below the solar surface rather than being the result of turbulent diffusion of active-region magnetic fields. (Auth.)

  14. Galaxy alignment on large and small scales

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, X; Wang, Y O; Dutton, A; Macciò, A

    2014-01-01

    Galaxies are not randomly distributed across the universe but showing different kinds of alignment on different scales. On small scales satellite galaxies have a tendency to distribute along the major axis of the central galaxy, with dependence on galaxy properties that both red satellites and centrals have stronger alignment than their blue counterparts. On large scales, it is found that the major axes of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) have correlation up to 30Mpc/h. Using hydro-dynamical simulation with star formation, we investigate the origin of galaxy alignment on different scales. It is found that most red satellite galaxies stay in the inner region of dark matter halo inside which the shape of central galaxy is well aligned with the dark matter distribution. Red centrals have stronger alignment than blue ones as they live in massive haloes and the central galaxy-halo alignment increases with halo mass. On large scales, the alignment of LRGs is also from the galaxy-halo shape correlation, but with some ex...

  15. Small-scale mechanical behavior of zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The surface stability of yttria-doped tetragonal polycrystalline zirconia is critical for load-bearing biomedical applications. In this work, the small-scale mechanical behavior of this material is probed by employing the in situ micro-cantilever bending technique to near-surface regions. Micro-cantilevers are milled by the focused ion beam technique in the as-sintered condition as well as after hydrothermal degradation by water vapor and tested in order to investigate the effect of degradation on the local flexural response. Results demonstrate that the technique is reliable for assessing the mechanical properties of thin superficial layers and their dependence on orientation. In the non-degraded material, the flexural strength is surprisingly higher than in standard-size specimens and transformation-induced plasticity takes place during testing, inducing defects that become critical at the failure stress. The strength and stiffness of cantilevers obtained from the degraded surface are indeed much lower, and the magnitude of the effect clearly depends on their orientation with respect to the surface. These results are discussed in terms of the presence and spatial distribution of microcracks nucleated during hydrothermal degradation

  16. Methods of biodiesel production for small scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca Belo, L. de; Viana Canabrava, D.; Serpa da Cruz, R.; Aevivanio Lins Miranda, A.; Sa Parente, E.J. Jr. de; Nascimento, R.A. (Tecbio - Tecnologias Bioenergeticas (Brazil))

    2007-07-01

    The global production arrangement of biodiesel provides employments and profits. It might promote the country people social inclusion, moreover using castor plant and familiar agriculture. This culture demands use of an intensive labor and a good potential of value aggregation in their products. In front of the Biodiesel potentialities in each region, the decentralized production model shows up as an important alternative. The Brazilian biodiesel production in small scale is not well established and there are some critic aspects that could make it inviable. Among these, we can mention: low operationality, energetic inefficiency and small potentially of sub products utilities. However, this research shows an availability study of castor biodiesel production with agriculture familiar participation and aggregate value to sub products of productive process. This project minimizes investments and also the costs of operation, achieve, in this way, the economic availability of decentralized production model of biodiesel. Beyond that, the final objective of project is the execution of two models plants of biodiesel production and their utilization to labor capacity and models to others future initiative. The plant will integrate transesterification with biodigestion. The anaerobic process could be tried in each steps of the biodiesel production by technically and economically evaluation. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of Labour Supply & Use in Small Scale Farming In Ikwuano/Umuahia L.G.A. of Abia State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah, Ikoku John

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the supply and utilisation of labour resources among farmers in Ikwuano-Umuahia Local Government Area of Abia State. A total of 175 small scale farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with the use of structured questionnaires in five out of the nine autonomous communities that make up the local government area. The data collected were analysed and the results showed that average family labour force of 200 man days was not enough to cu...

  18. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N. Patience, Manzana; Cheryl M.E., McCrindle; P. Julius, Sebei; Leon, Prozesky.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances in land ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational study was conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistribution project in [...] Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For the purposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than 500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and design appropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the second phase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. These were: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residues with minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a total mixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank from the cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoption was monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulated rations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded that veterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option for such complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extension services appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditional model of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labour intensive.

  19. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Patience Manzana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1 A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2 An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3 A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  20. The impacts of participation in rural organizations on the income of small-scale producers in Latin america

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Germán; Díaz, Octavio; Jara, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Common wisdom indicates that in rural societies, producers' organizations are one of the factors that allow small scale producers to achieve insertion in formal spaces and access economically attractive scales in the supplies and services markets. A probabilistic participation model was used to analyze seven case studies of experiences of farmers' associations in Latin America that showed that the characteristics of the rural producers who seek out opportunities to work together are very diff...

  1. Small scale imaging using ultrasonic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound technology progressed through the 1960 from simple A-mode and B-mode scans to today M-mode and Doppler two dimensional (2-D) and even three dimensional (3-D) systems. Modern ultrasound imaging has its roots in sonar technology after it was first described by Lord John Rayleigh over 100 years ago on the interaction of acoustic waves with media. Tomography technique was developed as a diagnostic tool in the medical area since the early of 1970s. This research initially focused on how to retrieve a cross sectional images from living and non-living things. After a decade, the application of tomography systems span into the industrial area. However, the long exposure time of medical radiation-based method cannot tolerate the dynamic changes in industrial process two phase liquid/ gas flow system. An alternative system such as a process tomography systems, can give information on the nature of the flow regime characteristic. The overall aim of this paper is to investigate the use of a small scale ultrasonic tomography method based on ultrasonic transmission mode tomography for online monitoring of liquid/ gas flow in pipe/ vessel system through ultrasonic transceivers application. This non-invasive technique applied sixteen transceivers as the sensing elements to cover the pipe/ vessel cross section. The paper also details the transceivers selection criteria, hardware setup, the electronic measurement circuit and also the image reconstruction algorithm applied. The system was found capable of visualizing the internal characteristics and provides the concentration profile for the corresponding liquid and gas phases. (author)

  2. Cassini RTG's -- Small scale module tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cassini spacecraft, scheduled for a 1997 launch to Saturn, will be powered by three GPHS RTGs (General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope thermoelectric Generators). The RTGs are the same type as those powering the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft. Three new converters (F-6, F-7, and F-8) are to be built and one converter (F-2) remaining from the GPHS program will be used. F-6 and F-7 are to be fueled and F-8 serves as a spare converter. In addition, the back-up RTG (F-5) from the Ulysses launch, which is still fueled, will serve as the Cassini back-up RTG. The new RTGs will have a lower fuel loading than in the past and will provide a minimum of 276 watts each at B.O.M. (beginning of mission). The mission length is 10.75 years, at which time these RTGs will provide a minimum of 216 watts and a possible extension to 16 years when the power will be 199 watts. This paper discusses tests performed to date to confirm the successful re-establishment of the unicouple production at Martin Marietta. This production line, shut down 10 years ago, has been restarted and over 1,500 unicouples have been produced to date. Confirmation will be primarily obtained by the performance of three small scale converters in comparison with previously tested modules from the Multi Hundred Watt (MHW) (Voyager) and GPHS (Galileo, Ulysses) programs. Test results to date have shown excellent agreement with the data base

  3. The development for small scale soft X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the development of small-scale soft X-ray spectrometer, first, some small-scale soft X-ray detection elements are developed, it is included GaAs irradiated with neutron, GaAs irradiated with proton, multi-layer mirror, plane mirror and small scale X-ray diode et al. Soft X-ray spectrometers built of multi-layer mirror-GaAs (with neutron irradiation), and plane mirror-small-scale XRD, and plane mirror-GaAs (with proton irradiation) are prepared. These spectrometers are examined in Shen Guang-II laser facility, and some external estimation are given. (authors)

  4. Changes in farmers' knowledge of maize diversity in highland Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Etten, J. van

    2006-01-01

    Small-scale studies on long-term change in agricultural knowledge might uncover insights with broader, regional implications. This article evaluates change in farmer knowledge about crop genetic resources in highland Guatemala between 1927/37 and 2004. It concentrates on maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) in one Guatemalan township, Jacaltenango, an area with much ecological and maize diversity. It relies on a particular type of baseline information: lists of farmer-defined cultivars drawn up by e...

  5. Incorporating small-scale farmers into sustainable supply chains: the Manobi case

    OpenAIRE

    Borrella Alonso de la Torre, Inmaculada; Carrasco Gallego, Ruth; Mataix Aldeanueva, Carlos; Fisac Garcia, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Increased globalization and outsourcing to developing countries is fostering the interest in supply chain sustainability. From the academic point of view, while environmental impacts of supply chains have been largely analysed, the research on social issues has been scattered and fragmented. This paper thereby sets out to close this gap. We have identified an emerging sphere of knowledge at the interface between sustainable supply chain management, business strategy and international developm...

  6. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Production Efficiency and Constraints Among Small Scale Farmers in Southern Kaduna, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Titilayo J. Ayodele; Banake E. Sambo

    2014-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is mostly grown in southern Kaduna Sate, the traditional home of ginger in Nigeria. Its production was boosted with the aim of generating internal trade for the people and improved foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria. However, ginger yields in Nigeria are comparatively very low; and this is ascribed to various factors such as poor agronomic practices, unimproved varieties, laborious farming, harvesting and processing operations amongst others. It is again...

  7. Performance Assessment Of Local Biomass Powered Cereal Drier Used By Small-Scale Kenyan Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madaraka F. Mwema

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have revealed that drying maize using biomass driers increase the quality of grains delays insect infestation mold and aflatoxin contamination in relation to direct sunlight drying. Most importantly biomass drying takes shorter time. It is therefore important to undertake performance of these driers to investigate the possibility of empirical control of such systems in remote areas. In this paper we present results of thermal performance of typical biomass-powered drier batch type. The results show that under natural convection temperature behavior within the drying chamber is unpredictable. However the use of exhaust fan forced convection gives predictable temperature distribution within the drying chamber. For burner shutter open at 50 and using maize cob as the fuel for forced convection the drying chamber attained a maximum temperature of 93amp730C after 28 minutes and minimum temperature of 69amp730C after 37 minutes in the lower tray tray 1. For burner shutter open at 100 the drying chamber attained a maximum temperature of 91amp730C after 41 minutes and minimum temperature of 67amp730C in tray 1. With burner 50 open tray 2 attained a maximum temperature of 62amp730C after 30 minutes and minimum temperature of 56amp730C after 40 minutes. With the burner 100 open tray 2 attained a maximum temperature of 61amp730C after 39 minutes and minimum temperature of 52amp730C after 52 minutes. From these results the optimal operating conditions of the burner operation were achieved when the shutter was open at 50. It took 76 minutes to dry 5kg of maize with about 0.8kg including dampness from rains moisture content in tray 1. It took 140 minutes to dry the same quantity and moisture content of maize in tray 2. These results show that it is possible to control empirically biomass cereal maize driers.

  8. Concepções de agricultores ecológicos do Paraná sobre alimentação saudável Concepciones de agricultores ecológicos de Paraná (Sur de Brasil sobre alimentación saludable Conceptions of healthy eating among ecological farmers in Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Ell

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as concepções de agricultores ecológicos sobre alimentação saudável. MÉTODOS: Estudo com abordagem qualitativa. Entre janeiro e fevereiro de 2007, foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade com o apoio de um roteiro com 11 mulheres e um homem residentes em comunidade agrícola de Rio Branco do Sul, PR, selecionados aleatoriamente dentre as 20 famílias de agricultores ecológicos desse município. RESULTADOS: Três categorias de análise foram identificadas: "tomada de consciência da alimentação saudável", "capacidade de compra" e "terra saudável". O significado da alimentação saudável para as mulheres agricultoras envolve a ideia de que os alimentos devem ser naturais, sem agrotóxicos nem produtos químicos industrializados. Cotidianamente o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes somado ao básico feijão, arroz e carne deve ser abundante e a composição do prato deve visar à prevenção de obesidade e doenças crônico-degenerativas. O cuidado com os recursos naturais para garantir a produção de alimentos saudáveis, a segurança alimentar, a sustentabilidade do meio ambiente e a vida futura do planeta integram o conceito de alimentação saudável. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento, a autocrítica e o discernimento acompanharam as concepções em relação à alimentação saudável.OBJETIVO: Describir las concepciones de agricultores ecológicos sobre alimentación saludable. MÉTODOS: Estudio con abordaje cualitativo. Entre enero y febrero de 2007, se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad con el apoyo de un itinerario con 11 mujeres y un hombre residentes en comunidad agrícola de Rio Branco do Sul, Sur de Brasil, seleccionados aleatoriamente entre las 20 familias de agricultores ecológicos de este municipio. RESULTADOS: Tres categorías de análisis fueron identificadas: "tomada de consciencia de la alimentación saludable", "capacidad de compra" y "tierra saludable". El significado de la alimentación saludable para las mujeres agricultoras incluye la idea de que los alimentos deben ser naturales, sin pesticidas y productos químicos industrializados. Cotidianamente el consumo de frutas, verduras y legumbres sumado al básico grano, arroz y carne debe ser abundante y la composición del plato debe buscar la prevención de obesidad y enfermedades crónico-degenerativas. El cuidado con los recursos naturales para garantizar la producción de alimentos saludables, la seguridad alimentaria, la sustentabilidad del medio ambiente y la vida futura del planeta integran el concepto de alimentación saludable. CONCLUSIONES: El conocimiento, la autocrítica y el discernimiento acompañaron las concepciones con relación a la alimentación saludable.OBJECTIVE: To describe ecological farmers' conceptions of healthy eating. METHODS: Study with a qualitative approach. In January and February 2007, supported by a guide, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 women and one man who were living in an agricultural community in Rio Branco do Sul, Southern Brazil. The interviewees were selected randomly from among the 20 ecological farming families in this municipality. RESULTS: Three analysis categories were identified: "awareness of healthy eating"; "purchasing power" and "healthy land". The significance of healthy eating for the female farmers involved the idea that foods should be natural, without agricultural pesticides or manufactured chemical products. The daily routine should include abundant consumption of fruits, greens and other vegetables, in addition to the basic rice, beans and meat, and the composition of dishes should aim towards prevention of obesity and chronic-degenerative diseases. Care regarding natural resources in order to ensure production of healthy foods, food safety, environmental sustainability and the future of life on the planet form part of the concept of healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge, self-criticism and discernment accompanied the conceptions of healthy eating.

  9. Concepções de agricultores ecológicos do Paraná sobre alimentação saudável / Conceptions of healthy eating among ecological farmers in Paraná, Southern Brazil / Concepciones de agricultores ecológicos de Paraná (Sur de Brasil) sobre alimentación saludable

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erica, Ell; Denise, Oliveira e Silva; Eleusis Ronconi de, Nazareno; Alfio, Brandenburg.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as concepções de agricultores ecológicos sobre alimentação saudável. MÉTODOS: Estudo com abordagem qualitativa. Entre janeiro e fevereiro de 2007, foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade com o apoio de um roteiro com 11 mulheres e um homem residentes em comunidade agrícola d [...] e Rio Branco do Sul, PR, selecionados aleatoriamente dentre as 20 famílias de agricultores ecológicos desse município. RESULTADOS: Três categorias de análise foram identificadas: "tomada de consciência da alimentação saudável", "capacidade de compra" e "terra saudável". O significado da alimentação saudável para as mulheres agricultoras envolve a ideia de que os alimentos devem ser naturais, sem agrotóxicos nem produtos químicos industrializados. Cotidianamente o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes somado ao básico feijão, arroz e carne deve ser abundante e a composição do prato deve visar à prevenção de obesidade e doenças crônico-degenerativas. O cuidado com os recursos naturais para garantir a produção de alimentos saudáveis, a segurança alimentar, a sustentabilidade do meio ambiente e a vida futura do planeta integram o conceito de alimentação saudável. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento, a autocrítica e o discernimento acompanharam as concepções em relação à alimentação saudável. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Describir las concepciones de agricultores ecológicos sobre alimentación saludable. MÉTODOS: Estudio con abordaje cualitativo. Entre enero y febrero de 2007, se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad con el apoyo de un itinerario con 11 mujeres y un hombre residentes en comunidad agrícola d [...] e Rio Branco do Sul, Sur de Brasil, seleccionados aleatoriamente entre las 20 familias de agricultores ecológicos de este municipio. RESULTADOS: Tres categorías de análisis fueron identificadas: "tomada de consciencia de la alimentación saludable", "capacidad de compra" y "tierra saludable". El significado de la alimentación saludable para las mujeres agricultoras incluye la idea de que los alimentos deben ser naturales, sin pesticidas y productos químicos industrializados. Cotidianamente el consumo de frutas, verduras y legumbres sumado al básico grano, arroz y carne debe ser abundante y la composición del plato debe buscar la prevención de obesidad y enfermedades crónico-degenerativas. El cuidado con los recursos naturales para garantizar la producción de alimentos saludables, la seguridad alimentaria, la sustentabilidad del medio ambiente y la vida futura del planeta integran el concepto de alimentación saludable. CONCLUSIONES: El conocimiento, la autocrítica y el discernimiento acompañaron las concepciones con relación a la alimentación saludable. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To describe ecological farmers' conceptions of healthy eating. METHODS: Study with a qualitative approach. In January and February 2007, supported by a guide, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 women and one man who were living in an agricultural community in Rio Branco do Sul, So [...] uthern Brazil. The interviewees were selected randomly from among the 20 ecological farming families in this municipality. RESULTS: Three analysis categories were identified: "awareness of healthy eating"; "purchasing power" and "healthy land". The significance of healthy eating for the female farmers involved the idea that foods should be natural, without agricultural pesticides or manufactured chemical products. The daily routine should include abundant consumption of fruits, greens and other vegetables, in addition to the basic rice, beans and meat, and the composition of dishes should aim towards prevention of obesity and chronic-degenerative diseases. Care regarding natural resources in order to ensure production of healthy foods, food safety, environmental sustainability and the future of life on the planet form part of the concept of healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge, self-criticism and discernment accompanied the conceptions of healthy eating.

  10. Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaffar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality, nutrition (balanced feed reproduction (mineral supplementation, and general management (training of farmers were identified and implemented in a participatory approach at the selected dairy farms. The calf mortality was reduced from 35 to 13 percent up to the age of 3 months. Use of Alfa Deval post milking teat dips reduced the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis from 34 to 5% showing economical benefits of the interventions. Partial budget technique was used to analyze its impact in the registered herds. The farmers recorded monthly quantities of different feed ingredients and seasonal green fodder offered to the animals. From this data set total metabolizeable energy requirements and availability from feed were computed which revealed that animals were deficient in metabolizeable energy in all locations. This was also confirmed by seasonal variation in body condition scoring. At some selected farms the mineral mixture supplement was introduced which exhibited increased milk yield by 5 % in addition to shorten service period by 30 days. Three sessions of training were arranged to train the farmers to care new born calves, daily farm management and detect the animals in heat efficiently to enhance the over all income of the farmers. The overall income of the farm was increased by 40%.

  11. Potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented and market-oriented small-scale farming systems of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael; Zander, Kerstin K; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems. PMID:22639035

  12. Coming to Grips with Farmers' variety Selection- the Case of New Improved Rice Varieties under Irrigation in South East Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kafiriti, EM.; Dondeyne, S.; Msomba, S.; Deckers, J.; Raes, D.

    2003-01-01

    In collaboration with farmers, rice varieties were evaluated under small-scale irrigation in two villages of south east Tanzania for two consecutive cropping seasons (1999/2000 –2000/2001). The objectives were to give farmers access to new improved rice varieties; to identify the selection criteria farmers consider important in irrigated rice production; and to come to grips with their arguments. Farmers were provided with eleven improved varieties, which they compared with their own ones. Fa...

  13. Financing small scale wind energy projects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows how wind energy projects in the UK have obtained finance. It attempts to list the financing options open to small scale developments and to note any likely problems which may occur. (UK)

  14. Hopewell Furnace NHS Small Scale Features (Linear Features)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile represents the linear small scale features found at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site based on the Cultural Landscape Report completed in...

  15. How to Prevent Non Performing Assets in Small Scale Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rituparna

    2003-01-01

    This paper tries to seek a solution to the problem of non performing assets in the small scale industries under the present circumstances of banking and insurance working together under the same roof. What is stressed in this chapter is the pressing need of the small scale entrepreneur for becoming aware and educated in modern business management holding a professional attitude toward rational decision making and banks have to facilitate that process as a part of the credit policy sold by them.

  16. Submerged vinegar fermentation in small scale culture systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schlepütz, Tino

    2013-01-01

    In industry, vinegar is widely produced by submerged fermentation. Although vinegar production is established on the large scale, small scale culture methods, in which bioprocesses are typically developed or optimized nowadays, are missing. To reinvestigate the established fermentation process, the aim of this thesis was the development of suitable small scale culture methods and systems for submerged vinegar fermentation. Since obligatory aerobic acetic acid bacteria in vinegar production su...

  17. Mechanical properties of small scale BCC metal structures

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Andreas Simon

    2010-01-01

    Metals with a critical dimension in the micro- and nanometer regime have demonstrated a dramatic increase in strength with decreasing sample size termed the ?size effect?. Understanding and quantifying mechanical behavior is an essential part of creating small-scale systems with advanced properties, and is possible using highly developed experimental testing techniques such as compression of small-scale metal pillars formed using focused ion beam (FIB) machining. Although the fundamental mech...

  18. Profitability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Elmina, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Okyere; Cephas Asare; Emmanuel Y. Tenkorang; Noble K. Asare; Belinda Quaynor; Denis W. Aheto

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species caught and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Interviews were conducted among 60 fishermen between February and March 2010. Economic assessment of small-scale fishing activities were done using questionnaires based on direct market pricing and co...

  19. Development of small-scale peat production; Pienturvetuotannon kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkilae, A.; Kallio, E. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat production to such a level that the productivity is improved and competitivity maintained. The aim in 1996 was to survey the present status of small-scale peat production, and research and development needs and to prepare a development plan for small-scale peat production for a continued project in 1997 and for the longer term. A questionnaire was sent to producers by mail, and its results were completed by phone interviews. Response was obtained from 164 producers, i.e. from about 75 - 85 % of small-scale peat producers. The quantity of energy peat produced by these amounted to 3.3 TWh and that of other peat to 265 000 m{sup 3}. The total production of energy peat (large- scale producers Vapo Oy and Turveruukki Oy included) amounted to 25.0 TWh in 1996 in Finland, of which 91 % (22.8 TWh) was milled peat and 9 % (2.2 TWh) of sod peat. The total production of peat other than energy peat amounted to 1.4 million m{sup 3}. The proportion of small-scale peat production was 13 % of energy peat, 11 % of milled peat and 38 % of sod peat. The proportion of small-scale producers was 18 % of other peat production. The results deviate clearly from those obtained in a study of small-scale production in the 1980s. The amount of small-scale production is clearly larger than generally assessed. Small-scale production focuses more on milled peat than on sod peat. The work will be continued in 1997. Based on development needs appeared in the questionnaire, the aim is to reduce environmental impacts and runoff effluents from small- scale production, to increase the efficiency of peat deliveries and to reduce peat production costs by improving the service value of machines by increasing co-operative use. (orig.)

  20. Rainwater harvesting for small-scale irrigation of maize in the Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Hartog, Maaike; Muluneh, Alemayehu; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2013-04-01

    In the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, small scale farmers mostly rely on rainfall for crop production. The erratic nature of rainfall causes frequent crop failures and makes the region structurally dependent on food aid. Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) is a technique to collect and store runoff that could provide water for livestock, domestic use or small scale irrigation. Usually, such irrigation is promoted for high value crops, but in the light of regional food security it may become interesting to invest in irrigation of maize. In this research, two cemented RWH cisterns were investigated to determine their economic and social potential for supplemental irrigation of maize using drip irrigation. For this, data from test fields with irrigated maize and monitoring of water levels of the cisterns were used, as well as a survey under 30 farmers living close to the experimental site. The results show that catchment size and management should be in balance with the designed RWH system, to prevent too little runoff or flooding. An analysis with Cropwat 8.0 was used to investigate the possibility of irrigating maize with the observed amounts of water in the RWH cisterns. This would suffice for 0.3-0.8 ha of maize. For a RWH cistern with a drip irrigation system to be economically viable, the production on this acreage should become 3-4 ton/ha; 2.5 times higher than the current yield. But the biggest challenge would be to change the perception of respondents, who don't find it logical to spend precious water on a common crop like maize. Therefore, if the Ethiopian government considers the irrigation of maize to be important for regional food security, it is recommended to either subsidize the construction of RWH cisterns or provide credit on favourable terms.

  1. Financing Sustainable Small-Scale Forestry: Lessons from Developing National Forest Financing Strategies in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Savenije

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems that hamper the financing of sustainable forest management (SFM are manifold and complex. However, forestry is also facing unprecedented opportunities. The multiple functions and values of forests are increasingly recognized as part of the solution to pressing global issues (e.g., climate change, energy scarcity, poverty, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and raw material supply. Emerging initiatives to enhance forest carbon stocks and cut greenhouse gas emissions associated with forest clearing (known as REDD+, together with voluntary carbon markets, are offering additional funding options for SFM. Indigenous peoples, local communities and small scale farmers feature as key players in the discourse on implementing such initiatives. Based on the experience of countries developing national forest financing strategies and instruments, we suggest the following points be considered when financing such initiatives, particularly for small scale forestry: (1 Integrate financing of REDD+ and similar initiatives within broader national strategies for SFM financing; (2 Design REDD+ finance mechanisms that are ‘community ready’, i.e., tailored to local realities; (3 Consider existing livelihood strategies as the starting point; (4 Build on existing structures, but be mindful of their strengths and weaknesses; (5 Be strategic with your priority actions; and (6 Promote innovation, knowledge sharing and information exchange.

  2. The financial sustainability and socio-economic contribution of small-scale sugar-cane growers in Mpumalanga Province

    OpenAIRE

    Cloete, Riekie

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale sugar-cane farming came to Mpumalanga Province in the 1990s. As result of the Nkomazi Irrigation Expansion Programme, 34 projects with farms of on average size of seven hectares were initially allocated by Government to potential farmers in rural areas. This was done to enable them to generate income from sugar-cane to support their families. The initial expectations for the success of the programme were high, but they did not realise as anticipated. The yield results for the firs...

  3. Engineering development for a small-scale recirculator experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is evaluating the physics and technology of recirculating induction accelerators for heavy-ion inertial-fusion drivers. As part of this evaluation, the authors are building a small-scale recirculator to demonstrate the concept and to use as a test bed for the development of recirculator technologies. System designs have been completed and components are presently being designed and developed for the small-scale recirculator. This paper discusses results of the design and development activities that are presently being conducted to implement the small-scale recirculator experiments. An, overview of the system design is presented along with a discussion of the implications of this design on the mechanical and electrical hardware. The paper focuses primarily on discussions of the development and design of the half-lattice period hardware and the advanced solid-state modulator

  4. CO2-impacts of a small-scale consumers levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of a number of developments (altered budgets of Dutch ministries and implementation of environmental policy plans of energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) the 1993 analyses of the effects of a small-scale consumer levy on the emission of CO2 are updated. First, attention is paid to the conservation impetus as a result of an increase of the energy price for small-scale consumers. Next, the effects that can occur as a consequence of the presently suggested form of the levy (in particular, the exemption of renewable energy and waste heat) are discussed. Subsequently, the alterations of other policy tools, that are necessary in case a higher effectiveness of conservation measures is realized, are dealt with. The direct effect of a higher energy price on the saving behavior of the small-scale consumers is calculated by means of the CENECA-model. 4 tabs., 1 appendix, 8 refs

  5. Evaluation of Small-Scale Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Thomassen, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    In current designs of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopoles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated. In this paper the diameter effect on laterally loaded non-slender piles in sand is evaluated by means of results from six small-scale laboratory tests, numerical modelling of the same test setup and existing theory. From the numerical models, p?y curves are derived and compared to current design regulations. The recommendations in API (1993) and DNV (1992) are observed to be in poor agreement with the numerically obtained p?y curves. The initial stiffness, Epy*, of the p?y curves is found to increase with increasing pile diameter. Considerable uncertainties are observed to be related to small-scale testing, and the evaluations clearly indicate that the accuracy of small-scale testing is increased when increasing the pile diameter and applying overburden pressure.

  6. Germination as a processing technique for soybeans in small-scale farming

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.C., Kayembe; C., Jansen van Rensburg.

    Full Text Available Heat processing is an effective way of reducing antinutritional factors (ANFs) in legumes, but requires expensive facilities and equipment. Accurate control of temperature is critical to avoid under- or overheating. Therefore, heat treatment of soybeans is not a viable option for the average small-s [...] cale farmer in remote areas. Germination and other traditional methods, namely soaking and dehulling, were evaluated as alternative processing methods for soybeans. The effect of the processing treatment on the level of different ANFs, nutritional composition and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of soybean seeds was determined. Soybeans were soaked for 24 hours and allowed to germinate for one to six days. Soaked soybeans were manually dehulled. Changes within seeds were noted for nutritional and ANFs during germination. Crude protein and fat content increased with increasing number of days germinated, but germination caused a decrease in starch content. Dehulling also increased the crude protein and fat content of the seeds. All treatments caused a significant decrease in condensed tannins of the soybeans. Trypsin inhibitor levels were numerically lower after germinating, soaking and dehulling of seeds, but not significantly so. There were no changes in IVPD after treatment of the soybeans. It was concluded that germination for a period of three days effectively improved the nutritional value of soybeans and can be considered an alternative treatment of soybeans for the small-scale farmer where heat treatment is impractical or impossible.

  7. Irrigation Water Management in Small Scale Irrigation Schemes: the Case of the Ethiopian Rift Valley Lake Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihret D. Ulsido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appraisals of irrigation water management scenarios are crucial in project performance monitoring. A comprehensive irrigation water management study has been conducted on four small scale irrigation schemes in the Ethiopian rift valley lake basin. It is observed that from 147 irrigators 68% faced irrigation water supply unreliability, 79.1% encountered unfair distribution of water and 66 % underwent through timeliness problem in water distribution occasionally. All the investigated schemes witnessed a weak (50 % of all scheme users noted poor organization of irrigation scheme administration. The Water Users Associations (WUAs lack clear laws/by-laws and strategies to lead small or major canal operations and maintenances. Without a strong WUA it is impossible to think of filling farmer’s skill gap, to have a working maintenance strategy, fair distribution of irrigation water, reliable irrigation water supply and timely delivery of irrigation water. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.6240

  8. Irrigation Water Management in Small Scale Irrigation Schemes: the Case of the Ethiopian Rift Valley Lake Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihret Dananto Ulsido

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Appraisals of irrigation water management scenarios are crucial in project performance monitoring. A comprehensive irrigation water management study has been conducted on four small scale irrigation schemes in the Ethiopian rift valley lake basin. It is observed that from 147 irrigators 68% faced irrigation water supply unreliability, 79.1% encountered unfair distribution of water and 66 % underwent through timeliness problem in water distribution occasionally. All the investigated schemes witnessed a weak (50 % of all scheme users noted poor organization of irrigation scheme administration. The Water Users Associations (WUAs lack clear laws/by-laws and strategies to lead small or major canal operations and maintenances. Without a strong WUA it is impossible to think of filling farmer’s skill gap, to have a working maintenance strategy, fair distribution of irrigation water, reliable irrigation water supply and timely delivery of irrigation water.

  9. Solar small-scale dynamo and polarity of sunspot groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, D.; Khlystova, A.; Abramenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    In order to clarify a possible role of small-scale dynamo in formation of solar magnetic field, we suggest an observational test for small-scale dynamo action based on statistics of anti-Hale sunspot groups. As we have shown, according to theoretical expectations the small-scale dynamo action has to provide a population of sunspot groups which do not follow the Hale polarity law, and the density of such groups on the time-latitude diagram is expected to be independent on the phase of the solar cycle. Correspondingly, a percentage of the anti-Hale groups is expected to reach its maximum values during solar minima. For several solar cycles, we considered statistics of anti-Hale groups obtained by several scientific teams, including ours, to find that the percentage of anti-Hale groups becomes indeed maximal during a solar minimum. Our interpretation is that this fact may be explained by the small-scale dynamo action inside the solar convective zone.

  10. Solar small-scale dynamo and polarity of sunspot groups

    CERN Document Server

    Sokoloff, D; Abramenko, V

    2015-01-01

    In order to clarify a possible role of small-scale dynamo in formation of solar magnetic field, we suggest an observational test for small-scale dynamo action based on statistics of anti-Hale sunspot groups. As we have shown, according to theoretical expectations the small-scale dynamo action has to provide a population of sunspot groups which do not follow the Hale polarity law, and the density of such groups on the time-latitude diagram is expected to be independent on the phase of the solar cycle. Correspondingly, a percentage of the anti-Hale groups is expected to reach its maximum values during solar minima. For several solar cycles, we considered statistics of anti-Hale groups obtained by several scientific teams, including ours, to find that the percentage of anti-Hale groups becomes indeed maximal during a solar minimum. Our interpretation is that this fact may be explained by the small-scale dynamo action inside the solar convective zone.

  11. DESIGN OF A SMALLSCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

  12. Simulating Small-Scale Object Stacking Using Stack Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Thomsen, Kasper; Kraus, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extension system to a closed-source, real-time physics engine for improving structured stacking behavior with small-scale objects such as wooden toy bricks. The proposed system was implemented and evaluated. The tests showed that the system is able to simulate several common stacking scenarios, which the base physics engine cannot simulate.

  13. Farmers Insures Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  14. Development of small-scale peat production. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this three year project was to develop the production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat producers so that the profitability of small-scale peat production is improved and the competitiveness remains. The aim in 1996 was to determine the present situation of small-scale peat producers, and the research and development needs, as well as to prepare a development plan of the small-scale peat production. The aims for 1997 were: the diminishing of the environmental hazards and the run-off waters of the small-scale peat production, the intensification of the peat deliveries from small-scale peat production, and the reduction of the peat production costs by improving the degree of utilization of the equipment via common or shared use. According to the results of the study peat production in Finland in 1996 was 25.0 TWh in total. The share of milled peat was 91 % of the peat production, and that of sod peat 9.0 %. About 1 440 000 m3 of other than energy peat was produced. The share of energy peat producers, replying to the questionnaire was 13 % (3.3 TWh) and the share of other peat producers was 18 %. Peat was produced from the area of 59 000 ha, the share of small-scale peat producers was 9 250 ha corresponding to about 16 % of the total peat production area. The share of milled peat of the peat produced by small-scale peat producers was about 73 %. The number of peat produces replying to the questionnaire was 164. The level of water protection and other environmental protection of twelve peat producers in the Southern Ostrobothnia were studied. According to the survey the main shortages comprised too small or lacking settling ponds. Also other shortages in environmental protection were observed. Feedback on the survey, as well as guidance and suggestions for improvements were given to the producers. Deliveries of peat by the small-scale peat producers to the Rauhalahti power plant of Jyvaeskylaen Energiantuotanto Oy were reviewed in order to intensify the deliveries. By using new delivery regions it would be possible to reduce the number of lorries transporting the peat from the present 17 lorries to 9 lorries. The annual transportation amounts will be normalized and they would be increased from the present average of 53 000 m3 to 109 000 m3. The value of reducing of the waiting times would be about 1.0 FIM/m3 calculated on the basis of the total peat deliveries to the plant. The shared usage of the transportation devices of the Haku method by several producers might in some cases be profitable method for replacing the own pneumatic harvesters of peat producers. Hence the common production area should be at least 50 - 100 ha. The engine-rents determination principles were reviewed in the study. In addition to this it was calculated that on the basis of long-term weather condition data it would be possible to produce 250 - 300 m3 of milled peat along with the sod peat production without interfering the sod peat production by using hired milled peat machines. The profitability of the production depends, however, on the rent determined on the basis of the total usage rate of milled peat production machinery

  15. Effect of small-scale architecture on polymer mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Luettmer-Strathmann, J

    1999-01-01

    Processes on different length scales affect the dynamics of chain molecules. In this work, we focus on structures on the scale of a monomer and investigate polyolefins, i.e. hydrocarbon chains with different small scale architectures. We present an exact enumeration scheme for the simulation of interactions and relative motion of two short chain sections on a lattice and employ it to deduce the probability for segmental motion for polymers of four different architectures in the melt. The probability for segmental motion is inversely proportional to the monomeric friction coefficient and hence the viscosity of a polymer. Combining our simulation results with an equation of state for the thermodynamic properties of the polymers, we are able to make predictions about the variation of the friction coefficient with temperature, pressure, and small scale architecture. To compare our results with experimental data, we have determined monomeric friction coefficients from experimental viscosity data for the four polyo...

  16. Biofuels in Africa: growing small-scale opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulle, Emmanuel [Tanzania Natural Resources Forum (Tanzania, United Republic of); Fauveaud, Swan [Renewable Energy Group, Environment and Solidarity (France); Vermeulen, Sonja

    2009-11-15

    Global demand for climate-friendly transport fuels is driving vast commercial biofuels projects in developing countries. At the opposite end of the spectrum is small-scale bioenergy production. This offers a way for the poor to meet their energy needs and diversify their livelihoods without compromising food security or environmental integrity. Governments hope that it will be possible to combine the advantages of both large- and small-scale production of biofuels to generate energy security and GDP at the national level, while opening up local opportunities. In Africa, most governments are keen to attract foreign direct investment, and see big business as a strategic means of scaling up rural development. But there is a middle way. By encouraging business models that bridge large and small enterprise, African governments could show that commercial competition can go hand in hand with a range of real local benefits.

  17. Small-scale anisotropies of cosmic rays from relative diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mertsch, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The arrival directions of multi-TeV cosmic rays show significant anisotropies at small angular scales. It has been argued that this small scale structure is reflecting the local, turbulent magnetic field in the presence of a global dipole anisotropy in cosmic rays as determined by diffusion. This effect is analogous to weak gravitational lensing of temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background. We show that the non-trivial power spectrum in this setup can be related to the properties of relative diffusion and we study the convergence of the angular power spectrum to a steady-state as a function of backtracking time. We also determine the steady-state solution in an analytical approach based on a modified BGK ansatz. A rigorous mathematical treatment of the generation of small scale anisotropies will help in unraveling the structure of the local magnetic field through cosmic ray anisotropies.

  18. Small Scale Microwave Background Fluctuations from Cosmic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, M B

    1994-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) fluctuations at very small angular scales (less than $10'$) induced by matter sources are computed in a simplified way. The result corrects a previous formula appearing in the literature. The small scale power spectrum from cosmic strings is then calculated by a new analytic method. The result compares extremely well with the spectrum computed by numerical techniques (when the old, incorrect, formula is used). The upper bound on the string parameters derived from OVRO data is re-examined, taking into account the non-Gaussian nature of stringy perturbations on small scales. Assuming a conventional ionization history, the bound is $\\gamma G\\mu < 11\\times 10^{-6}$, where $\\gamma^2$ is the number of horizon lengths of string per horizon volume. Current simulations give $\\gamma^2 = 31\\pm 7$.

  19. Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Luke; von Rueden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Observation of leadership in small-scale societies offers unique insights into the evolution of human collective action and the origins of sociopolitical complexity. Using behavioural data from the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and Nyangatom nomadic pastoralists of Ethiopia, we evaluate the traits of leaders and the contexts in which leadership becomes more institutional. We find that leaders tend to have more capital, in the form of age-related knowledge, body size or social connections. These attributes can reduce the costs leaders incur and increase the efficacy of leadership. Leadership becomes more institutional in domains of collective action, such as resolution of intragroup conflict, where collective action failure threatens group integrity. Together these data support the hypothesis that leadership is an important means by which collective action problems are overcome in small-scale societies. PMID:26503683

  20. A community small-scale wind generation project in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Martí, Laia; Garwood, Anna; Chiroque, José; Escobar, Rafael; Coello, Javier; Castro, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Electrification systems based on renewable energy have proven to be suitable for providing decentralized electricity to isolated communities. Electricity generated through wind power is one of the technical options available, although infrequently used to date. This article aims to describe the main aspects of technical design, implementation and management of the first small-scale community wind generation project for rural electrification in Peru. This project took place in t...

  1. Small scale combined heat and power units using external combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Pål André

    2013-01-01

    Combined heat and power plants are of increasing interest due to the rising concern over global warming as they can lower emissions, by having very higher efficiencies than traditional power plants. Implemented on a small scale units and with external combustion they allow for great flexibility in implementation and fuel, and can allow for remote locations to serve their own heat and power needs. This thesis investigates in the first part the available technologies for such plants on a small ...

  2. Development of a small scale orange juice extractor

    OpenAIRE

    Olaniyan, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A small scale motorized orange juice extractor was designed and fabricated, using locally-available construction materials. The essential components of the machine include feeding hopper, top cover, worm shaft, juice sieve, juice collector, waste outlet, transmission belt, main frame, pulleys and bearings. In operation, the worm shaft conveys, crushes, presses and squeezes the fruit to extract the juice. The juice extracted is filtered through the juice sieve into juice collector while the re...

  3. Small Scale Solar ORC system for distributed power

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, Matthew; Mueller, Amy; Quoilin, Sylvain; Hemond, Harold

    2009-01-01

    A solar thermal organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can provide affordable energy supplies in remote regions. The advent of low-cost medium temperature parabolic trough collectors and ORC technology taking advantage of mass produced fluid machinery from HVAC industries are enabling developments for the production of small scale autonomous power generation units. Construction and testing of this type of system is discussed, including benchmarking of scrolls expanders (up to 75% isentropic ...

  4. Small scale experiments on severe slugging in flexible risers.

    OpenAIRE

    Ita, Eyamba

    2011-01-01

    Severe slugging is an undesirable unsteady multiphase flow phenomenon which occurs in riser-pipeline systems. During the course of this masters thesis work, a dynamic coupling has been shown to exist between this flow phenomenon and the flexible riser in which it occurs. To analyse the influence of this coupling, the cyclic displacement of the riser and the loads exerted by this cyclic displacement on the risers attachment point to a topside vessel have been evaluated.A small scale experimen...

  5. WTO and its Impact on Small Scale Industries in India

    OpenAIRE

    Anchal Singh

    2014-01-01

    Small Scale Industries have emerged as an engine of growth in several developed and developing countries of the world including India and has acquired a prominent place in our socio-economic development since Independence through their ever-increasing contribution to national income. However, with the advent of economic reforms in 1991 it had to face stiff competition from globalization and economic liberalization as it has allowed companies to increase their base of operation...

  6. Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

    1983-09-01

    An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

  7. Effect of generator usage on small scale businesses in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhuosho-Asikhia, Juliet

    2014-01-01

    Energy has a major impact on socio-economic development by playing a key role in economic, social and political advancement of any Nation. Inadequate supply of energy limits advancement in all spheres thereby causing depreciation in the quality of life among citizens. Small scale businesses in Nigeria also have their fair share of the effects of inadequate energy supply in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to analyze the awareness, economic and environmental effects and attitudes of gener...

  8. Effects of thermal inflation on small scale density perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sungwook E.; Lee, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Young Jae; Stewart, Ewan D; Zoe, Heeseung

    2015-01-01

    In cosmological scenarios with thermal inflation, extra eras of moduli matter domination, thermal inflation and flaton matter domination exist between primordial inflation and the radiation domination of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. During these eras, cosmological perturbations on small scales can enter and re-exit the horizon, modifying the power spectrum on those scales. The largest modified scale, $k_\\mathrm{b}$, touches the horizon size when the expansion changes from defla...

  9. Small Scale Microwave Bursts in Long-duration Solar Flares

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Baolin

    2013-01-01

    Solar small scale microwave bursts (SMBs), including microwave dot, spike, and narrow band type III bursts, are characterized with very short timescales, narrow frequency bandwidth, and very high brightness temperatures. Based on observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou with superhigh cadence and frequency resolution, this work presents an intensive investigation of SMBs in several flares occurred in active region NOAA 10720 during 2005 Jan 1...

  10. Farmers’ Education and Farmers’ Wealth in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of farmers’ education is examined with a view to evaluate the actual situation of farmers’ education in Bangladesh. Fifty samples were collected from two sub districts of the Gazipur district in Bangladesh. The selection of the study sites and collection of the samples such as the years of schooling of the farm household head, total income, farm size, number of earners of farm families, family size, years of farming experience of farm household head, number of times extension contacts and rice yield were done purposively. It is cleared from the study that education is necessary for farmers to raise their wealth. Results were derived through regression analysis. The study has also shown that size of family and years of farming experience contributed significantly to the wealth accumulation of farmers.

  11. A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, Pallavi; Brandenburg, Axel

    2015-01-01

    We use high resolution direct numerical simulations to show that helical turbulence can generate large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale fields.During the kinematic stage, the unified large/small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shape-invariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large $k$. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small $k$ in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. The strength of such kinematic large-scale field $\\overline{B}$ relative to the total rms field $B_{rms}$ decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, $Re_{M}$. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic power spectrum in the saturated state shows peaks at both the forcing wavenumber $k=k_f$, and at the box scale, $k=1$. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, increas...

  12. Pattern of small-scale convection in the mantle wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, S.

    2011-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of volcano distribution may represent the mantle flow within the mantle wedge. In order to explain the volcano distribution in the NE Honshu subduction zone, Japan, we proposed a model of small-scale convection in the mantle wedge. Similar to the small-scale convection under the oceanic lithosphere, roll type thermal convection whose axis is normal to the plate boundaries is obtained assuming the viscosity of mantle wedge is O(10**18) Pa s. We also observe the "flip-flopping" of roll patterns. However, the recent study shows an existence of non-flip-flopping rolls, also. Thus, in this presentation, we investigate possible causes of these types of flow. We found that along-arc wavelength of small-scale convection has two length scales which may be associated with the inclined bottom of the low viscosity mantle wedge. When the convection is in early stage of evolvement or the speed of subduction is small, the long-wavelength rolls become prominent. As the convection evolves or the speed of subduction increases, short-wavelength rolls take over the long-wavelength rolls. The transition from the long wavelength to the short-wavelength rolls occurs by a several way. We show that ``flip-flopping" is the transitional stage from the long wavelength to the short wavelength rolls.

  13. Planform of small-scale convection under the island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, S.

    2011-11-01

    We have proposed an existence of small-scale convection in the mantle wedge in order to explain the alignment of group of volcanoes in the NE Honshu subduction zone, Japan. The roll type thermal convection whose axis is normal to the plate boundaries and “flip-flopping” of rolls (warmer and colder parts exchange their positions, as time passes) are reported. However, the subsequent study shows an existence of non-flip-flopping rolls, also. Thus, in this study, I investigate the possible causes of these differences systematically. I found that along-arc wavelength of small-scale convection is controlled by two length scales which may be associated with the inclined nature of the bottom of the low viscosity mantle wedge where the small-scale convection emerges. When the convection is in early stage of evolvement or the speed of subducting slab is small, the long-wavelength rolls become prominent. As the convection evolves or the speed of subduction increases, short-wavelength rolls tend to take over the long-wavelength rolls. The transition from the long-wavelength to the short-wavelength rolls occurs in a several way. It may occur through the splitting of rolls, adjustment of roll patterns and flip-flopping. If the pattern becomes short-wavelength roll, it becomes stable. The range of existence of flip-flopping is limited and the existence of viscosity jump in the top thermal boundary layer may be required.

  14. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Caizhi

    2010-12-15

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  15. Nature of the solar dynamo at small scales

    CERN Document Server

    Stenflo, J O

    2012-01-01

    It is often claimed that there is not only one, but two different types of solar dynamos: the one that is responsible for the appearance of sunspots and the 11-yr cycle, frequently referred to as the "global dynamo", and a statistically time-invariant dynamo, generally referred to as the "local dynamo", which is supposed to be responsible for the ubiquitous magnetic structuring observed at small scales. Here we examine the relative contributions of these two qualitatively different dynamos to the small-scale magnetic flux, with the following conclusion: The local dynamo does not play a significant role at any of the spatially resolved scales, nearly all the small-scale flux, including the flux revealed by Hinode, is supplied by the global dynamo. This conclusion is reached by careful determination of the Sun's noise-corrected basal magnetic flux density while making use of a flux cancellation function determined from Hinode data. The only allowed range where there may be substantial or even dominating contrib...

  16. Spatial Nonlocality of the Small-Scale Solar Dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Lamb, Derek A; DeForest, Craig E

    2014-01-01

    We explore the nature of the small-scale solar dynamo by tracking magnetic features. We investigate two previously-explored categories of the small-scale solar dynamo: shallow and deep. Recent modeling work on the shallow dynamo has produced a number of scenarios for how a strong network concentration can influence the formation and polarity of nearby small-scale magnetic features. These scenarios have measurable signatures, which we test for here using magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on Hinode. We find no statistical tendency for newly-formed magnetic features to cluster around or away from network concentrations, nor do we find any statistical relationship between their polarities. We conclude that there is no shallow or "surface" dynamo on the spatial scales observable by Hinode/NFI. In light of these results, we offer a scenario in which the sub-surface field in a deep solar dynamo is stretched and distorted via turbulence, allowing the field to emerge at random locations on the photo...

  17. Rethinking the Risk Management Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale, Traditionally Based Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Soleri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of genetically engineered (GE crops often assume that the risk management used in the industrial world is appropriate for small-scale, traditionally based agriculture in the Third World. Opponents of GE crops often assume that risk management is inappropriate for the Third World, because it is inherently biased in favor of the industrial world. We examine both of these assumptions, by rethinking risk management for GE crops and transgenes, using the example of maize transgene flow from the U.S. to Mexico. Risk management for the Third World is a necessary first step of a broader benefit–cost analysis of GE crops, which would include comparisons with existing varieties and with alternative varieties such as transgenic farmer varieties and organic varieties. Our goal is to use existing information on GE crops and on the social and biological characteristics of Third World agriculture to identify key processes that need to be considered in risk management, and the additional research required to adequately understand them. The four main steps in risk management are hazard identification, risk analysis (exposure x harm, risk evaluation, and risk treatment. We use informal event trees to identify possible exposure to GE crops and transgenes, and resulting biological and social harm; give examples of farmers' ability to evaluate social harm; and discuss the possibilities for risk treatment. We conclude that risk management is relevant for Third World agriculture, but needs to be based on the unique biological and social characteristics of small-scale, traditionally based agriculture, including the knowledge and values of Third World farmers and consumers.

  18. Relative risk for human illness of biogas effluent use in horticulture at small-scale pig farms in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilholma, Jenni; Stockmarr, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of animal manure in small-scale biogas systems are spreading rapidly in developing countries like Vietnam. The anaerobic fermentation breaks down solid matter and transforms it into methane which can be used for cooking and generation of light. Other benefits include a high-quality fertilizer effluent, reduction of problems with mal odour and a potential also to treat human waste products. Often the hygiene and health aspects of handling and digesting these organic wastes are unknown and the promotion of biogas technologies does rarely consider hygienic aspects. The aim of the current study was therefore to establish simple hygiene models for Vietnamese small-scale farmers that could describe the relative health risks associated with management of manure and consumption of the fertilized crop when using; i) fresh manure, ii) stored manure or iii) manure processed in the biogas plants. The hygiene models were developed based on information collected during interviews and observations of Vietnamese farmers operating biogas digesters as well as from the literature. Rather than calculating the specific risk for one person to become infected when handling a specific type of manure, we established hygiene models to calculate the relative risks of infection with the two model pathogens, Salmonella Typhimurium and Ascaris, allowing a comparison of risks for the different manure handling systems. Results showed that there was ten times higher risk of a human S. Typhimurium infection when handling fresh manure or composted manure as compared to handling of manure treated in a biogas system. In contrast, the risk for infection with the more resistant Ascaris was equivalent for all three manure handling systems. There is an urgent need to document the hygiene aspects of biogas systems developed and promoted to farmers in developing counties. Thus, further studies are needed on human exposure when handling animal manure and human excreta and pathogen survival in biogas systems as such information is essential to further refine the hygiene models developed and to formulate hygiene guidelines for biogas systems.

  19. Application of improved management and nutrition technologies for small-holder dairy production and their adoption by farmers in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The objectives of this presentation are to consider some of the factors concerned in the application of technical change to small-scale dairying and the adoption of change by farmers. The presentation will consider (1) the motives of the small-scale dairy farmer, (2) the small-scale dairy farmer's own perceptions of his problems and needs, (3) how farmers deal with the two fundamental technologies implicit in dairy farming, feeding their animals and getting their cows in calf, and (4) dissemination routes most favoured by small scale dairy farmers. The geographical focus of the presentation is East Africa, a region associated with considerable progress and success in small-scale dairying (Kenya) as well as dairying projects in their early development (Tanzania). The concerns of small-scale farmers have been characterised; thus the farmers have multiple objectives, their households have low capacity to bear risk, their livestock enterprises are often integrated with cropping activities, and their livestock are often expected to be multi-functional. Some of the expected implications for small-scale dairy farmers are that: (1) inputs (including feed) are low and therefore milk yields are expected to be low; (2) inputs are often matched to output so that a reduction in milk price results in a reduction in concentrate allowance for the cows; (3) the use of time and cash are optimised, implying that priority will not be given to cattle if other farm enterprises seem financially more attractive. Perhaps not surprisingly, attitudes and systems vary within the farming community, allowing sub-groups of small-scale dairy farmers to be identified and defined. Thus some farmers emerge as more specialist or entrepreneurial than others, prepared to make greater investment in return for higher outputs. Attitudes and activities also differ according to location. Small-scale farmers close to urban centres may well have off-farm employment, diverting their attention from their cows. The problems faced by small-scale dairy farmers are diverse but some common threads emerge from a number of different studies. As well as the usual farmer concerns about the low prices received for their product and the high price of inputs, the availability of working capital appears to be a general anxiety. Poor feeding practices, partly consequent on weather but also a result of cash shortages, are widely recognised. Animal disease is also a general source of concern. It is clear from farmer consultations that farmers do respond to these problems with technical innovations appropriate to their resources. Often these innovations represent adaptations to the limited inputs available or affordable. Thus long inter calving intervals, probably a function of chronic under feeding as well as difficulties associated with bull availability, are countered by exploiting the long flat lactation curve associated with the failure of the cow to peak in early lactation as a result of the inadequate feeding. Cows are milked for many months, often with no intervening dry period between lactations. Although this maintains milk production, the production of replacement heifer calves is jeopardised by the long calving intervals, threatening the sustainability of small-scale dairying at both the household and national level. It follows from the above that small-scale dairy farmers have limited capacity for technical change. However, in some areas, the very adoption of small-scale dairying over the past few years is sufficiently novel to illustrate that its practitioners are prepared to adopt change if the proposals are considered feasible within the recognised constraints. Sometimes innovations fail to get to farmers because of inadequate extension services, although increasing access to the internet may signal rapid change in some regions. However, it is also clear that scepticism remains widespread. Recent studies indicate that, in some areas, extension services have limited success at disseminating innovation. Farmers' preferred sources of information are their chur

  20. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1 on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Papa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1 of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P, Limousine(L, Kianina(C, Sharole(Sh and Markixhana(M on meat production increasing on small scale farms. To carried out this objective, two study methods were used: (i The survey - 284 small scale farms was observed in the Albanian coastal field and (ii Comparative essay of fattening calves (F1 in semi intensive small scale farm condition - 32 calves, F1 crosses of Holstein cows with above mentioned meat breeds were put in fattening in semi intensive small scale farm condition. 6 Holstein breed (H calves of 3-4 months age was used as control group. The feeding of animals was based on forages produced in farm: corn silage 30 % D.M, fresh alpha-alpha and its hay. 35 % of dry matter requirements were supplied by bought concentrate feedstuffs with 15 % crude protein on dry matter bases. The fattening period lasted 8 months . The average daily body weight increasing for each crosses and control group were respectively 889g (PxH, 998g (LxH, 850g (KxH, 1010g( ChxH, 953g (MxH and 702g (HxH. Multivariate analyses according to a linear model with constant factors ( genotype, sex, genotype x sex and covariance “live body weight in the beginning of experiment” showed that: (i The effect of crossbreds on average daily gain is evident under the small-scale farms conditions, also, (ii The average daily gain increases with 23 -38 % , depending on the type of crosses, (iii The crosses of dairy cattle with Limousine and Sharole result as most effective. The differences between F1 crosses of Markigiana, Kianine and Piemonteze are not statistically significant, (iv In semi intensive small scale farms the calf fattening can start from second month of life, (v The farmers even though small scale farm condition can produce more meat though the crossing of dairy cattle with meat breeds in comparison with pure dairy breed calves.

  1. Mozambique - Farmer Income Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — Trees For the epidemic zone, the evaluation estimated the impact of FISP on disease prevalence and estimated the consequent impact on coconut production and farmer...

  2. Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Plants Using Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon-Popa, Marianne [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-11-01

    In this time period where energy supply and climate change are of special concern, biomass-based fuels have attracted much interest due to their plentiful supply and favorable environmental characteristics (if properly managed). The effective capture and continued sustainability of this renewable resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants with high fuel energy conversion. At the same time, deregulation of the electricity market offers new opportunities for small-scale power plants in a decentralized scheme. These two important factors have opened up possibilities for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. The objective of this pre-study is to assess the possibilities and technical limitations for increased efficiency and energy utilization of biofuels in small size plants (approximately 10 MWe or lower). Various energy conversion technologies are considered and proven concepts for large-scale fossil fuel plants are an especially important area. An analysis has been made to identify the problems, technical limitations and different possibilities as recognized in the literature. Beyond published results, a qualitative survey was conducted to gain first-hand, current knowledge from experts in the field. At best, the survey results together with the results of personal interviews and a workshop on the role of small-scale plants in distributed generation will serve a guideline for future project directions and ideas. Conventional and novel technologies are included in the survey such as Stirling engines, combustion engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, steam motors, fuel cells and other novel technologies/cycles for biofuels. State-of-the-art heat and power plants will be identified to clarify of the advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles for their implementation.

  3. Small Scale Testing of Core Fast Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fuel Cycle R and D (FCRD) initiative is investigating methods of burning minor actinides in a transmutation fuel. To achieve this goal, the fast reactor core materials (cladding and duct) must be able to withstand very high doses (>200 dpa design goal). While mechanical testing on large samples delivers direct engineering data these types of tests are only possible if enough sample material and required hot cell capabilities are available. Small scale materials testing methods in addition to large scale materials testing allows one to gain more insight on the same specimen and directly probe areas of interest which are not accessible otherwise (small welds, areas with different microstructure, etc.). However, in order to use small scale testing techniques and to probe materials microstructures using these methods, the relationship between the different scales needs to be investigated. In order to establish a research based relationship between small scale and large scale materials testing several different mechanical testing techniques were conducted on the same specimen irradiated in the Spallation Target Irradiation Program (STIP) at the Swiss spallation source (SINQ) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) up to a dose of 19 dpa. Tensile testing, micro hardness testing and micro compression testing on focused ion beam (FIB) manufactured pillars were performed on remaining parts of tensile test specimens tested and irradiated at PSI. It is shown that the yield strength increases measured by tensile testing, micro compression testing and micro hardness testing all show the same trend. In addition FIB based techniques also allow one to cut local electrode atom probe (LEAP) samples. In this procedure samples are cut of such a small size that no radioactivity on the prepared sample can be measured. In order to establish trust in these FIB based techniques estimations of residual activity on these samples is essential and presented here. (author)

  4. Handling of Small-Scale Protests in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gui, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation examines the dynamics and outcomes of small-scale protests in China by more meticulously scrutinizing the role of the state. In order to clarify the sensitive topic of how local officials and protesters try to outmaneuver each other, I have conducted an in-depth fieldwork that is less than Sedaka, but more than an interview. A thorough analysis of the highly mixed reality of protest and protest-handling in the dissertation improves scholarly understanding of state-society relati...

  5. ''Flicker'' in small scale laser--plasma self-focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small amplitude, short wavelength ion acoustic waves in laser-produced plasmas cause fluctuations in the trajectories of light rays that can lead to time-dependent, self-sustaining shifting of focal spots and a somewhat random redistribution of the light near the critical surface. This flickering is seen in simulations involving small scale beam inhomogeneities over a uniform background laser profile, which model the center of a realistic laser beam. The effect can cause significant intensity multiplication in long scale length high-Z plasmas with only modest beam imperfections

  6. Mesoscopic Thermodynamics for the Dynamics of Small-Scale Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Miguel Rubi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the mesoscopic dynamics of small-scale systems from the perspective of mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The theory obtains the Fokker–Planck equation as a diffusion equation for the probability density of the mesoscopic variables and the nonlinear relationships between activation rates and affinities proper of activated processes. The situations that can be studied with this formalism include, among others, barrier crossing dynamics and non-linear transport in a great variety of systems. We, in particular, consider the cases of single-molecule stretching and activated processes in small systems.

  7. Optimal Tracking Controller Design for a Small Scale Helicopter

    CERN Document Server

    Budiyono, Agus

    2008-01-01

    A model helicopter is more difficult to control than its full scale counterparts. This is due to its greater sensitivity to control inputs and disturbances as well as higher bandwidth of dynamics. This works is focused on designing practical tracking controller for a small scale helicopter following predefined trajectories. A tracking controller based on optimal control theory is synthesized as part of the development of an autonomous helicopter. Some issues in regards to control constraints are addressed. The weighting between state tracking performance and control power expenditure is analyzed. Overall performance of the control design is evaluated based on its time domain histories of trajectories as well as control inputs.

  8. Small Scale Industries and Economic Development: Special Reference to India

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. S. N. Babar

    2012-01-01

    The small scale industries sector contributes significantly to the manufacturing output, employment and exports of the country. It is estimated that in terms of value, the sector accounts for about 45 per cent of the manufacturing output and 40 per cent of the total exports of the country. The sector is estimated to employ about 59 million persons in over 26 million units throughout the country. The production of SSI unit in India was Rs 84,413 crore in 1992-93, which increased and reached up...

  9. Working Capital Management of Small Scale Industries in Rajasthan

    OpenAIRE

    Bashar Matarneh

    2012-01-01

    Small scale industry (SSI) plays an important role in the economy of the state Rajasthan of India. In spite of all the odds, the SSI sector has emerged as India’s engine of growth in the new millennium. The SSI sector in India contribute almost 40% of the gross industrial value added, the study is undertaken by taking 5 years data from secondary source. From this study, it has been found the working capital management is to decide the pattern of financing of the current assets, which is one o...

  10. Integrated biogas technology in the tropics I. Performance of small-scale digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polpraset, C.; Edwards, P.; Rajput, V.S.; Pacharaprakiti, C.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with pilot small-scale biogas digesters designed for the family level in developing countries. Four 3.5 cubic m ferrocement digesters equipped with manually operated mixers were fed a mixture of nightsoil, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and rice straw and operated semi-continuously at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 30, 50 and 70 days, corresponding to organic loadings of 1.2, 0.75, and 0.53 kg m/day of total volatile solids (TVS), respectively. Although more biogas was produced at a HRT of 30 days with respect to the unit weight of TVs, the rates of biogas and methane production within these loading rates were similar and approximately 0.283 and 0.186 cubic m (kg TVS)/day, respectively. A major operational problem was excessive scum accumulation in the digester due to the low specific gravity of the plant matter substrates. A parallel batch experiment using 20-liter aspirator glass bottles yielded biogas production rates of 0.400 and 0.406 cubic m (kg TVS) at the end of 30 and 50 days, respectively. Manually operated biogas plants using heterogenous substrates in which plant matter is a major component may have little potential for poor farmers in developing countries. 25 references.

  11. NONLINEAR SMALL-SCALE DYNAMOS AT LOW MAGNETIC PRANDTL NUMBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saturated small-scale dynamo solutions driven by isotropic non-helical turbulence are presented at low magnetic Prandtl numbers PrM down to 0.01. For PrM 1/2M down to values of 0.1. In agreement with earlier work, there is, in addition to a short Golitsyn k –11/3 spectrum near the resistive scale, also some evidence for a short k –1 spectrum on larger scales. The rms magnetic field strength of the small-scale dynamo is found to depend only weakly on the value of PrM and decreases by about a factor of two as PrM is decreased from 1 to 0.01. The possibility of dynamo action at PrM = 0.1 in the nonlinear regime is argued to be a consequence of a suppression of the bottleneck seen in the kinetic energy spectrum in the absence of a dynamo and, more generally, a suppression of kinetic energy near the dissipation wavenumber.

  12. Profitability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Elmina, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Okyere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species caught and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Interviews were conducted among 60 fishermen between February and March 2010. Economic assessment of small-scale fishing activities were done using questionnaires based on direct market pricing and contingent valuation methods. The results indicate that highly profitable fish species include Epinephelus aeneus, Sparus caeruleostictus, Dentex angolensis and Lutjanus goreensis valued at US$2.97, US$2.87, US$2.85 and US$2.63 per kilogram respectively. The less profitable species include Dasyatis margarita, Caranx crysos and Sardinella aurita valued at US$0.34, US$0.66 and US$ 0.85 per kilogram respectively. Although Sardinella aurita was among the less valuable fish species, it was the main species driving profits for the fishermen due to its high share volume among the fish catches. Findings from this study suggest high rates of exploitation, in that stocks generally cannot provide for increased economic return in the face of increased investment. This is a clear indicator that the open-access nature of Ghanaian fisheries is not sustainable, and management reform is well overdue.

  13. Modeling Small-Scale Damage Experiments with TEPla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Ann

    2013-06-01

    Small-scale experiment simulations provide both focused model validation and parameter value development. Material response to loading is a complex mixture of simultaneously occurring processes such as hardening, melting and failure. The work presented here concentrates on the TEPla model of ductile failure development and evolution. Simulation results for two small-scale experiments are presented. A biaxial loading experiment is described in ``Plastic Deformation and Fracture of Steels Under Dynamic Biaxial Loading'' (C.K. Syn et al., UCRL-CONF-205148). A gas-gun driven flyer plate impacts a buffer plate. The generated non-planar shock is transmitted through the buffer into a target plate, which is very thin in comparison to its diameter. The result is a biaxial tensile load which causes the target to stretch and fracture and provides a non-uniaxial test of TEPla. The RDamage experimental series studies damage initiation and fracture followed by spall layer recollection (A.M. Kaul et al., Proc. APS-SCCM-2009). An electromagnetically-driven cylindrical shell impacts a cylindrical target shell, producing a failure surface and released spall layer. An extended EM drive allows recollection of this layer. Simulation tests parameter values for development and crush-out of porosity.

  14. Atmospheric dispersion modelling over complex terrain at small scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosek S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous study concerned of qualitative modelling neutrally stratified flow over open-cut coal mine and important surrounding topography at meso-scale (1:9000 revealed an important area for quantitative modelling of atmospheric dispersion at small-scale (1:3300. The selected area includes a necessary part of the coal mine topography with respect to its future expansion and surrounding populated areas. At this small-scale simultaneous measurement of velocity components and concentrations in specified points of vertical and horizontal planes were performed by two-dimensional Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA and Fast-Response Flame Ionization Detector (FFID, respectively. The impact of the complex terrain on passive pollutant dispersion with respect to the prevailing wind direction was observed and the prediction of the air quality at populated areas is discussed. The measured data will be used for comparison with another model taking into account the future coal mine transformation. Thus, the impact of coal mine transformation on pollutant dispersion can be observed.

  15. Small-scale engagement model with arrivals: analytical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an analytical model of small-scale battles. The specific impetus for this effort was provided by a need to characterize hypothetical battles between guards at a nuclear facility and their potential adversaries. The solution procedure can be used to find measures of a number of critical parameters; for example, the win probabilities and the expected duration of the battle. Numerical solutions are obtainable if the total number of individual combatants on the opposing sides is less than 10. For smaller force size battles, with one or two combatants on each side, symbolic solutions can be found. The symbolic solutions express the output parameters abstractly in terms of symbolic representations of the input parameters while the numerical solutions are expressed as numerical values. The input parameters are derived from the probability distributions of the attrition and arrival processes. The solution procedure reduces to solving sets of linear equations that have been constructed from the input parameters. The approach presented in this report does not address the problems associated with measuring the inputs. Rather, this report attempts to establish a relatively simple structure within which small-scale battles can be studied

  16. Structure formation with suppressed small-scale perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Aurel

    2015-08-01

    All commonly considered dark matter scenarios are based on hypothetical particles with small but non-zero thermal velocities and tiny interaction cross-sections. A generic consequence of these attributes is the suppression of small-scale matter perturbations either due to free-streaming or due to interactions with the primordial plasma. The suppression scale can vary over many orders of magnitude depending on particle candidate and production mechanism in the early Universe. While non-linear structure formation has been explored in great detail well above the suppression scale, the range around suppressed perturbations is still poorly understood. In this paper, we study structure formation in the regime of suppressed perturbations using both analytical techniques and numerical simulations. We develop simple and theoretically motivated recipes for the halo mass function, the expected number of satellites, and the halo concentrations, which are designed to work for power spectra with suppression at arbitrary scale and of arbitrary shape. As case studies, we explore warm and mixed dark matter scenarios where effects are most distinctive. Additionally, we examine the standard dark matter scenario based on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) and compare it to pure cold dark matter with zero primordial temperature. We find that our analytically motivated recipes are in good agreement with simulations for all investigated dark matter scenarios, and we therefore conclude that they can be used for generic cases with arbitrarily suppressed small-scale perturbations.

  17. 3D Tracking of small-scale convective upflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmerer, Birgit; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Veronig, Astrid; Muthsam, Herbert; Piantschitsch, Isabell

    2015-08-01

    High resolution simulations and observations of the solar photosphere and convection zone show a new population of small granules with diameters less than 800 km. The mechanism of formation and dissipation is still unclear. We developed automated detection and tracking algorithms to study their evolution as well as their physical and statistical properties in 2D. We found that small granules may not result from the fragmentation of larger granules because they show a small variation in size from the point of appearance at the photosphere until their dissolution. In this study we present a newly developed 3D segmentation and tracking algorithm for the analysis of small-scale convective cells in high resolution simulations. We study the 3D topology and evolution of convective upflows and their interaction with strong vortex motions and magnetic flux tubes. We show that the evolution of small-scale convective upflows in the convection zone is mainly governed by strong vortex motions within downdrafts rather than by strong magnetic fields.

  18. Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface, Nicholas James

    The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.

  19. Effects of thermal inflation on small scale density perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungwook E.; Lee, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Young Jae; Stewart, Ewan D.; Zoe, Heeseung

    2015-06-01

    In cosmological scenarios with thermal inflation, extra eras of moduli matter domination, thermal inflation and flaton matter domination exist between primordial inflation and the radiation domination of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. During these eras, cosmological perturbations on small scales can enter and re-exit the horizon, modifying the power spectrum on those scales. The largest modified scale, kb, touches the horizon size when the expansion changes from deflation to inflation at the transition from moduli domination to thermal inflation. We analytically calculate the evolution of perturbations from moduli domination through thermal inflation and evaluate the curvature perturbation on the constant radiation density hypersurface at the end of thermal inflation to determine the late time curvature perturbation. Our resulting transfer function suppresses the power spectrum by a factor 0~ 5 at k gg kb, with kb corresponding to anywhere from megaparsec to subparsec scales depending on the parameters of thermal inflation. Thus, thermal inflation might be constrained or detected by small scale observations such as CMB distortions or 21cm hydrogen line observations.

  20. MODELING THE VERY SMALL SCALE CLUSTERING OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We model the small-scale clustering of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Specifically, we use the halo occupation distribution formalism to model the projected two-point correlation function of LRGs on scales well within the sizes of their host halos (0.016 h -1 Mpc ? r ? 0.42 h -1 Mpc). We start by varying P(N|M), the probability distribution that a dark matter halo of mass M contains N LRGs, and assuming that the radial distribution of satellite LRGs within halos traces the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter density profile. We find that varying P(N|M) alone is not sufficient to match the small-scale data. We next allow the concentration of satellite LRG galaxies to differ from that of dark matter and find that this is also not sufficient. Finally, we relax the assumption of an NFW profile and allow the inner slope of the density profile to vary. We find that this model provides a good fit to the data and the resulting value of the slope is -2.17 ± 0.12. The radial density profile of satellite LRGs within halos is thus not compatible with that of the underlying dark matter, but rather is closer to an isothermal distribution.

  1. Small Scale Mechanization of Thinning in Artificial Coniferous Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Savelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, where conventional forests have a protective rather than productive purpose, some silvicultural operations as first and second thinning could be carried out in an economic way adopting systems based on small scale mechanization. Authors tested a system based on small scale mechanization for bunching and skidding operations, using an All Terrain Vehicle (ATV, a compact, agile and versatile vehicle that adapts well to dense and rather inaccessible forests, such as forests of artificial origin where no kind of intervention, particularly thinning, had ever been carried out. The vehicle was used for bunching, using an electric winch, and for skidding whole trees. The use of the ATV showed that it is a competitive vehicle with both traditional and cutting edge vehicles, performing a traction power average of 313 daN and PHS0 productivity variable from 1.20 to 3.05 td.m.h-1. Such figures confirm how in first thinning, on level ground but also on slopes (max 50%, over distances not exceeding 200 m, the ATV is a perfectly suitable vehicle. Furthermore, the impact of the vehicle on the ground and especially on the shallow soil horizons was negligible and had no effect on tree roots.

  2. Small-scale volcanoes on Mars: distribution and types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (gravity and atmospheric pressure enable wider dispersion of pyroclasts from the vent. In addition, exit velocities of ejected particles should be increased on Mars because the lower atmospheric pressure favors more rapid exsolution of dissolved gases from the magma, which also favors a wider dispersion of ejected particles. Therefore, care must be taken when applying terrestrial morphometric relationships to the interpretation of hypothesized volcanic features on Mars and other terrestrial bodies. As on Earth, small-scale volcanoes on Mars display diverse shapes and hence provide insight into diverse volcanic processes responsible for such variations. Those diverse processes may point to various mechanisms of magma ascent and eruption styles in dependency on magma properties (e.g., amount of volatiles) and the paleo-environment at the time of formation. Hence the investigation of small-scale volcanoes provides useful tool enabling us to deepen our knowledge about the variety and richness of volcanism on Mars.

  3. Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Roesen, Hanne Ravn

    2011-01-01

    In current designs of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopoles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated. In this paper, the behaviour of two non-slender piles in sand subjected to lateral loading are analysed by means of small-scale laboratory tests. Six quasi-static tests are conducted on piles with diameters of 40mm and 100mm and a slenderness ratio, L/D, of 5. To minimise scale effects, the tests are carried out in a pressure tank at various stress levels. From the obtained load-deflection relationships it is revealed that the uncertainties of the results for the pile with a diameter of 40mm are large. The load-deflection relationships normalised as H/(L2D?’) and y/D indicate that the lateral load, H, is proportional to L2D. Comparison of the normalised load-deflection relationships for different stress levels shows that small-scale tests applied with overburden pressure are preferable.

  4. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  5. Coming to Grips with Farmers' variety Selection- the Case of New Improved Rice Varieties under Irrigation in South East Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafiriti, EM.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In collaboration with farmers, rice varieties were evaluated under small-scale irrigation in two villages of south east Tanzania for two consecutive cropping seasons (1999/2000 –2000/2001. The objectives were to give farmers access to new improved rice varieties; to identify the selection criteria farmers consider important in irrigated rice production; and to come to grips with their arguments. Farmers were provided with eleven improved varieties, which they compared with their own ones. Farmers' preferred varieties with short to medium maturity period, which produce many tillers and mature uniformly; and with long translucent aromatic grains for their own use and marketing. This study identified qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria which farmers are using for selecting rice varieties. The implication for further research on rice in south east Tanzania is that the breeding programme should incorporate these attributes to address farmers' preferences, rather than to go for absolute maximum yield levels.

  6. Putting farmers first: reshaping agricultural research in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimbert, Michel

    2012-01-15

    How agricultural research is funded, organised, controlled and practised can have a huge impact on small-scale producers in the global South. In many countries, such research is driven by external funds, priorities and technological fixes, such as hybrid seeds, which can erode crop diversity. But food producers across the world are beginning to raise their voices to ensure that agricultural research better meets their needs and priorities. A series of farmer assessments and citizens' juries in West Africa has helped farmers assess existing approaches and articulate recommendations for policy and practice to achieve their own vision of agricultural research. In 2012, a high-level policy dialogue between farmers and the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa hopes to take this discussion to the next level and develop a shared agenda that can serve development and the public good.

  7. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  8. Involvement of small-scale dairy farms in an industrial supply chain: when production standards meet farm diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J; Le Gal, P Y; Triomphe, B; Hostiou, N; Moulin, C H

    2011-05-01

    In certain contexts, dairy firms are supplied by small-scale family farms. Firms provide a set of technical and economic recommendations meant to help farmers meet their requirements in terms of the quantity and quality of milk collected. This study analyzes how such recommendations may be adopted by studying six farms in Brazil. All farms are beneficiaries of the country's agrarian reforms, but they differ in terms of how they developed their activities, their resources and their milk collection objectives. First, we built a technical and economic benchmark farm based on recommendations from a dairy firm and farmer advisory institutions. Our analysis of the farms' practices and technical and economic results show that none of the farms in the sample apply all of the benchmark recommendations; however, all farms specialized in dairy production observe the main underlying principles with regard to feeding systems and breeding. The decisive factors in whether the benchmark is adopted and successfully implemented are (i) access to the supply chain when a farmer establishes his activity, (ii) a grasp of reproduction and forage production techniques and (iii) an understanding of dairy cattle feed dietary rationing principles. The technical problems observed in some cases impact the farms' dairy performance and cash position; this can lead to a process of disinvestment. This dynamic of farms facing production standards suggests that the diversity of specialized livestock farmers should be taken into account more effectively through advisory approaches that combine basic zootechnical training with assistance in planning farm activities over the short and medium term. PMID:22440036

  9. Small-scale lunar graben: Distribution, dimensions, and formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Renee A.; Bina, Craig R.; Robinson, Mark S.; Watters, Thomas R.

    2015-05-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) is the first instrument to provide widespread coverage with a range of incidence angles at the resolution required to detect small-scale landforms. A sample (n = 238) of globally distributed, small-scale graben average 26 m wide and 179 m long. When dividing the population into those located within mare and highland regions, we observe that graben located within mare tend to be narrower, shorter, and more irregularly spaced than those in highland terrane. For graben associated with contractional landforms, those in mare are smaller in width and length than those in highlands; the same is true for graben independent of contractional landforms. Assuming a simple geometry, widths of mare graben associated with scarps or ridges are used to estimate the minimum depth range to a mechanical discontinuity (e.g., base of the regolith) resulting in values of ?4-48 m. These values are similar to the ranges estimated for regolith thickness from previous workers using Apollo 14 seismic data (3.9-8.5 m), crater counting techniques (8-33 m), crater morphology techniques (2.5-9 m), and crater blockiness (8-31 m). Widths of highland graben yield minimum depths of faulting of 209-296 m. While this range agrees well with models for regolith production (an older surface will have thicker regolith), this estimate likely does not represent the thickness of a mechanical unit due to the fragmented nature of the highland crust (it does not provide a defining boundary between bedrock and regolith). Spacing of mare graben not associated with contractional landforms is used to estimate maximum local mare unit thickness for two graben groups: 190 m for Posidonius and 296 m for Vitello. Maximum graben ages range from late Eratosthenian to early Copernican based on superposed and crosscut crater ages with a group of graben deforming ejecta from Copernicus crater. Data presented here provide further evidence of a globally distributed, young, small-scale graben population that has formed as a result of localized extension either from flexural bending or dilation due to contractional faulting or volcanic uplift, indicating a significant level of recent geologic activity.

  10. Small scale tests on the progressive retreat of soil slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgari, Chrysoula; Utili, Stefano; Castellanza, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the influence due to the presence of cracks on the morphologic evolution of natural cliffs subject to progressive retreat induced by weathering is investigated through small scale laboratory tests. Weathering turns hard rocks into soft rocks that maintain the structure of the intact rocks, but are characterised by higher void ratios and reduced bond strengths; soft rocks are transformed into granular soils generally called residual soils. A number of landslides develop in slopes due to weathering which results in the progressive retrogression of the slope face and the further degradation within the weathering zone. Cracks, that are widely present, can be a result of weathering and they can cause a significant decrease in their stability, as they provide preferential flow channels which increase the soil permeability and decrease the soil strength. The geological models employed until now are mainly empirical. Several researchers have tried to study the stability of slopes through experimental procedures. Centrifuge modelling is widely used to investigate the failure of slopes. Small scale tests are also an important approach, in order to study the behaviour of a slope under certain conditions, such as the existence of water, as they allow the observation of the infiltration processes, the movement of the weathering front, deformation and failure. However, the deformation response of a slope subject to weathering is not yet thoroughly clarified. In this work, a set of experiments were conducted to investigate weathering induced successive landslides. Weathering was applied to the slope model by wetting the slope crest through a rainfall simulator device. The moisture content of the soil during the tests was monitored by soil moisture sensors that were buried inside the slope model. High resolution cameras were recording the behaviour of the slope model. GeoPIV was used to analyse the frames and obtain the deformations of the slope model during the tests. After a short time of rainfall, vertical cracks appear in the slope model and significant vertical deformations start to occur around the crack, until the first failure is reached, the procedure carries on until a second failure is observed. Experimental results indicate that there is a strong connection between moisture content and the occurrence of a landslide. A prediction model of slope failures can be introduced based on the observed moisture content response of the slope models. KEYWORDS: slopes, cracks, landslide, weathering, small scale test

  11. Design and efficiency of a small-scale woodchip furnace

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Torres-Fuchslocher; Felipe, Varas-Concha.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although advances have been made in combustion efficiency in large-scale woodchip furnaces, less experimental results are available at the [...] s. This study describes the design and testing of a small-scale woodchip furnace that operates at a range of 9-18 kW. The efficiency test takes account of the feedstock Eucalyptus nitens, with three moisture contents and the combination of different air excess (?) and primary/secondary air ratios. The results reveal a maximum of combustion efficiency of 85% for the low moisture content sample (16%) at ?=1,5 and 82% for samples with 29% and 40% moisture content, at ?= 2,0 and 2,1 respectively. The integrated heat exchanger proved to be highly efficient by reducing gas temperature by up to 69% prior to its exit.

  12. Cosmic Ray Small Scale Anisotropies and Local Turbulent Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    López-Barquero, Vanessa; Xu, S; Desiati, P; Lazarian, A

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic ray anisotropy is observed in a wide energy range and at different angular scales by a variety of experiments. However, a comprehensive and satisfactory explanation has been elusive for over a decade now. The arrival distribution of cosmic rays on Earth is the convolution of the distribution of their sources and of the effects of geometry and properties of the magnetic field through which particles propagate. It is generally believed that the anisotropy topology at the largest angular scale is adiabatically shaped by diffusion in the structured interstellar magnetic field. On the contrary, the medium and small angular scale structure could be an effect of non diffusive propagation of cosmic rays in perturbed magnetic fields. In particular, a possible explanation of the observed small scale anisotropy observed at TeV energy scale, may come from the effect of particle scattering in turbulent magnetized plasmas. We perform numerical integration of test particle trajectories in low-$\\beta$ compressible mag...

  13. Concept for integrity assurance of small scale piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There may be safety and economic reasons which make it absolutely necessary that the integrity of small-scale piping systems be guaranteed. This might be problematic considering experience to date. Analysing the damages detected it has been possible to assign these to systems and operational modes. They are primarily due to the insufficient design, which in turn is connected to the low safety relevance assumed for these systems. Determination of the degradation mechanisms and the causes give sufficient information for preventing further damage of this kind. Non-allowable dynamic loads as well as quick crack growth caused by corrosion are to be avoided by taking the proper action. Even if the measures taken may be different from plant to plant or component to component, it is possible to state a generally applicable systematic approach to guarantee integrity. (orig.)

  14. Small scale wind energy harvesting with maximum power tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that energy harvesting from wind can be used to power remote monitoring systems. There are several studies that use wind energy in small-scale systems, mainly with wind turbine vertical axis. However, there are very few studies with actual implementations of small wind turbines. This paper compares the performance of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines for energy harvesting on wireless sensor network applications. The problem with the use of wind energy is that most of the time the wind speed is very low, especially at urban areas. Therefore, this work includes a study on the wind speed distribution in an urban environment and proposes a controller to maximize the energy transfer to the storage systems. The generated power is evaluated by simulation and experimentally for different load and wind conditions. The results demonstrate the increase in efficiency of wind generators that use maximum power transfer tracking, even at low wind speeds.

  15. Small Scale Parallel Manipulator Kinematics for Flexible Snake Robot Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisuddin Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A small-scale parallel manipulator is designed in this paper. The kinematic analysis of the manipulator is also elucidated for the development of multilinked snake robot. A compliant central colum is used to connect two parallel platforms of Incompletely Restrained Positioning Mechanism (IRPM. The compliant column allows the configuration to achieve 3 DOFs with 3 tendons of active materials connected between the upper and loer platform of the mechanism. In particular, this investigation focuses on the angular deflection of the upper platform with respect to the lower platform. The application here is aimed at developing an active linkable module that can be connected to one another so as to form a “snake robot” of sorts. For an arbitrary angular displacement of the platforms, the corresponding length of each tendon can be determined through inverse kinematics. From the experimental result, the extreme bending of the central column plane of 30° angular displacement with the of the horizontal axis.

  16. A multi scale model for small scale plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text.A framework for investigating size-dependent small-scale plasticity phenomena and related material instabilities at various length scales ranging from the nano-microscale to the mesoscale is presented. The model is based on fundamental physical laws that govern dislocation motion and their interaction with various defects and interfaces. Particularly, a multi-scale model is developed merging two scales, the nano-microscale where plasticity is determined by explicit three-dimensional dislocation dynamics analysis providing the material length-scale, and the continuum scale where energy transport is based on basic continuum mechanics laws. The result is a hybrid simulation model coupling discrete dislocation dynamics with finite element analyses. With this hybrid approach, one can address complex size-dependent problems, including dislocation boundaries, dislocations in heterogeneous structures, dislocation interaction with interfaces and associated shape changes and lattice rotations, as well as deformation in nano-structured materials, localized deformation and shear band

  17. Numerical simulation of a small-scale biomass boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Simplified model for biomass combustion was developed. ? Porous zone conditions are used in the bed. ? Model is fully integrated in a commercial CFD code to simulate a small scale pellet boiler. ? Pollutant emissions are well predicted. ? Simulation provides extensive information about the behaviour of the boiler. - Abstract: This paper presents a computational fluid dynamic simulation of a domestic pellet boiler. Combustion of the solid fuel in the burner is an important issue when discussing the simulation of this type of system. A simplified method based on a thermal balance was developed in this work to introduce the effects provoked by pellet combustion in the boiler simulation. The model predictions were compared with the experimental measurements, and a good agreement was found. The results of the boiler analysis show that the position of the water tubes, the distribution of the air inlets and the air infiltrations are the key factors leading to the high emission levels present in this type of system.

  18. Baryon isocurvature fluctuations at small scales and baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of baryogenesis is described which gives rise to fluctuations in baryon number that are large on small scales but of low amplitude on large scales. This provides a mechanism for primordial black-hole formation, and allows the possibility of a critical density of dark matter in baryonic (and antibaryonic) form. Since high-density regions naturally possess both signs of baryonic excess, our model also predicts a small fraction of the mass density of the Universe to be in the form of compact antibaryonic regions. These objects may be observable via a redshifted annihilation feature in the diffuse extragalactic ?-ray background, as both steady sources of ?-ray radiation and annihilation-powered ?-ray bursters at cosmological distances, by a distortion of the spectrum of the 3K background radiation, or by the presence of antihelium nuclei as a rare component of high-energy cosmic rays

  19. Small-scale power/heat production based on biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional energy production from biomass is most often used to produce steam, hot water or air heating. According to this conference paper, the maximum electric output is obtained in processes based on gasification of biomass in combined gas turbine/steam turbine systems. The efficiency increases with increasing plant size. Production cost decreases with increasing plant size. However, large plants producing 20 MW electric also produce 30 MW heat energy which must be utilized if the total efficiency is to be large. There is a potential for small systems (3 - 5 kw electric) for decentralized power/heat production. The paper surveys in brief various technologies for small-scale power/heat plants based on biomass: steam turbine, steam engine, gas turbine, Stirling engine, diesel engine/gas engine. 9 refs., 5 figs

  20. First Principle Approach to Modeling of Small Scale Helicopter

    CERN Document Server

    Budiyono, A; Lesmana, H

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of global helicopter linear model is very precious and useful for the design of the linear control laws, since it is never afforded in the published literatures. In the first principle approach, the mathematical model was developed using basic helicopter theory accounting for particular characteristic of the miniature helicopter. No formal system identification procedures are required for the proposed model structure. The relevant published literatures however did not present the linear models required for the design of linear control laws. The paper presents a step by step development of linear model for small scale helicopter based on first-principle approach. Beyond the previous work in literatures, the calculation of the stability derivatives is presented in detail. A computer program is used to solve the equilibrium conditions and then calculate the change in aerodynamics forces and moments due to the change in each degree of freedom and control input. The detail derivation allows the c...

  1. Small-Scale Pellet Boiler with Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Wilhelm; Friedl, Guenther; Haslinger, Walter [Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Wieselburg (Austria); Hofbauer, Hermann [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-15

    Pellet burners need auxiliary electrical power to provide CO{sub 2}-balanced heat in a comfortable and environment-friendly way. The idea is to produce this and some extra electricity within the furnace in order to save resources and to gain operation reliability and independency. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) allow the direct conversion of heat to electrical power to a certain extent. They have the advantages of a maintenance-free long life and soundless operation without moving parts or any working fluid. A novel kind of decentralised small-scale biomass-based combined heat and power generation will be developed. The basic system allows grid-independent operation of automatically running biomass furnaces including fuel delivery from storage and circulating the cooling respectively heating water or air. The advanced system also provides electricity for network supply or for other electrical devices and is an additional benefit.

  2. Structure formation with suppressed small-scale perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Aurel

    2014-01-01

    All commonly considered dark matter scenarios are based on hypothetical particles with small but non-zero thermal velocities and tiny interaction cross-sections. A generic consequence of these attributes is the suppression of small-scale matter perturbations, either due to free-streaming or due to interactions with the primordial plasma. The suppression scale can vary over many orders of magnitude, depending on particle candidate and production mechanism in the early Universe. While nonlinear structure formation has been explored in great detail well above the suppression scale, the range around suppressed perturbations is still poorly understood. In this paper we study structure formation in the regime of suppressed perturbations, using both analytical techniques and numerical simulations. We develop simple and theoretically motivated recipes for the halo mass function, the expected number of satellites, and the halo concentrations, which are designed to work for power spectra with suppression at arbitrary s...

  3. Optimal Combustion Conditions for a Small-scale Biomass Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Pla?ek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an attempt to achieve maximum efficiency and lowest possible emissions for a small-scale biomass boiler. This aim can be attained only by changing the control algorithm of the boiler, and in this way not raising the acquisition costs for the boiler. This paper describes the experimental facility, the problems that arose while establishing the facility, and how we have dealt with them. The focus is on discontinuities arising after periodic grate sweeping, and on finding the parameters of the PID control loops. Alongside these methods, which need a lambda probe signal for proper functionality, we inroduce another method, which is able to intercept the optimal combustion working point without the need to use a lambda sensor.

  4. Design and efficiency of a small-scale woodchip furnace

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Torres-Fuchslocher; Felipe, Varas-Concha.

    Full Text Available Although advances have been made in combustion efficiency in large-scale woodchip furnaces, less experimental results are available at the [...] s. This study describes the design and testing of a small-scale woodchip furnace that operates at a range of 9-18 kW. The efficiency test takes account of the feedstock Eucalyptus nitens, with three moisture contents and the combination of different air excess (?) and primary/secondary air ratios. The results reveal a maximum of combustion efficiency of 85% for the low moisture content sample (16%) at ?=1,5 and 82% for samples with 29% and 40% moisture content, at ?= 2,0 and 2,1 respectively. The integrated heat exchanger proved to be highly efficient by reducing gas temperature by up to 69% prior to its exit.

  5. Small Scale Industries and Economic Development: Special Reference to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. N. Babar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The small scale industries sector contributes significantly to the manufacturing output, employment and exports of the country. It is estimated that in terms of value, the sector accounts for about 45 per cent of the manufacturing output and 40 per cent of the total exports of the country. The sector is estimated to employ about 59 million persons in over 26 million units throughout the country. The production of SSI unit in India was Rs 84,413 crore in 1992-93, which increased and reached up to Rs. 9,82919 crore in 2009-10. The production of SSI units shows continually raising trend during the study period. During 1992-93 SSI units shows 4.71 growth rate in production which gone up to 11.59 percent in 2009-10.

  6. CAMUI Type Hybrid Rocket as Small Scale Ballistic Flight Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Harunori; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Ito, Kenichi

    The authors have been developing CAMUI (Cascaded Multistage Impinging-jet) type hybrid rockets, explosive-flee small rocket motors. This is to downsize the scale of suborbital flight experiments on space related technology development. A key idea is a new fuel grain design to increase gasification rates of a solid fuels. By the new fuel grain design, the combustion gas repeatedly impinges on fuel surfaces to hasten the heat transfer to the fuel. Suborbital flight experiments by sounding rockets provide variety of test beds to accumulate basic technologies common to the next step of space development in Japan. By using hybrid rockets one can take the cost advantage of small-scale rocket experiments. This cost advantage improves robustness of space technology development projects by dispersion of risk.

  7. Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

  8. Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

    2014-05-01

    Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems to productive smallholder irrigation: soil nutrient depletion, salinization, disease and pest resulting from inefficient irrigation practices, infrastructure problems leading to a reduction of the size of the command area and decrease in reservoir volume. The major causes have been poor irrigation infrastructure, poor on-farm soil and water management, prevalence of various crop pests and diseases, lack of inputs and reservoir siltation. On-farm participatory research focusing on soil, crop and water management issues, including technical, institutional and managerial aspects, to identify best performing innovations while taking care of the environment was recommended. Currently, a range of interlinked activities are implemented a multiple scales, combining participatory and scientific approaches towards innovation development and up-scaling of promising technologies and institutional and managerial approaches from local to regional scales. ____________________________ Key words: Irrigation scheme, productivity, innovation, participatory method, Gumselassa, Ethiopia

  9. Emissions from small scale combustion of pelletized wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion of wood pellets in small scale heating systems with an effect below 20 kW has increased. During the winter season 1995/96 1500 small plants for heating houses are estimated to be in operation. Stack emissions from three pellet burners and two pellet stoves have been studied at laboratory. Different pellet qualities were tested. When the fraction of fines increased also the NOx emissions increased with about 10 %. As reference fuel 8 mm pellets was used. Tests with 6 mm pellets gave, in most cases, significant lower emissions of CO and THC. Eleven stoves, burners and boilers were studied in a field test. The results show that all the plants generally have higher emissions in the field than during conditions when the plants are adjusted with a stack gas monitoring instrument. A conclusion is that it is difficult for the operator to adjust the plant without a monitoring instrument. The emissions from the tested plants give an estimation of stack gas emissions from small scale pellet plants. The difference between the 'best' and 'worst' technologies is big. The span of emissions with the best technology to the worst is given below. The interval is concerning normal combustion . During abnormal conditions the emissions are on a significant higher level: * CO 80-1 000 mg/MJ; * Tar 0,3-19 mg/MJ; * THC (as methane equivalents) 2-100 mg/MJ; * NOx 50-70 mg/W;, and * Dust emissions 20-40 mg/MJ. Emissions from pellets heating are lower than from wood combustion and the best technology is close to the emission from oil burners. Wood and pellets have the same origin but the conditions to burn them in an environmental friendly way differ. Combustion of pellets could be improved through improved control of the air and fuel ratio that will create more stable conditions for the combustion

  10. Properties of small-scale magnetism of stellar atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Oskar; Salhab, René; Freytag, Bernd; Rajaguru, Paul; Schaffenberger, Werner; Steffen, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic field outside of sunspots is concentrated in the intergranular space, where it forms a delicate filigree of bright ribbons and dots as seen on broad band images of the Sun. We expect this small-scale magnetic field to exhibit a similar behavior in stellar atmospheres. In order to find out more about it, we perform numerical simulations of the surface layers of stellar atmospheres. Here, we report on preliminary results from simulations in the range between 4000 K and 6500 K effective temperature with an initial vertical, homogeneous magnetic field of 50 G strength. We find that the field strength of the strongest magnetic flux concentrations increases with decreasing effective temperature at the height level where the average Rosseland optical depth is one. On the other hand, at the same level, the field is less strong than the thermal equipartition value in the coolest model but assumes superequipartition in the models hotter than 5000 K. While the Wilson depression of the strongest field concentrations is about one pressure scale height in the coolest model, it is more than four times the pressure scale height in the hottest one. We also find that the relative contribution of the bright filigree to the bolometric, vertically directed radiative intensity is most significant for the Teff = 5000 K model (0.6%-0.79%) and least significant for the hottest and coolest models (0.1%-0.46% and 0.14%-0.32%, respectively). This behavior suggests that the effect of the small-scale magnetic field on the photometric variability is more significant for K dwarf stars than for F-type and also M-type stars.

  11. Rural electrification in Malaysia via small scale biomass gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the government of Malaysia's vision to see that the rural community is not left behind in its endeavour to be an industrialised nation in the year 2020. The standard of living in the rural areas is very far different from that in the urban areas. To obtain equality the standard of living of the rural folks need to be ungraded. This is done largely by electrification. Electricity has been in the past the catalyst for development and raising the standard of living of the poor. Electricity supplied by the nation's electricity company might not reach all remote areas and therefore there must be a means to provide alternative electrical supply to these places. Present method employ the use of diesel generator sets to provide electricity. The availability of biomass source of supply in the rural areas could be effectively exploited to provide alternative source of energy via a gasification system to run a reciprocating engine coupled to a generator to generated electricity. A small-scale biomass gasification generator set in the range of 2-5 kW is suitable to provide electrical supply to a typical house in the rural area. The present use of biomass source of energy is in its utilisation to provide source of heat for cooking. Several tests have been conducted and the performance is very good. Alternatively another medium scale system generating about 50-20O kW would be suitable for a typical village having about 50 houses. A small-scale system has been developed in USM to provide 5 kW of electrical power. The system used a petrol engine and produces an overall efficiency of 7% with a specific consumption of about 3 kg/kWh. The biomass material used is wood. However for application in the rural areas the biomass material will depend on the type available. A further 50 kW system is being develop in USM. (Author)

  12. Small-scale production of straight vegetable oil from rapeseed and its use as biofuel in the Spanish territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels nowadays are an important topic of study. The most significant point is the availability of bioethanol or biodiesel and their production from different raw materials. It is already known that large-scale production of first-generation biodiesel cannot be seen as an alternative to fossil fuels due to land requirements, competition with food, increase in fertilizer requirements and pressure on tropical forests among others. This fact does not necessarily apply to second-generation biofuels or small-scale niche productions. Straight vegetable oil (SVO) can be used directly in diesel engines with minor modifications. Our proposal is a small-scale SVO production system for self-supply in agricultural machinery. In this paper a model to provide SVO to local farmers in a specific area in Catalonia (Spain) is presented. We also present a discussion about the regulations to be changed in order to make possible the incorporation of SVO as engine fuel in diesel vehicles and a comparative analysis between the emissions of tractors fed with SVO and petrodiesel. Moreover, a quantitative economic analysis of modifying diesel engines and long-term operability costs are shown and a first-run economic analysis comparing the actual crop rotation with the proposed one and some alternatives is studied.

  13. A Survey of Mining and Tailings Disposal Practices of Selected Artisanal and Small Scale Mining Companies in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiri G. Amedjoe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of small scale mining operations for maximum profitability with good environmental stewardship requires careful planning of mining and tailings disposal strategies. Field studies and observations of eleven selected artisanal and small-scale gold mining companies winning gold from alluvial (placer source mostly, but also mine out cropping and underground quartz veins where available from the Takwaian and Birimian Formations in southwestern Ghana. Excavation is either by pitting or using backhoes. Sluicing, panning followed by mercury amalgamation and then roasting to recover the gold is the beneficiation method in use. Riverine waste rocks/tailings disposal is the main management invoked, however some companies do sell their waste to construction firms. Environmentally mining operations are impacting rivers with siltation, mercury pollution, channel diversions and possibly change in heavy metals concentration and water chemistry. Vast arable lands are degraded leaving peasant farmers with no livelihood due to failure by concessionaires to reclaim lands after closure. Only two companies out of the eleven somehow demonstrated environmental consciousness by constructing small tailings dam and backfilling some pits.

  14. The role of statutory and local rules in allocating water between large- and small-scale irrigators in an African river catchment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hans C, Komakech; Madison, Condon; Pieter, van der Zaag.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of large- and small-scale irrigators negotiating for access to water from Nduruma River in the Pangani River Basin, Tanzania. The paper shows that despite the existence of a formal statutory water permit system, all users need to conform to the existing local rules i [...] n order to secure access to water. The spatial geography of Nduruma is such that smallholder farmers are located upstream and downstream, while large-scale irrigators are in the midstream part of the sub-catchment. There is not enough water in the river to satisfy all demands. The majority of the smallholder farmers currently access water under local arrangements, but large-scale irrigators have obtained state-issued water use permits. To access water the estates adopt a variety of strategies: they try to claim water access by adhering to state water law; they engage with the downstream smallholder farmers and negotiate rotational allocation; and/or they band with downstream farmers to secure more water from upstream farmers. Estates that were successful in securing their water access were those that engaged with the local system and negotiated a fair rotational water-sharing arrangement. By adopting this strategy, the estates not only avoid conflict with the poor downstream farmers but also gain social reputation, increasing chances of cooperative behaviours from the farmers towards their hydraulic infrastructure investments. Cooperative behaviours by the estates may also be due to their dependence on local labour. We further find diverging perspectives on the implementation of the state water use permits - not only between the local and state forms of water governance, but also between the differing administrative levels of government. The local governments are more likely to spend their limited resources on 'keeping the peace'; rather than on enforcing the water law. At the larger catchment scale, however, the anonymity between users makes it more difficult to initiate and maintain cooperative arrangements.

  15. Farmers Markets With Benefits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Summer farmers' market in Boston and surrounding areas that accept various forms of food assistance benefits. Subject to change in future seasons; information...

  16. Bringing farmers together

    OpenAIRE

    Zake, J.; Walaga, C.; Jager, A.

    2005-01-01

    Farmer Field Schools (FFSs) have been used in many countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa as a way to deal with constraints such as crop pests, soil fertility depletion, health issues like HIV/AIDS and the communal management of natural resources. They often work in partnership with local NGOs or Government institutions to develop solutions to complex problems facing farmers. In Lukwanga parish, Wakiso District, FFSs have encouraged the creation of new institutions and led to the develop...

  17. An exploration of the impact of interdependence based collaborations (IBC) on small-scale farmers and poverty alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Holeni-Mdhluli, Mikateko

    2013-01-01

    Poverty and food insecurity are common problems among low-income households in developing countries. Innovative interventions in the agricultural sector are regarded as effective in poverty alleviation and therefore food insecurity. Food insecurity is defined by London and Anupindi (2012) as a lack of access to adequate, safe and nutritious food and is closely associated with poverty. It can ultimately be addressed as part of a broader strategy to alleviate poverty, which would include enterp...

  18. TROPICAL MAIZE SYNTHETICS BREEDING IN MOISTURE-STRESS TOLERANCE FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN BRAZILIAN SEMI ARID REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELTO EUGENIO GOMES E GAMA

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate 144 S2 progenies from each of two synthetic maize populations, Syndent and Synflint, from a breeding program for drought tolerance, to obtain synthetics with high yield potential and good agronomic performance in the semi-arid regions in Brazil. The 288 S2 progenies from the two synthetics were evaluated using a 12 x 12 lattice design with two replications in two conditions with water stress (WS and non water stress (NS in Janaúba, MG, Brazil, in 2000. The combining analysis of variance showed highly significant (P<0.01 effects in environments and progenies and their interaction for Synflint, and significant ones (P<0.05 in the interaction for Syndent. The estimates of the broad sense heritability of ear yield were: Synflint h2 = 0.382 and 0.752 for WS and NS, respectively; Syndent h2 = 0.607 and 0.635 for WS and NS, respectively. The genetic variance estimates were greater in NS than in WS environments. The error variance estimates were the greatest in WS x NS interaction for the two synthetics. The predicted responses to selection pointed out better gains for yield when selection is performed in NS rather than WS environments. Substantial variability exists in these two synthetics for drought tolerance and its characteristics, indicating that there is an opportunity for improving their tolerance via recurrent selection.

  19. Linking agribusiness and small-scale farmers in developing countries: is there a new role for contract farming?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten, Johann F.; Sartorius, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    This article examines a new role for contract farming in developing countries in the light of the industrialisation of agriculture and the globalisation of world markets. A theoretical rationale for contracting in developing countries is developed on the basis of adopting new institutional economic theory for the purpose of matching governance forms to market failure problems and transaction characteristics. The history of contract farming is reviewed together with the advantages and disadvan...

  20. Diagnosis of the productivity gap using a crop model. Methodology and case study of small-scale maize production in central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Affholder, François; Scopel, Eric; Neto, Jose; Capillon, Alain

    2003-01-01

    Reducing the local gap between potential and actual yields requires first diagnosing its causes. This article proposes a method for this purpose, based on a survey in farmers' fields and on the building and use of an ad hoc crop model. Applied to maize of small-scale farms in central Brazil, and using the STICS model as a starting point, this method allowed the identification of the constraints responsible for the local gap and to assess the specific impact of each constraint and of the main ...

  1. Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Roger Carson

    This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long-lived fission products could result in an irradiation effective half-life of a few years with a three order magnitude increase in the on-target neutron flux accomplishable through a combination of technological enhancements to the source and system design optimization; (3) the transmutation of long-lived fission products requires a thermal-slow energy spectrum to prevent the generation of activation products with half-lives even longer than the original radionuclide; (4) there is no benefit in trying to transmute short-lived fission products due to the ineffectiveness of the transmutation process and the generation of a multiplicity of counterproductive activation products; (5) for actinides, irradiation effective half-lives of < 1 year can be achieved with a four orders magnitude increase in the on-target flux; (6) the ideal neutron energy spectra for transmuting actinides is highly dependent on the particular radionuclide and its fission-to-capture ratio as they determine the generationrate of other actinides; and (7) the methodology developed in this dissertation provides a mechanism that can be used for studying the feasibility of transmuting other radionuclides, and its application can be extended to studying the production of radionuclides of interest in a transmutation process. Although large-scale transmutation technology is presently being researched world-wide for spent fuel management applications, such technology will not be viable for a couple of decades. This dissertation investigated the concept of a small-scale transmutation device using present technology. The results of this research show that with reasonable enhancements, transmutation of specific radionuclides can be practical in the near term.

  2. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

  3. Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. RESULTS: To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and comparedits performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs.

  4. Productivity, Efficiency, and Competitiveness of Small-Scale Organic Cotton Production in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mgeni, Dotto; Henningsen, Arne

    Cotton is known as the “white gold” of Africa since it is the only export crop in which the continent’s share in the world market has increased over the past decades. Total cotton production as well as productivity grew particularly in Western and Central Africa. In contrast, cotton production grew much less in Eastern and Southern Africa and the increase in production was mainly a result of expansion of land under cultivation and the number of producers, rather than of improved productivity (e.g. Poulton et al., 2004; Delpeuch and Vandeplas, 2011). Organic production methods could be an attractive option for cotton farmers in Eastern Africa, because in this region, the use of chemical inputs is anyway virtually absent, the labor cost is low, and organic cotton has a higher sales price than conventional cotton. In order to scrutinize this option, we use microeconomic production theory and stochastic frontier models to thoroughly analyze organic cotton production in Tanzania. Our study is based on a unique data set of 180 small-scale organic cotton farmers in the Meatu region in Tanzania. This data set does not only provide information on input and output quantities, prices of traded inputs and output, as well as socio-economic and agronomic factors, but also on the shadow prices of all sparsely traded inputs, i.e. land, labor, and organic fertilizer. Hence, we can not only analyze productivity, technical efficiency, and scale efficiency, but also allocative efficiency, profitability, and competitiveness. Traditionally, the measurement of allocative efficiency assumed that all inputs can be freely traded at a given price on a perfectly functioning market. This assumption was relaxed by Tauer (1993) who suggested an approach that can additionally account for quasi-fixed input quantities, which cannot be adjusted in the short run. However, land, labor, and organic fertilizer can neither be traded on a perfect market nor are their quantities completely fixed for cotton production, but these input quantities can be adjusted by adjusting their use for other activities of the household. Hence, these inputs face non-constant shadow prices, which are determined by their opportunity costs. In order to account for the endogeneity of these shadow prices when calculating allocative efficiencies, we use the approach for modeling imperfect markets developed by Henning and Henningsen (2007). Based on our results, we can evaluate the current situation of organic cotton production as well as the potential and the directions for improving its profitability and competitiveness. Unfortunately, we did not finish the empirical analysis before the submission deadline. However, we will definitely include the results in our presentation at the conference.

  5. Development of a Simple Repair Method Using Structural Bonding Tape to Stop Water Leakage from Joints of Small-Scale Concrete Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takehisa; Nakaya, Tetsuo; Ishigami, Akio; Kato, Tomotake

    The study of small-scale concrete canals which had been repaired using simple methods under direct management by farmers or facility managers revealed that the main cause of deterioration of these canals was water leakage caused by failures of joints between sections of the concrete. And the study also revealed that the usual repair methods were insufficiently durable and simple. To solve these problems, a simple repair method was developed in which the canal joints are covered with structural bonding tape and sealant to prevent water leakage. This method satisfied the performance requirements (leak prevention, adhesion, and allowing expansion and contraction of the joint). Moreover, the developed method made farmers possible to repair canal joints in a short time, and no defects in the repaired joints appeared for at least 2 years.

  6. SCALING PROPERTIES OF SMALL-SCALE FLUCTUATIONS IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the majority of natural systems, including the interstellar medium, the solar corona, and the solar wind, has Reynolds numbers far exceeding the Reynolds numbers achievable in numerical experiments. Much attention is therefore drawn to the universal scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations, which can be reliably measured in the simulations and then extrapolated to astrophysical scales. However, in contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, where the universal structure of the inertial and dissipation intervals is described by the Kolmogorov self-similarity, the scaling for MHD turbulence cannot be established based solely on dimensional arguments due to the presence of an intrinsic velocity scale—the Alfvén velocity. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the Kolmogorov first self-similarity hypothesis cannot be formulated for MHD turbulence in the same way it is formulated for the hydrodynamic case. Besides profound consequences for the analytical consideration, this also imposes stringent conditions on numerical studies of MHD turbulence. In contrast with the hydrodynamic case, the discretization scale in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence should decrease faster than the dissipation scale, in order for the simulations to remain resolved as the Reynolds number increases

  7. Social and Ecological Dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, K.; Kramer, D.; Frank, K.

    2012-12-01

    Globalization's reach is rapidly extending to touch some of the most remote communities of the world, but we have yet to understand its scale and impact. On Nicaragua's previously remote Miskitu Coast, the introduction of new markets and global demand for seafood has resulted in changes in fishermen's harvest behavior manifested within the local fishery. Small-scale fisheries are a significant component in sustaining global fish trade, ensuring food security, and alleviating poverty, but because the fishermen are disperse, numerous and located in remote areas, the social and ecological dynamics of the system are poorly understood. Previous work has indicated a decline in fish abundance as a result of connection to markets, yet fishermen's response to this decline and the resulting shift in harvest strategy requires further examination. I identify the ecological and social factors that explain changes in fishermen behavior and use an innovative application of social network analysis to understand these changes. I also use interviews with fishermen and fishery-dependent surveys to measure catch and release behavior and seasonal gear use. Results demonstrate multiple cliques within a community that mitigate the response of fishermen to changes in the fishery. This research applies techniques in social science to address challenges in sustainable management of fisheries. As fisheries managers consider implementing new regulations, such as seasonal restrictions on gear, it is essential to understand not just how this might impact fish abundance, but how and why human systems respond as they do.

  8. Small Scale Microwave Bursts in Long-duration Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Baolin

    2013-01-01

    Solar small scale microwave bursts (SMBs), including microwave dot, spike, and narrow band type III bursts, are characterized with very short timescales, narrow frequency bandwidth, and very high brightness temperatures. Based on observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou with superhigh cadence and frequency resolution, this work presents an intensive investigation of SMBs in several flares occurred in active region NOAA 10720 during 2005 Jan 14-21. Especially long-duration flares, SMBs occurred not only in early rising and impulsive phase, but also in the flare decay phase, and even in time of after the flare ending. These SMBs are strong bursts with inferred brightness temperature at least 8.18*10^11 - 1.92*10^13 K, very short lifetime of 5-18 ms, relative frequency bandwidths of 0.7-3.5%, and superhigh frequency drifting rates. Together with their obviously different polarizations from the background emission (the quiet Sun, and the underlying flaring broadband continuum), su...

  9. Studying the small scale ISM structure with supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Patat, F; Parrent, J; Branch, D

    2010-01-01

    AIMS. In this work we explore the possibility of using the fast expansion of a Type Ia supernova photosphere to detect extra-galactic ISM column density variations on spatial scales of ~100 AU on time scales of a few months. METHODS. We constructed a simple model which describes the expansion of the photodisk and the effects of a patchy interstellar cloud on the observed equivalent width of Na I D lines. Using this model we derived the behavior of the equivalent width as a function of time, spatial scale and amplitude of the column density fluctuations. RESULTS. The calculations show that isolated, small (<100 AU) clouds with Na I column densities exceeding a few 10^11 cm^-2 would be easily detected. In contrast, the effects of a more realistic, patchy ISM become measurable in a fraction of cases, and for peak-to-peak variations larger than ~10^12 cm^-2 on a scale of 1000 AU. CONCLUSIONS. The proposed technique provides a unique way to probe the extra-galactic small scale structure, which is out of reach f...

  10. Small-Scale Convection Raising East Anatolia and Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, O.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Sengul Uluocak, E.

    2014-12-01

    The East Anatolia and Iranian plateaus (originally referred as a Turkish-Iranian plateau) are characterized by 1.5-2 km average elevation and have been deformed through Alpine-Himalayan continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Recent seismological and geological studies suggest that the lithospheric structure between these two plateaus differs significantly since the Zagros fold-thrust belt in western Iran is associated with a thick lithospheric root (up to 225 km) whereas the East Anatolia seems to be lacking its mantle lithosphere. In this work, we use 2-D numerical experiments to test the applicability of small-scale convection model to account for the anomalous topography and uplift across the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Our models are designed to track the evolution of the surface topography as a response to a mantle flow activity in the step like morphology of the lithospheric base as wells as the temperature field. We test the role of several rheological parameters (e.g., viscosity) and variation in the lithospheric thickness in a series of experiments. Modeling results are tested against various observables for eastern Anatolia and Iran such as surface topography, crustal thickness, and surface strain rate. Our results provide new insight in the geodynamic evolution of Alpine type orogenic systems and suggest alternative mechanism to lithospheric delamination and/or slab break-off for the uplift of mountain belts.

  11. Small Scale Clustering of Late Forming Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Shankar; Das, Subinoy; Rasera, Yann

    2014-01-01

    We perform a study of the non-linear clustering of matter in the Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM) scenario in which dark matter results from the transition of non-minimally coupled scalar field from radiation to collisionless matter. A distinct feature of this model is the presence of a damped oscillatory cut-off in the linear matter power spectrum at small scales. We use a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations to study the imprints of LFDM on the non-linear matter power spectrum, the halo mass function and the halo density profiles. The model satisfies high-redshift matter power spectrum constraints from Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest measurements. We find suppressed abundance of low mass halos ($\\sim 10^{9}-10^{10}$ h$^{-1}$ M$_\\odot$) at all redshifts compared to a vanilla $\\Lambda$CDM model. Furthermore, in this mass range we find significant deviations with respect to predictions from the Sheth-Tormen mass function. Halos with mass $M\\gtrsim 10^{11}$ h$^{-1}$ M$_\\odot$ show minor departures of the density pr...

  12. Small-scale Nonlinear Dynamics of K-mouflage Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the small-scale static configurations of K-mouflage models defined by a general function $K(\\chi)$ of the kinetic terms. The fifth force is screened by the nonlinear K-mouflage mechanism if $K'(\\chi)$ grows sufficiently fast for large negative $\\chi$. In the general non-spherically symmetric case, the fifth force is not aligned with the Newtonian force. For spherically symmetric static matter density profiles, the results depend on the potential function $W_{-}(y) = y K'(-y^2/2)$, which must be monotonically increasing to $+\\infty$ for $y \\geq 0$ to guarantee the existence of a single solution throughout space for any matter density profile. Starting from vanishing initial conditions or from nearby profiles, we numerically check that the scalar field converges to the static solution. If $W_{-}$ is bounded, for high-density objects there are no static solutions throughout space, but one can still define a static solution restricted to large radii. Our dynamical study shows that the scalar field ...

  13. Small-Scale Thermal Violence Cook Off Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Malcolm; Curtis, John; Stennett, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The Small-Scale thermal Violence Test (SSVT) is designed to quantify the violence (explosiveness) of test materials by means of observing the velocity history of a metal burst disk that forms one end of a strong thick-walled cylindrical test vehicle. A copper heating block is placed to the rear of, but in contact with, the sample and provides sealing. The difference in thermal conductivity between copper and steel is sufficient that thermal runaway is induced near to the explosive / copper interface in an unlagged test. A series of experiments has been made, in which explosive specimens were confined and heated to explosion. A high-accuracy velocity measurement system was used to record the motion of the bursting disk. These experiments have shown that the early-time motion of the bursting disk corresponds qualitatively to the onset of thermal explosion and growth of reaction within the explosive specimens. However, the velocity history traces are more complex than had been anticipated. In particular, unexplained shoulders were observed in the Phase-Doppler Velocimeter (PDV) data. Some preliminary modelling studies have been carried out in order to shed light on the complex shapes of the projectile velocity histories.

  14. Small?scale distribution of fish in offshore windfarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Sande; Stenberg, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about small?scale distribution of fish around turbines in offshore windfarms (OWF) remains relatively scarce. In the present study we used underwater video camera installations to access abundance of fish at 0, 25, and 50 m around the turbine foundations in Middelgrund and Lillgrund OWFs in Øresund between Denmark and Sweden in the period August–November 2011. Fish fauna in both localities were dominated in terms of numbers by two?spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). Average number of fish observed per hour was a factor 100 higher at Lillgrund and a factor of 2 higher at Middelgrund at 0 m from the turbine compared to 25 and 50 m away. At Lillgrund sediment was dominated by bare sand while Middelgrund had more heterogeneous sediment types with sand, boulder, pebbles, and dense eelgrass areas. This suggests that OWFs in areas with homogeneous sand sediment have a higher impact on fish fauna compared to OWFs in areas with heterogeneous sediment. Furthermore, the effect of OWFs on fish appears tobe of a much smaller scale than previously thought

  15. Small-Scale Irregularities in Equatorial Spread-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers

    2014-10-01

    Equatorial Spread-F is a spectacular plasma phenomenon that reshapes the nighttime ionosphere and disrupts GPS navigation and radio communication. Current computer models simulate the evolution of large-scale spread-F phenomena (1000km-to-kilometer), but they do not explain what causes the meter-scale irregularities observed by radars and space-borne instruments. Our recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of weakly collisional plasma have demonstrated that large-scale plasma density gradients and related electric fields may drive local plasma instabilities, although only for a limited set of parameters. Motivated by these PIC simulations, we have revisited the linear theory of this instability, employing a novel and sophisticated eigenmode analysis. This method identified eigenmode wave structures in regions having strong plasma density gradients. These wave structures are not linearly unstable, but are not damped either. This means that small-scale fluctuations provided by an external source (e.g., by a nonlinear spectral cascade from longer-wavelength spread-F turbulence) can be resonantly amplified and may explain radar observations without invoking linear instability. Work supported by NASA LWS Grant 10-LWSTRT10-0078.

  16. Development of a small-scale computer cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jay; Smith, Justin T.; Smith, James E.

    2008-04-01

    An increase in demand for computing power in academia has necessitated the need for high performance machines. Computing power of a single processor has been steadily increasing, but lags behind the demand for fast simulations. Since a single processor has hard limits to its performance, a cluster of computers can have the ability to multiply the performance of a single computer with the proper software. Cluster computing has therefore become a much sought after technology. Typical desktop computers could be used for cluster computing, but are not intended for constant full speed operation and take up more space than rack mount servers. Specialty computers that are designed to be used in clusters meet high availability and space requirements, but can be costly. A market segment exists where custom built desktop computers can be arranged in a rack mount situation, gaining the space saving of traditional rack mount computers while remaining cost effective. To explore these possibilities, an experiment was performed to develop a computing cluster using desktop components for the purpose of decreasing computation time of advanced simulations. This study indicates that small-scale cluster can be built from off-the-shelf components which multiplies the performance of a single desktop machine, while minimizing occupied space and still remaining cost effective.

  17. Development of Small-Scale Submersible PIV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jenna; Cotel, Aline; Tritico, Hans

    2006-11-01

    A low-cost, small-scale submersible Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) device has been developed to characterize unsteady flow in natural environments. PIV systems provide high accuracy, non intrusive, planar flow measurements of velocity and vorticity. Since this device is intended for the field, it is designed to be portable. This is accomplished using a powerful handheld laser, beam chopper, microprocessor, and the proper lenses, in conjunction with a one mega pixel CCD video camera. The system consists of two connected waterproof cases; one housing the camera and the other the laser/chopper system. The apparatus is fully self-contained and can be operated using a laptop computer on shore or on a floating platform. The system is also unique in that it was developed for under 8000 USD. The PIV device was tested in a small creek in Michigan. Eddy diameter, circulation, orientation, and convective velocity were characterized. The design of a submersible PIV system like this one will lead to a better characterization of naturally occurring flows and a greater understanding of what conditions aquatic life find acceptable. This knowledge will prove most useful in river and shoreline restoration, as well as in the design of new coastal management plans to alleviate human impact on coastal regions.

  18. Small Scale Turbopump Manufacturing Technology and Material Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Erika; Morgan, Kristin; Wells, Doug; Zimmerman, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As part of an internal research and development project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a high specific impulse 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine testbed with the capability to throttle 10:1. A Fuel Turbopump (FTP) with the ability to operate across a speed range of 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm was developed and analyzed. This small size and flight-like Fuel Turbopump has completed the design and analysis phase and is currently in the manufacturing phase. This paper highlights the manufacturing and processes efforts to fabricate an approximately 20-lb turbopump with small flow passages, intricately bladed components and approximately 3-in diameter impellers. As a result of the small scale and tight tolerances of the hardware on this turbopump, several unique manufacturing and material challenges were encountered. Some of the technologies highlighted in this paper include the use of powder metallurgy technology to manufacture small impellers, electron beam welding of a turbine blisk shroud, and casting challenges. The use of risk reduction efforts such as non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE), fractography, material testing, and component spin testing are also discussed in this paper.

  19. Small scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Rohan E; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution broad-band filtergrams of active region NOAA 11271 in Ca ii H and G-band were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode to identify the physical driver responsible for the dynamic and small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge. We identified the jets in the Ca images using a semi-automatic routine. The chromospheric jets consist of a bright, triangular-shaped blob that lies on the light bridge, while the apex of this blob extends into a spike-like structure which is bright against the dark umbral background. The majority of the jets have apparent lengths of less than 1000 km and about 30% of them have lengths between 1000-1600 km. They are oriented within +/-35 deg. to the normal of the light bridge axis. A majority of them are clustered near the central part within a 2 arcsec wide area. The jets are seen to move rapidly along the light bridge and a majority of them cannot be identified in successive images taken with a 2 min cadence. The jets are primarily loc...

  20. Numerical Simulation of a Small-Scale Mild Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, A.; Oliveira, R.; Coelho, P. J.; Costa, M.

    2012-11-01

    This work reports numerical simulations of a small-scale cylindrical combustor operating in the mild combustion regime. Preheated air is supplied by a central nozzle, while the fuel (methane) is injected through 16 holes placed equidistantly in a circumference concentric with the air nozzle. The calculations were carried out using the commercial code Ansys-Fluent. Turbulence was modelled using the realizable k-epsilon model. Two different combustion models were employed, namely the eddy dissipation concept and the joint composition pdf transport model. In both cases, a chemical mechanism comprising 13 transported species and 73 chemical reactions was used, as well as a global single-step reaction. A thorough comparison of the predictions obtained using the pdf transport model and the eddy dissipation concept with detailed experimental data is presented. Both models are able to accurately predict the temperature and the O2 and CO2 molar fractions over most of the combustor, but the temperature field is overestimated in the vicinity of the burner. Discrepancies are found in the prediction of the CO molar fraction, particularly when the eddy dissipation concept is used.

  1. Small-scale inviscid accretion discs around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Beloborodov, A M; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Illarionov, Andrei F.

    2000-01-01

    Gas falling quasi-spherically onto a Schwarzschild black hole can form an inner thin accretion disc if its specific angular momentum, $l$, exceeds $\\lmin\\approx 0.75r_gc$, where $r_g$ is the Schwarzschild radius. The standard disc model assumes $l\\gg\\lmin$. We argue that in many black-hole sources the accretion flows can have $l\\simgt\\lmin$, and assess the mechanism of accretion in this regime. In a range $\\lminsmall-scale disc forms in which gas overcomes the centrifugal barrier and spirals fast into the black hole without any help of horizontal viscous stresses. Such an ``inviscid'' disc, however, interacts inelastically with the infall feeding the disc, which leads to energy dissipation. This interaction determines the disc dynamics and luminosity. We find the radiative efficiency of this accretion regime to be comparable with the efficiency of the standard disc. The maximum radius of the fast inviscid disc is $r_{\\rm max}\\approx 2\\lcr^2/r_gc^2\\sim 14 r_g$, and the energy release peaks at...

  2. Optimal Selection Of Crops A Casestudy Of Small Scale Farms In Fanteakwa District Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Otoo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main purpose of this study was to present a formulated Linear ProgrammingLP Model for 16 selected small scale farmers from 32 operational areas of Fanteakwa District in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The study considered ten 10 crops namely garden eggs water melon cabbage onion tomato cucumber okra pepper cocoa nursery and plantain. The formulated LP Model for this study assumed profit maximizing behavior a single-period planning and a certain environment. The formulated LP Model suggested no production of sole crop enterprises like cabbage onion cocoa nursery pepper grown on raised bed pepper and garden egg grown on raised bed irrigation. The model also prescribed no production for crop mixtures like garden eggokra and cabbagecucumberpepper. The formulated LP Model prescribed production of 1 acre of garden egg 3 acres of watermelon 4 acres of tomato 2 acres of cucumber 1 acre of plantain 2 acres of garden egg irrigation 1 acre of okragarden eggpepper and 1 acre of peppergarden egg. Comparison of results obtained by using existing farming plan and the LP Model indicate that results obtained from the LP Model were significant improvements of the existing farming plan. The LP Model saved 0.2 and 0.6 of available capital and labor requirement respectively. A 16.25 significant increment of the net returns was obtained by the LP Model. This was as result of net returns increasing from GH77848.00 to GH88177.00. These results suggest the essence of application of formulated mathematical models like the LP Model to planning and management of limited resources.

  3. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2012-09-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

  4. Stability of small-scale baryon perturbations during cosmological recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venumadhav, Tejaswi; Hirata, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we study small-scale fluctuations (baryon pressure sound waves) in the baryon fluid during recombination. In particular, we look at their evolution in the presence of relative velocities between baryons and photons on large scales (k ˜1 0-1 Mpc-1 ), which are naturally present during the era of decoupling. Previous work concluded that the fluctuations grow due to an instability of sound waves in a recombining plasma, but that the growth factor is small for typical cosmological models. These analyses model recombination in an inhomogenous universe as a perturbation to the parameters of the homogenous solution. We show that for relevant wave numbers k ?1 03 Mpc-1 the dynamics are significantly altered by the transport of both ionizing continuum (h ? >13.6 eV ) and Lyman-? photons between crests and troughs of the density perturbations. We solve the radiative transfer of photons in both these frequency ranges and incorporate the results in a perturbed three-level atom model. We conclude that the instability persists at intermediate scales. We use the results to estimate a distribution of growth rates in 1 07 random realizations of large-scale relative velocities. Our results indicate that there is no appreciable growth; out of these 1 07 realizations, the maximum growth factor we find is less than ?1.2 at wave numbers of k ?1 03 Mpc-1 . The instability's low growth factors are due to the relatively short duration of the recombination epoch during which the electrons and photons are coupled.

  5. Thermalhydraulic analysis of small-scale tube rupture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillotine failure of a rupturing pressure tube is an accident situation currently being investigated in the safety analysis of CANDU reactors. One of the reasons for initiating the investigation was to determine the major factors controlling the onset of guillotine failure. As part of this program, small-scale rupture tests using fuel sheaths have been performed and numerically simulated. The fluid dynamic aspects of rupturing fuel sheaths simulated with a multi-dimensional prototype of the two-fluid thermalhydraulic code CATHENA are described in this paper. The results of the numerical simulations were examined by observing the behaviour of pressure transients of the fluid inside the tube during the rupture. A parametric study was first performed to determine optimum model conditions for two-dimensional simulations. Results from CATHENA simulations using these conditions were then compared with experimental data. Calculations were also extended to a three-dimensional thermalhydraulic analysis. This paper describes the results of the parametric and comparative studies. The effect of varying the simulation conditions on calculated pressure transients is also described. Although agreement between simulated results and experimental data was found to be good, some discrepancies were noted and are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of the three-dimensional study are also presented. This investigation has been successful in demonstrating a method that can be used to enhance the understanding of the behaviour of pressure-tube rupture under accident conditions. Areas in which the numerical analysis could be advanced to further the understanding of rupturing pressure tubes are provided. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Small scale folding observed in the NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Daniela; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Westhoff, Julien; Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Griera, Albert; Weikusat, Ilka

    2015-04-01

    Disturbances on the centimeter scale in the layering of the NEEM ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by means of visual stratigraphy as long as the ice does have a visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths of the visual stratigraphy method allow, to a certain extent, a three dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a structural analysis of the visible folds, discuss characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. With this study we aim to quantify the potential impact of small scale folding on the integrity of climate proxy data. We also analyze the structures with regard to the stress environment under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1700 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. Lattice orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analyzed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c.axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which has more or less a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. We conclude from these data that folding is a consequence of deformation along localized shear planes and kink bands. The findings are compared with results from other deep ice cores. The observations presented are supplemented by microstructural modeling using a crystal plasticity code that reproduces deformation, applying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), coupled with ELLE to include dynamic recrystallization processes. The model results reproduce the development of bands of grains with a tilted orientation relative to the single maximum fabric of the matrix and also the associated local deformation.

  7. THE EXTREME SMALL SCALES: DO SATELLITE GALAXIES TRACE DARK MATTER?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the radial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by modeling their small-scale clustering. Specifically, we model the Jiang et al. measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function down to very small projected separations (10 h–1 kpc ? r ? 400 h–1 kpc), in a wide range of luminosity threshold samples (absolute r-band magnitudes of –18 up to –23). We use a halo occupation distribution framework with free parameters that specify both the number and spatial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos. We assume one galaxy resides in the halo center and additional galaxies are considered satellites that follow a radial density profile similar to the dark matter Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, except that the concentration and inner slope are allowed to vary. We find that in low luminosity samples (Mr r 1/10, which is the fraction of satellite galaxies (or mass) that are enclosed within one-tenth of the virial radius of a halo. We find that M1/10 for low-luminosity satellite galaxies agrees with NFW, whereas for luminous galaxies it is 2.5-4 times higher, demonstrating that these galaxies are substantially more centrally concentrated within their dark matter halos than the dark matter itself. Our results therefore suggest that the processes that govern the spatial distribution of galaxies, once they have merged into larger halos, must be luminosity dependent, such that luminous galaxies become poor tracers of the underlying dark matter.

  8. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

  9. Small scale fluidized bed experiments under oxygen combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Pikkarainen; Antti Tourunen; Heidi Nevalainen; Timo Leino; Jaakko Saastamoinen; Timo Eriksson [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    In oxygen combustion fuel is burned with almost pure oxygen and recycled flue gas without nitrogen from the air. By avoiding the diluting effect of nitrogen, the carbon dioxide capture of flue gas becomes more effective. Gas atmosphere in the reactor depends on flue gas recirculation ratio and consists mainly on carbon dioxide, water vapour and oxygen. Gas atmosphere has effects on burning rate, reaction kinetics, emission formation and sulphur capture by limestone. VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) has in Jyvaeskylae unique small scale fluidized bed combustors applicable for oxygen combustion research. Pilot scale (30-100 kW) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor can be operated at air firing and at oxygen combustion mode. Reactor is equipped with O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} feed from gas tanks and also with flue gas recirculation for demonstrating real oxygen combustion conditions. In addition, a smaller BFB/CFB reactor {lt} 1 kW), which can be operated at batch and continuous combustion modes, is suitable for phenomena studies of oxygen combustion. A set of oxygen combustion experiments with bituminous coal and limestone feed was carried out with pilot and laboratory scale reactors. With CFB-pilot reactor, normal air combustion is compared to oxygen combustion with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} feed from gas tanks and to real oxygen combustion with flue gas recirculation. Fuel reactivity and limestone sulphur capture tests were carried out at varying oxygen combustion conditions with laboratory scale reactor, and results were compared to air combustion. At pilot tests, feed gas oxygen content varied between 21-40% and at laboratory scale tests between 5-50%.

  10. ARCADE small-scale docking mechanism for micro-satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesso, A.; Francesconi, A.

    2013-05-01

    The development of on-orbit autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARD) capabilities represents a key point for a number of appealing mission scenarios that include activities of on-orbit servicing, automated assembly of modular structures and active debris removal. As of today, especially in the field of micro-satellites ARD, many fundamental technologies are still missing or require further developments and micro-gravity testing. In this framework, the University of Padova, Centre of Studies and Activities for Space (CISAS), developed the Autonomous Rendezvous Control and Docking Experiment (ARCADE), a technology demonstrator intended to fly aboard a BEXUS stratospheric balloon. The goal was to design, build and test, in critical environment conditions, a proximity relative navigation system, a custom-made reaction wheel and a small-size docking mechanism. The ARCADE docking mechanism was designed against a comprehensive set of requirements and it can be classified as small-scale, central, gender mating and unpressurized. The large use of commercial components makes it low-cost and simple to be manufactured. Last, it features a good tolerance to off-nominal docking conditions and a by-design soft docking capability. The final design was extensively verified to be compliant with its requirements by means of numerical simulations and physical testing. In detail, the dynamic behaviour of the mechanism in both nominal and off-nominal conditions was assessed with the multibody dynamics analysis software MD ADAMS 2010 and functional tests were carried out within the fully integrated ARCADE experiment to ensure the docking system efficacy and to highlight possible issues. The most relevant results of the study will be presented and discussed in conclusion to this paper.

  11. Financing Small Scale Business Enterprises in Nigeria: A Review of the Problems and the Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oboro, O. G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed the problems of financing small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and the way forward. It has identified the sources of finance, types of finance available for small business enterprises and problems inhibiting small scale business enterprises in Nigeria in securing funds for their smooth operations. The study concluded that adequate finance is indispensable for the successful operations of small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and recommended among others that government should increase loanable funds granted to small scale businesses, while micro finance banks should also live up to expectation in granting loanable funds to small scale businesses in Nigeria and a host of others for the effective operations of small scale business enterprises.

  12. Small-Scale Industries in Jordan in the Globalization Era Performance and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basem M. Lozi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research probes the implications of globalization and domestic economic liberalization for small-scale industries and analysis its growth performance. The research concludes with policy recommendations to ensure the sustenance and competitive growth of small-scale industries in Jordan. Results of the study show that the growth of small scale industries in Jordan in terms of units, employment, output and exports has come up due to globalization, domestic liberalization and dilution of sector specific measures. The government should involve the private sector in the development of infrastructure, to enable efficient monitoring and good facilities to the small scale industries. There is a need to create fund at the government level for disbursement as margin money through district industries centers to small scale industries units to encourage them to undertake technological innovations. A technological vibrant, internationally competitive small scale industries sector should be encouraged to emerge, to make a sustainable contribution to national income, employment and exports.

  13. Modelling biomass-fuelled small-scale CHP plants for process synthesis optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Savola, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    In this work possible process improvements for biomass-fuelled small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants are evaluated and a new mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for process synthesis optimisation of these processes is presented. Small-scale (1-20 MWe) CHP plants are of interest, as in Finland the potential to increase the CHP production is in converting small heating units to CHP production. However, the profitability of these small-scale CHP investments should be hig...

  14. Economic Underdevelopment and Total Factor Growth in Small Scale Industries: Some Evidences from India

    OpenAIRE

    Hemanta Saikia

    2011-01-01

    Globalization of Indian economy and fast and large industrialization questioned the sustainability and endurance of small scale industries (SSIs) from 1991. In this regard productivity and performance is remaining an issue that needs analysis for their development. However economic underdevelopment is remain a problem for the development of small scale industries. In this paper an attempt has been made to examine the productive performance of in small scale industries in India in underdevelop...

  15. Small-Scale Forest Ownership across Europe: Characteristics and Future Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersum, K.F.; Elands, B.H.M.; Hoogstra, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of small-scale forest ownership means different things to different people in different countries. Traditionally, within Europe, many small-scale forest owners were economically dependent on their forests, either for home or commercial use, usually linked with farming activities. However, many small-scale forest owners are no longer economically dependent on their forests and these owners appear to increasingly focus their management on amenity functions rather than on production ...

  16. Financing Small Scale Business Enterprises in Nigeria: A Review of the Problems and the Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Oboro, O. G.; Ighoroje, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed the problems of financing small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and the way forward. It has identified the sources of finance, types of finance available for small business enterprises and problems inhibiting small scale business enterprises in Nigeria in securing funds for their smooth operations. The study concluded that adequate finance is indispensable for the successful operations of small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and recommended among others that ...

  17. Small-Scale Industries in Jordan in the Globalization Era Performance and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Basem M. Lozi

    2008-01-01

    The research probes the implications of globalization and domestic economic liberalization for small-scale industries and analysis its growth performance. The research concludes with policy recommendations to ensure the sustenance and competitive growth of small-scale industries in Jordan. Results of the study show that the growth of small scale industries in Jordan in terms of units, employment, output and exports has come up due to globalization, domestic liberalization and dilution of sect...

  18. On the effect of small-scale oceanic variability on topography-generated currents

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Alberto; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Tintore, Joaquin

    2000-01-01

    Small-scale oceanic motions, in combination with bottom topography, induce mean large-scale along-isobaths flows. The direction of these mean flows is usually found to be anticyclonic (cyclonic) over bumps (depressions). Here we employ a quasigeostrophic model to show that the current direction of these topographically induced large-scale flows can be reversed by the small-scale variability. This result addresses the existence of a new bulk effect from the small-scale activi...

  19. Growth rate of small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we discuss two key issues relating to a small-scale dynamo instability at low magnetic Prandtl numbers and large magnetic Reynolds numbers, namely: (i) the scaling for the growth rate of a small-scale dynamo instability in the vicinity of the dynamo threshold; (ii) the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in small-scale dynamos. There are two different asymptotics for the small-scale dynamo's growth rate: in the vicinity of the threshold of the excitation of the small-scale dynamo instability, ??ln(Rm/Rmcr), and when the magnetic Reynolds number is much larger than the threshold of the excitation of the small-scale dynamo instability, ??Rm1/2, where Rmcr is the small-scale dynamo instability threshold in the magnetic Reynolds number Rm. We demonstrate that the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations requires a finite correlation time of the random velocity field. On the other hand, the influence of the Golitsyn spectrum on the small-scale dynamo instability is minor. This is the reason why it is so difficult to observe this spectrum in direct numerical simulations for the small-scale dynamo with low magnetic Prandtl numbers. (comment)

  20. Experiments for comparison of small scale rainfall simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserloh, T.; Ries, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Small scale portable rainfall simulators are an essential tool in research of recent process dynamics of soil erosion. Such rainfall simulators differ in design, rainfall intensities, rain spectra etc., impeding comparison of the results. Due to different research questions a standardisation of rainfall simulation is not in sight. Nevertheless, the data become progressively important for soil erosion modelling and therefore the basis for decision-makers in application-oriented erosion protection. The project aims at providing a criteria catalogue for estimation of the different simulators as well as the comparability of the results and a uniform calibration procedure for generated rainfall. Within the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" many rainfall simulators used by European research groups were compared. The artificially generated rainfall of the rainfall simulators at the Universities Basel, La Rioja, Malaga, Trier, Tübingen, Valencia, Wageningen, Zaragoza and at different Spanish CSIC-institutes (Almeria, Cordoba, Granada, Murcia, Zaragoza) were measured with the same methods (Laser Precipitation Monitor for drop spectra and rain collectors for spatial distribution). The data are very beneficial for improvements of simulators and comparison of simulators and results. Furthermore, they can be used for comparative studies with natural rainfall spectra. A broad range of rainfall data was measured (e.g. intensity: 30 - 149 mmh-1, Christiansen Coefficient for spatial rainfall distribution 61 - 98 %, mean drop diameter 0.375 - 5.0 mm, mean kinetic energy expenditure 25 - 1322 J m-2 h-1, mean kinetic energy per unit area and unit depth of rainfall 4 - 14 J m-2 mm-1). Similarities among the simulators could be found e.g. concerning drop size distributions (maximum drop numbers are reached within the two smallest drop classes data base for improvements and a consistent picture of the parameters of the simulators. To assess the influence of rainfall simulator type and plot dimensions on runoff and erosion, rainfall simulators from Freiberg, Tübingen, Trier, Valencia, Zaragoza, Basel and Wageningen were compared on a prepared bare fallow field during the Rainfall Simulator Workshop in Trier (Germany). The results show a clear and consistent relationship in runoff, erosion and infiltration behaviour of the different used rainfall simulators. With all the devices total soil loss was measurable, but different plot sizes, intensities and kinetic energies of the simulated rainfall caused differences in soil loss and runoff quantities per unit of area. Regarding course characteristics over runs, similarities could be observed especially in runoff behaviour.

  1. Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, Maria

    2002-05-01

    A small-scale stratified down draft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The CO content of the product gas (23-26 % vol.) is higher than in similar gasifiers and the H{sub 2} content has been found to vary between 14 and 16 % vol. The tar content in the product gas (Ca. 3 g/Nm{sup 3}) is rather high compared with similar gasifiers. The temperature profile, together with other relevant parameters like the air-excess ratio, the air to fuel ratio and gas to fuel ratio have been calculated. The experiments show that the air excess ratio is rather constant, varying between 0,25 and 0,3. Experiments have been conducted with a gas engine using mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as a fuel. NO{sub x} and CO emissions are analysed. The char gasification process has been studied in detail by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis. The study comprises the chemical kinetics of the gasification reactions of wood char in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, including the inhibition effect of CO and H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics has been found which relates the mass loss rate to the temperature, gas composition and degree of conversion for each reaction. The ratio CO/CO{sub 2} has been found to be a relevant parameter for reactivity. The gasification experiments in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O give reasons to believe that the rate of desorption for the complex C(O) varies depending on the gas mixture surrounding the char. It has been found that if the experimental data are obtained from separate H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} experiments, the reactivity of the char in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O can be fairly predicted. (author)

  2. Small scale structure in uniform wind tunnel turbulent shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaochun

    Wind tunnel uniform turbulent shear flows were set up to test the postulate of local isotropy (PLI). The Reynolds number was varied in the range 100 ? Rl ? 1200. It was shown that while PLI is well obeyed at the 2nd order, it is violated starting at the 3rd order in the inertial range and at the 5th order in the dissipation range. In particular, PLI requires the odd order statistics in the shear direction (y direction) approach zero as Rl ? infinity. In the dissipation range, although the skewness of ? u/?y, S36u/6y , decreased with Rl (as R-0.54l ), the 5th order normalized moment of ?u/?y, S56u/6y , was of order 10, and showed no diminution with Reynolds number ( ˜R0l ). The 7th order normalized moment of ?u/?y, S76u/6y , increased with Reynolds number ( ˜R0.58l ). Within the inertial range at Rl ˜ 1000, the odd order transverse structure functions, Dnuu (Deltay) (n odd), were nonzero, exhibiting scaling ranges similar to the longitudinal structure functions, Dnuu (Deltax). The normalized 3rd order transverse structure function S3uu (Deltay) had a value ˜0.5; S5uu (Deltay) and S7uu (Deltay) were of order 10 and 100, respectively. Both the inertial range and dissipation range transverse statistics indicate, at least to Rl ˜ 1000, PLI is untenable. It was also shown that the scaling exponents of Dnuu (Deltay) depended on Reynolds number but were independent of the mean shear. At low Reynolds number, they were smaller than the scaling exponents of Dnuu (Deltax). At high Reynolds number, they were the same as those of Dnuu (Deltax). The scaling exponents of the transverse structure functions, Dnvv (Deltax), were always smaller than the scaling exponents of Dnuu (Deltax). Their value were influenced both by Reynolds number and by the large scale anisotropy. The scaling exponents of the even order mixed structure functions that are explicitly zero in isotropic turbulence were determined for uniform turbulent shear flow at Rl ˜ 1000. The ratio of their scaling to those of Dnuu (Deltax) decreased systematically with increasing orders and were close to unity at the 8th order, suggesting at high orders, the anisotropic sectors are equally important as the isotropic sector at small scales.

  3. Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-12-01

    The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three units have been installed in Obama Hot Spring area, Nagasaki Prefecture, where about 15,000 tonnes of hot water are produced in a day and more than 35% of the hot water flow directly to the sea. Another demonstration experiments are also conducted in several hot spring areas. In this study we will review several examples to utilise low temperature hot springs in Japan. Binary Power Unit at Obama (Fujino, 2013)

  4. Visualization of small scale structures on high resolution DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Zakšek, Klemen; Pehani, Peter; ?otar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on the terrain morphology is very important for observation of numerous processes and events and digital elevation models are therefore one of the most important datasets in geographic analyses. Furthermore, recognition of natural and anthropogenic microrelief structures, which can be observed on detailed terrain models derived from aerial laser scanning (lidar) or structure-from-motion photogrammetry, is of paramount importance in many applications. In this paper we thus examine and evaluate methods of raster lidar data visualization for the determination (recognition) of microrelief features and present a series of strategies to assist selecting the preferred visualization of choice for structures of various shapes and sizes, set in varied landscapes. Often the answer is not definite and more frequently a combination of techniques has to be used to map a very diverse landscape. Researchers can only very recently benefit from free software for calculation of advanced visualization techniques. These tools are often difficult to understand, have numerous options that confuse the user, or require and produce non-standard data formats, because they were written for specific purposes. We therefore designed the Relief Visualization Toolbox (RVT) as a free, easy-to-use, standalone application to create visualisations from high-resolution digital elevation data. It is tailored for the very beginners in relief interpretation, but it can also be used by more advanced users in data processing and geographic information systems. It offers a range of techniques, such as simple hillshading and its derivatives, slope gradient, trend removal, positive and negative openness, sky-view factor, and anisotropic sky-view factor. All included methods have been proven to be effective for detection of small scale features and the default settings are optimised to accomplish this task. However, the usability of the tool goes beyond computation for visualization purposes, as sky-view factor, for example, is an essential variable in many fields, e.g. in meteorology. RVT produces two types of results: 1) the original files have a full range of values and are intended for further analyses in geographic information systems, 2) the simplified versions are histogram stretched for visualization purposes and saved as 8-bit GeoTIFF files. This means that they can be explored in non-GIS software, e.g. with simple picture viewers, which is essential when a larger community of non-specialists needs to be considered, e.g. in public collaborative projects. The tool recognizes all frequently used single band raster formats and supports elevation raster file data conversion.

  5. Calibration of farmer dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Farmer Dosemeters of Atomic Energy Medical Centre (AEMC) Jamshoro were calibrated in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) at PINSTECH, using the NPL Secondary Standard Therapy level X-ray exposure meter. The results are presented in this report. (authors)

  6. Adoption of Improved Agroforestry Technologies among Contact Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orisakwe Lambert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the adoption of improved agroforestry technologies among farmers in Imo State. To achieve the study objectives, structured questionnaire were designed and administered to ninety farmers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC. Findings shows that the farmers were mainly small scale middle aged married men with secondary education and no access to credit. The average house hold size, farming experience and annual income of the farmers were 6 person, 15.5 years and N 148,255.6 respectively with two contacts with extension agents on monthly basis. The results indicated that the farmers were largely aware of Gnetum Africana and have adopted plantain/banana technology. The mean adoption rate of agroforestry technologies was 33.81%. The main determinants of the adoption were farmers’ age, educational level, farm size, income, access to credit and extension contact as this variables were all significant. Apart from age of the farmers which was negatively related to adoption of agroforestry technologies all other variables mentioned affected the adoption rate of agroforestry technologies positively. Based on the findings, it was strongly recommended that farmers be provided with loans at concessionary interest rates to solve their financial problem of adopting innovations.

  7. Adoption of Improved Agroforestry Technologies among Contact Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agomuo Florence Ozioma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the adoption of improved agroforestry technologies among farmers in Imo State. To achieve the study objectives, structured questionnaire were designed and administered to ninety farmers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC. Findings shows that the farmers were mainly small scale middle aged married men with secondary education and no access to credit. The average house hold size, farming experience and annual income of the farmers were 6 person, 15.5 years and N 148, 255.6 respectively with two contacts with extension agents on monthly basis. The results indicated that the farmers were largely aware of Gnetum Africana and have adopted plantain/banana technology. The mean adoption rate of agroforestry technologies was 33.81%. The main determinants of the adoption were farmers’ age, educational level, farm size, income, access to credit and extension contact as this variables were all significant. Apart from age of the farmers which was negatively related to adoption of agroforestry technologies all other variables mentioned affected the adoption rate of agroforestry technologies positively. Based on the findings, it was strongly recommended that farmers be provided with loans at concessionary interest rates to solve their financial problem of adopting innovations.

  8. Beyond the field : Impact of Farmer Field Schools on food security and poverty alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LilleØr, Helene Bie; Larsen, Anna Folke

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the impact of a farmer field school intervention among small scale farmers in Northers Tanzania. Unlike previous farmer field school evaluations, we go beyond the immediate agricultural impact and estimate the impact of farmer field school participation in the pre-specified development objects, namely poverty alleviation and food security among participating households. We wxploit the implementation design of a gradual project roll-out to establish a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference setup, which can account for potential selection info the project, both at village and household level, despite the lack of baseline data. we find strong positive effects on measures of food security, but we find no effect on the poverty indicators. We investigate possible mechanisms for this and conclude that both reallocation of labor ressources and improved production smoothing among participation households may, in part, lead to this finding.

  9. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  10. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  11. Low and High Potentials of Entrepreneurial Development within the Framework of Indigenious Small Scale Management in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunji Eniola Sule

    2013-01-01

    This work looked at the potentials of entrepreneurship development within the framework of indigenous small scale management. It also show those potentials that are inherent in entrepreneurs of small scale business both low and high potentials and possibly expose some of the problems or drawbacks of entrepreneur of small scale business in Africa. The writer try to show what small scale business is like and possibly other scholars’ assumptions of what small scale business is all about. Finally...

  12. Beyond the field : Impact of Farmer Field Schools on food security and poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; LilleØr, Helene Bie

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the impact of a Farmer Field School intervention among small-scale farmers in northern Tanzania on two main development objectives: food security and poverty. We employ a series of evaluation methodologies, including a Quasi-Difference-in-Difference setup, to account for potential selection into the project, despite lack of baseline data. We find strong positive effects on food security, but no effect on poverty. Investigating possible mechanisms for this result shows that reallocation of labor resources toward own agricultural production and improved production smoothing may have led to improved food security while poverty remained unaffected.

  13. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

  14. Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teshome, W.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopia. Although governments have been involved in the construction of irrigation infrastructures since the mid-1980s to mitigate drought and famine in many parts ofEthiopia, the responses of irrigators to such interventions have never been studied. The main concern of this study therefore is to document how irrigation intervention interfaces with the life-worlds of small-scale irr...

  15. Farmers, Markets and Contracts: Chain Integration of Smallholder Producers in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ruerd Ruben; Fernando Sáenz-Segura

    2008-01-01

    Contract farming is frequently considered as an appropriate mechanism for integrating smallholders into dynamic markets. We discuss the rationale for the variety in contractual arrangements between small-scale producers and agro-processing firms in the Northern and Central region of Costa Rica. Different market configurations give rise to delivery conditions, ranging from spot market negotiations to verbal or written contracts. We analyse which types of farmers are typically engaged in each o...

  16. Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas; Smaaskalig uppgradering och foeraedling av biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Helena; Mccann, Michael; Westman, Johan (Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas is a report which aims to compile the state of knowledge in small-scale biogas upgrading. The project have been a collaboration with Agrovaest and Energy Farm and was funded by the Foundation for Agricultural Research, Western Goetaland and the Agriculture Department. The technology available for small scale upgrade has been examined from the technical and economic standpoint. An economic comparison has been made and the production of upgraded biogas has been estimated for different raw gas flows. The work also contains information related to biogas production, upgrading and a comparison of liquid biogas, DME and Ecopar-diesel

  17. Danish farmer’s perception of GM-crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØndergaard, Janus; Pedersen, SØren Marcus

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study of 185 farmer’s perception of GM-crops in Denmark. The respondent’s attitude to GM-crops mainly reflects a conservative view of the adoption of GM-crops. Among farmers only the exciting crops in rotation is seen as their future potential GM-crops. Findings from this study show that more the 60 pct do not expect any or less than 13 EUR increase in gross margins on their farms from adopting GM-crops. This assessment illustrates that the farmers regard the GM-crops more as a way of ‘staying in business” than a technology to increase their profits.

  18. Talking soil science with farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Tittonell, P.A.; Misiko, M.; Ekise, I.E.

    2008-01-01

    When agricultural researchers visit farms in order to gather information for their research programmes, farmers rarely get proper feedback. Research information on scientific concepts such as soil fertility and nutrient balances is often considered too abstract for them. Researchers in Kenya returned to farmers to discuss their results in the context of Farmer Field Schools. Through the workshops that ensued, they managed to find a common language to bridge the communication gap.

  19. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  20. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  1. Regeneratively-Cooled, Turbopump-Fed, Small-Scale Cryogenic Rocket Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To-date, the realization of small-scale, high-performance liquid bipropellant rocket engines has largely been limited by the inability to operate at high chamber...

  2. Growth and Efficiency of Small Scale Industry and its Impact on Economic Development of Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali Junejo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the growth, efficiency, causes of sickness of small scale industry, emergence of entrepreneur and competencies of entrepreneurs at Larkana estate area of Sindh Province. The study examines the educational background of the entrepreneurs of small scale industry who are the helm of affairs and its impact on the growth of sales of the every year. Strong evidence emerges that owners of small industrial units are family concern and having a low educational background, lack of managerial knowledge and conservation-oriented attitude results in under utilization of capacity and low growth of units established every year. This research paper provides a survey of the theoretical and empirical literature relating to promote the small scale industry in the Larkana region. This study indicates effective policy measures to promote the small scale industry particularly in Larkana region and generally in Pakistan.

  3. Design parameters for a small-scale batch in-bin maize dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Fashina Adepoju Bola.; Akande Fatai Bukola.; Ibrahim Saula Olanrewaju; Sanusi Bashir Adisa

    2013-01-01

    Early season maize is harvested with high moisture content that makes it impossible to store. The sale of early season maize in green form is uneconomical to the farmer. Experience had shown that farmers could hardly make the cost of production from their sales. Also, grain losses are high when maize is harvested green. To minimize grain losses and thereby increase value and the profit margin of the farmer, a grain dryer is necessary for wet grains. Therefore, this paper presents the design ...

  4. Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stands, and community supported agriculture programs, and (3) Develop or aid in the development of new and additional farmers' markets, roadside stands, and community supported agriculture programs. Where ...

  5. Marketing strategy for retailing small-scale wind energy turbines in Indian markets

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The study analyzes the small-scale wind energy markets in Mumbai, focusing on questions: How feasible is the wind energy for SME businesses in Mumbai, and what are the main challenges and opportunities of small-scale wind energy in Mumbai? The study is a qualitative case study, in which, the data has been collected through observing the markets by visiting wind energy sites and companies, interviewing and meeting potential customers and other stakeholders in the market. Theoretical frame...

  6. Systematic work environment management : experiences from implementation in Swedish small-scale enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosen, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-struc...

  7. Poverty measurement : an application for small-scale fisheries in Bich Dam island, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Dien, Vo Van

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are one of the key sectors in Vietnam economy. This has been explained by its noticeable contribution to GDP, sizable share in the total export value in addition to the significant role in employment generation and food security. Contrary to the promising signs of sectorial performance, most of fishermen are considered the poorest of the poor and poverty is dominantly characteristic in small-scale fisheries. Poverty alleviation has emerged as an urgent requirement to sus...

  8. Wavelet analysis of wall turbulence to study large-scale modulation of small scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, W. J.; Talluru, K. M.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I.

    2015-10-01

    Wavelet analysis is employed to examine amplitude and frequency modulations in broadband signals. Of particular interest are the streamwise velocity fluctuations encountered in wall-bounded turbulent flows. Recent studies have shown that an important feature of the near-wall dynamics is the modulation of small scales by large-scale motions. Small- and large-scale components of the velocity time series are constructed by employing a spectral separation scale. Wavelet analysis of the small-scale component decomposes the energy in joint time-frequency space. The concept is to construct a low-dimensional representation of the small-scale time-varying spectrum via two new time series: the instantaneous amplitude of the small-scale energy and the instantaneous frequency. Having the latter in a time-continuous representation allows a more thorough analysis of frequency modulation. By correlating the large-scale velocity with the concurrent small-scale amplitude and frequency realizations, both amplitude and frequency modulations are studied. In addition, conditional averages of the small-scale amplitude and frequency realizations depict unique features of the scale interaction. For both modulation phenomena, the much studied time shifts, associated with peak correlations between the large-scale velocity and small-scale amplitude and frequency traces, are addressed. We confirm that the small-scale amplitude signal leads the large-scale fluctuation close to the wall. It is revealed that the time shift in frequency modulation is smaller than that in amplitude modulation. The current findings are described in the context of a conceptual mechanism of the near-wall modulation phenomena.

  9. Application of Heterogeneous Catalysis in Small-Scale Biomass Combustion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Thiel; Mirjam Matthes; Ingo Hartmann; Saad Butt; René Bindig

    2012-01-01

    Combustion of solid biomass fuels for heat generation is an important renewable energy resource. The major part among biomass combustion applications is being played by small-scale systems like wood log stoves and small wood pellet burners, which account for 75% of the overall biomass heat production. Despite an environmentally friendly use of renewable energies, incomplete combustion in small-scale systems can lead to the emission of environmental pollutants as well as substances which are h...

  10. Handling uncertainty : policy and organizational practices in Tanzania's small-scale gold mining sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØnsson, Jesper Bosse; Fold, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale mining supports the livelihoods of several hundred thousand rural households in Africa. Nonetheless, the understanding of the organizational dynamics of small-scale miners' activities is modest. The paper outlines the small-scale mining codes in Tanzania and contrasts them to prevalent organizational practices in two Tanzanian small-scale mining settlements. It is argued that there is a need to adjust the regulatory mechanisms to well-consolidated practices: If basic practices differ substantially from official prescriptions of the mining codes over an extended period of time, certain elements of the regulatory framework need reconsideration. The paper examines three pertinent operational components that vary in form and managing practices between the two study sites: dealing with licence acquisition, accessing working capital, and sharing output. These components are considered vital for the proper manoeuvring of local small-scale mining operators and the reasons for the variations are essential to understand for policymakers and development practitioners. By incorporating prevalent practices and context-dependent variations in some of the crucial organizational components, it is possible to design a robust and resilient regulatory framework for small-scale mining. A number of policy adjustments are consequently proposed.

  11. Healthy Eyes, Healthy Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wearing protective eyewear. 19 Key Concept Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetes is a disease that affects the body’s ... your whole body. Normal, healthy retina Retina with diabetic retinopathy 20 Key Concept What a Retina Does You ...

  12. Analysis of Labour Supply & Use in Small Scale Farming In Ikwuano/Umuahia L.G.A. of Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonah, Ikoku John

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the supply and utilisation of labour resources among farmers in Ikwuano-Umuahia Local Government Area of Abia State. A total of 175 small scale farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with the use of structured questionnaires in five out of the nine autonomous communities that make up the local government area. The data collected were analysed and the results showed that average family labour force of 200 man days was not enough to cultivate the average farm size of 2.158 hectares. Labour shortage exists. Farmers are making up for this shortage by using communal and hired labour. Each farmer uses on the average 48.0 mandays of communal labour and 222.24 mandays of hired labour in order to cultivate the average farm size. Shortage of farm labour was found to be due to increasing rate of migration of rural labour force to the urban centres, non-farm employment, non-availability of saving technologies e.g. fertilizers etc.. A labour demand function was estimated against the following independent variables: Wage rate, farm size ,cost of capital, cost of other inputs, family labour in mandays, communal labour and hired labour in mandays. The result showed that farm size, family labour, communal labour and hired labour were all significant while the other independent variables though not significant, have signs which agree with economic theory. Based on the findings of the analysis, some recommendations were made namely reducing drastically the rate of migration of rural labour force by embarking on rural development projects, provision of labour saving technologies.

  13. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  14. Smallholder farmers' attitudes toward the provision of drinking water for dairy cows in Kagera, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Barbara; Kepe, Thembela

    2015-02-01

    Agriculture's large share of Tanzanian GDP and the large percentage of rural poor engaged in the sector make it a focus for many development projects that see it as an area of attention for reducing rural poverty. This paper uses a case of the Kamachumu community, where a dairy cow loan project was implemented using the heifer-in-trust (HIT) model. This study finds that productivity is limited by how the cows are being managed, particularly with many animals not having ad lib access to drinking water. The paper explores reasons why farmers do or do not provide their cows with unlimited access to drinking water. The study concludes that there are many barriers farmers face, including water accessibility, education and training, infrastructure, simple negligence, and security. These results suggest an increase in extension services and national and local livestock policies that consider the specific realities of small-scale dairy farmers. PMID:25433649

  15. Farm, household, and farmer characteristics associated with changes in management practices and technology adoption among dairy smallholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Ugoretz, Sarah Janes; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Wattiaux, Michel André

    2015-02-01

    This study explored whether technology adoption and changes in management practices were associated with farm structure, household, and farmer characteristics and to identify processes that may foster productivity and sustainability of small-scale dairy farming in the central highlands of Mexico. Factor analysis of survey data from 44 smallholders identified three factors-related to farm size, farmer's engagement, and household structure-that explained 70 % of cumulative variance. The subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis yielded three clusters. Cluster 1 included the most senior farmers with fewest years of education but greatest years of experience. Cluster 2 included farmers who reported access to extension, cooperative services, and more management changes. Cluster 2 obtained 25 and 35 % more milk than farmers in clusters 1 and 3, respectively. Cluster 3 included the youngest farmers, with most years of education and greatest availability of family labor. Access to a network and membership in a community of peers appeared as important contributors to success. Smallholders gravitated towards easy to implement technologies that have immediate benefits. Nonusers of high investment technologies found them unaffordable because of cost, insufficient farm size, and lack of knowledge or reliable electricity. Multivariate analysis may be a useful tool in planning extension activities and organizing channels of communication to effectively target farmers with varying needs, constraints, and motivations for change and in identifying farmers who may exemplify models of change for others who manage farms that are structurally similar but performing at a lower level. PMID:25404038

  16. Technology Awareness and Farmers Perception in Adoption of Wheat Production Technologies: Case Study in Njoro and Rongai Divisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in Kenya but its production has not been able to meet high demand, since production is only fifty percent. The shortfall is supplemented by importation. The purpose of this study was to assess and describe farmers' perception on adoption of wheat production technologies in Njoro and Rongai divisions. One hundred and fifty (150) wheat farmers were randomly selected using stratified proportional random sampling technique. The data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. farmers perception in wheat production is favourable with 80.2% agreeing that it access to credits by farmers. This was only possible to 7.3% of the farmers. above 90% of the farmers in the two divisions exist. Farmers' perception for small-scale 3.25% as higher than 2.75% for large-scale wheat farmers with t-test-2.21 at ?=0.05 for pest and disease control.s Education level and farm size significantly affected adoption, while gender and age were not significant

  17. Seropositivity and risk factors for Brucella in dairy cows in urban and peri-urban small-scale farming in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Sattori, Izzatullo; Magnusson, Ulf

    2014-03-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we assessed and mapped the seroprevalence of brucellosis in small-scale dairy farming in an urban and peri-urban area of Tajikistan and investigated factors associated with seropositivity. As urban and peri-urban farming is both an opportunity to improve the livelihood for small-scale farmers and a potential public health hazard, studies are warranted to reveal possible peculiarities in the epidemiology of brucellosis in this type of dairy farming. In total, 904 cows of breeding age belonging to 443 herds in 32 villages were serologically tested with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and positive samples confirmed with competitive ELISA. Two logistic regression models were used to investigate an association between seropositivity and risk factors at herd and individual level. The herd and individual seroprevalences were 4.1 and 2.0 %, respectively. Herds with a history of abortions were found to be associated with seropositivity [odds ratio (OR)?=?5.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.3-21.3]. Large herds with more than eight cattle were more likely to be seropositive compared to smaller herds with one to two cattle (OR?=?13.9; 95 % CI, 1.6-119). The number of calves produced per cow (indicating age) was found to be associated with seropositivity. Younger cows with one to two produced calves were less likely to be seropositive compared to older cows with more than six produced calves (OR?=?0.24; 95 % CI, 0.06-1.0). Neither introduction of new cattle to the herd nor communal grazing was associated with seropositivity. This study shows that infection with Brucella (1) is present in small-scale urban and peri-urban dairy farming in Tajikistan and (2) has significant negative effects on reproductive performance in this farming system and (3) that some previously known risk factors for seropositivity in rural farming system were absent here. PMID:24414248

  18. Is the small-scale magnetic field correlated with the dynamo cycle?

    CERN Document Server

    Karak, Bidya Binay

    2015-01-01

    The small-scale magnetic field is ubiquitous at the solar surface---even at high latitudes. From observations we know that this field is uncorrelated (or perhaps even weakly anticorrelated) with the global sunspot cycle. Our aim is to explore the origin, and particularly the cycle dependence of this field using three-dimensional dynamo simulations. We use a simple model of a turbulent dynamo in a shearing box driven by helically forced turbulence. Depending on the dynamo parameters, large-scale (global) and small-scale (local) dynamos can be excited independently in this model. Based on simulations in different parameter regimes, we find that, when only the large-scale dynamo is operating in the system, the small-scale magnetic field generated through shredding and tangling of the large-scale magnetic field is positively correlated with the global magnetic cycle. However, when both dynamos are operating, the small-scale field is produced from both the small-scale dynamo and the tangling of the large-scale fie...

  19. Small scale effects on the mechanical behaviors of protein microtubules based on the nonlocal elasticity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the nonlocal elastic theory, small scale effects are considered in the investigation of the mechanical properties of protein microtubules. A new prediction formula for the persistence lengths of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect is presented. Subsequently, the buckling of microtubules is studied based on a nonlocal elastic beam model. The predicted results of our model indicate that the length-dependence of persistence length is related not only to the shear terms, but also to the small scale effect. The Eular beam model, which is always considered unable to explain the length-dependence of microtubules, can capture the length-dependence of the persistence length of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect. The elastic buckling behaviors of microtubules in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm are also considered using the nonlocal Timoshenko beam model in this paper, and the results indicate that the small scale effect of microtubules also plays an important role in the buckling of microtubules.

  20. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism for turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Given the inevitable existence of non-helical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help to explain generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.

  1. Generation of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields by Small-Scale Dynamo in Shear Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.

  2. Reducing cosmological small scale structure via a large dark matter-neutrino interaction: constraints and consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoni, Bridget; McKeen, David; Nelson, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    Cold dark matter explains a wide range of data on cosmological scales. However, there has been a steady accumulation of evidence for discrepancies between simulations and observations at scales smaller than galaxy clusters. Solutions to these small scale structure problems may indicate that simulations need to improve how they include feedback from baryonic matter, or may imply that dark matter properties differ from the standard cold, noninteracting scenario. One promising way to affect structure formation on small scales is a relatively strong coupling of dark matter to neutrinos. We construct an experimentally viable, simple, renormalizable, model with new interactions between neutrinos and dark matter. We show that addressing the small scale structure problems requires dark matter with a mass that is tens of MeV, and a present-day density determined by an initial particle-antiparticle asymmetry in the dark sector. Generating a sufficiently large dark matter-neutrino coupling requires a new heavy neutrino ...

  3. EMERGENCE OF THE KENNICUTT-SCHMIDT RELATION FROM THE SMALL-SCALE SFR-DENSITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use simulations of isolated galaxies with a few parsec resolution to explore the connection between the small-scale star formation rate (SFR)-gas density relation and the induced large-scale correlation between the SFR surface density and the surface density of the molecular gas (the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation). We find that, in the simulations, a power-law small-scale ''star formation law'' directly translates into an identical power-law Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. If this conclusion holds in the reality as well, it implies that the observed approximately linear Kennicutt-Schmidt relation must reflect the approximately linear small-scale ''star formation law''.

  4. Generation of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields by Small-Scale Dynamo in Shear Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, J; Bhattacharjee, A

    2015-10-23

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects. PMID:26551120

  5. Responding to the challenge of artisanal and small-scale mining. How can knowledge networks help?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buxton, Abbi

    2013-02-15

    This paper reviews what is known about the problems and structural challenges facing the 20-30 million artisanal and small-scale miners and their communities worldwide. Better understanding of these structural challenges is needed to improve policies and policy implementation to further sustainable development opportunities for the sector. The paper explores the current gaps in knowledge to achieve policy change from researchers, practitioners and artisanal and small-scale miners themselves. It explores how a 'knowledge intermediary', which acts to link knowledge with policy, could address these gaps and includes case studies of IIED’s work on knowledge networks and programmes. The paper concludes by proposing a way forward for designing a knowledge programme to meet the particular needs of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector, and by inviting ASM sector stakeholders to share their views on the options outlined.

  6. Solar magnetoconvection and small-scale dynamo: Recent developments in observation and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Borrero, J M; Schüssler, M; Solanki, S K

    2015-01-01

    A number of observational and theoretical aspects of solar magnetoconvection are considered in this review. We discuss recent developments in our understanding of the small-scale structure of the magnetic field on the solar surface and its interaction with convective flows, which is at the centre of current research. Topics range from plage areas in active regions over the magnetic network shaped by supergranulation to the ubiquituous `turbulent' internetwork fields. On the theoretical side, we focus upon magnetic field generation by small-scale dynamo action.

  7. Running with BICEP2: Implications for Small-Scale Problems in CDM

    OpenAIRE

    Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Abazajian, Kevork N.; Bullock, James S; Kaplinghat, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The BICEP2 results, when interpreted as a gravitational wave signal and combined with other CMB data, suggest a roll-off in power towards small scales in the primordial matter power spectrum. Among the simplest possibilities is a running of the spectral index. Here we show that the preferred level of running alleviates small-scale issues within the $\\Lambda$CDM model, more so even than viable WDM models. We use cosmological zoom-in simulations of a Milky Way-size halo along ...

  8. Fabrication of small-scale structures with non-planar features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burckel, David B.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2015-11-19

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  9. A review of mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Kasper Bruun; Thomsen, Jane FrØlund

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of gold using mercury has been a way out of poverty for millions of people in developing countries. Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has expanded during the last decades and is often carried out under primitive conditions. Thus, workers in this industry may be exposed to high levels of mercury and suffer from toxic effects from mercury exposure. The objective of this review was to provide an outline of the studies available on elemental mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners.

  10. Validity of thermally-driven small-scale ventilated filling box models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jamie L.; Linden, P. F.

    2013-11-01

    The majority of previous work studying building ventilation flows at laboratory scale have used saline plumes in water. The production of buoyancy forces using salinity variations in water allows dynamic similarity between the small-scale models and the full-scale flows. However, in some situations, such as including the effects of non-adiabatic boundaries, the use of a thermal plume is desirable. The efficacy of using temperature differences to produce buoyancy-driven flows representing natural ventilation of a building in a small-scale model is examined here, with comparison between previous theoretical and new, heat-based, experiments.

  11. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    OpenAIRE

    Squire, Jonathan; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism for turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity ten...

  12. Hyperdiffusion in non-linear, large and small-scale turbulent dynamos

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2003-01-01

    The generation of large-scale magnetic fields is generically accompanied by the more rapid growth of small-scale fields. The growing Lorentz force due to these fields back reacts on the turbulence to saturate the mean-field and small-scale dynamos. For the mean-field dynamo, in a quasi-linear treatment of this saturation, it is generally thought that, while the alpha-effect gets renormalised and suppressed by non-linear effects, the turbulent diffusion is left unchanged. We ...

  13. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  14. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L.; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Yamoah Tenkorang, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  15. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  16. Responding to Globalization: Impacts of Certification on Colombian Small-Scale Coffee Growers

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Rueda; Lambin, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    Eco-certification of food and other agricultural products has been promoted as a way of making markets work for sustainability. Certification programs offer a price premium to producers who invest in more sustainable practices. The literature on the impacts of certification has focused primarily on the economic benefits farmers perceive from participating in these schemes. These benefits, however, are often subject to price variability, offering only a partial explanation of why farmers join ...

  17. Small-scale dynamos on the solar surface: dependence on magnetic Prandtl number

    CERN Document Server

    Thaler, I

    2015-01-01

    The question of possible small-scale dynamo action in the surface layers of the Sun is revisited with realistic 3D MHD simulations. As in other MHD problems, dynamo action is found to be a sensitive function of the magnetic Prandtl number ${\\rm P_{\\rm m} }=\

  18. Fuel From Farms: A Guide to Small-Scale Ethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO.

    Ethanol and blends of ethanol and gasoline (such as gasohol) offer a near-term fuel alternative to oil. The focus of this handbook is upon the small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as the source of raw materials. Provided are chapters on ethanol production procedures, feedstocks, plant design, and financial planning. Also presented…

  19. Small-Scale Bullying Prevention Discussion Video for Classrooms: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has been shown to be negatively related to both academic performance and attendance among students. The present study examined a small-scale bullying intervention using a video-discussion model. Eighty-one students in grades 4 through 6 completed pre- and posttests examining gains in knowledge of bullying and responses to it. Results…

  20. Fostering sustainable small-scale investments: lessons from experience and ideas for intervention and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents lessons from experience pertinent to implementing small-scale natural resource and related investment projects in developing countries. It outlines ideas for intervention and innovation to foster such investments. Particular emphasis is placed on private-sector participation in these investments. Following a brief presentation of the economic development and other arguments that support intervention and innovation in support of such small-scale natural resource investments, the article discusses many of the lessons learned from experience. These lessons reinforce those touched upon in the investment-specific discussions in the previous articles. The experience and associated lessons that are examined include experiences in both developing and developed countries and encompass nor just lessons from natural resource investments, but also small-scale investments in other sectors. Financing and other innovations which facilitate meeting the challenges are drawn from relevant experience where barriers to investment have been surmounted. Options for programme and project interventions to increase market penetration of small-scale investments and achieve the associated development linkages and synergies are suggested. These suggestions are aimed especially at governments and bilateral and multilateral development finance and development assistance entities. It is those players who might support such interventions in collaboration with local financial institutions and other market players. (author)

  1. Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, James

    2010-01-01

    There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

  2. Towards systematic planning of small-scale hydrological intervention-based research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramana, K. E. R.; Ertsen, M. W.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2015-09-01

    Many small-scale water development initiatives are accompanied by hydrological research to study either the shape of the intervention or its impacts. Humans influence both, and thus one needs to take human agency into account. This paper focuses on the effects of human actions in the intervention and its associated hydrological research, as these effects have not yet been discussed explicitly in a systematic way. In this paper, we propose a systematic planning, based on evaluating three hydrological research projects in small-scale water intervention projects in Vietnam, Kenya, and Indonesia. The main purpose of the three projects was to understand the functioning of interventions in their hydrological contexts. Aiming for better decision-making on hydrological research in small-scale water intervention projects, we propose two analysis steps: (1) being prepared for surprises and (2) cost-benefit analysis. By performing the two analyses continuously throughout a small-scale hydrological intervention based project, effective hydrological research can be achieved.

  3. A new framework for analyzing the effects of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen; Wald, Robert

    2011-04-01

    While the universe is spatially homogeneous and isotropic on large scales, it is extremely inhomogeneous on small scales, where fractional density perturbations can be much larger than one. With this in mind, several authors have proposed that, when properly averaged, non-linear terms in the Einstein equation can mimic Dark Energy. We present a non-vacuum generalization of the "short-wave approximation", which takes such large density fluctuations on short scales into account in a mathematically rigorous manner. We prove that if the stress energy tensor of matter satisfies the weak energy condition, then the zeroth order "effective stress energy tensor" associated with the small scale density and metric fluctuations must be trace-free and satisfy the weak energy condition as well. We conclude from this that small scale density inhomogeneities cannot account for the acceleration of the scale factor. However, at first order, we find that linearized cosmological perturbation theory can be corrected to include small but non-zero backreaction effects of small scale density inhomogeneities.

  4. Air pollution and economics: Alternate use of fuels in small scale industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries the problem of air pollution was recognized earlier, however, it has acquired a greater dimension due to the conventional use of low grade fuels like coal, baggase, rice husk, etc. having high sulphur and ash content. The industrial sources contribute about 30--40% of the total emissions. In India, the small scale industries (low investment group) contribute about 60--80% of the total industrial emissions. These industries are characterized with various environmental pollution problems due to cluster of small scale industries located in sensitive area; use of low grade fuel, primitive processing techniques without emission abatement facilities etc., thus leading to enormous pollution in an confined region. Acute need was felt to reduce the pollution problem associated with small scale industries by use of cleaner fuel so as to reduce the localized problem. The paper presents the emissions associated with use of coal/coke, natural gas, LPG, and propane along with the fuel cost for small scale industrial sector of Agra, Firozabad and Mathura region. The studies carried out would find applicability to meet the air pollution standards based on shift in fuel and associated cost

  5. Analysis of Stability, Response and LQR Controller Design of a Small Scale Helicopter Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmayanda, Hardian Reza; Lee, Young Jae; Sung, Sangkyung

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents how to use feedback controller with helicopter dynamics state space model. A simplified analysis is presented for controller design using LQR of small scale helicopters for axial and forward flights. Our approach is simple and gives the basic understanding about how to develop controller for solving the stability of linear helicopter flight dynamics.

  6. Evaluation of real-time operating system for small-scale embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the performance of some real-time operating systems for small-scale embedded systems are evaluated based on some criteria. The evaluation is performed qualitatively and quantitatively. The evaluation results based on a case study on an engineering application will be presented. (author)

  7. Analyses of particulate emissions from small-scale combustion appliances; Chemische Zusammensetzung von Partikelemissionen aus Kleinfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, H.; Huebner, C.; Ellinger, R. [Lab. fuer Umweltanalytik GesmbH, Wien (Austria)

    2007-10-15

    Emissions of fine particles from modern small scale heating appliances were studied on a test bench. Two different residential oil combustion devices with light fuel oil of standard quality and of low sulphur content as well as one modern solid fuel combustion appliance with two brands of wood pellets with different ash contents were set up. (orig.)

  8. Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated fro...

  9. A method of studying small-scale surface inhomogeneities by refraction of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshchenko, A. M.; Ryazanov, M. I.

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of obtaining information on small-scale inhomogeneities of the surface of a dielectric, which are caused by natural variation of the surface-layer polarizability and fluctuations of surface properties, by means of refraction of a plane electromagnetic wave under the condition of total internal reflection.

  10. Small scale hydroelectric power plant outputs; Rendimento de geradores para microcentrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto; Almeida, Antonio Tadeu Lyrio de; Bernardes, Delvio Franco [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1986-12-31

    This work aims to state the needs that, at least in current terms, the generator output for small scale power hydroelectric power plants be evaluated, and effectively supplied, for all units manufactured by the national industry. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its? product?s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products? samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product ?telemea?. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers? products and their reliability for the consumers.

  12. The Rural Landscapes and Small-Scale Agricultural Practices in the Transylvanian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae BACIU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the relationships between small-scale agricultural practices and cultural landscape of Transylvanian Plain. The geographical position of Transylvanian Plain in central part of Romania shows with relevance its favourability for sustainable agriculture and developing assumptions. Despite of this, the region was kept outside of the major infrastructural and economic trends. We could, also, include the Transylvanian Plain into a typical rural “central isolation space” relating on this historical-political tendencies, concluding on different types of rural and agricultural landscapes. In this context, small-scale agriculture practices are alternatives to factory farming or more broadly, intensive agriculture or unsustainable farming methods. Sustainable agriculture is not only a package of prescribed methods but is a pre-requisite for territorial development of rural areas. Small scale agriculture include a number of sustainable farm practices such as: organic farming, which removes all chemical pesticides, herbicides and fertilizer from agriculture; permaculture, which provides a holistic methodology for farm design; arable land use that is used for growing crops; non-arable land use; pastoral land use etc. Generally speaking, the small-scale agricultural practices are oriented to: produce enough food; produce safe food; take care of the environment; build thriving and strong rural communities.

  13. A Small-Scale Concept-Based Laboratory Component: The Best of Both Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halme, Dina Gould; Khodor, Julia; Mitchell, Rudolph; Walker, Graham C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we describe an exploratory study of a small-scale, concept-driven, voluntary laboratory component of Introductory Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. We wished to investigate whether students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of basic biological principles would improve through concept-based…

  14. A comparison of relative toxicity rankings by some small-scale laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Small-scale laboratory tests for fire toxicity, suitable for use in the average laboratory hood, are needed for screening and ranking materials on the basis of relative toxicity. The performance of wool, cotton, and aromatic polyamide under several test procedures is presented.

  15. Large grazers modify effects of aboveground-belowground interactions on small-scale plant community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, G F Ciska; Geuverink, Elzemiek; Olff, Han

    2012-02-01

    Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales interact with small-scale aboveground-belowground interactions on plant community heterogeneity. Here, we investigate how cattle (Bos taurus) modify the effects of interactions between yellow meadow ants (Lasius flavus) and European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) on the formation of small-scale heterogeneity in vegetation composition. In the absence of cattle, hares selectively foraged on ant mounds, while under combined grazing by hares and cattle, vertebrate grazing pressure was similar on and off mounds. Ant mounds that were grazed by only hares had a different plant community composition compared to their surroundings: the cover of the grazing-intolerant grass Elytrigia atherica was reduced on ant mounds, whereas the relative cover of the more grazing-tolerant and palatable grass Festuca rubra was enhanced. Combined grazing by hares and cattle, resulted in homogenization of plant community composition on and off ant mounds, with high overall cover of F. rubra. We conclude that hares can respond to local ant-soil-vegetation interactions, because they are small, selective herbivores that make their foraging decisions on a local scale. This results in small-scale plant patches on mounds of yellow meadow ants. In the presence of cattle, which are less selective aboveground herbivores, local plant community patterns triggered by small-scale aboveground-belowground interactions can disappear. Therefore, cattle modify the consequences of aboveground-belowground interactions for small-scale plant community composition. PMID:21863246

  16. Low-force magneto-rheological damper design for small-scale structural control experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Benjamin D.; Velazquez, Antonio; Swartz, R. Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Experimental validation of novel structural control algorithms is a vital step in both developing and building acceptance for this technology. Small-scale experimental test-beds fulfill an important role in the validation of multiple-degree-offreedom (MDOF) and distributed semi-active control systems, allowing researchers to test the control algorithms, communication topologies, and timing-critical aspects of structural control systems that do not require full-scale specimens. In addition, small-scale building specimens can be useful in combined structural health monitoring (SHM) and LQG control studies, diminishing safety concerns during experiments by using benchtop-scale rather than largescale specimens. Development of such small-scale test-beds is hampered by difficulties in actuator construction. In order to be a useful analog to full-scale structures, actuators for small-scale test-beds should exhibit similar features and limitations as their full-scale counterparts. In particular, semi-active devices, such as magneto-rheological (MR) fluid dampers, with limited authority (versus active mass dampers) and nonlinear behavior are difficult to mimic over small force scales due to issues related to fluid containment and friction. In this study, a novel extraction-type small-force (0- 10 N) MR-fluid damper which exhibits nonlinear hysteresis similar to a full-scale, MR-device is proposed. This actuator is a key development to enable the function of a small-scale structural control test-bed intended for wireless control validation studies. Experimental validation of this prototype is conducted using a 3-story scale structure subjected to simulated single-axis seismic excitation. The actuator affects the structural response commanded by a control computer that executes an LQG state feedback control law and a modified Bouc-Wen lookup table that was previously developed for full-scale MR-applications. In addition, damper dynamic limitations are characterized and presented including force output magnitude and frequency characteristics.

  17. Pig’s farmer’s profile in Banyumas Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartoko

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was purposed to study pig’s farmer’s profile in Banyumas Regency. The research was carried out since December 1999 to May 2000. It was located at Banyumas Regency. The method applied was survey with intensive observation, involved 51 respondents (54.26 percent of total pig farmers in Banyumas Regency, consist of 7.80 percent women and 92.20 percent men. The result showed that pig’s farmer were in productive age (44 years with low formal education level (Sekolah Dasar. Most of all are moeslems (90,16 percent and had small family size (4-5 members. They have other income source and they rear pigs to generate income or to use soybean cake’s waste (ampas tahu. Experience in the farming was quite long (more than 10 years and skill come from imitating their neighbours, friends of other wise of autodidact. (Animal Production 2(1: 40-46 (2000 Key Words: profile, pig’s farmer, Banyumas, experience

  18. Farmers' willingness to pay for less health risks by pesticide use: A case study from the cotton belt of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad; Damalas, Christos A

    2015-10-15

    The amount of pesticides used in crop production in Pakistan has increased rapidly in the last decades, whereas farmers in many areas of the country show little knowledge of safe and efficient use of pesticides. The level of willingness to pay (WTP) for avoiding health risks by pesticides was studied among 318 randomly selected cotton farmers from two districts of the area of Punjab (i.e., Vehari and Lodhran) in Pakistan, using the contingent valuation method. Most farmers felt that pesticide use is a prerequisite for successful cotton production, whereas at the same time they were well aware of pesticide health risks, which they considered minor. The majority of the farmers (77%) showed varying levels of WTP some fee up to 20% of the current pesticide expenditures for avoiding pesticide health risks, but few were willing to pay a fee over 20%. The mean WTP per farmer was low, reaching 5.8 $US on an annual basis. By contrast, a considerable proportion of the farmers (23%) were not willing to pay any fee for avoiding pesticide health risks. These individuals were mostly poor small-scale farmers with limited or no education. High levels of risk perception about pesticides, past experience of pesticide intoxication, high levels of education, and high income were associated with high farmers' WTP for less health risks by pesticides. Farmers who perceived major health risks by pesticides appeared to be highly willing to pay a premium for safe pesticides. Elderly farmers appeared more likely to pay some premium for safe pesticides as a result of higher farming experience and higher income than young farmers. Well-educated farmers were more likely to pay a high premium for safe pesticides. Large farm size was a significant predictor of positive WTP, which was interpreted as an indicator of farmers' wealth. PMID:26047864

  19. Soil Nutrient Content Influences the Abundance of Soil Microbes but Not Plant Biomass at the Small-Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Koorem, Kadri; Gazol, Antonio; Öpik, Maarja; Moora, Mari; Saks, Ülle; Uibopuu, Annika; Sõber, Virve; Zobel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale heterogeneity of abiotic and biotic factors is expected to play a crucial role in species coexistence. It is known that plants are able to concentrate their root biomass into areas with high nutrient content and also acquire nutrients via symbiotic microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. At the same time, little is known about the small-scale distribution of soil nutrients, microbes and plant biomass occurring in the same area. We examined small-scale temporal an...

  20. A Framework for Systematic Design and Construction of an Unmanned Small-scale Air-Land-Water Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Arhami Arhami; Khalid Hasnan; Abas Ab. Wahab

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for systematic design and construction of an unmanned small-scale air-land-water vehicle. The systematic design procedure includes design and integration, hardware component selection, as well as experimental evaluation are used to construct a fully functional unmanned small-scale air-land-water vehicle, namely Unmanned Small-scale Air-Land-Water Vehicle (USALWaV). Various component to support maneuver on the ground, flight, and cruising on surface of wat...

  1. Individual Factors Affecting Farmers’ Motivation to Participate in Date Growers’ Organizations in Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Alimirzaei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Khuzestan Province has a great share in Iran’s date production in which many rural households are directly dependent to dates production. However, small holding system has led to a lot of challenges faced by small scale farmers whereas much potential of date production and marketing lost every year. Despite of strong felt need to social capital development and government’s recent activities in order to help farmers to organize themselves, there is not so much interest in this connection generally. So, the purpose of this study was to provide a framework for understanding the individual factors affecting farmers’ motivation to participate in date growers’ organizations. The population of the research consisted of 584 members of five present date growers’ organizations. By the use of Cochran Formula, 120 farmers were randomly selected as research sample. Data were gathered trough a researcher-made questionnaire and analyzed by the use of SPSS software. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that three independent variables namely "degree of formal education", "attendance in extension-education courses" and "years of date growing", predicted 62% of variation of farmers’ total motivation to participate in date growers’ organizations.

  2. Comparison of Improved Sugarcane Genotypes on Farmer`s Field

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Bahadar; Muhammad Jamal; Muhammad Safdar Baloch; Hamdullah Azim

    2000-01-01

    Performance of five sugarcane varieties viz. Bannu-1, Naurang-98, COL-75, S-86-US-422 and PAS-132 was evaluated at 39 locations on farmer`s field in Bannu division for four consecutive years. The study revealed that varieties Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 out yielded other varieties during the entire period of investigation. However, amongst these, Naurang-98 exhibited better sugar recovery. Variety S-86-US-422 possessed higher sugar contents as compared to PAS-132 and COL-75. On the basis of result...

  3. Occupational Health and Safety Issues among Vegetable Farmers in Trinidad and the Implications for Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksh, K S; Ganpat, W; Narine, L K

    2015-07-01

    Trinidad has an aged farming population. For a host of reasons, young persons are not entering the agricultural sector; therefore, these aged farmers will continue to be the backbone of the industry. Hence, there is much need for improving the health and safety of the workers within this sector. This first-time study assessed the prevalence of occupational health and safety disorders and discomforts among Trinidad's vegetable farmers in an attempt to understand the extent of the problem within the general farm population. The implications for extension are highlighted, and several recommendations are provided. Small-scale commercial-oriented vegetable farmers (n = 100) from ten of the most populated agricultural areas across Trinidad were surveyed. Results indicated that there was an overall moderate prevalence of occupational injuries among vegetable farmers. Most prevalent were musculoskeletal disorders of the lower back and upper body extremities, watery/burning eyes, skin rashes/itching, headaches, fatigue, dehydration, stress, and injuries attributed to slips and falls. Based on the evidence that a problem exists with health and safety, the extension service can now prepare and deliver programs to educate farmers on the actions necessary to improve their personal health and safety and that of their workers. This type of study has not been done before among farmers in Trinidad. It brings a very important and timely issue to the fore because of the aged farming population. Additionally, since the farmer profile and farming systems are similar in the wider Caribbean, policy makers can take note of the findings and recommendations and embrace actions. PMID:26373214

  4. Staying Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preparing your home Managing your everyday Staying healthy Infection prevention Infection signs and treatment Graft-versus-host disease ( ... body recover and avoid complications. Tweet Staying healthy Infection prevention Infection signs and treatment Watch as patients and ...

  5. Diffusion and Radiation in Magnetized Collisionless Plasmas with High-Frequency Small-Scale Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Keenan, Brett D

    2015-01-01

    Magnetized high-energy-density plasmas can often have strong electromagnetic fluctuations whose correlation scale is smaller than the electron Larmor radius. Radiation from the electrons in such plasmas, which markedly differs from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation, and their energy and pitch-angle diffusion are tightly related. In this paper, we present a comprehensive theoretical and numerical study of the particles' transport in both cold, "small-scale" Langmuir and Whistler-mode turbulence and its relation to the spectra of radiation simultaneously produced by these particles. We emphasize that this relation is a superb diagnostic tool of laboratory, astrophysical, interplanetary, and solar plasmas with a mean magnetic field and strong small-scale turbulence.

  6. Watermill and Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Plant Landscapes Assessed According to Ecological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilita Lazd?ne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research of watermill and small-scale hydroelectric power plant (HPP landscapes in Latvia according to ecological aspects is a part of a more complex research. The aim of this research is to examine the existing situation of watermill and small-scale HPP landscapes in Latvia by applying the ecological assessment criteria, and then try to formulate a definition of common tendencies of the landscape character. This paper provides a landscape inventory matrix for research in the field stu­dies of landscape identification at the local planning level. The duration of the research was from 2010 to 2012. The research includes 42 territories starting with the three most densely developed areas in Latvia: in Latgale, Kurzeme and Vidzeme uplands distribution ranges. The research results reflect tendencies of the landscape features assessed according to the previously developed criteria of ecological aspects.

  7. Supplier Selection through Analytical Hierarchy Process: A Case Study In Small Scale Manufacturing Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Devendra Singh Verma1 , Ajitabh pateriya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This is an era of highly competitive environment. Small Scale Manufacturing Organizations should be very conscious, while selecting an effective supplier as such it increases the success and effectiveness of an organization. Supplier of a company increases not only its profitability but also its own economic strength. Both qualitative and quantitative factors are involved while selecting a supplier thereby making it a multi criteria decision making problem. So to choose the best supplier, one has to consider both tangible and intangible factors which might conflict. The proposed method involves the selection of criteria which is evaluated with the available literature and informal discussions with various industry professionals and academicians. This is a improved hybrid methodology, which uses the AHP for determining the global and local weights of criteria thereby selecting the best supplier. In this article a methodology has been developed using AHP for evaluating and selecting the best supplier for small scale manufacturing organizations.

  8. Probing small-scale non-Gaussianity from anisotropies in acoustic reheating

    CERN Document Server

    Naruko, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2015-01-01

    We give new constraints on small-scale non-Gaussianity of primordial curvature perturbations by the use of anisotropies in acoustic reheating. Mixing of local thermal or local kinetic equilibrium systems with different temperatures yields a locally averaged temperature rise, which is proportional to the square of temperature perturbations damping in the photon diffusion scale. Such secondary temperature perturbations are indistinguishable from the standard temperature perturbations linearly coming from primordial curvature perturbations and hence should be subdominant compared to the standard ones. We show that small-scale higher order correlation functions (connected non-Gaussian and disconnected Gaussian parts) of primordial curvature perturbations can be probed by investigating auto power spectrum of the generated secondary perturbations and the cross power spectrum with the standard perturbations. This is simply because these power spectra come from higher order correlation functions of primordial curvatu...

  9. “MAJOR PROBLEMS OF SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIAL UNITS IN KURNOOL DISTRICT, A.P, INDIA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sreenivasulu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kurnool is the regarded as an industrially backward district in India. The rate of industrial development is reality low, through several measures have been initiated to accelerate industrial development in the district. These include offering investment subsidies, providing industrial infrastructure, extending vocational training support and offering concessional finances especially for the small and tiny units. The activitywise distribution of small scale units are 27,611 industrial small scale units in the district with an estimated aggregate Investment of Rs. 36,132 Lakhs and providing employment to 75,503 persons. Category-wise distribution of these units reveals the predominance of mineral -based units followed by agro-based, forest-based, engineering-based and allied-based, chemical and food based units.

  10. Magnetic Field Tunable Small-scale Mechanical Properties of Nickel Single Crystals Measured by Nanoindentation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

    2014-04-01

    Nano- and micromagnetic materials have been extensively employed in micro-functional devices. However, measuring small-scale mechanical and magnetomechanical properties is challenging, which restricts the design of new products and the performance of smart devices. A new magnetomechanical nanoindentation technique is developed and tested on a nickel single crystal in the absence and presence of a saturated magnetic field. Small-scale parameters such as Young's modulus, indentation hardness, and plastic index are dependent on the applied magnetic field, which differ greatly from their macroscale counterparts. Possible mechanisms that induced 31% increase in modulus and 7% reduction in hardness (i.e., the flexomagnetic effect and the interaction between dislocations and magnetic field, respectively) are analyzed and discussed. Results could be useful in the microminiaturization of applications, such as tunable mechanical resonators and magnetic field sensors.

  11. Introduction of control system tool kit EPICS to small-scale accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control system tool kit EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) developed for controlling large-scale accelerators has been employed in many accelerator facilities all over the world including KEKB. Introduction of the EPICS has been so far limited to large-scale accelerator facilities. The newest version EPICS 3.14 has been improved to correspond to many platforms including Linux and also to facilitate download easily. As a result the EPICS system can now be introduced to small-scale accelerator facilities as well with reasonable cost. The latest trend of the development of EPICS and the outline of a small-scale EPIC package 'mini EPICS' which is under development at KEK are described. (author)

  12. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  13. Energy transfers and magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Rohit; Samtaney, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    In this letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo by studying energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers. We perform dynamo simulation for magnetic Prandtl number $\\mathrm{Pm}=20$ on $1024^3$ grid using pseudospectral method. We demonstrate using flux and shell-to-shell energy transfer computations that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large scale velocity field to small scale magnetic field. The energy transfers $U2U$ (velocity to velocity) and $B2B$ (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. We also show that the magnetic energy grows exponentially with time, and it tends to have equipartition with kinetic energy.

  14. Study on Verification of Natural Circulation for Small Scale Reactor with Passive System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a development of industry, energy demands are greatly increased and environmental problems such as energy crisis, global warming and acid rain are issued. With this fact, eastern European countries have already led the development and operation of many nuclear district heating power plant. And a study on small scale reactor for multi-purpose regional energy system is started in Korea. This reactor is induced natural coolant circulation and passive systems to enhance safety. And economical efficiency is improved with remote control system. From the viewpoint of design characteristics for regional energy reactor, the thermo-hydraulic analysis of natural circulation system is needed. So, small scale reactor that induced natural coolant circulation is nodalized and analysis is done with RELAP

  15. STRATEGIC PLANNING IN BRAZILIAN SMALL-SCALE MUNICIPALITIES: IS THE BALANCED SCORECARD A FEASIBLE TOOL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Corrêa Gomes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Balanced Scorecard has not yet been tested in Brazilian small-scale municipalities. The BSC is based on dimensions of Learning and Growth, Internal Processes Business, Financial and Customer. In order to fit to public organizations it needs some adjustments due to these organizations’ objectives. This paper presents a case study focusing on municipalities from Brazil. Data has been collected by action research and analysed by qualitative analysis. The analysis indicates that the BSC can be successfully implemented in small-scale municipalities. It soundly depends on Mayor’s leadership and staff’s engagement. The way the intervention is conducted is also important. By keeping it as easier as possible, employees are more able to participate and to collaborate in the process.

  16. ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE WITH REFERENCE TO RURAL SMALL SCALE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY IN PUNE DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Jagdale

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial Leadership is a significant concept in entrepreneurship literature. Different leadership styles effect on effectiveness and performance of the organizations. Present research investigates the impact ofEntrepreneurial Leadership style onOrganizational Performance with reference to Rural Small Scale Engineering Industry in Pune District of India. A ten items scale developed by (Boltan 2012 was used to find leadership styles. The data werecollected from one hundred and forty four (144 entrepreneursfrom Rural Small Scale Engineering Industryof 13 tehsils of in Pune District of India. For statistical analysis Mean, Standard Deviation, T-Test, and Chi-square test were used. Study concludes that there is no significant association between leadership styles and organizational performance.

  17. Financing Energy Services for Small-scale Energy-users - project FINESSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the FINESSE (Financing Energy Services for Small-scale Energy users) launched in 1989 by World Bank 's Energy Sector Assistance Program (ESMAP) in association with the US Department of Energy and the Netherlands Ministry for Development Cooperation, whose purpose is to address financial, institutional and policy issues related to enhancing energy services for residential and commercial energy consumers in the Developing World. It describes the related technology benefits of renewable energy and energy efficiency, as well as a technology overview and outlines the strategies for financing alternatives in the Developing World. It concludes with a description of successful experiences in small-scale energy services, especially in Asia. (TEC). 8 figs

  18. Energy transfers and magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit Raj

    2013-12-01

    In this letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo by studying energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers. We perform dynamo simulations for the magnetic Prandtl number Pm = 20 on 10243 grid using the pseudospectral method. We demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers moves towards lower wave numbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason why the integral scale of the magnetic field increases with time. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. Copyright © EPLA, 2013.

  19. Prevalence of Small-scale Jets from the Networks of the Solar Transition Region and Chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, H; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W

    2014-01-01

    As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80-250 km/s from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20-80 seconds and widths of 300 km or less. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with ~20 km/s amplitudes. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~100000 K and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind.

  20. The Small-Scale Dynamo and Non-Ideal MHD in Primordial Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schober, Jennifer; Federrath, Christoph; Glover, Simon; Klessen, Ralf; Banerjee, Robi

    2012-01-01

    We study the amplification of magnetic fields during the formation of primordial halos. The turbulence generated by gravitational infall motions during the formation of the first stars and galaxies can amplify magnetic fields very efficiently and on short timescales up to dynamically significant values. Using the Kazantsev theory, which describes the so-called small-scale dynamo - a magnetohydrodynamical process converting kinetic energy from turbulence into magnetic energy - we can then calculate the growth rate of the small-scale magnetic field. Our calculations are based on a detailed chemical network and we include non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical effects such as ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation. We follow the evolution of the magnetic field up to larger scales until saturation occurs on the Jeans scale. Assuming a weak magnetic seed field generated by the Biermann battery process, both Burgers and Kolmogorov turbulence lead to saturation within a rather small density range. Such fields are likely...

  1. Mesogranulation and small-scale dynamo action in the quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bushby, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Regions of quiet Sun generally exhibit a complex distribution of small-scale magnetic field structures, which interact with the near-surface turbulent convective motions. Furthermore, it is probable that some of these magnetic fields are generated locally by a convective dynamo mechanism. In addition to the well-known granular and supergranular convective scales, various observations have indicated that there is an intermediate scale of convection, known as mesogranulation, with vertical magnetic flux concentrations accumulating preferentially at mesogranular boundaries. Our aim is to investigate the small-scale dynamo properties of a convective flow that exhibits both granulation and mesogranulation, comparing our findings with solar observations. Adopting an idealised model for a localised region of quiet Sun, we use numerical simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamics, in a 3D Cartesian domain, to investigate the parametric dependence of this system (focusing particularly upon the effects of varying ...

  2. Choice of turbines to small-scale power plants; Valg av turbiner for smaakraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Hermod

    2009-07-01

    Small scale power plants developer might save considerable amounts through increased revenues by choosing right turbines. Even though the costs of installing a Pelton turbine is higher then that of a Francis turbine, in many cases this will be profitable because of increased efficiency, specially during winter with low flow of water and higher power prices. It is essential to choose a consult who is able to take the right considerations. (AG) 3.figs., ill

  3. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ngufor L. Atanga; Anna C. Treydte; Regina Birner

    2013-01-01

    Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P), agro-pastoral (AP), and landless intensive (LI) small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quanti...

  4. Supplier Selection through Analytical Hierarchy Process: A Case Study In Small Scale Manufacturing Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Devendra Singh Verma1 , Ajitabh pateriya

    2013-01-01

    This is an era of highly competitive environment. Small Scale Manufacturing Organizations should be very conscious, while selecting an effective supplier as such it increases the success and effectiveness of an organization. Supplier of a company increases not only its profitability but also its own economic strength. Both qualitative and quantitative factors are involved while selecting a supplier thereby making it a multi criteria decision making problem. So to choose the best supplier, one...

  5. ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP: EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN RURAL SMALL SCALE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Dnyandeo Jagdale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial Leadership is a relatively new, sometimes controversial, andburgeoning field of management research. Significance of this concept is increasing day by day in entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneur’s different leadership styles effect on performanceof the organizations. Present research investigates the impact of employee perceived EntrepreneurialLeadership style on Organizational Performance. Study is conducted with reference to RuralSmall Scale Engineering Industry in Pune District of India.

  6. Community- Weighted Mean Plant Traits Predict Small Scale Distribution of Insect Root Herbivore Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltsch, Florian; Wurst, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calculated community-weighted mean plant traits to test whether the functional plant community composition determines the small scale distribution of insect root herbivores. To analyze spatial patterns in plant species and trait composition and insect root herbivore abundance we computed Mantel correlograms. Insect root herbivores mainly comprised click beetle (Coleoptera, Elateridae) larvae (43%) in the investigated grasslands. Total insect root herbivore numbers were positively related to community-weighted mean traits indicating high plant growth rates and biomass (specific leaf area, reproductive- and vegetative plant height), and negatively related to plant traits indicating poor tissue quality (leaf C/N ratio). Generalist Elaterid larvae, when analyzed independently, were also positively related to high plant growth rates and furthermore to root dry mass, but were not related to tissue quality. Insect root herbivore numbers were not related to plant cover, plant species richness and soil water content. Plant species composition and to a lesser extent plant trait composition displayed spatial autocorrelation, which was not influenced by land use intensity. Insect root herbivore abundance was not spatially autocorrelated. We conclude that in semi-natural grasslands with a high share of generalist insect root herbivores, insect root herbivores affiliate with large, fast growing plants, presumably because of availability of high quantities of food. Affiliation of insect root herbivores with large, fast growing plants may counteract dominance of those species, thus promoting plant diversity. PMID:26517119

  7. Charged-particle decay and suppression of small-scale power

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurdson, Kris; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2003-01-01

    We study the suppression of the small-scale power spectrum due to the decay of charged matter to dark matter prior to recombination. Prior to decay, the charged particles couple to the photon-baryon fluid and participate in its acoustic oscillations. However, after decaying to neutral dark matter the photon-baryon fluid is coupled only gravitationally to the newly-created dark matter. This generically leads to suppression of power on length scales that enter the horizon prio...

  8. A dynamic model for generating small-scale heterogeneities in ocean floor basalts

    OpenAIRE

    Bideau, Daniel; Hekinian, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Small-scale distribution of basaltic compositions along the mid-ocean ridge crests suggests that the magmatic processes are sensitive to spatial and temporal fluctuations related to proximity of ridge hot spots, changes in spreading rate, thermal boundary effects associated with ridge offsets, off-axis volcanoes and ridge propagators, and variations in magma supply through time. A detailed sampling of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) axis, near 13 degrees N, revealed that complex basalt compositio...

  9. Biomass fired small-scale CHP technologies - Present status and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konttinen, J. (Univ. of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland), Renewable energy programme), e-mail: jukontti@jyu.fi; Linna, V. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), e-mail: veli.linna@vtt.fi; Uusi-Maahi, I. (Keulink Oy, Keuruu (Finland)), e-mail: ilkka.uusi-maahi@keulink.fi

    2010-07-01

    The competitiveness of biomass-fuelled CHP (Combined Heat and Power) production technologies is rising. Small-scale (or micro-CHP) means power and heat production in the scale of 10...1000 kW{sub e} by combustion or gasification of biomass. A survey about the commercial potential and technologies in Europe of micro-CHP was made by the University of Jyvaeskylae and VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland). The survey was funded by Keulink Oy and Jyvaeskylae Innovation Oy. According to the results of the literature survey, the most promising technologies for power production are based on so called ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) and Stirling engines. Woody-type of biomass is the best raw material for these applications. With the small-scale technologies, the power production efficiency can vary in the range of 15...30 % of the biomass thermal input. New innovative technologies for small-scale CHP application of woody biomass are being developed by private companies in Central and Northern Finland. Some of these are presented in more detail. The technologies are either based on combustion or gasification of wood-based biomass. Using the product gas in combustion engines requires cleaning, which can be carried out with innovative dry or wet clearing processes. Dry cleaning is possible with catalysts and wet cleaning with scrubbers. The small-scale CHP technologies offer significant potential in local consumption sites of power and heat, such as greenhouses and farms. So called 'eco-villages' are also being built to demonstrate this potential. The possibilities for producing liquid transport fuels, such as biodiesel, are also discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  10. Small-scale bioenergy projects in rural China: Lessons to be learnt

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; L. Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Large amounts of small-scale bioenergy projects were carried out in China's rural areas in light of its national renewable energy policies. These projects applied pyrolysis gasification as the main technology, which turns biomass waste at low costs into biogas. This paper selects seven bioenergy projects in Shandong Province as a case and assesses these projects in terms of economy, technological performance and effectiveness. Results show that these projects have not achieved a satisfying pe...

  11. Design of a small-scale organic Rankine cycle engine used in a solar power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Georges, Emeline; Declaye, Sébastien; Dumont, Olivier; Quoilin, Sylvain; Lemort, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Under the economic and political pressure due to the depletion of fossil fuels and global warming concerns, it is necessary to develop more sustainable techniques to provide electrical power. In this context, the present study aims at designing, building and testing a small-scale organic Rankine cycle (ORC) solar power plant ( 3 kWe) in order to define and optimize control strategies that could be applied to larger systems. This paper presents a first step of the design of the s...

  12. Low Discounting Behavior among Small-Scale Fishers in Fiji and Sabah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Louise S. L. Teh; Teh, Lydia C. L.; Rashid Sumaila, U.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the socio-economic factors that are associated with fishers’ willingness to delay gratification may be useful for designing appropriate fisheries management and conservation policies. We aim to identify the predictors of low discounting behaviour among fishers, which is analogous to having a longer-term outlook. We base our empirical study on two small-scale tropical reef fisheries in Sabah, Malaysia, and Fiji. We use an experimental approach to identify fishers with low discoun...

  13. Partnership on Reducing Mercury in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernaudat L.; Keane S.

    2013-01-01

    The Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining Partnership area is an initiative to reduce global mercury pollution through coordinated voluntary actions. This partnership area, co-led by Natural Resources Defense Council and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, gathers the major actors in the sector, including governments, academia and civil society. The ASGM sector remains the largest demand sector for mercury globally (best global estimates put mercury use by the sector in th...

  14. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix

  15. Small-scale medical waste incinerators : experiences and trials in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, David E.C.; Brent, Alan Colin

    2006-01-01

    Formal waste management services are not accessible for the majority of primary healthcare clinics on the African continent, and affordable and practicable technology solutions are required in the developing country context. In response, a protocol was established for the first quantitative and qualitative evaluation of relatively low cost small-scale incinerators for use at rural primary healthcare clinics. The protocol comprised the first phase of four, which defined the comprehensive trial...

  16. Search and analysis of small scale structures in two X-ray clusters of galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzati, D.; Campana, S.; Rosati, P.; Chincarini, G.; Giacconi, R

    1997-01-01

    We present a refinement of the wavelet analysis technique for the detection and characterisation of small scale features embedded in a strongly varying background. This technique handles with particular care the side effects of non-orthogonality in the wavelet space which can cause spurious detections and lead to a biased estimate of source parameters. This novel technique is applied to two ROSAT PSPC pointed observations of nearby clusters of galaxies, A1367 and A194. We fi...

  17. Automated small-scale relief shading: a new method and software application

    OpenAIRE

    Leonowicz, A M; Jenny, B

    2010-01-01

    Shaded relief derived from high-resolution terrain models often contains distracting terrain details that need to be removed for medium and small scale mapping. This paper introduces Terrain Sculptor, a software application that prepares generalized terrain models for relief shading. The application uses a generalization methodology based on a succession of raster operations. Terrain Sculptor offers a graphical user interface to adjust the algorithm to various scales and terrain resolutions.

  18. Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James O' Brien

    2012-09-01

    This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

  19. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  20. Myths and Superstition in the Small Scale Gold Mining Industry of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    C. Addei; Amankwah, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    In most parts of the world, there are several inexplicable happenings and these are generally shrouded in myths. In the mining industry of Ghana, especially the Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM), miners have several habits and conventions based on superstition and myths. Such superstitious beliefs and myths govern the selection of people to work in mining pits, gold processing, working and resting days as well as specific rituals to perform at specific times through the life of the...

  1. Feasibility of small-scale gas engine-based residential cogeneration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays all countries are developing their own policies to promote cogeneration in the small-scale residential sector. In this paper the feasibility of small-scale gas engine-based residential cogeneration plants under the current Spanish regulation is studied. A unitary thermal load profile is obtained to characterised the thermal demand of residential applications in Spain. This unitary profile is used to analyse the potential of cogeneration in the small-scale range of powers (100-1000 kW). A complete characterisation of the gas fuelled engines in the market is performed and subsequently used to evaluate the economic feasibility within the selected range by means of a self-tailored simulation model. It is underlined how the thermal storage is a crucial element that should be suitably included in a residential cogeneration plant and the distortions that the actual pricing system adds to the profitability of residential plants of different sizes. Finally a sensibility study is carried out in order to evaluate how the Spanish regulation is able to deal with future variations in the energy prices. It is shown that a rise in the price of the natural gas increases the current feasibility of a plant while a decrease descends the profitability. - Highlights: ? Profitability is obtained within the whole small-scale range of powers. ? The stepped structure of prices strongly affect the feasibility of the projects. ? The inclusion of thermal storage notably affects the profitability of the plant. ? Big chance for increase the feasibility exists in retrofitting old installations. ? The system of tariff updating balances the future variations in the price of fuels.

  2. The impact of small scale cogeneration on the gas demand at distribution level

    OpenAIRE

    Vandewalle, Jeroen; D'haeseleer, William

    2014-01-01

    Smart grids are often regarded as an important step towards the future energy system. Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration has several advantages in the context of the smart grid, which include the efficient use of primary energy and the reduction of electrical losses through transmission. However, the role of the gas network is often overlooked in this context. Therefore, this work presents an analysis of the impact of a massive implementation of small scale (micro) cogeneration uni...

  3. Fractographic study of high-density polyethylene gas pipe following Small Scale Steady State test

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pusz; K. Michalik

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present work attempts to examine the failure performance of high density polyethylene [HDPE] gas pipe through a fractographic study of the fracture morphology following Small Scale Steady State test (S4). Failure mechanisms are discussed based on the fracture morphologies resulting from these tests. There are many instances where the rapid propagation of cracks is the result of fluid pressure acting on piping structures. This problem is recognized as one of the most important iss...

  4. Small scale aspects of flows in proximity of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface

    OpenAIRE

    Holzner, M.; Liberzon, A.; Nikitin, N; Kinzelbach, W.; Tsinober, A.

    2007-01-01

    The work reported below is a first of its kind study of the properties of turbulent flow without strong mean shear in a Newtonian fluid in proximity of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface, with emphasis on the small scale aspects. The main tools used are a three-dimensional particle tracking system (3D-PTV) allowing to measure and follow in a Lagrangian manner the field of velocity derivatives and direct numerical simulations (DNS). The comparison of flow properties in the...

  5. ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE WITH REFERENCE TO RURAL SMALL SCALE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY IN PUNE DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Dilip Jagdale; Sarang Shankar Bhola

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurial Leadership is a significant concept in entrepreneurship literature. Different leadership styles effect on effectiveness and performance of the organizations. Present research investigates the impact ofEntrepreneurial Leadership style onOrganizational Performance with reference to Rural Small Scale Engineering Industry in Pune District of India. A ten items scale developed by (Boltan 2012) was used to find leadership styles. The data werecollected from one h...

  6. Small scale model for experimental investigations of the dynamic behavior of spherical steel containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the influence of imperfections on the earthquake response of spherical steel containments corresponding theoretical and experimental investigations were started. The experimental investigations will be performed with a small scale model with a diameter of 1.3 m and a wall thickness of about 1 mm. The necessary high precision of the spherical model required a complicated manufacturing process. The steps of this process and the resulting tolerances of the model are discussed in this paper

  7. An assessment of stability and growth pact reform proposals in a small-scale macro framework

    OpenAIRE

    Creel, Jérôme; Hubert, Paul; Saraceno, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on fiscal governance for the European Monetary Union, assessing the different fiscal rules currently discussed. We simulate a small scale macroeconomic model with forward looking agents, augmented with a public finances block. We account for both the positive (output stabilization) and negative (via risk premia) effects of debt and deficit. By the appropriate choice of the exogenous fiscal variables, in the fiscal block, we replicate the working of the rul...

  8. Policy of Onsite and Small-Scale Wastewater Treatment Options in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Klammer, Ines

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was done to explain the current Finnish policy on onsite and small-scale sanitation in depth. The most relevant legislation on national and European level was included as well as financing options for upgrades and new installments. In 2011 the latest legislation concerning rural wastewater treatment in Finland came into force. Private households are required to clean their wastewater from organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen, before releasing it to nature. The most used on...

  9. Small-scale targets for heavy-ion driven inertial confinement fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implosion regimes of small-scale targets directly driven by heavy ion beams are analyzed. Two main different performances are identified: The first one leading to high-density final states at moderate temperatures and short confinement times; the second one producing a hot spark limited to the very central zone of the fuel, the density and the optical thickness remaining very low. Transition between both regimes happens through stagnated compressed fuels where the compression efficiency is very poor

  10. Large grazers modify effects of aboveground–belowground interactions on small-scale plant community composition

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, G. F. (Ciska); Geuverink, E.; Olff, H.

    2011-01-01

    Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales interact with small-scale aboveground– belowground interactions on plant community heterogeneity. Here, we investigate how cattle (Bos taurus) modify the effects of interactions be...

  11. Correlation between Critical Temperature and Strength of Small-Scale bcc Pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. S.; Kaufmann, D.; Clark, B. G.; Frick, C. P.; Gruber, P. A.; Mönig, R.; Kraft, O.; Arzt, E.

    2009-09-01

    Microcompression tests were performed on focused-ion-beam-machined micropillars of several body-centered-cubic metals (W, Mo, Ta, and Nb) at room temperature. The relationship between yield strength and pillar diameter as well as the deformation morphologies were found to correlate with a parameter specific for bcc metals, i.e., the critical temperature Tc. This finding sheds new light on the phenomenon of small-scale plasticity in largely unexplored non-fcc metals.

  12. Linkages, access to finance and the performance of small-scale enterprises in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Atieno, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Micro- and small-scale enterprises (MSEs) have become important players in the Kenyan economy, but at the same time they continue to face constraints that limit their development. Lack of access to financial services is one of the main constraints, and a number of factors have been identified to explain this problem. These include the segmented and incomplete nature of financial markets, which increases transaction costs associated with financial services. On the supply side, most formal fina...

  13. The Challenges Facing Small-Scale Women Entrepreneurs: A Case of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to identify the challenges facing small scale women entrepreneurs in Kenya and initiatives put in place to counter the challenges. The study employed desktop research. MSEs Baseline survey, recorded that 612,848 women in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya, accounting for 47.4 per cent of all those in MSEs. The study showed that women tended to operate enterprises associated with traditional women’s roles, such as hairstyling. The small and micro enterprises (SMEs) pl...

  14. a MRC Method for Low Methane Sources in Small Scale Cmm Liquefaction Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Yin, Q. S.; Fan, Q. H.; Yang, G. D.; Liu, X. K.; Bai, W.; Xu, F. Y.; Ji, Z. M.; Cui, J. S.

    2008-03-01

    Coalmine methane (CMM) liquefiers in small scale, 5000 to 20000 Nm3/d, are applied more and more in Chinese LNG projects. Most CMM sources contain ˜50% methane and 50% air. In order to make use of these low methane energy sources, a new full-scale separation system was designed and tested using a mixed refrigerant cycle. A method of removing air from CMM sources with a liquefying process is discussed in this paper.

  15. Role of small-scale independent providers in water and sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, M.P., van

    2008-01-01

    Small-scale independent providers (SSIPs) and households are good for 10–69% of the household water supply and sometimes up to 95% of the sanitation solutions in cities in developing countries. Different types of SSIP can be distinguished. They could be allowed to make a more important contribution to drinking water and sanitation in a situation where many governments cannot be the only one to supply drinking water and sanitary services. Theoretical and practical arguments are used to explain...

  16. Mercury-Free Gold Extraction Using Borax for Small-Scale Gold Miners

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wiltje Uitterdijk Appel; Leoncio Degay Na-Oy

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale gold mining is the largest anthropogenic contributor of mercury pollution on planet Earth. The miners grind gold ore together with mercury in order to recover the fine gold grains. The gold amalgam is burned whereby the mercury evaporates and gold is left behind. This processing extracts only a fraction of the gold in the ore and the released mercury causes serious global health and environmental problems. However, a mercury-free method described below has p...

  17. Geographical distribution of investment in small-scale rural fish ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, S.R.; Kosy, S.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a detailed empirical study of investment patterns in small-scale rural aquaculture and its relation to pond location based on a systematic fish pond survey in Lao PDR. Nominal investment categories of fish ponds were created based on stocking rate, feed and water and then spatially cross-referenced with a range of environmental factors, including distance to roads, land use, and distance to water resources. Contrary to current aquaculture development policies, the result...

  18. Feasibility of small-scale gas engine-based residential cogeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [University of the Basque Country, Department of Thermal Engineering-ENEDI Research Group, Alda. Urquijo s/n, CP 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Erkoreka, A.; Martin Escudero, K.; Sala, J.M. [University of the Basque Country, Department of Thermal Engineering-ENEDI Research Group, Alda. Urquijo s/n, CP 48013, Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    Nowadays all countries are developing their own policies to promote cogeneration in the small-scale residential sector. In this paper the feasibility of small-scale gas engine-based residential cogeneration plants under the current Spanish regulation is studied. A unitary thermal load profile is obtained to characterised the thermal demand of residential applications in Spain. This unitary profile is used to analyse the potential of cogeneration in the small-scale range of powers (100-1000 kW). A complete characterisation of the gas fuelled engines in the market is performed and subsequently used to evaluate the economic feasibility within the selected range by means of a self-tailored simulation model. It is underlined how the thermal storage is a crucial element that should be suitably included in a residential cogeneration plant and the distortions that the actual pricing system adds to the profitability of residential plants of different sizes. Finally a sensibility study is carried out in order to evaluate how the Spanish regulation is able to deal with future variations in the energy prices. It is shown that a rise in the price of the natural gas increases the current feasibility of a plant while a decrease descends the profitability. - Highlights: > Profitability is obtained within the whole small-scale range of powers. > The stepped structure of prices strongly affect the feasibility of the projects. > The inclusion of thermal storage notably affects the profitability of the plant. > Big chance for increase the feasibility exists in retrofitting old installations. > The system of tariff updating balances the future variations in the price of fuels.

  19. Moving Frontiers in the Amazon: Brazilian Small-Scale Gold Miners in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Marjo de Theije; Marieke Heemskerk

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the national, local, and personal frontiers that Brazilian small-scale gold miners – called garimpeiros – cross in their quest for gold in the larger Amazon region. Ethnographic research was conducted among garimpeiros and mining service providers in Suriname. In the past three decades, thousands of Brazilian migrants have entered Suriname and consequently affected its society, economy, and culture. It is argued that in the absence of strong state control, these garimpei...

  20. Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Karsten; Abel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B simeq 10-11 Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations.

  1. Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedamzik, Karsten [Laboratoire de Univers et Particules, UMR5299-CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Abel, Tom, E-mail: karsten.jedamzik@um2.fr, E-mail: tabel@slac.stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC/Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B ? 10{sup ?11} Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations.

  2. Multiple metals exposure in a small-scale artisanal gold mining community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Nam, Dong-Ha; Kwansaa-Ansah, Edward; Renne, Elisha P; Nriagu, Jerome O

    2011-04-01

    Urinary metals were characterized in 57 male residents of a small-scale gold mining community in Ghana. Chromium and arsenic exceeded health guideline values for 52% and 34%, respectively, of all participants. About 10-40% of the participants had urinary levels of aluminum, copper, manganese, nickel, selenium, and zinc that fell outside the U.S. reference range. Exposures appear ubiquitous across the community as none of the elements were associated with occupation, age, and diet. PMID:21397224

  3. Corrections to "Unified Laguerre polynomial-series-based distribution of small-scale fading envelopes''

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yin; Zhou, Shidong

    2010-01-01

    In this correspondence, we point out two typographical errors in Chai and Tjhung's paper and we offer the correct formula of the unified Laguerre polynomial-series-based cumulative distribution function (cdf) for small-scale fading distributions. A Laguerre polynomial-series-based cdf formula for non-central chi-square distribution is also provided as a special case of our unified cdf result.

  4. Small Scale Dairy Farming Practice in a Selective Area of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Hossain; M. M. RASHID; Asaduzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was assigned to determine the present status including general information, feeding breeding housing milking etc. and costs & returns of small dairy farms, to compare the productive and reproductive performance of crossbred and indigenous cows and to make recommendation for development of small scales dairy farm. With this view, the empirical data were collected by using protested questionnaire. The study was conducted at 8 thanas in Rangpur district, and four mon...

  5. Small scale purification of human pituitary lutropin (hLH) for use in radioligand assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human lutropin (hLH) is a relatively unstable protein, which even in lyophilised form tends to dissociate into subunits during long storage periods. Considering the limited disposibilty of human pituitaries, a small-scale extraction method is proposed for radioassays. Starting from 10 and 20 hypophyses after Sephadex G 100 purification, 10 ?g/gland with approximate 10% purity was obtained. After the last purification, hLH recovery was of 1.5 ?g/gland. (author)

  6. Acoustic oscillations in a field-free cavity under solar small-scale bipolar magnetic canopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuridze, D.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Shergelashvili, B. M.; Poedts, S.

    2008-01-01

    Observations show the increase of high-frequency wave power near magnetic network cores and active regions in the solar lower atmosphere. This phenomenon can be explained by the interaction of acoustic waves with a magnetic field. We consider small-scale, bipolar, magnetic field canopy structure near the network cores and active regions overlying field-free cylindrical cavities of the photosphere. Solving the plasma equations we get the analytical dispersion relation of acoustic oscillations ...

  7. Selection of Technical Reactor Equipment for Modular, Continuous Small-Scale Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai Krasberg; Lukas Hohmann; Thomas Bieringer; Christian Bramsiepe; Norbert Kockmann

    2014-01-01

    Fast process development, flexible production and the utilization of advanced process conditions are the main goals of modular and continuous small-scale plants (MCSPs). A configurable layout of the modules and the use of predefined equipment enable a quick and reliable conceptual process development and scale-up of continuous processes. Therefore, a computer-assisted selection methodology was developed and is presented, which allows the quick selection of plug flow reactor equipment for homo...

  8. Self-motion and wind velocity estimation for small-scale UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Zachariah, Dave; Jansson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    For small-scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to operate indoor, in urban canyons or other scenarios where signals from global navigation satellite systems are denied or impaired, alternative estimation and control strategies must be applied. In this paper a system is proposed that estimates the self-motion and wind velocity by fusing information from airspeed sensors, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a monocular camera. Such estimates can be used in control systems for managing wind d...

  9. The response of a New Guinean avifauna to conversion of forest to small-scale agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, Stuart J.; Symes, Craig T.; Mack, Andrew L.

    2006-01-01

    In comparison with other tropical forest land uses such as selective logging, little is known of the impacts on wildlife of the many forms of small-scale agriculture practised across the tropics. We present density estimates, derived using a point count distance sampling method, for 31 bird species in primary forest, old abandoned gardens and active/recently abandoned gardens at two altitudes in the Crater Mountain Wildlife Management Area (CMWMA), Papua New Guinea. There were clear habitat d...

  10. Local adaptation of the clonal plant Ranunculus reptans to flooding along a small-scale gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Lenssen, John P. M.; Kleunen, Mark van; Fischer, Markus

    2004-01-01

    1 Plant species are known to segregate along small-scale flooding gradients. We tested whether differences in flooding duration can also result in genetic differentiation in the clonal speciesRanunculus reptans, which naturally grows in both a lakeside microhabitat and a landside microhabitat with shorter periods of flooding.2 We compared traits related to fitness, and clonal life-history traits, of 432 plants representing nine genotypes from each microhabitat, grown without flooding or with ...

  11. Small scale irrigation using collector wells. Pilot project - Zimbabwe. Fourth progress report April 1994 - September 1994

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, C. J.; Murata, M.; Brown, M. W.; Batchelor, C H.; Thompson, D. M.; Dube, T.; Semple, A. J.; Chilton, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The ODA TC pilot project "Small scale irrigation using collector wells - Zimbabwe" began in October 1992. This report outlines progress made on all aspects during the fourth six months of work. The six project schemes are now complete. Two additional schemes for Plan International (NGO) are also near to completion. As planned, these schemes represent a range of physical, social, economic and institutional settings. The number of families obtaining domestic water from 011k-fu...

  12. Optimization Study of Small-Scale Solar Membrane Distillation Desalination Systems (s-SMDDS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hsuan Chang; Cheng-Liang Chang; Chen-Yu Hung; Tung-Wen Cheng; Chii-Dong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD), which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS) is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS) is an attractive and viable option for the production of fresh water for small communities in remote arid areas. The minimum cost design and operation of s-SMDDS are determin...

  13. Direct driven axial flux permanent magnet generator for small-scale wind power applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ângela P.; Costa, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Small-scale wind power applications require a cost effective and mechanically simple generator in order to be a reliable energy source. The use of direct driven generators, instead of geared machines, reduces the number of drive components, which offers the opportunity to reduce costs and increases system reliability and efficiency. For such applications, characterized by low speed of rotation, the axial flux permanent magnet generator is particularly suited, since it can be designed with a l...

  14. A Genealogy of Governing Economic Behaviour : Small-scale credit in Malawi 1930–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Värlander, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the aim has been to analyse changes and continuity in the governing of economic behaviour in small-scale credit schemes in colonial Nyasaland and independent Malawi from 1930 until 2010. Furthermore, how the effects of history in terms of how colonial and post-colonial development discourses and practices have been rephrased and reused in the early 21st century are discussed. The study focuses on the teaching and fostering of borrowers’ economic behaviour in order to reach incr...

  15. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

  16. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix

  17. Design Architecture of Custom Configurable Process Automation System for Small Scale Industries

    OpenAIRE

    R. Sindhu; Anish Sathyan; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Process control systems deals with architectures, mechanisms, and algorithms for monitoring and controlling the intake and output of a specific process. Automation has had a notable impact in wide range of industries beyond manufacturing. Limited access to financial and technical resources is the major barrier in adopting advanced process control technologies in small scale industries. This paper describes the design aspects of Industrial System Monitoring Autonomous Remote Terminal (iSMART):...

  18. Small signal gain measurements in a small scale HF overtone laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, C.F.; Hewett, K.B.; Manke, G.C. II; Hager, G.D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States); Crowell, P.G. [Northrup Grumman Information Technology, Science and Technology Operating Unit, Advanced Technology Division, P.O. Box 9377, Albuquerque, NM 87119-9377 (United States); Truman, C.R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The overtone gain medium of a small-scale HF overtone laser was probed using a sub-Doppler tunable diode laser. Two-dimensional spatially resolved small signal gain and temperature maps were generated for several ro-vibrational transitions in the HF (v=2{yields}v=0) overtone band. Our results compare well with previous measurements of the overtone gain in a similar HF laser device. (orig.)

  19. Small Scale Privatization in Eastern Europe and Russia from a Historical and Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gács, János; Karimov, Il'dar; Schneider, Christoph

    1992-01-01

    This Working Paper is a summary of a workshop which was held at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria in 1992. Small scale privatization (SSP) of shops, restaurants and other consumer services has been accomplished in the first stage of the complex process of privatization in Eastern Europe. It was also an experiment for measuring the demand for previously state owned property and for verifying different techniques of privatization. The ...

  20. Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B ? 10?11 Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations

  1. Ionospheric response to variable electric fields in small-scale auroral structures

    OpenAIRE

    Lanchester, B. S.; Rees, M. H.; Sedgemore, K. J. F.; Palmer, J. R.; H. U. Frey; Kaila, K. U.

    1998-01-01

    High time and space resolution optical and radar measurements have revealed the influence of electric fields on E-region electron density profiles in small-scale auroral structures. Large electric fields are present adjacent to auroral filaments produced by monoenergetic electron fluxes. The ionisation profiles measured within and beside the auroral filaments show the effects of plasma convection due to electric fields as well as the consequences of the response time to large and dynamic flux...

  2. Small-scale Gradients of Charged Particles in the Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Fan; Giacalone, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Using numerical simulations of charged-particles propagating in the heliospheric magnetic field, we study small-scale gradients, or "dropouts", in the intensity of solar energetic particles seen at 1 AU. We use two turbulence models, the foot-point random motion model (Jokipii & Parker 1969; Giacalone et al. 2006) and two-component model (Matthaeus et al. 1990), to generate fluctuating magnetic fields similar to spacecraft observations at 1 AU. The turbulence models include ...

  3. Fuzzy logic and its possibility using in automation of small-scale hydroelectric power plants regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper explains how can computer understand and process inaccurate (indefinite) information. It is processing of terms like e.g. 'around in the middle of month' or 'not too big'. Fuzzy logic, fuzzy sets, operations with them, fuzzy rules and using of linguistics variables are explained. The possibilities of application of fuzzy systems in automation of regulation of small-scale hydro power plants are discussed. (author)

  4. Impacts of Climate Variability on Latin American Small-scale Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Defeo; Mauricio Castrejón; Leonardo Ortega; Angela M. Kuhn; Gutiérrez, Nicolás L.; Juan Carlos Castilla

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) are social-ecological systems that play a critical role in terms of food security and poverty alleviation in Latin America. These fisheries are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic and climatic drivers acting at multiple scales. We review the effects of climate variability on Latin American SSFs, and discuss the combined effects of two additional human drivers: globalization of markets and governance. We show drastic long-term and large-scale effects of climat...

  5. Potential market for small-scale gasifiers in rural areas of developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kieffer, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This thesis report assesses the potential market for small-scale gasifiers in rural areas of developing countries and regions. Biomass is already widely used in these areas for energetic purpose, giving gasification an interesting niche market for remote electricity production. Success factors include a high reliability, an efficient biomass supply chain and sufficient local electricity needs. Suitable fuel for a gasifier must be available at low cost, which could be wood harvested locally or...

  6. Catch, bycatch and discards of the Galapagos Marine Reserve small-scale handline fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerhackel, Johanna S.; Schuhbauer, Anna C.; Usseglio, Paolo; Heel, Lena C.; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    Fisheries bycatch is a significant marine conservation issue as valuable fish are wasted and protected species harmed with potential negative ecological and socio-economic consequences. Even though there are indications that the small-scale handline fishery of the Galapagos Marine Reserve has a low selectivity, information on its bycatch has never been published. We used onboard monitoring and interview data to assess the bycatch of the Galapagos handline fishery by estimating the bycatch rat...

  7. Fast reactors as a solution for future small-scale nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world safe and sustainable development in the 21st century depends on the ability to build a new global energy infrastructure that could provide efficient access to energy resources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In a growing number of countries there is an increasing interest in decentralized, small-scale energy systems. Small nuclear power plants, based on fast reactor technology, could become a new platform of the decentralized energy system. (author)

  8. Small-scale response of plant species to land-use intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Fédoroff, Eric; Ponge, Jean-François; Dubs, Florence; Fernández-González, Federico; Lavelle, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Plant communities are affected by land-use and landscape heterogeneity and can be used as indicators of environmental change. At small-scale, species composition and species richness of plant communities are influenced by local environment and by diaspores from the surroundings. Thus, they reflect the influence of both land-use type and land-use diversity. Plant community composition was studied along a gradient of agricultural disturbance in the Morvan Regional Natural Park (Burgundy, France...

  9. The Rural Landscapes and Small-Scale Agricultural Practices in the Transylvanian Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae BACIU; Cristian MALO?; Gheorghe RO?IAN; Mircea MURE?IANU; Eduard SCHUSTER; Barta, Andras; Carmen ST?NESCU; Octavian-Liviu MUNTEAN; Radu MIH?IESCU

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on the relationships between small-scale agricultural practices and cultural landscape of Transylvanian Plain. The geographical position of Transylvanian Plain in central part of Romania shows with relevance its favourability for sustainable agriculture and developing assumptions. Despite of this, the region was kept outside of the major infrastructural and economic trends. We could, also, include the Transylvanian Plain into a typical rural “central isolation space” rel...

  10. Majorons: A simultaneous solution to the large and small scale dark matter problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the existence of majorons, which enable a heavy neutrino, 500 eV 4 yr 8 yr can solve both the large and small scale dark matter problems. For a primordial 'Zeldovich' spectrum of fluctuations the limits are msub(?H) 107 to 108 Yr (the ranges msub(?H) or approx. 108 yr are allowed by the model but galaxy formation becomes problematic). The large scale dark matter problem is how to achieve the critical density as implied by inflation, the small scale problems deal with the halos of galaxies and galaxy formation and perturbation growth. The heavy neutrino could provide the solution to the small scale problem by initiating perturbation growth before decoupling. The decay products will be fast and thus not bound to the initial clumps, thus solving the large scale problem. The low mass relic neutrinos that were not decay products would remain bound in the gravitational potentials which grew from the initial perturbations. The resulting universe would be radiation dominated, which is consistent with present observations if H0 0 approx.= 50 km/s/Mpc. The majoron model parameters which best fit the dark matter considerations are presented. (orig.)

  11. Is small beautiful? A multicriteria assessment of small-scale energy technology applications in local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Jonathan [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Institute for Transport Studies; Hubacek, Klaus [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment, Sustainability Research Institute

    2007-12-15

    In its 2003 White Paper the UK government set ambitious renewable energy targets. Local governments and households have an increasing role in the overall energy system as consumers, suppliers of smaller-scale applications and citizens discussing energy projects. In this paper, we consider if small-scale or large-scale approaches to renewable energy provision can achieve energy targets in the most socially, economically and environmentally (SEE) effective way. We take a local case study of renewable energy provision in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in Yorkshire, UK, and apply a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology to compare the small-scale schemes implemented in Kirklees with large-scale alternatives. The results indicate that small-scale schemes are the most SEE effective, despite large-scale schemes being more financially viable. The selection of the criteria on which the alternatives are assessed and the assigned weights for each criterion are of crucial importance. It is thus very important to include the relevant stakeholders to elicit this information. (author)

  12. Probing small-scale non-Gaussianity from anisotropies in acoustic reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruko, Atsushi; Ota, Atsuhisa; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2015-05-01

    We give new constraints on small-scale non-Gaussianity of primordial curvature perturbations by the use of anisotropies in acoustic reheating. Mixing of local thermal or local kinetic equilibrium systems with different temperatures yields a locally averaged temperature rise, which is proportional to the square of temperature perturbations damping in the photon diffusion scale. Such secondary temperature perturbations are indistinguishable from the standard temperature perturbations linearly coming from primordial curvature perturbations and hence should be subdominant compared to the standard ones. We show that small-scale higher order correlation functions (connected non-Gaussian and disconnected Gaussian parts) of primordial curvature perturbations can be probed by investigating auto power spectrum of the generated secondary perturbations and the cross power spectrum with the standard perturbations. This is simply because these power spectra come from higher order correlation functions of primordial curvature perturbations with non-linear parameters such as fNL and ?NL since secondary temperature perturbations are second order effects. Thus, the observational results l(l+1)CTTlsimeq 6× 10-10 at large scales give a robust and universal upper bound on small-scale non-Gaussianities of primordial curvature perturbations.

  13. Running with BICEP2: implications for small-scale problems in CDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Abazajian, Kevork N.; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj

    2014-10-01

    The BICEP2 results, when interpreted as a gravitational wave signal and combined with other cosmic microwave background data, suggest a roll-off in power towards small scales in the primordial matter power spectrum. Among the simplest possibilities is a running of the spectral index. Here we show that the preferred level of running alleviates small-scale issues within the ?CDM model, more so even than viable WDM models. We use cosmological zoom-in simulations of a Milky Way-sized halo along with full-box simulations to compare predictions among four separate cosmologies: a BICEP2-inspired running index model (?s = -0.024), two fixed-tilt ?CDM models motivated by Planck, and a 2.6 keV thermal WDM model. We find that the running BICEP2 model reduces the central densities of large dwarf-sized haloes (Vmax ˜ 30-80 km s-1) and alleviates the too-big-to-fail problem significantly compared to our adopted Planck and WDM cases. Further, the BICEP2 model suppresses the count of small subhaloes by ˜50 per cent relative to Planck models, and yields a significantly lower `boost' factor for dark matter annihilation signals. Our findings highlight the need to understand the shape of the primordial power spectrum in order to correctly interpret small-scale data.

  14. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P.; Long, Rachel N.

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  15. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P; Long, Rachel N

    2015-09-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  16. Constraints on small-scale cosmological fluctuations from SNe lensing dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Takahashi, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    We provide predictions on small-scale cosmological density power spectrum from supernova lensing dispersion. Parametrizing the primordial power spectrum with running ? and running of running ? of the spectral index, we exclude large positive ? and ? parameters which induce too large lensing dispersions over current observational upper bound. We ran cosmological N-body simulations of collisionless dark matter particles to investigate non-linear evolution of the primordial power spectrum with positive running parameters. The initial small-scale enhancement of the power spectrum is largely erased when entering into the non-linear regime. For example, even if the linear power spectrum at k > 10 h Mpc-1 is enhanced by 1-2 orders of magnitude, the enhancement much decreases to a factor of 2-3 at late time (z ? 1.5). Therefore, the lensing dispersion induced by the dark matter fluctuations weakly constrains the running parameters. When including baryon-cooling effects (which strongly enhance the small-scale clustering), the constraint is comparable to the Planck constraint, depending on the UV cut-off. Further investigations of the non-linear matter spectrum with baryonic processes is needed to reach a firm constraint.

  17. Systematic Work Environment Management: experiences from implementation in Swedish small-scale enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-structured dialogue with the manager and safety representative. Each enterprise was classified on compliance with ten demands concerning the provision. The work environment was estimated by the WEST-method. Impact of the implementation on daily work was also studied. At the follow-up, the enterprises in the supervised method reported slightly more improvements in the fulfilment of the demands in the provision than the enterprises in the network method and the enterprises working on their own did. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved to some extent in all enterprises. Extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advise and networking aimed to fulfil the regulations of Systematic Work Environment Management had limited effect - especially considering the cost of applying these methods. PMID:20424349

  18. Observational estimates of the initial power spectrum at small scale from Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, M

    2003-01-01

    We present a new method of measuring the power spectrum of initial perturbations to an unprecedently small scale of $\\sim$ 10$h^{-1}$ kpc. We apply this method to a sample of 4500 Ly-$\\alpha$ absorbers and recover the cold dark matter (CDM) like power spectrum at scales $\\geq 300h^{-1}$kpc with a precision of $\\sim$ 10%. However at scales $\\sim 10 - 300 h^{-1}$kpc the measured and CDM--like spectra are noticeable different. This result suggests a complex inflation with generation of excess power at small scales. The magnitude and reliability of these deviations depend also upon the possible incompleteness of our sample and poorly understood process of formation of weak absorbers. Confirmation of the CDM--like shape of the initial power spectrum or detection of its distortions at small scales are equally important for widely discussed problems of physics of the early Universe, galaxy formation, and reheating of the Universe. Our method links the observed mass function of absorbers with the correlation function...

  19. Manual for development of small scale hydroelectric projects by public entities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This manual is designed to provide guidance to towns, cities, counties and other political subdivisions which are interested in undertaking or participating in small scale hydroelectric (SSH) development within or close to their territorial boundaries. The manual is primarily directed to those political subdivisions which either own or have access to a site, are interested in exploring the prospects for development of the site and do not have longstanding experience in the electric power development. For purposes of this manual a small scale hydroelectric project is a project of 25 to 30 MWs or less and utilizes an existing dam or structure or utilizes the site characteristics of partially breached dams or structures. As the reader will observe from the discussion that follows, several incentives under federal and state law have been implemented which favor small scale hydroelectric development at existing sites. This manual is designed to assist political subdivisions in taking advantage of these incentives and devising strategies for development. The manual will provide information to political subdivisions as to what to expect in the development process and the kinds of informed questions to ask of paid advisers. The manual, however, cannot be and should not be used as a substitute for competent advice and assistance from experienced lawyers, engineers, accountants and financing experts.

  20. Battery energy storage systems: Assessment for small-scale renewable energy integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar C.; Garimella, Niraj [Power Systems Group, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland, 38 Princes Street, Science Centre, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2010-11-15

    Concerns arising due to the variability and intermittency of renewable energy sources while integrating with the power grid can be mitigated to an extent by incorporating a storage element within the renewable energy harnessing system. Thus, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are likely to have a significant impact in the small-scale integration of renewable energy sources into commercial building and residential dwelling. These storage technologies not only enable improvements in consumption levels from renewable energy sources but also provide a range of technical and monetary benefits. This paper provides a modelling framework to be able to quantify the associated benefits of renewable resource integration followed by an overview of various small-scale energy storage technologies. A simple, practical and comprehensive assessment of battery energy storage technologies for small-scale renewable applications based on their technical merit and economic feasibility is presented. Software such as Simulink and HOMER provides the platforms for technical and economic assessments of the battery technologies respectively. (author)

  1. 2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balk, Thomas

    2012-07-27

    The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

  2. Factors Influencing the Choice of Management Strategy among Small-Scale Private Forest Owners in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Eggers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Half of the productive forest area in Sweden is owned by small-scale private forest owners. However, there is a lack of comprehensive information that would allow categorizing small-scale private forest owners according to their management strategy. In this study, we surveyed small-scale private forest owners in Sweden to determine the proportions who applied various management strategies. We analyzed the results using chi-square tests to identify the most relevant factors affecting the management strategy choices of individual forest owners. We found that “soft” factors, such as the importance of income from the forest, membership in a forest owners’ association, certification and an interest in and knowledge of forestry issues, had a stronger impact on the choice of management strategy than most “hard” factors related to the owner or the property, such as gender and distance between the owner’s residence and the property. However, property size was the most important factor and was associated with the importance of income derived from the forest and several other soft factors.

  3. Resolving the Paradox of Oceanic Large-Scale Balance and Small-Scale Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, R.; Pouquet, A.; Rosenberg, D.

    2015-03-01

    A puzzle of oceanic dynamics is the contrast between the observed geostrophic balance, involving gravity, pressure gradient, and Coriolis forces, and the necessary turbulent transport: in the former case, energy flows to large scales, leading to spectral condensation, whereas in the latter, it is transferred to small scales, where dissipation prevails. The known bidirectional constant-flux energy cascade maintaining both geostrophic balance and mixing tends towards flux equilibration as turbulence strengthens, contradicting models and recent observations which find a dominant large-scale flux. Analyzing a large ensemble of high-resolution direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations in the presence of rotation and no salinity, we show that the ratio of the dual energy flux to large and to small scales agrees with observations, and we predict that it scales with the inverse of the Froude and Rossby numbers when stratification is (realistically) stronger than rotation. Furthermore, we show that the kinetic and potential energies separately undergo a bidirectional transfer to larger and smaller scales. Altogether, this allows for small-scale mixing which drives the global oceanic circulation and will thus potentially lead to more accurate modeling of climate dynamics.

  4. Evaluation of Small-Scale Laterally Loaded Non-Slender Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Thomassen, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    In current design of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopiles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated, e.g. the diameter effect on the soil response. In this paper the diameter effect on laterally loaded non-slender piles in sand is evaluated by means of results from six small-scale laboratory tests, numerical modelling of the same test setup and existing theory. From the numerical models p-y curves are conducted and compared to current design regulations. It is found that the recommendations in API (1993) and DNV (1992) are in poor agreement with the numerically obtained p-y curves. The initial stiffness, Epy*, of the p-y curves, is found to be dependent on the pile diameter, i.e. the initial stiffness increases with increasing pile diameter. Further, the dependency is found to be in agreement with the suggestions in Sørensen et al. (2010). It is found that considerable uncertainties are related to small-scale testing, and the different evaluations clearly indicate that the accuracy of small-scale testing is increased when increasing the pile diameter and applying overburden pressure.

  5. Small-scale gradients of charged particles in the heliospheric magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using numerical simulations of charged-particles propagating in the heliospheric magnetic field, we study small-scale gradients, or 'dropouts,' in the intensity of solar energetic particles seen at 1 AU. We use two turbulence models, the foot-point random motion model and the two-component model, to generate fluctuating magnetic fields similar to spacecraft observations at 1 AU. The turbulence models include a Kolmogorov-like magnetic field power spectrum containing a broad range of spatial scales from those that lead to large-scale field-line random walk to small scales leading to resonant pitch-angle scattering of energetic particles. We release energetic protons (20 keV-10 MeV) from a spatially compact and instantaneous source. The trajectories of energetic charged particles in turbulent magnetic fields are numerically integrated. Spacecraft observations are mimicked by collecting particles in small windows when they pass the windows at a distance of 1 AU. We show that small-scale gradients in the intensity of energetic particles and velocity dispersions observed by spacecraft can be reproduced using the foot-point random motion model. However, no dropouts are seen in simulations using the two-component magnetic turbulence model. We also show that particle scattering in the solar wind magnetic field needs to be infrequent for intensity dropouts to form.

  6. The Role of Accounting Information in the Survival of Small Scale Businesses in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoh, L. O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Small scale enterprises play a vital role in the economic development of any country. In Nigeria, the management of these enterprises have been constrained by lack of knowledge of accounting by the stakeholders. This study aimed at examining the roles of accounting information in the survival of small businesses in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria. The study spotlighted the importance of small scale enterprises in the development of Nigerian economy, problems that pose a threat to the survival of small scale businesses and the relevance of accounting information to the operations of a business/organization. Structured questionnaire was employed in the course of gathering relevant data for the study. 100 employees from twenty small scale enterprises in Warri, Delta State were randomly selected for the study. While chi-square statistical technique was used in data analysis. The results indicated among others that the success of small scale business enterprises in Nigeria depends greatly but not solely in accounting information; that most small scale businesses do not keep accounting records due to ignorance about accounting information. The study therefore concluded that for small scale businesses to function successfully, adequate accounting information is necessary therefore managers of small businesses should employ and utilize the services of professional accountants who perform expert and useful accounting services to small scale firms in order to improve on their operational performance.

  7. Cost and primary energy efficiency of small-scale district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyzed minimum-cost options for small-scale DHSs under different contexts. • District heat production cost increases with reduced DHS scales. • Fewer technical options are suitable for small-scale DHSs. • Systems with combined technologies are less sensitive to changes in fuel prices. - Abstract: Efficient district heat production systems (DHSs) can contribute to achieving environmental targets and energy security for countries that have demands for space and water heating. The optimal options for a DHS vary with the environmental and social-political contexts and the scale of district heat production, which further depends on the size of the community served and the local climatic conditions. In this study, we design a small-scale, minimum-cost DHS that produces approximately 100 GWhheat per year and estimate the yearly production cost and primary energy use of this system. We consider conventional technologies, such as heat-only boilers, electric heat pumps and combined heat and power (CHP) units, as well as emerging technologies, such as biomass-based organic Rankine cycle (BORC) and solar water heating (SWH). We explore how different environmental and social-political situations influence the design of a minimum-cost DHS and consider both proven and potential technologies for small-scale applications. Our calculations are based on the real heat load duration curve for a town in southern Sweden. We find that the district heat production cost increases and that the potential for cogeneration decreases with smaller district heat production systems. Although the selection of technologies for a minimum-cost DHS depends on environmental and social-political contexts, fewer technical options are suitable for small-scale systems. Emerging technologies such as CHP-BORC and SWH improve the efficiency of primary energy use for heat production, but these technologies are more costly than conventional heat-only boilers. However, systems with combined technologies are less sensitive to fluctuations in fuel prices, specifically the SWH system, compared to technologies based on conventional fuels. Furthermore, increased market penetration of SWH will reduce the investment costs of such systems and, along with expected fuel price increases, SWH may be cost-efficient in DHSs

  8. Mechanisms of Obtaining Membership of Farmer Collectives

    OpenAIRE

    Debin HOU; Wang*, Hai

    2013-01-01

    This paper puts forward the corresponding solutions and suggestions through analyzing mechanisms of obtaining membership of farmer collectives in the normative sense, and aiming at the plight of obtaining farmer collective membership.

  9. Education Needs of Michigan Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvedi, Murari; Jeong, Eunseong; Coombs, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 MSU Extension evaluated their program to identify the major areas of educational need for Michigan farmers and agribusiness operators. Surveys were mailed to a stratified random sample from Michigan Agricultural Statistics Service records of dairy, livestock, swine, cash crops, fruit, vegetable, and nursery/greenhouse producers. Findings…

  10. Investigation of small scale solar concentration parabolic dish with heat storage: (low to medium temperature application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madessa, Habtamu Bayera

    2012-07-01

    This PhD thesis focuses on the development and testing of a small scale concentrating parabolic dish with heat storage for low to medium temperature applications. The system consists of a parabolic dish solar concentrator that concentrates solar radiation, a fibrous mat solar absorber that captures concentrated solar rays and converts them to thermal energy and a packed bed with pebble rock as a thermal energy storage unit. This research has targeted several issues in which there is a lack of knowledge on small scale concentrating solar energy technologies, with the work summarized in eight papers. Paper 1 concerns experimental measurement of the dynamic temperature profiles along a rock bed heat storage unit during thermal charging and degradation. The study examined both finned and non-finned types of rock bed storages. The effects of the long fins. which are incorporated to transport heat from the bottom to the top surface of the heat storage, were investigated in relation to temperature distribution. As an extension of Paper 1, the performance of a rock bed fitted with long fins was studied as a heat storage unit and a cooking device. The bed charging efficiency, as well as the capacity to store thermal energy and extract heat for boiling of water was discussed. Paper 3 describes the implemention of a 1D numerical model in the MATLAB environment to simulate the transient temperature profiles of rock bed heat storage units. Conservation equations were formulated for the air, rock pebble and fins. The equations were solved on a staggered grid, and the model predicts the experimental results reasonably well. The thesis also investigates two types of volumetric solar absorbers (a fibrous wire mesh and a ceramic) that could be incorporated with a small scale solar concentrating parabolic dish system. Both the fibrous mesh and ceramic type absorbers display a better performance, as discussed in Paper 4. Another contribution of the PhD work is to investigate a 1D sun tracking system that could be integrated with a small scale concentrating parabolic dish. This includes the design and testing of a polar mounted electronic-based analogue and digital type sun tracking system. A Photovoltaic (Pv) based direct sun tracking system that actuates the tracking motor based on the shading effect was also developed and tested. As described in Paper 5, the direct type of sun tracking system was found to be a very simple system which provided a sufficient tracking accuracy. Paper 6 describes ray tracing program simulations to study the optical performance of concentrating solar reflections and absorption systems. The program was further extended to study the possibility of transporting concentrated solar rays from the focus of a parabolic dish to an application area via a mirror channel guide (Paper 7). Finally, an overall test was conducted to investigate the performance of prototype for the small scale parabolic dish solar concentrator with rock bed as a heat storage unit, with the results presented in Paper 8. They show that the small scale system can capture and store solar thermal energy. As a heat transfer medium, air requires careful design and construction of the receiver, circulating fan and heat transport pipe. The small scale system yields modest storage temperatures. A scaled system with a higher concentration ratio is necessary in order to achieve higher temperatures. (Author)

  11. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  12. Assessing the Contribution of Small Scale Water Resources Development Project on Agricultural and Social Advancement in Bangladesh: a Case Study for Haizda Embankment Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mujibur Rahman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was made on the Haizda Embankment project in the Haor area of Netrokona district to evaluate the goals and objectives of the project. Data collected from 50 farmers, 20 project staff, local government officials and expert through a structured questionnaire. Both pre-project and post-project situations were taken into consideration. The agricultural and social development were appraised on land use, use of seed variety, fertilizer use, water management, labour employment, yearly income of the farmers, land ownership, use of insecticides, transportation facility and educational changes. The pre-project and post-project scenario in the above mentioned aspects were statistically compared by means of t-test. Significant improvements in almost all the aspects were found at the post-project condition. On the other hand analyzing highest water levels of the area, it was found that the water level significantly increased outside the embankment after the project construction, which also increased the vulnerability of livelihood. At the same time fish production in Mohanganj Thana significantly decreased after the embankment construction and also decreasing rate is continuing. The fisheries ecology have been changed in the poldered area because of (i free entrance of water is prevented at low flood level, (ii the requirement and spawning ground of major fish species have been interrupted and (iii decreased the opportunity of capture fishing in the project area. So, planners should consider the related adverse effects on nature and environment and its remedial measures during the planning of this type of small-scale water resources development project.

  13. Can Schools Offer Solutions to Small-Scale Farmers in Africa? Analysis of the Socioeconomic Benefits of Primary School Agriculture in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okiror, John James; Oonyu, Joseph; Matsiko, Frank; Kibwika, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture;This paper discusses the factors influencing application of school gardening knowledge and skills by pupils at school and household level; and whether pupils are effective sources of information to their parents. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare cohorts of 30 pupils randomly selected from eight schools in Kumi and Tororo…

  14. The potential for the production of bioenergy for lighting and cooking using Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. Euphorbiaceae) by small scale farmers on the Kenyan coast

    OpenAIRE

    Boerstler, Fritjof

    2010-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to examine the potential of introducing renewable biomass for a decentralized household energy provision in rural areas at the Kenyan South Coast. The main question posed in this research is whether the renewable products of an oil tree and related energy end-use appliances could potentially be a cheap, widely available and socially accepted substitute for kerosene and traditional biomass. The research data and results are based on a UNDP GEF SGP funded...

  15. Sustainable development in Darjeeling Hills, India : ecological and socio-economic aspects for small-scale farmers with supportive observations from Kanagawa, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Shilpi

    2005-01-01

    Organic farming means a holistic application of agricultural land-use, hence, this study aimed to assess ecological and socio-economic aspects that show benefits of the strategy and achievements of organic farming in comparison to conventional farming in Darjeeling District, State of West Bengal, India and Kanagawa Prefecture/Kanto in Central Japan. The objective of this study has been empirically analysed on aspects of crop diversity, yield, income and sales prices in the two study regions, ...

  16. Dry season feeding for Smallholder Dairy Farmers: Making Silage in Polythene tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milk production in Kenya follows the annual climatic seasonal patterns consisting of dry and wet seasonal patterns consisting of dry and wet seasons being times of over supply of milk and dry seasons being periods of acute shortages. This paper argues that appropriate silage making techniques need to be developed as a way of addressing the dry season feeding problem to which these fluctuations in milk production and pricing are attributed. Furthermore, the conventional silage making techniques that are available currently are to a large extent, only suitable for large scale farmers and those in the developed world where most of the technology was developed. Not much work has been done on silage making for smallholder farmers and those in Kenya and the few recommendations that have been put forward have not been adopted. The paper emphasizes the need to work with farmers in developing suitable techniques for small scale silage making that will be adoptable. A technique for making silage in plastic tubes, which is currently being tested with hundreds of smallholder farmers is described in the paper

  17. Changes in farmers' knowledge of maize diversity in highland Guatemala, 1927/37-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Etten Jacob

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Small-scale studies on long-term change in agricultural knowledge might uncover insights with broader, regional implications. This article evaluates change in farmer knowledge about crop genetic resources in highland Guatemala between 1927/37 and 2004. It concentrates on maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L. in one Guatemalan township, Jacaltenango, an area with much ecological and maize diversity. It relies on a particular type of baseline information: lists of farmer-defined cultivars drawn up by ethnographers in the first half of the twentieth century. A questionnaire format based on two independent lists of local farmer cultivars dating from 1927 and 1937 was used to assess changes in maize diversity. Comparisons between attributes given to each cultivar in the past and in 2004 were used as a partial test of the stability of cultivar identity. In farmers' perceptions, cultivar loss was low and limited to certain cultivars adapted to the warmer environments. Crop production problems were mentioned as the main motives for change. No evidence for a loss of cultivars due to the political violence of the 1980s was found. In the lower areas many newly introduced cultivars were found, which reportedly provide solutions for the production problems the older cultivars have. The article contrasts these findings with those of an earlier study which suggested much cultivar loss due to political violence, and draws conclusions about the methodological implications.

  18. Side Activities of Non-Farmers in Rural Areas in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Markantoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural areas, not only in The Netherlands but also elsewhere in Europe, has been observed a variety of employment opportunities for rural populations, following the decline in traditional agricultural employment. This contributes to the fact that the countryside is changing and rural areas can be viewed as new spaces of work. As a result, rural economy is no longer dominated by agricultural activities, but by activities such as small scale industrial production, service provision, landscape management, and residential use. To a certain extent these activities have the form of side-activities next to primary income sources. Most attention in both scientific literature and policies is focused on side-activities by farmers, such as agro-tourism and direct marketing. However, according to empirical data from The Netherlands, most side-activities are developed by non-farmers. In this paper the focus is on this last group. The amounts and types of non-farmers’ and farmers side-activities will be deployed, together with their motives to start new entrepreneurship endeavors and the impact on the local community. It will be argued that this type of activities will stimulate rural economic development offering new job opportunities for income generation to the rural inhabitants and create new economic spaces in rural geographical contexts transforming the rural economy.

  19. BINARY QUASARS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: EVIDENCE FOR EXCESS CLUSTERING ON SMALL SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennawi, J F; Strauss, M A; Oguri, M; Inada, N; Richards, G T; Pindor, B; Schneider, D P; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Hall, P B; Johnston, D E; Fan, X; Burles, S; Schlegel, D J; Gunn, J E; Lupton, R; Bahcall, N A; Brunner, R J; Brinkman, J

    2005-11-10

    We present a sample of 218 new quasar pairs with proper transverse separations R{sub prop} < 1 h{sup -1} Mpc over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 3.0, discovered from an extensive follow up campaign to find companions around the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 2dF Quasar Redshift Survey quasars. This sample includes 26 new binary quasars with separations R{sub prop} < 50 h{sup -1} kpc ({theta} < 10''), more than doubling the number of such systems known. We define a statistical sample of binaries selected with homogeneous criteria and compute its selection function, taking into account sources of incompleteness. The first measurement of the quasar correlation function on scales 10 h{sup -1} kpc < R{sub prop} < 400 h{sup -1} kpc is presented. For R{sub prop} {approx}< 40 h{sup -1} kpc, we detect an order of magnitude excess clustering over the expectation from the large scale (R{sub prop} {approx}> 3 h{sup -1} Mpc) quasar correlation function, extrapolated down as a power law to the separations probed by our binaries. The excess grows to {approx}30 at R{sub prop} {approx} 10 h{sup -1} kpc, and provides compelling evidence that the quasar autocorrelation function gets progressively steeper on sub-Mpc scales. This small scale excess can likely be attributed to dissipative interaction events which trigger quasar activity in rich environments. Recent small scale measurements of galaxy clustering and quasar-galaxy clustering are reviewed and discussed in relation to our measurement of small scale quasar clustering.

  20. Large- and small-scale interactions and quenching in an ?2-dynamo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the large-scale magnetic field in a turbulent flow of conducting fluid is considered in the framework of a multiscale ?2-dynamo model, which includes the poloidal and the toroidal components for the large-scale magnetic field and a shell model for the small-scale magnetohydrodynamical turbulence. The conjugation of the mean-field description for the large-scale field and the shell formalism for the small-scale turbulence is based on strict conformity to the conservation laws. The model displays a substantial magnetic contribution to the ? effect. It was shown that a large-scale magnetic field can be generated by current helicity even solely. The ? quenching and the role of the magnetic Prandtl number (Pm) are studied. We have determined the dynamic nature of the saturation mechanism of dynamo action. Any simultaneous cross correlation of ? and large-scale magnetic field energy EB is negligible, whereas coupling between ? and EB becomes substantial for moderate time lags. An unexpected result is the behavior of the large-scale magnetic energy with variation of the magnetic Prandtl number. Diminishing of Pm does not have an inevitable ill effect on the magnetic field generation. The most efficient large-scale dynamo operates under relatively low Prandtl numbers--then the small-scale dynamo is suppressed and the decrease of Pm can lead even to superequipartition of the large-scale magnetic field (i.e., EB>Eu). In contrast, the growth of Pm does not promote the large-scale magnetic field generation. A growing counteraction of the magnetic ? effect reduces the level of mean large-scale magnetic energy at the saturated state

  1. THE SUN'S SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC ELEMENTS IN SOLAR CYCLE 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the unique database from the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in an interval embodying solar cycle 23, the cyclic behavior of solar small-scale magnetic elements is studied. More than 13 million small-scale magnetic elements are selected, and the following results are found. (1) The quiet regions dominated the Sun's magnetic flux for about 8 years in the 12.25 year duration of cycle 23. They contributed (0.94-1.44) x1023 Mx flux to the Sun from the solar minimum to maximum. The monthly average magnetic flux of the quiet regions is 1.12 times that of the active regions in the cycle. (2) The ratio of quiet region flux to that of the total Sun equally characterizes the course of a solar cycle. The 6 month running average flux ratio of the quiet regions was larger than 90.0% for 28 continuous months from July 2007 to October 2009, which very well characterizes the grand solar minima of cycles 23-24. (3) From the small to the large end of the flux spectrum, the variations of numbers and total flux of the network elements show no correlation, anti-correlation, and correlation with sunspots, respectively. The anti-correlated elements, covering the flux of (2.9-32.0)x1018 Mx, occupy 77.2% of the total element number and 37.4% of the quiet-Sun flux. These results provide insight into the reason for anti-correlations of small-scale magnetic activity during the solar cycle.

  2. On Spatial Resolution in Habitat Models: Can Small-scale Forest Structure Explain Capercaillie Numbers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Storch

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of spatial resolution on the performance and applicability of habitat models in wildlife management and conservation. A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model for the Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus in the Bavarian Alps, Germany, is presented. The model was exclusively built on non-spatial, small-scale variables of forest structure and without any consideration of landscape patterns. The main goal was to assess whether a HSI model developed from small-scale habitat preferences can explain differences in population abundance at larger scales. To validate the model, habitat variables and indirect sign of Capercaillie use (such as feathers or feces were mapped in six study areas based on a total of 2901 20 m radius (for habitat variables and 5 m radius sample plots (for Capercaillie sign. First, the model’s representation of Capercaillie habitat preferences was assessed. Habitat selection, as expressed by Ivlev’s electivity index, was closely related to HSI scores, increased from poor to excellent habitat suitability, and was consistent across all study areas. Then, habitat use was related to HSI scores at different spatial scales. Capercaillie use was best predicted from HSI scores at the small scale. Lowering the spatial resolution of the model stepwise to 36-ha, 100-ha, 400-ha, and 2000-ha areas and relating Capercaillie use to aggregated HSI scores resulted in a deterioration of fit at larger scales. Most importantly, there were pronounced differences in Capercaillie abundance at the scale of study areas, which could not be explained by the HSI model. The results illustrate that even if a habitat model correctly reflects a species’ smaller scale habitat preferences, its potential to predict population abundance at larger scales may remain limited.

  3. Fabrication and analysis of small-scale thermal energy storage with conductivity enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Useful thermal conductivity envelope established for small scale TES. • Paraffin conductivity enhanced from .5 to 3.8 W/m K via low-cost copper insert. • Conductivity increase beyond 5 W/m K shows diminished returns. • Storage with increased conductivity lengthened thermoelectric output up to 247 s. - Abstract: The operation and useful operating parameters of a small-scale Thermal Energy Storage (TES) device that collects and stores heat in a Phase Change Material (PCM) is explored. The PCM utilized is an icosane wax. A physical device is constructed on the millimeter scale to examine specific effects of low-cost thermal conductivity enhancements that include copper foams and other metallic inserts. Numerical methods are utilized to establish useful operating range of small-scale TES devices in general, and the limits of thermal conductivity enhancement on thermoelectric operation specifically. Specific attention is paid to the manufacturability of the various constructs as well as the resulting thermal conductivity enhancement. A maximum thermal conductivity of 3.8 W/m K is achieved in experimental testing via copper foam enhancement. A simplified copper matrix achieves conductivity of 3.7 W/m K and allows significantly reduced fabrication effort. These results compare favorably to baseline wax conductivity of .5 W/m K. Power absorption is recorded of about 900 W/m2. Modeling reveals diminishing returns beyond 4–6 W/m K for devices on this scale. Results show the system capable of extending thermoelectric operation several minutes through the use of thermal energy storage techniques within the effective conductivity ranges

  4. A Practical Method to Estimate the Aerodynamic Coefficients of a Small-Scale Paramotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan-Viorel MIHAI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few aircraft other than lighter-than-air vehicles that have the payload carrying capability, short field take-off, and slow speed ranges afforded by a powered parafoil. One very interesting aspect of the powered parafoils or paramotors, is their tendency to fly at a constant airspeed whether it is climbing, descending, or flying straight-and-level. Not only are the aircraft speed stable, but they have pendulum stability as well, due to the mass of the airframe suspended significantly below the canopy. This allows the aircraft to maintain a safe roll attitude and effectively turn in a coordinated manner when the steering pedals are deflected. One of the challenges of flying these aircraft is the necessity of controlling altitude with thrust, and direction with asymmetric drag. The paper presents a practical method to estimate the aerodynamic coefficients of a small-scale paramotor in order to obtain a suitable mathematical model for the aerial vehicle. Thus, a reduced state linear model based on a simplified nonlinear six degree-of-freedom model (6 DOF is described. The autonomous control relies on the paramotor dynamics. And those equations depend on the aerodynamic coefficients. The task in this paper is to record the data of steady state flight regime, and to process it offline. Therefore, the system identification of the small-scale aerial vehicle can be done using the Two-Step Method, resulting an efficient six degree-of-freedom mini-paramotor model. The current work will permit the implementation of the control architecture in order to achieve the autonomous control of the small-scale paramotor through waypoints.

  5. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  6. Increased power to heat ratio of small scale CHP plants using biomass fuels and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a systematic study of process changes for increased power production in 1-20 MWe combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The changes are simulated, and their economic feasibility evaluated by using existing small scale CHP case plants. Increasing power production in decentralised CHP plants that operate according to a certain heat demand could reduce the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions per power unit produced and improve the feasibility of CHP plant investments. The CHP plant process changes were simulated under design and off design conditions and an analysis of power and heat production, investment costs and CO2 emissions was performed over the whole annual heat demand. The results show that using biomass fuels, there are profitable possibilities to increase the current power to heat ratios, 0.23-0.48, of the small scale CHP plants up to 0.26-0.56, depending on the size of the plant. The profitable changes were a two stage district heat exchanger and the addition of a steam reheater and a feed water preheater. If natural gas is used as an additional fuel, the power to heat ratio may be increased up to 0.35-0.65 by integrating a gas engine into the process. If the CO2 savings from the changes are also taken into account, the economic feasibility of the changes increases. The results of this work offer useful performance simulation and investment cost knowledge for the development of more efficient and economically feasible small scale CHP processes

  7. Small Scale Structure in the Molecular ISM in Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklind, T.; Combes, F.

    1997-12-01

    Millimeter wave molecular absorption lines seen towards background AGNs offer a unique possibility to probe the small scale structure of the molecular gas in galaxies at large distances. The reason for this is the very limited angular extent of the continuum sources at millimeter wavelengths. We have found indirect indications of very small scale structure in the obscuring molecular gas in two galaxies at intermediate redshift. (1) The relative depth of two absorption features in the CO(1-0) absorption profile seen towards PKS1413+135 at z=0.25 show significant changes on a time scale of a few months. The change is correlated with variations of the background flux and the observed changes in the absorption profile is interpreted as being caused by structural changes in the continuum source during an outburst. (2) The second case involves the lensing galaxy to the background radio--loud AGN B0218+357, situated at a redshift z=0.68. High angular resolution interferometry shows that the absorption only occurs in front of one of the two lensed images. The opacities inferred from the molecular absorption are very high. From saturated isotopic transitions of CO we derive tau_CO ga 1500, corresponding to A_V>500 mag. Despite the high opacity, the obscured AGN shows up on images obtained with the HST. No difference in the extinction can be found between the nucleus of the lensing galaxy and the background AGN. A comparison of the radio--to--optical flux ratio for B0218+357 with that of similar flat--spectrum radio--loud AGNs shows, however, that B0218+357 is optically underluminous by a large factor. This implies that part of the emission region is completely obscured while a small part remains unobscured. This implies very small scale structures in the obscuring molecular gas, with high density contrasts.

  8. Extensional basin evolution in the presence of small-scale convection : Subsidence and stratigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kenni Dinesen; Nielsen, S.B.

    The plate model of Parsons & Sclater provides a generally accepted, quantitative framework for the thermal subsidence-evolution in extensional basins. It predicts an asymptotic evolution of the geotherm towards a steady state, featuring a constant lithospheric thickness and ceased subsidence. This is formulated by assuming that the temperature at a fixed depth (the asymptotic thickness of the lithosphere) is constant. It is implicitly assumed, that this temperature is maintained by sub-lithospheric, small-scale convection, but the dynamics, controlling this process, are not considered. Here, we apply a two-dimensional, numerical, thermo-mechanical model of the lithosphere and upper mantle to asses the effects of small-scale convection. Given a particular mantle rheology, our model features such convection, and, over time, the horizontally averaged geotherm converges towards a self-consistent, quasi-steady-state. Extension of the convecting equilibrium model causes the formation of rifts or continental margins which, posterior to extension, cools and subsides as predicted by the plate model. However, in contrast to the plate model, the ascended asthenosphere is not instantaneously decoupled from the convecting upper mantle below, and cooling is thus not entirely conductive above the former base of the lithosphere. This causes significantly protracted cooling and subsidence.We show that our model features improved consistency with subsidence data from several rifted margins and intracontinental basins. Furthermore, our model shows that the long-term subsidence pattern in the presence of small-scale convection is superimposed by vertical movements at periods of 2-20 Myr due to convection dynamics at the base of the lithosphere. We show that these movements are a recurrent and potential cause for the development of stratigraphic sequences at similar time scale. Since such sequences are commonly assumed to be caused by eustatic variations, our results have important implications forinferences on the latter. Our results are furthermore important for the assessment of hydrocarbon potential of sedimentary basins in terms of stratigraphic correlation and thermal maturation.

  9. Artisanal small-scale mining: Potential ecological disaster in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siduduziwe Ncube-Phiri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal small-scale mining (ASM has devastating impacts on the environment, such as deforestation, over-stripping of overburden, burning of bushes and use of harmful chemicals like mercury. These environmental impacts are a result of destructive mining, wasteful mineral extraction and processing practices and techniques used by the artisanal small-scale miners. This paper explores the ecological problems caused by ASM in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe. It seeks to determine the nature and extent to which the environment has been damaged by the ASM from a community perspective. Interviews, questionnaires and observations were used to collect qualitative data. Results indicated that the nature of the mining activities undertaken by unskilled and under-equipped gold panners in Mzingwane District is characterised by massive stripping of overburden and burning of bushes, leading to destruction of large tracts of land and river systems and general ecosystem disturbance. The research concluded that ASM in Mzingwane District is an ecological time bomb, stressing the need for appropriate modifications of the legal and institutional frameworks for promoting sustainable use of natural resources and mining development in Zimbabwe. Government, through the Ministry of Small Scale and Medium Enterprises, need to regularise and formalise all gold mining activities through licensing, giving permanent claims and operating permits to panners in order to recoup some of the added costs in the form of taxes. At the local level, the Mzingwane Rural District Council (MRDC together with the Environmental Management Agency (EMA need to design appropriate environmental education and awareness programmes targeting the local community and gold panners.

  10. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  11. Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Non-Slender Piles in a Pressure Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, SØren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    The monopile foundation concept is often employed as the foundation for offshore wind turbines. Typically, piles with diameters of 4-6 m and embedded lengths of 15-30 m are employed. Hence, the length to diameter ratio is around 5. The design method recommended by the American Petroleum Institute and Det Norske Veritas is, however, based on slender piles with length to diameter ratios larger than 10. Hence, the design method needs to be validated for non-slender piles. The aim of the present work is to investigate the pile behaviour for non-slender piles by means of small-scale testing. When conducting small-scale tests the low effective stresses in the soil is one of the major un-certainties. At low stresses the soil parameters will vary greatly with depth and the determination of soil parameters is therefore subject to uncertainties. This problem can be overcome by in¬creasing the effective stresses in the soil. A new and innovative test setup for small-scale tests is presented. Tests were successfully carried out in a pressure tank enabling the possibility of ho¬mogeneously increasing the effective stresses. The test setup is described in detail in the paper. A total of 29 quasi-static tests were conducted on six piles with diameters between 40 and 100 mm and length to diameter ratios of 3-6 m. The effect of applying an overburden pressure is eval¬uated for the load-displacement relationships and the variation of pile deflection with depth.

  12. THE OPACITY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM DURING REIONIZATION: RESOLVING SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emberson, J. D.; Thomas, Rajat M.; Alvarez, Marcelo A., E-mail: emberson@astro.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2013-02-15

    Early in the reionization process, the intergalactic medium (IGM) would have been quite inhomogeneous on small scales, due to the low Jeans mass in the neutral IGM and the hierarchical growth of structure in a cold dark matter universe. This small-scale structure acted as an important sink during the epoch of reionization, impeding the progress of the ionization fronts that swept out from the first sources of ionizing radiation. Here we present results of high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations that resolve the cosmological Jeans mass of the neutral IGM in representative volumes several Mpc across. The adiabatic hydrodynamics we follow are appropriate in an unheated IGM, before the gas has had a chance to respond to the photoionization heating. Our focus is determination of the resolution required in cosmological simulations in order to sufficiently sample and resolve small-scale structure regulating the opacity of an unheated IGM. We find that a dark matter particle mass of m {sub dm} {approx}< 50 M {sub Sun} and box size of L {approx}> 1 Mpc are required. With our converged results we show how the mean free path of ionizing radiation and clumping factor of ionized hydrogen depend on the ultraviolet background flux and redshift. We find, for example at z = 10, clumping factors typically of 10-20 for an ionization rate of {Gamma} {approx} (0.3-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} s{sup -1}, with corresponding mean free paths of {approx}3-15 Mpc, extending previous work on the evolving mean free path to considerably smaller scales and earlier times.

  13. Analysis of Value Chain Governance: Scenarios to Develop Small-Scale Furniture Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Harini Irawati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Furniture industry had shown a long chain of production to consumption, from raw material producers (tree growers, semi-finished producers, finished product producers, and retailers to exporters. Jepara as a centre furniture industry in Indonesia incorporates around 15,000 business units and provide livelihoods to approximately 170,000 workers. This sector contributes about 27% of Jepara‘s people domestic income. Small and medium furniture enterprises (SMEs have significant roles in the furniture industry as production structures are characterized by them. Power and information imbalance throughout the furniture value chain have resulted in problems of uneven distribution of gains among actors of the industry. SME furniture producers have experienced an unfair value added distribution. Hence, development of SMEs is important for strengthening the industry and expected to result in a portion of value added distribution to them.  We are trying to develop scenarios for SME improvement in the furniture industry in Jepara by identifying their problems and implementing Value Chain Analysis (VCA. VCA is an approach to describe SME producer relations with other actors in the industry and the governance type of their relations. Data is collected by interviewing selected SMEs from the association of small scale producers in Jepara to get detailed maps of their value chain. The research will produce future scenarios and intervention points to improve small-scale producer sustainability and better value added distribution among furniture actors. The scenarios will not only benefit selected producers but also the furniture industry of Jepara, and can be adopted for similar industries throughout Indonesia and abroad. Keywords: furniture, value chain, governance, scenario, small-scale

  14. Closing the gap between theory and practice in seismic interpretation of small-scale faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesthammer, J.; Henden, J.O. [Statoil, Bergen (Norway)

    2000-05-01

    The ability to map small-scale faults from seismic surveys depends upon resolution, noise content and acquisition/processing procedure. In addition, the geoscientist must possess a sound understanding of plausible geometries consistent with analyses of well data. The comparison of two seismic datasets from the Gullveig structure, northern North Sea, demonstrates that the lateral resolution of the data is strongly dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio. By combining a theoretical approach with statistics from well analyses, exemplified by data from the Gullfaks Field, it is possible to enhance our understanding of the limits of fault resolution on 3D seismic data. (Author)

  15. A STUDY ON OBSTACLES FACED BY SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES WITH REFERENCE TO PEENYA, BANGALORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Priya. S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small Scale Industries occupies a critical role in the growth of countries economy. It suits well, especially for developing countries. In India by taking into consideration massive population and growing economy we can say that this field has more opportunities in developing nations. It plays a prominent role in India by utilizing available natural and human resources in efficient way. It also reduces uneven distribution of income and wealth. It helps in creation of employment opportunities in rural areas more by this way it avoids regional imbalances. Mainly the promotion of this sector contributes to increase in rate of exports.

  16. Effects of a small-scale consumers levy on energy for low and high price levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four parts can be distinguished in this report: first a description of the energy levy is given, then the results for the energy demand are presented. Next, attention is paid to the macro-economic and meso-economic effects, and finally, different options to return the levy to the small-scale consumers are assessed for the consequence of the purchasing power when the levy is implemented and for the impact on the labor market on the long term. 14 tabs., 8 refs

  17. Background information to the installers guide for small scale mains connected PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report contains background information used by BRE, EA Technology, Halcrows and Sundog when compiling guidance for the UK's New and Renewable Energy Programme on the installation of small-scale photovoltaics (PV) in buildings. The report considers: relevant standards; general safety issues; fire and safety issues, including the fire resistance of PV modules; PV module ratings such as maximum voltage and maximum current; DC cabling; the DC disconnect; the DC junction box; fault analysis; general and AC side earthing; DC earthing; lightning and surge suppression; inverters; AC modules; AC systems; getting connection; mounting options; and installation issues.

  18. The EU HT test programme of ITER primary wall small scale mock ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the main results obtained so far in the frame of the EU Home Team test programme of ITER primary wall small scale mock ups. It describes briefly the fabrication method of the mock ups, the test conditions and the main results obtained with high heat flux and thermal fatigue tests of Cu alloy/stainless steel and beryllium/Cu alloy/stainless steel mock ups. The results obtained so far show good thermal fatigue performance and operation margin of the ITER primary first wall concept. (author)

  19. ''Flicker'' in small scale laser--plasma self-focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggeshall, S.V.; Mead, W.C.; Jones, R.D.

    1988-10-01

    Small amplitude, short wavelength ion acoustic waves in laser-produced plasmas cause fluctuations in the trajectories of light rays that can lead to time-dependent, self-sustaining shifting of focal spots and a somewhat random redistribution of the light near the critical surface. This flickering is seen in simulations involving small scale beam inhomogeneities over a uniform background laser profile, which model the center of a realistic laser beam. The effect can cause significant intensity multiplication in long scale length high-Z plasmas with only modest beam imperfections.

  20. Small scale structure in diffuse molecular gas from repeated FUSE and visible spectra of HD 34078

    CERN Document Server

    Boisse, P; Le Petit, F; Pineau des Forêts, G; Roueff, E; Gry, C; Andersson, B G; Le Brun, V; Boisse, Patrick; Rollinde, Emmanuel; Petit, Franck Le; Forets, Guillaume Pineau des; Roueff, Evelyne; Gry, Cecile; Brun, Vincent Le

    2003-01-01

    We present preliminary results from an ongoing program devoted to a study of small scale structure in the spatial distribution of molecular gas. Our work is based on multi-epoch FUSE and visible observations of HD34078. A detailed comparison of H2, CH and CH+ absorption lines is performed. No short term variations are seen (except for highly excited H2) but long-term changes in N(CH) are clearly detected when comparing our data to spectra taken about 10 years ago.