WorldWideScience
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Thai indigenous cattle production provided a sustainable alternative for the benefit of small-scale farmers, healthy food and the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Thailand, there were 5.66 million indigenous cattle and 1.76 million of their crosses. Farmers raised these cattle integrated with crop and fish in livestock-crop-fish integrated farming systems. These farming systems are in small scales for efficient utilization of available resources and for maximisation of production of diversified products per unit area to increase the income of the farmers and enhance food production. Thai indigenous cattle meat have more specific nutrient that are beneficial for consumers, such as omega 3, omega 6, and CLA. Furthermore, farmers use cattle manures as fertilizer for crop production, production of plankton for the fish and biogas/electric power used in the household. Additionally, Thai indigenous cattle are used for draught power. Consequently, Thai indigenous cattle increased food production and there was minimal cattle waste on farms thus, we could keep the environment clean and green. Performance data, meat quality, compost production, biogas production, and draught animal and reference were collected from 103 smallholder farmers in the northern part of Thailand, northeastern, central and southern parts of Thailand during October 2005 to September 2007. Growth and reproductive performance: Thai indigenous cattle had various skin and hair colour such as red, light brown, black, piebald, and only Kow-Lamphun cattle in northern part of Thailand, orange-pink skin and white hair colour. Their navels were not slackened but attachedeir navels were not slackened but attached to the belly. Their dewlaps were also not slacken. The average birth weight was 19.6 kg and the weaning weight at 200 d of age was 137.96 kg. They had good characteristics of heat tolerance, disease resistance, and high fertility traits. They were the main red-meat source for consumers. Thai indigenous cattle were main source of red meat for consumption in Thailand. They produced high Omega 3 and Omega 6 in red meat, so their meat was the main source of protein and healthy food.Other utility of Thai indigenous cattle integrated farming system: Farmer raised on average 31.95 heads of Thai indigenous cattle on each farm integrated with crops (rice, corn, pineapple, sugar cane) and fish (striped catfish, catfish, tilapia, crucian carp). Cattle were fed on natural grass, rice straw as the main feed and other by-product from crops. Farmers used cattle manure to replaced chemical fertilizer and produced compost, which was used as fertilizer for crop production. Farmers also used manure to produce plankton for fish. They harvested 85.19 ton of crop production by using compost from manure and produced 0.25 ton per rai, which was less than the average country production (0.40 ton/rai). Average fish production was 100.00 kg per farm per year (147.06 kg/rai), which was similar to fish feeding with manure and concentrate (142.67 kg/rai). By integrating production in livestock-crop-fish, farming systems on small-scale, farmers produced safety food and gain their income. In addition, they could prevent air pollution, and global warming, leading to clean environment. (author)

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Jatropha and Sustainable Livelihood of Small-scale Farmers  

OpenAIRE

The jatropha trees oil containing seeds can be used for biofuel. There are a lot of discussions about whether a Jatropha production and utility can be beneficial for a sustainable development in the developing countries, or if it’s just another cash crop for oil-export to the developed countries biofuel use. The content of this thesis is a determination of the possible livelihood impacts from a jatropha production, through a case in Zambia where 25.000 small-scale farmers are involved in...

Ladefoged, Tanja; Hansen, Rasmus Bo

2009-01-01

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Export horticulture – empowering female small-scale farmers in Kenya?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Export horticulture is one of Kenya’s most dynamic sectors, with the Mount Kenya Region playing a crucial role as a result of its professional large- and small-scale production and marketing structures. The sector is consequently referred to as a “success story of African regional development” (Dolan and Sutherland 2002: 1. A qualitative case study was carried out to understand the impacts on gender inequality of the integration of horticultural smallholdings into the fresh fruit and vegetable (FFV supply chain to the European market. It will be outlined how export horticulture affects female small-scale farmers with reference to local distribution channels, the organisation of the farm as a group or an individual player, and the specific organisation of labour on the farm. The focus here is on the traditional division of labour, ownership and mobility patterns, as well as knowledge and income. The study shows that the influence of the integration in the FFV chain on gender inequality is conditioned by both the type of relations to the buyers and the internal and institutional organisation of the smallholding. Surprisingly, in some areas of the primarily male-dominated rural society, an integration in the form of outgrower schemes that resembles Gereffi et al.’s model of a captive value chain, with women farmers exclusively responsible for export production, can enhance gender equality, as women gradually gain more decision-making power and greater independence.

Velte, Maria

2014-09-01

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Constraints and Challenges Facing the Small Scale Farmers in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Macro- and micro-structural constraints, including those linked to and exacerbated by historical, natural and financial factors are some of the many stressors facing small-scale farmers in Limpopo Province. The challenge is to co-design ways to effectively manage these constraints with development actions. Small scale farmers in South Africa are still facing major challenges in the agricultural sector. In this paper some of the challenges faced by small-scale farmers...

Sylvester Mpandeli; Phokele Maponya

2014-01-01

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Small-scale Farmer’s Perception on the Impact of Grazing Livestock Animals on Crop Production in Abuja, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The production of crops and livestock animals in Nigeria is not mutually exclusive hence a study was conducted to determine small-scale crop farmers’ perception of the impact of grazing livestock animals like cattle, goat, sheep and domestic fowls on crop production in Abuja, Nigeria. A multi-stage technique was adopted for sample selection while semi-structured questionnaires were used for data collection. A total of 384 small-scale crop farmers were randomly interviewed in four agricultur...

Ajah Julius

2012-01-01

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Diversity of shifting cultivation cycles among small-scale farmers in Peruvian Amazon  

OpenAIRE

Although shifting cultivation is practiced by millions of farmers, it is often blamed for caus-ing deforestation and keeping farmers in pov-erty. Our study focused on the Amazon basin, where small-scale farmers widely practice shift- ing cultivation. The objective was to identify the diversity in land use after initial slash-and- burn land clearing among migrant peasants. Our research aimed at documenting typical crop sequences, plant species composition and specific lengths of particular pha...

Patrick Van Damme; Vladimir Verner; Lucie Banoutova; Jan Banout; Bohdan Lojka

2011-01-01

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Constraints and Challenges Facing the Small Scale Farmers in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Macro- and micro-structural constraints, including those linked to and exacerbated by historical, natural and financial factors are some of the many stressors facing small-scale farmers in Limpopo Province. The challenge is to co-design ways to effectively manage these constraints with development actions. Small scale farmers in South Africa are still facing major challenges in the agricultural sector. In this paper some of the challenges faced by small-scale farmers in the Limpopo Province have been identified. Some of the challenges found during the formal surveys and focus group meetings in the Tshakhuma, Rabali and Tshiombo areas were those linked to financial, assets, land ownership and biophysical factors. Specific constraints included: (a Market information and market access; (b Price of inputs, for example fertilizer and herbicides; (c Availability of inputs; (d Irrigation; (e Cost of transport, and Natural constraint.

Sylvester Mpandeli

2014-03-01

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Use of ICT in Securing Marketing Information among Small Scale Farmers in Niger State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the use of information communication technology (ICT) on securing marketing information among small scale farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 90 respondents through the use of structured questionnaire. The information collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression technique. Results of the analysis showed that majority of the respondents were in their active age of production and were married. Most of the respon...

Nmadu, Job N.; Aiyelitsoya, Fatima A.; Halima Sallawu

2013-01-01

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Extending Technologies among Small-Scale Farmers in Meru, Kenya: Ingredients for Success in Farmer Groups  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural extension is evolving worldwide, and there is much emphasis today on community-based mechanisms of dissemination in order to bring sustainable change. The goal of this study was to examine the factors that make farmer groups successful in dissemination of information and technologies. A mixed-methods, multiple-stage approach was used…

Davis, Kristin; Franzel, Steven; Hildebrand, Peter; Irani, Tracy; Place, Nick

2004-01-01

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A Comparative Study of Marketing Problems Faced by Small-scale Crop Farmers in Botswana and Kenya. Is There a Way out?  

OpenAIRE

Most governments in third world countries including sub Saharan Africa, tend to either neglect or fail to the avail the necessary resources to small-scale farmers to enable such farmers attain any meaningful development. The small-scale farmers contribute the biggest percentage of the national food requirement compared to large-scale farmers who produce largely for international markets. Besides, small-scale farmers contribute to the creation of employment, development of agro-based industrie...

Mburu, P. T.; Massimo, S. K.

2005-01-01

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Use of ICT in Securing Marketing Information among Small Scale Farmers in Niger State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the use of information communication technology (ICT on securing marketing information among small scale farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 90 respondents through the use of structured questionnaire. The information collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression technique. Results of the analysis showed that majority of the respondents were in their active age of production and were married. Most of the respondents obtained their information from radio, television, and newspaper. The finding also indicated that the years spent in school and not the educational achievement is what is likely to increase the probability of awareness. Problems identified with regards to the usage of ICTs by the respondents include language barrier, poverty, and illiteracy. It was therefore recommended that government and nongovernmental organizations should collaborate to include ICT workshop and training in farmer education programmes, encourage programmes like NYSC ICT volunteer group, and translate technology to local languages.

Job N. Nmadu

2013-04-01

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Diversity of shifting cultivation cycles among small-scale farmers in Peruvian Amazon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although shifting cultivation is practiced by millions of farmers, it is often blamed for caus-ing deforestation and keeping farmers in pov-erty. Our study focused on the Amazon basin, where small-scale farmers widely practice shift- ing cultivation. The objective was to identify the diversity in land use after initial slash-and- burn land clearing among migrant peasants. Our research aimed at documenting typical crop sequences, plant species composition and specific lengths of particular phases of shifting cultivation cycles on the basis of farmers re-lated field histories. Land use was examined in two settlements: Antonio Raimondi and Pimen-tal in Ucayali region, Peru. Data was gathered via semi-structured questionnaires that focused on the socio-demographic characterization of agriculture-dependent households and their land use characteristics. More in-depth as-sessments of crop occurrence, cropping se-quence and length of the different shifting cul-tivation cycles were conducted on 114 fields in Pimental and 44 fields in Antonio Raimondi. In-terview analysis showed that in both villages, forest cover has substantially decreased over the last 10 years. Results also indicate consid-erable variation in swidden-fallow systems. Whereas settlers in Antonio Raimondi plant annual crops after slashing and burning the forest, settlers in Pimental gave more impor-tance to perennial crops. Progress in deforesta-tion and land degradation is relatively more pronounced in the younger settlement (Antonio Raimondi. These differences are likely caused by the different social backgrounds of settlers and histories of each site. Small-scale farmers in the study area are now facing a problem with the transition from shifting cultivation to sed-entary farming. Farmers in areas with a preva-lence of annual cropping use a significantly shorter fallow period, which causes a higher rate of forest degradation. As annual cropping seems to be unsustainable in relation with for-est degradation, farmers should either use a longer natural fallow to sustain longer cropping cycles, or shift to tree-based land use systems.

Patrick Van Damme

2011-05-01

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Opportunities and challenges facing small-scale cattle farmers living adjacent to Kruger National Park, Limpopo Province  

OpenAIRE

A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to small-scale communal farmers in five communal villages which fall under Mhinga Traditional Authority (TA) in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Contrary to what has been documented in the literature, our study finds no evidence that farmers in rural communities keep livestock for non-market benefits such as cultural reasons or social status. Instead our study shows that farmers in rural areas keep livestock in...

Sikhweni, N. P.; Hassan, Rashid M.

2014-01-01

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The Right to Food Sovereignty for Small Scale Farmers: Case Study of Farming Cooperatives in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

This paper on small scale farmers focuses on the right to food sovereignty in South Africa. Food sovereignty is defined as the fundamental democratic right to shape agricultural and food policy from the bottom up. Africa is the hardest hit by climate change because it depends on natural resources where small-scale agriculture is the dominant method of food production, except in South Africa where commercial agriculture dominates. This has direct links to climate change discourse reveals th...

Sharon Groenmeyer

2013-01-01

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Detection of Transgenes in Local Maize Varieties of Small-Scale Farmers in Eastern Cape, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primar...

Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M.; Den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

2014-01-01

16

Resource Use and Technical Efficiency of Small Scale Poultry Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis  

OpenAIRE

The study examined the factors that affect poultry production among small scale poultry farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria. Thirty six respondents were sampled from a list of poultry farmers derived from Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme Office. The Cob Douglas stochastic production function was used to determine factors that affect poultry output as well as the factors that affect the technical efficiency of poultry production. Farm size (p = 0.05), capital input (p = 0.01), labour...

Ike, P. C.

2011-01-01

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Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. Further potential for earning carbon credits and generating Payments for Environmental Services (PES) lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrubland and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. These studies indicate that funds raised from PES could be used to foster the development of small-scale farming in northern Namibia. However, the limited information on soil quality and the rationale for particular soil management and land use practices applied by small-scale farmers in Namibia prohibits a conclusive assessment of the potential of Payment for PES as a source of income or funding opportunity for development initiatives in Northern Central Regions of Namibia. Therefore, the aim of this study is the identification of potential intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of PES in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The work in Namibia aimed at identifying existing soil management and land use practices as well as soil quality, including carbon stocks, on land used by small-scale farmers in the densely populated northern central region. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of farming practices and soil quality as well as sampling and interviewing approaches. Four settlements were selected for the field work based on their distance to the urbanized road corridor between Oshakati and the Angolan border. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity on land used by small-scale farmers as well as the opportunity to develop landscape carbon stocks. However, limits to earning PES might be the lack of a market, and thus incentive for the farmers, to shift from subsistence to commercial farming.

Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Asino, Josefina; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

2013-04-01

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Resource Use and Technical Efficiency of Small Scale Poultry Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the factors that affect poultry production among small scale poultry farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria. Thirty six respondents were sampled from a list of poultry farmers derived from Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme Office. The Cob Douglas stochastic production function was used to determine factors that affect poultry output as well as the factors that affect the technical efficiency of poultry production. Farm size (p = 0.05, capital input (p = 0.01, labour input (p = 0.05, quantity of feed used (p = 0.05 as well as drugs and veterinary services (p = 0.05 were the major factors that determined poultry output while age of farmer (p = 0.05, production systems (p = 0.1, farming experience (p = 0.1 and educational status (p = 0.1 determined the technical efficiency of poultry production. The mean technical efficiency of poultry production by small scale poultry farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria is 62%, implying that there are yet about 38% of chances for improvement on the technical efficiency of production. Given the existing technology of the poultry farmers, proper management that bears in mind the use of improved breeds and increased education of the poultry farmers on current techniques of production are policy measures that could help improve on the technical efficiency of poultry production in the study area.

P.C. Ike

2011-01-01

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Ixodid ticks on indigenous goats owned by small-scale farmers in four communal grazing areas in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Indigenous goats belonging to small-scale farmers in 4 communal grazing areas in South Africa were sampled for ixodid ticks during the period September 1991 to May 1993. Three of these areas were in the North West Province (Rietgat, Madinyane and Bethany), and one in Mpumalanga Province (Geluk). No tick control was practised unless requested by the owners. Seven ixodid tick species, of which the majority were immature ticks, were collected from the goats in North West Province. Ambl...

Du Plessis, B. A. J.; Stewart, C. G.; Horak, I. G.; Tice, G. A.; Bryson, N. R.

2012-01-01

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Ixodid ticks on cattle belonging to small-scale farmers at 4 communal grazing areas in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Ixodid ticks were collected during the period September 1991 to August 1993 from cattle belonging to small-scale farmers utilising 4 communal grazing areas. Three of these were in North West Province and 1 in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Ten tick species were collected in North West Province and 7 in Mpumalanga. The adults of Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were most numerou...

Bryson, N. R.; Tice, G. A.; Horak, I. G.; Stewart, C. G.; Du Plessis, B. J. A.

2012-01-01

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An inventory of agricultural chemicals used by small-scale farmers in Soshanguve : implications for environmental management  

OpenAIRE

Please read the abstract in the section 00front of this document © 2000 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. Please cite as follows: Van der Linde CM, 2000, An inventory of agricultural chemicals used by small-scale farmers in Sosh...

Linde, Cornelia Maria

2002-01-01

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A Success Story of Organizing Small Scale Farmers in Kenya : It's Possible Replication for the Payment of Environmental Services?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Managing agricultural landscapes for reducing carbon dioxide emissions is believed to be a Payment for Environmental Services mechanism (PES) of major significance after the 2012 Kyoto Protocol era. The big number of small scale farmers in the developing countries, and not least in SSA, will through this have a chance to contribute to national development, but to also enhance their own livelihood. The big problem of relying on small scale farmers is an organization model that ensures endurance and reliability. The Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA) has through almost 50 years been successful in integrating 600.000 smallholders in the tea production making tea number one income earner in Kenya and enhancing the livelihoods of the involved contract growers. The article argues that lessons should be learned from the success of KTDA in possibly replicating the organizational model to other crops, but not least to be used in PES schemes. The article emphasizes vertical integration and production diversification, enabling market conditions, and democratization as the main factors in KTDA’s success that could possibly be replicated in promoting small scale farmers participating in the post-Kyoto carbon trade.

Buch-Hansen, Mogens

2012-01-01

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Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70±0.84 Escherichia coli (log) cfu/ml on average in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Luu, Huong Quynh; Madsen, Henry

2014-01-01

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The Right to Food Sovereignty for Small Scale Farmers: Case Study of Farming Cooperatives in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper on small scale farmers focuses on the right to food sovereignty in South Africa. Food sovereignty is defined as the fundamental democratic right to shape agricultural and food policy from the bottom up. Africa is the hardest hit by climate change because it depends on natural resources where small-scale agriculture is the dominant method of food production, except in South Africa where commercial agriculture dominates. This has direct links to climate change discourse reveals that rapid climate change including more frequent and intense weather systems with greater climate variability and the effects of increases in the average global temperature lead to changes in average rainfall patterns (Babagura 2011. In Sub-Saharan Africa, men make up approximately 85% of landholders and women 15% (UN Africa HDR 2012. Cultural practices and the dominance of patriarchal norms influence equal ownership and inheritance rights for men and women. Consequently landownership amongst women is lower in sub-Saharan Africa than in any other region in the world. In contrast, women make up approximately 50% of the agriculture workforce on male owned African small scale farms. Therefore, women in sub-Saharan Africa have less control than men do over productive resources such as assets of land and credit. Women’s time is often devoted to the domestic sphere in activities that are non-marketed and undervalued and their access to key institutions such as markets is curtailed (Annecke 2010. Climate change discourse demonstrates that the poor are disproportionately affected especially women who become shock absorbers during a food crisis, skipping meals to ensure family members have adequate nutrition. Household food security is part of a complex matrix of inequality which includes high levels of unemployment and increasing impoverishment because of the rising cost of basic services of electricity and water. Consequently, the increasing prices of basic foods like maize and wheat as the staple foods of most rural and urban poor poses a problem, because impoverished households are not buyers of food. Coupled with the stressors of poverty, poor health (HIV and AIDS and societal inequalities (race and gender small scale farmers have less flexibility to protect themselves or avoid risks. This case study based on group interviews with small scale farmers who are members of cooperatives located in the Mopani District in the Limpopo Province in South Africa investigates how these small scale farmers have addressed food insecurity.

Sharon Groenmeyer

2013-04-01

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Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

2014-01-01

26

Detection of Transgenes in Local Maize Varieties of Small-Scale Farmers in Eastern Cape, South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001–2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers’ practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

2014-01-01

27

Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. However, at the current price for a ton of carbon, the potential to earn significant carbon credits is limited. Therefore carbon storage should not be seen as a goal in itself. Potential for earning carbon credits and generating further benefits lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrub land and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. Therefore, soil management has to be addressed from a holistic understanding of the livelihoods of small-scale farmers. This includes a detailed understanding of the constraints in farming, as well as the motivation behind farming. The aim of this study is the identification of intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of soil quality, farm management and the constraints and motivations regarding farming. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity of land while at the same time building up landscape carbon stocks. They furthermore show the importance of carefully choosing the way new farming techniques are introduced, as many farmers are afraid of trying something new.

Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Böller, Marianne; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

2014-05-01

28

Study on Survival Strategies of Farmers Engage in Small-Scale Household Cultivation of Edible Mushrooms: Take Shandong Province as an Example  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small-scale household production of edible mushrooms by farmers is the major source of edible mushrooms in China. However, large-scale enterprises who engage in commercial cultivation of edible mushrooms has been growing at a relatively fast pace, bringing about challenges for small-scale farmers. With the purpose of help maintain small-scale farmers’ ability to survive in this fiercely competitive landscape, this paper first analyzes their competitive advantages, disadvantages and survival strategies, employing the methods of field survey and comparative observation. Based on these analyses, suggestions concerning how to strengthen the survivability of small-scale farmers are proposed, focusing on further lowering production cost and optimizing cooperative modes.

Min Li

2014-11-01

29

EFFECT OF MICRO FINANCE ON POVERTY REDUCTION OF SMALL SCALE FARMERS OF PAKISTAN  

OpenAIRE

This study revealed the impact of micro finance with regard to poverty alleviation, employment generation opportunities, upraise in the standards of living of the small farmers of Pakistan along with the access of such finances and their financial cost. Small farmers often rely on the loans and finance from the formal and informal sources of finance. There is low rate of sustainability in the micro finance sector. These schemes remain for a small time period. Another challenge is that there i...

Saeed, Zaheer Ahmad; Saeed, Rashid; Lodhi, Rab Nawaz

2013-01-01

30

Evaluation of the appropriateness of certain grain production technologies for small-scale farmers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The paper suggests a combination of both modern, high-input technologies and low-input technologies in a context based technology development approach. These technologies are: improved maize varieties; row planting; legumes in the cropping system; reduced tillage practices and weed control. Although [...] some adaptations are needed, none of the innovations in the program failed the test of appropriateness completely. According to the findings Open Pollinated Varieties (OPV's), although intensively promoted, were only preferred by 35% of the farmers while hybrid seed was preferred by 59% of the farmers. The majority of farmers (63%) indicated that they do plant maize in rows with a mechanised planter; despite high labour costs 59% of farmers still control weeds by hand and 61% of the respondents do realise the economic advantage of reduced tillage practices but still does not implement the practices. The strong linkages between all role players and active farmer participation are probably the most important reasons for the fact that farmers are still enthusiastic and eager to continue with the program.

A.P.N., du Toit; E.A., Nemadodzi.

2008-01-01

31

A Comparative Study of Marketing Problems Faced by Small-scale Crop Farmers in Botswana and Kenya. Is There a Way out?  

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Full Text Available Most governments in third world countries including sub Saharan Africa, tend to either neglect or fail to the avail the necessary resources to small-scale farmers to enable such farmers attain any meaningful development. The small-scale farmers contribute the biggest percentage of the national food requirement compared to large-scale farmers who produce largely for international markets. Besides, small-scale farmers contribute to the creation of employment, development of agro-based industries, improvement of social welfare and the contribution to economic advancement of most developing countries. The development of this sector depends mainly on the availability of ready markets particularly the development of the marketing mix using the original 4P`s of marketing. Any business aims at offering consumers needed products that are competitive, available, well packaged and distributed according to consumer preferences. Pricing, distribution and promotion issues should also be incorporated in order to boost sales of locally produced products in preference to imported goods. With proper management and marketing improvement in this sector, most African countries could increase food production and cease to be dependent on food relief aid from donors. A comparative study approach was used to compile this study comparing the problems of small-scale farmers in Botswana and Kenya. We made use of available secondary data form publications in the two countries. This study aimed at finding out whether marketing problems faced by small-scale farmers in Botswana also affect their Kenyan counterparts and suggest possible solutions.

P.T. Mburu

2005-01-01

32

Factors Limiting Small-Scale Farmers’ Access and Use of Tractors for Agricultural Mechanization in Abuja, North Central Zone, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The importance of tractor and its implements in agricultural mechanization necessitatedthis study. The main objective is to identify factors limiting small-scale farmers’ access anduse of tractors for farm mechanization in Abuja, Nigeria. To effectively cover the studyarea, a simple random technique was adopted for sample selection while semi-structuredquestionnaires were used for data collection. A total of 337 farmers were randomlyselected from four local government areas (Kule, Kwali, Abaji, Gwagwalada and used forthe study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results indicated that the majorfactors limiting the farmers from using tractors to work on their farms were high cost oftractor hiring services (64.09% and inadequate sources of hiring points (19.29% resultingin poor access to tractors and its implements. The farmers that hired tractors spent anaverage of N11,543 on land tillage alone hence majority (49.85% of them adopted localimplements like hoes, spades and shovels for land tillage while 10.39% planted withoutland tillage (zero tillage. In addition to land tillage, majority of the farmers (62.31%indicated that, they also hired tractors for the transportation of their farm produce. Privateownership (NGO, Cooperative societies and private individuals were the major (67.95%sources of tractor for hiring while only 13.65% of the farmers accessed government-owned tractors. Based on the findings, the paper recommended that more tractor hiringpoints should be established in the study area and, in addition, the cost of hiring tractorshould be regulated by government in order to encourage farm mechanization.Key words: Cost of tractor hiring, land tillage operation, transportation of farm produce,sources of tractor hiring

Ajah Julius

2014-02-01

33

Hot Pepper Production and Marketing in Southwest Ethiopia: An Alternative Enterprise for Small Scale Farmers  

OpenAIRE

This study was initiated with the objective of examining the existing hot pepper production and marketing, assess its socioeconomic role in the life of producers and other actors and point out the existing bottlenecks of production and marketing. Descriptive statistics, net benefit and margin analysis were employed to analyze the data. The result indicated that local varieties called marco (in Omo Nada) and kolesh (in Gojeb) are largely used by farmers and provide a yield ha-1 of 1...

Zekarias Shumeta

2012-01-01

34

Effect of Irrigation on Poverty among Small-Scale Farmers in Limpopo Province of South Africa  

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Full Text Available Despite the strength and stability of South African economy, poverty and inequality remain a glaring and persistent issue in the country. About 40% of the population live in outright poverty or continuing vulnerability to being poor, with poverty being more persistent in rural areas. The Forster-Greer-Thorbecke index and a Logit econometric model were used to measure the dynamics of poverty among irrigation and non-irrigation individuals and households. The poverty incidence, depth and severity were found to be higher among non-irrigation household than among irrigation households. In term of poverty depth, it will cost R51.08 per capita to eliminate poverty among small-scale farm families that practice non-irrigated, while R48.00 per capita will be needed to eliminate poverty among small-scale irrigation families.There was significant correlation between income poverty and capability and deprivation poverty. This Implies that policies aimed at mitigating income poverty may also mitigate capability and deprivation poverty.

Majory Ongie Meliko

2011-09-01

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EFFECT OF MICRO FINANCE ON POVERTY REDUCTION OF SMALL SCALE FARMERS OF PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available This study revealed the impact of micro finance with regard to poverty alleviation, employment generation opportunities, upraise in the standards of living of the small farmers of Pakistan along with the access of such finances and their financial cost. Small farmers often rely on the loans and finance from the formal and informal sources of finance. There is low rate of sustainability in the micro finance sector. These schemes remain for a small time period. Another challenge is that there is a need of replicable and scalable model. There is also a requirement of formalization of informal credit source which count for higher. There is high need of reducing the ambiguities in obtaining the credit from these sources. With respect to agriculture, the proportion of finance should be increase with the proportion to its contribution to the economy. The data for this study has been collected through a selfstructured questionnaire and respondents are small farmers who are availing the micro finance facility for any source; informal, formal or semi – informal. The data collected form 150 respondent from Sahiwal and Multan Region. The data has been analyzed through regression and correlation method with the use of SPSS for checking the relationship and impact of micro finance on the living of poor and employment generation. This paper also concluded that the financial cost of such finances is having significant role on the success of such schemes. The research is a contribution to the financial sector to set their focus according to the quality and quantity of micro credit to the agriculture sector.

Zaheer Ahmad SAEED

2013-01-01

36

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Production Efficiency and Constraints Among Small Scale Farmers in Southern Kaduna, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe is mostly grown in southern Kaduna Sate, the traditional home of ginger in Nigeria. Its production was boosted with the aim of generating internal trade for the people and improved foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria. However, ginger yields in Nigeria are comparatively very low; and this is ascribed to various factors such as poor agronomic practices, unimproved varieties, laborious farming, harvesting and processing operations amongst others. It is against this background that this study carried out to examine the production, constraints and efficiency of production amongst the predominantly poor, rural farmers in the ginger production areas of southern Kaduna, Nigeria. Results showed that, the elasticity of production, farm size (1.21, ginger seed (2.19, fertilizer (0.06 and labor (0.09 are positive and had a significant effect on ginger production in the study area. The estimated coefficient of age (0.004, farming experience (-0.003, education (-0.02 and ginger variety (-0.28 were significant; while that of household size (0.007 was not significant. The fore-most problems affecting ginger production are risk and uncertainties (81.56%, inadequate supply of fertilizer (80.31%, lack of modern farm equipment (76.25%, and lack of credit facilities (74.1%. The technical efficiency of ginger farmers ranged between 0.74 and 1.00; with a mean technical efficiency of 0.82. On the whole, this result suggests that the technical efficiency in ginger production in the area could be further increased by 18% through better use of available resources, given the current state of technology. It can be concluded that specific factors such as age, household size, year of farming experience, and the narrow gene pool (variety of ginger planted, contributed positively to the technical and allocative efficiencies of ginger producers in the region. Ginger farmers could be said to be inefficient in the use of resources and/ or were under-utilizing their resources/input. Evidently, they can still use more resources to increase the output of ginger. Without a doubt, addressing these technical deficiencies and/ or inefficiencies could, in effect, boost ginger production, with the concomitant multiplier effect of increasing the profitability of the entire enterprise and up-liftment of the socio-economic living conditions of these predominantly, low technology base and resource poor farmers of the Southern Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Titilayo J. Ayodele

2014-07-01

37

Assessment of Small Scale Farmers’ Skills Regarding Integrated Pest Management (IPM in District Sargodha-Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Asurvey study was conducted to assess the knowledge/awareness level in IPM technology among farmers. Fourvillages were randomly selected from Sargodha district fordata collection. Thirteen farmers from each village wereselected randomly and sample size was 52 respondents. Morethan 92% of respondents have no advisory services eitherfrom public or private sector. The findings imply that respondentsneed knowledge for all levels of competence in IPM technology.They need to get high-level of competence for application ofthis technology in the field. In addition, they have littleexposure to long-term training opportunities due to loweducation level for applications of this technology. More than77% of respondents think that government agricultural policiesand no access to information sources regarding integrated pestmanagement at grass-root level are main constraints. Thefindings from correlation and regression analyses indicate thatage and knowledge/awareness level are negatively correlated.It may be concluded that elder respondents have less adaptabilityto new ideas and techniques as compared to young respondents.However, training and information, education, and experienceplay a significant role in enhancing the knowledge/awarenesslevel of respondents in IPM technology.

Ejaz Ashraf

2012-12-01

38

Comparative Analysis of Allocative Efficiency in Input use by Credit and Non Credit User Small Scale Poulty Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study examined the relative allocative efficiencies in input use by credit user and non credit user small scale poultry farmers in Delta State, Nigeria. Relative elasticities of production and returns to scale of the defined poultry farmers were examined. Primary data were collected from a random sample of 108 small scale poultry farmers consisting of 54 credit users and 54 non credit users. A stochastic frontier production function model was used to analyse the data. Results of the findings indicate that none of the poultry farmer groups allocated any production input optimally. All the variables entered in the model were significant for credit and non credit users except drugs and veterinary services which was not significant for non credit user poultry farmers. On the whole, the credit user poultry farmers over utilized (Kij1 feed input as well as drugs and veterinary services. The non credit user farmers over utilized (Kij1 feed input. It is therefore the recommendation of this study that economic policies and programmes such as the Delta state microcredit programme should be strengthened so as to improve access to credit and enhance efficiency in the use of resources by small scale poultry farmers.

P.C. Ike

2011-11-01

39

Small-Scale Farmer Initiatives for Irrigating the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey was undertaken in Machakos , Kitui, Makueni, Mwingi and Baringo districts to Identify the major systems currently being employed with a view to assessing there performance. In Machakos, Kitui, Makueni and Mwingi districts, the main sources of water were small earth dams (micro dams), with water harnessed from run off and nearby uncultivated or grazing lands. In Baringo district, the main source of water was adam constructed across a seasonal river called Wesegess. All micro dams were excavated by their owners using mainly manual labour and skills acquired from neighbours, supplemented by owner's initiates. In the areas in Eastern province, only horticultural crops are irrigated. In Baringo district, grain and horticultural crops than in grain crops underscoring their higher water demand and importance in the household cas flow. The main irrigation system employed in the Eastern province was spot, whereas furrows was widely used in Baringo district. Availability of water within the farm freed labour from fetching water long distances and shortened walking distances for livestock. It also facilitated cultivation of high value crops to improve farmers' household cash economy

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Factors Influencing Potential Acceptance and Adoption of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Carbon Trade Tree Project among Small Scale Farmers in Njoro District, Kenya  

OpenAIRE

The aim of study was to assess the willingness of small scale farmers to accept and the extent of willingness to adopt carbon trade tree project and by so doing to identify and quantify factors that will influence adoption of carbon trade tree project. The study used multi-stage sampling procedure to select 150 small-scale farmers in Njoro district, Kenya. Both primary and secondary data sources collected using observations and interviews with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. The ...

Ayuya, Oscar I.; Mironga, Job K. Lagat And John M.

2011-01-01

41

Hot Pepper Production and Marketing in Southwest Ethiopia: An Alternative Enterprise for Small Scale Farmers  

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Full Text Available This study was initiated with the objective of examining the existing hot pepper production and marketing, assess its socioeconomic role in the life of producers and other actors and point out the existing bottlenecks of production and marketing. Descriptive statistics, net benefit and margin analysis were employed to analyze the data. The result indicated that local varieties called marco (in Omo Nada and kolesh (in Gojeb are largely used by farmers and provide a yield ha-1 of 16.39 and 12.21 quintal, respectively through using fertilizer and spacing technology. The assessment of the market structure revealed that the largest volume (50% of sale directly goes to the local consumers followed by the volume channeled to assemblers (28.5% and retailers (21.5%. The margin analysis revealed that producers take the highest profit margin of 100 and 68.2% when the product is sold directly to the local consumers and retailers, respectively. But when hot pepper is channeled to Jima and Addis Ababa, producers get a profit margin of 53.3 and 42.8%, respectively making the respective total gross margin taken by the intermediaries to be 46.7 and 57.2 out of which the largest share is taken by the assemblers without having a significant value addition activity. Therefore, with the assumption that their possible linkage role can effectively be taken by the local wholesalers and retailers, banning of local assemblers from the market chain can be taken as one option for improving the efficiency of the chain. Low productivity, illegal act of actors in the chain, poor quality of product, low and fluctuating price, small and confined market place together with long market distance were found to be the major problems adversely influencing the production and marketing of hot pepper in the area.

Zekarias Shumeta

2012-01-01

42

AN AGRI-FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL TO ENHANCE THE BUSINESS SKILLS OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS USING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY  

OpenAIRE

In general, small-scale vegetable farmers experience problems in improving the safety and quality of vegetables for supplying high-class consumers in modern retailers. Farmer Group and/or Cooperative (FGC) should be able to assist its members to meet the relevant provisions of modern retail on product specifications, delivery terms, and internal business requirements. This study proposed an agri-food supply chain (ASC) model that involves the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities t...

Wahyudi Sutopo; Muh. Hisjam; Yuniaristanto .

2012-01-01

43

Survey of the Current Status of Weed Control and Herbicide Usage by the Small-Scale Commercial Vegetable Farmers in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vegetable production in Kenya is a market that has grown very rapidly in the decade due to increased demand in the local and international markets. This has led to an increase in hectarerage planted to vegetable thus leading in labour shortage due urban migration of potential casual labourers especially the youth. This has resulted to inadequate labour for weed control especially at the critical period. The objectives of this study were to find out the problems encountered by farmers in their bid to control weeds and whether they considered weeds as their major problem. The survey was conducted in Kikuyu, Lari and Kinango divisions where intensive vegetable farming is done by small-scale farmers for commercial purposes. The farmers were randomly selected and interviews conducted in their farms, based on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method. The results obtained showed that the farmers who previously relied on manual labour for weed control were increasingly using herbicides for weed control. The adoption of herbicide technology by these small scale farmers was out of their own initiative, either due to labour shortage or because one had a special weed problem that had defied other methods of control.From the information obtained it was clear that locally generated data information on herbicide use by small-scale farmers is seriously lacking for most if not all vegetable crops

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Allocative efficiency constraints in snail (Archachatina marginata production by small scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study examined constraints militating against the profitability potentials of snail (Archachatina marginata production by small-scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 120 respondents in the study area by means of structured and semi-structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of three (Ogoja, Ikom and Odukpani local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State, Nigeria. This was followed by random selection of three villages (Igoli in Ogoja Local Government Area, Alesi in Ikom Local Government Area and Adiabo in Odukpani Local Government Area in Cross River State. The respondents were randomly selected from each of the villages, 40 respondents were selected each from three villages, making a total number of 120 respondents. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and costs returns analysis. The results indicated that Cobb-Douglas production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of snail and inputs used, the coefficient of multiple determinant (R2=0.60 indicates that sixty percent of the variability in output of snail is explained by the independent variables. Results from the analysis revealed that the marginal value products of farm size, labour, farm management practices and operating costs were N1080, N20.6, N972.8, N14.84 respectively, there existed allocative inefficiency, there is a high potential for snail farmers to increase their yields and income. Further analysis of results revealed that net returns on snail is N2,935,000.00 with return on every naira invested of N0.14 is also positive indicating a profit from the business, with attractive net return on investment. This study shows that snail farmers are faced with several problems in their production activities. These problems or constraints affect the efficiency of snail production in the study area. Notable among them are high cost of feed supplement, lack of capital, inaccessibility of formal credit source because lack of collaterals, lack of extension agents, lack of medication/vaccines, poor production infrastructures and lack of good farm management practices occupied 15%, 14.17%,11.67%,10%,9.17%,9.17% and 8.33% respectively. The constraints associated with the business as highlighted in this paper if tackled could pave a way to increase profit and this will alleviate poverty in Cross River State. Hence, forefficient production of snail in the study area, these constraints must be drastically reduced to the barest minimum. This can be done through efficient policy formulation and implementation, proper supervision of snail production programme, effective extension services and proper agricultural financing. Snail farmers in the study area should be train by extension agents on how to control some of constraints that militate against the profitability potential of snail production. Beside that snail farmers should form cooperative group (s in order to obtain loans from bank (s to increase their capital base for higher output.

Ignatius B. Adinya

2011-11-01

45

Factors Influencing Potential Acceptance and Adoption of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Carbon Trade Tree Project among Small Scale Farmers in Njoro District, Kenya  

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Full Text Available The aim of study was to assess the willingness of small scale farmers to accept and the extent of willingness to adopt carbon trade tree project and by so doing to identify and quantify factors that will influence adoption of carbon trade tree project. The study used multi-stage sampling procedure to select 150 small-scale farmers in Njoro district, Kenya. Both primary and secondary data sources collected using observations and interviews with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. The double hurdle model was used identify the factors that influence the willingness to accept and the extent the farmers are willing to adopt the carbon tree trade project. Findings of the double hurdle model indicate that gender, household size, farm debt, attitude towards risk, farm size,land tenure, availability of voluntary CDM and perception of the technology were found to influence the willingness to accept the project. Further, age, extension contacts, attitude towards risk, land tenure and perception towards the technology influenced on the extent the farmer is willing to adopt. The study therefore, recommends policy interventions of improved training offarmers and extension officers on agroenvironmental programmes, formation of agro-environmental self-help groups by farmers and creation of strategies that would improve socio-economic conditions of smallholder farmers in Kenya.

Oscar I. Ayuya

2011-04-01

46

AN AGRI-FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL TO ENHANCE THE BUSINESS SKILLS OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS USING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY  

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Full Text Available In general, small-scale vegetable farmers experience problems in improving the safety and quality of vegetables for supplying high-class consumers in modern retailers. Farmer Group and/or Cooperative (FGC should be able to assist its members to meet the relevant provisions of modern retail on product specifications, delivery terms, and internal business requirements. This study proposed an agri-food supply chain (ASC model that involves the corporate social responsibility (CSR activities to enhance the business skills of the FGC as supplier of modern retailer. Multi-objective optimization programming is developed to determine the amount and timing of supply, level of farmers training skills, quality improvement target, and the CSR total cost. The results show that the proposed model can be used to determine the priority of programs in order to empower farmers' groups as modern retail suppliers.

Wahyudi Sutopo

2012-04-01

47

Exploring the role of sugarcane in small-scale farmers' livelihoods in the Noodsberg area, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Participatory, mixed-methods research was conducted to study the role of sugarcane in small-scale sugarcane farmers' livelihoods in the Noodsberg area, KwaZulu-Natal. Thirty-five farmers were visited at their homes and data was collected through semi-structured interviews, participatory sketch mappi [...] ng, matrix scoring activities and informal field-based discussions. Results indicated that sugarcane was a key livelihood resource providing employment and income, and it generated more income than any other single agricultural enterprise. It was considered the most important crop in most households, even though it was grown within a diverse agricultural system including maize, beans, taro (amadumbe) and potatoes. Considering the important role of sugarcane as a cash crop in farmers' livelihoods, further development of land to sugarcane in the Noodsberg area will continue to reduce poverty and improve the livelihoods of farmers.

J. J, Cockburn; H. C, Coetzee; J, Van den Berg; D. E, Conlong; J, Witthöft.

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Allocative efficiency constraints in snail (Archachatina marginata) production by small scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study examined constraints militating against the profitability potentials of snail (Archachatina marginata) production by small-scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 120 respondents in the study area by means of structured and semi-structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of three (Ogoja, Ikom and Odukpani) local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State, Nigeria. This was...

Adinya, Ignatius B.; Ibekwe, H. A.

2011-01-01

49

FACTORS INFLUENCING DECISIONS FOR USING OUTSIDE FUNDS FOR FARM INVESTMENTS AND PROPRIETOR WITHDRAWALS BY SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This study on factors influencing decisions for using outside funds for Farm investments and for proprietor withdrawals was carried out among rural small-scale farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of ninety (90 rural farm households of multi-type (varied enterprises was carried out using cluster random sampling technique in three communities, each chosen from one of the three agricultural zones of the state. Results indicated rural household level variables that positively influenced decisions to source farm investment fund to include level of education, gender, membership of cooperative society, interest charge, land acquisition method, and ease of getting loan. Other factors that negatively influenced decisions include farming as major occupation, household savings, household size, and distance of farmers’ home to source of credit. Proprietor withdrawal decisions were positively influenced by household level variables like taking farming as major occupation, payment of school fees for children of farmers, and amount of credit so far repaid by a farm household. Other factors namely household size, being member of cooperative society or savings group, interest charges on loan, off-farm income, and household savings had negative influences on proprietor withdrawal decisions. We recommended that small-scale farmers should not borrow their start-up capital from outside their households but as their farm businesses stabilize, they could decide to take loans from outside to cover their working capital and/or expand their farms and be prepared to repay such loans according to contractual agreements.

Chriso O. EMEROLE

2013-08-01

50

[Maximization of economic yield, minimum cost optimal diets and cultivation diversification for small scale farmers of the highland region of Guatemala].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was conducted as part of an evaluation of the economic and nutritional effects of a crop diversification program for small-scale farmers in the Western highlands of Guatemala. Linear programming models are employed in order to obtain optimal combinations of traditional and non-traditional food crops under different ecological conditions that: a) provide minimum cost diets for auto-consumption, and b) maximize net income and market availability of dietary energy. Data used were generated by means of an agroeconomic survey conducted in 1983 among 726 farming households. Food prices were obtained from the Institute of Agrarian Marketing; data on production costs, from the National Bank of Agricultural Development in Guatemala. The gestation periods for each crop were obtained from three different sources, and then averaged. The results indicated that the optimal cropping pattern for the minimum-cost diets for auto consumption include traditional foods (corn, beans, broad bean, wheat, potato), non-traditional foods (carrots, broccoli, beets) and foods of animal origin (milk, eggs). A significant number of farmers included in the sample did not have sufficient land availability to produce all foods included in the minimum-cost diet. Cropping patterns which maximize net incomes include only non-traditional foods: onions, carrots, broccoli and beets for farmers in the low highland areas, and raddish, broccoli, cauliflower and carrots for farmers in the higher parts. Optimal cropping patterns which maximize market availability of dietary energy include traditional and non-traditional foods; for farmers in the lower areas: wheat, corn, beets, carrots and onions; for farmers in the higher areas: potato, wheat, raddish, carrots and cabbage. PMID:2490893

Alarcón, J A; Immink, M D; Méndez, L F

1989-12-01

51

Use of herbal remedies by small-scale farmers to treat livestock diseases in central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa  

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Full Text Available The use of herbal remedies by African farmers in the treatment of livestock diseases was investigated using a range of methods, including group interviews, structured interviews, semi-structured interviews and participant observation. The study was concerned mainly with the 'why' and 'how' of herbal remedy use among African livestock holders farming on communally-owned land in central Eastern Cape Province. We found that the use of herbal remedies was still widespread because these remedies were cheap, locally available and convenient to administer. Farmers also used herbal remedies because they did not have knowledge of conventional remedies or found these too expensive and therefore used herbal remedies as a last resort. Most of the farmers interviewed (73 % had used some form of herbal remedy. A small number of farmers did not use herbal remedies at all. They rejected them because they had bad experiences in the past or because they considered the practice outdated and socially inferior. Often farmers used herbal remedies in combination with conventional ones, but a substantial number relied on herbal remedies only. Farmers obtained herbal remedies principally by preparing their own or by purchasing from herbalists. Different plant parts were used to prepare herbal remedies in the form of infusions, decoctions, powders, pastes, and juices from fresh plant material. Preparations were made from a single plant or from a range of plants. Application of a remedy was by different routes and methods, depending on the perceived cause of the disease condition. Topical applications were used for skin conditions, powders were rubbed into incisions, drenches were common in the treatment of systemic conditions, and drops to treat ears and eyes. We identified several aspects of herbal remedy utilisation that could be subject to improvement, which included the absence of standard dose regimes, the potential toxicity of certain compounds present in plants used, over-exploitation of the plant resource and a lack of interest by the youth to learn the art.

P.J. Masika

2012-07-01

52

Use of herbal remedies by small-scale farmers to treat livestock diseases in central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

The use of herbal remedies by African farmers in the treatment of livestock diseases was investigated using a range of methods, including group interviews, structured interviews, semi-structured interviews and participant observation. The study was concerned mainly with the 'why' and 'how' of herbal remedy use among African livestock holders farming on communally-owned land in central Eastern Cape Province. We found that the use of herbal remedies was still widespread because these remedies w...

Masika, P. J.; Averbeke, W.; Sonandi, A.

2012-01-01

53

Convergence of Sciences: the management of agricultural research for the small scale farmers in Benin and Ghana  

OpenAIRE

The Convergence of Sciences programme (CoS) addresses the sub-optimal impact of science on the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers in West Africa, particularly in Benin and Ghana where it operates. CoS aims to develop insights into the pathways through which investment in science and technology can improve rural lives. To this end, CoS features participatory experimental and action research by eight PhD students, who each develop technologies and institutional arrangements with groups of far...

Hounkonnou, D.; Kossou, D. K.; Kuyper, T. W.; Leeuwis, C.; Richards, P.; Ro?ling, N. G.; Sakyi-dawson, O.; Huis, A.

2006-01-01

54

Helping small-scale farmers in the semi-arid tropics: Linking participatory research, traditional research and simulation modelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim was to link necessary research skills to increase the range of options available to resource-poor farmers in the study area. The research consisted of on-station research to evaluate and understand cropping-system options resulting from insertion of a legume crop into the sorghum and castor system, on-farm research whereby farmers evaluate cropping-system options that are of interest to them, use of 15N as a label to help understand the nitrogen (N) balance of the various options, and cropping-systems simulation to examine long-term climatic risks from possible options. Particular attention was placed on the option of sorghum/pigeon pea intercrops, and on quantifying the inputs of N from animal manure and by the pigeon-pea component. We were also interested in the process of linking on-station to on-farm research, and simulation modelling to the cropping system research. One important outcome was that different groups identified different problems and posed different questions. The problems identified and questions raised were examined by use of scenario analyses run for ten to thirty years which contrasted the existing practice with a range of alternative practices. The simulations were useful in guiding the design of on-farm experiments. Other likely outcomes are the setting of low-rate fertilizer recommendations specifically for the semi-arid tropics, the marketing of small packs of fertilizers, and increased use of manure resources for crop prodased use of manure resources for crop production. (author)

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Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

Ofuoku, A. O. U.

2014-03-01

56

Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed, irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5–8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were <1,000 MPN per 100 mL irrigation water and <1,000 MPN per g of compost. The vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of <200/g set by the South African Department of Health at the time of sampling. E. coli MPN values for irrigation water and vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains.

Stefan Schmidt

2013-09-01

57

Small-scale Farmer Access to International Agri-Food Chains : a BOP-Based Reflection on the Need for Socially Embedded Innovation in the Coffee and Flower Sector  

OpenAIRE

Internationalisation of agro-food chains offers agricultural sectors in developing economies prospects in profitable and competitive international markets. Market access strategies often seem to assume poverty alleviation as one of the outcomes. This paper aims to be more precise about the required conditions for linking small-scale farmers and micro and small enterprises to markets and agri-food chains from a pro-poor perspective. In particular, the increasingly strong emphasis on compliance...

Danse, M. G.; Vellema, S.

2007-01-01

58

Small-Scale Farmers Land Use and Socioeconomic Situation in the Mount Elgon District in Northwestern Kenya : A Minor Field Study - Combined Field Mapping and Interview  

OpenAIRE

This Minor Field Study was carried out during November and December in 2011 in the Mount Elgon District in Western Kenya. The objective was to examine nine small-scale farming household´s land use and socioeconomic situation when they have joined a non-governmental organization (NGO) project, which specifically targets small-scale farming households to improve land use system and socioeconomic situation by the extension of soil and water conservation measures. The survey has worked along thr...

Kaati, Patrik

2011-01-01

59

Institutional support and in situ conservation in Mexico: biases against small-scale maize farmers in post-NAFTA agricultural policy  

OpenAIRE

Abstract One of the major adjustments brought on by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was a change in the relationship between Mexican agricultural support institutions and the small-scale agricultural sector. Post-NAFTA restructuring programs sought to correct previous inefficiencies in this sector, but they have also had the effect of marginalizing the producers who steward and manage the country’s reserve of maize (Zea mays) genetic diversity. Framed by research ...

Keleman, Alder

2009-01-01

60

FACTORS INFLUENCING DECISIONS FOR USING OUTSIDE FUNDS FOR FARM INVESTMENTS AND PROPRIETOR WITHDRAWALS BY SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

This study on factors influencing decisions for using outside funds for Farm investments and for proprietor withdrawals was carried out among rural small-scale farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of ninety (90) rural farm households of multi-type (varied) enterprises was carried out using cluster random sampling technique in three communities, each chosen from one of the three agricultural zones of the state. Results indicated rural household level variables that ...

Emerole, Chriso O.; Anyiro, Chidozie O.; Osondu, K. C.; Nwachukwu, A. N.; Mbubaegbu, K. K.; Ibezim, G. M. C.

2013-01-01

61

Analysis of the effects of Zimbabwean white farmers on small scale farming in Nigeria Análisis de los efectos de la presencia de agricultores blancos de Zimbabwe en la agricultura a pequeña escala en Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many observers believe that the on-going liberalization of the world will have dramatic negative effects on small farmers in both developed and developing countries. This study aims to capture the effects of the presence of foreign migrant farmers on small scale farm­ing systems, which are prevalent in Nigeria. The Agricultural Development Project Zone D in which the white farmers settled in the state of Kwara, was used as a case study. Primary data were collected from white farmers as well as from local farmers regarding their situ­ation before and after the arrival of white farmers. Descriptive statistics and analysis of the farm budget were used in evaluating the data. The majority of local farmers (98.63% transitioned towards sole cropping since the arrival of white farmers in the area. There were significant increases in seed rate, fertilizer and other chemicals, as well as labor inputs per farmer in the area when compared to the situation that was prevalent before the white farmers settled there. Their average farm size, distances between their houses and farms and tractor use reduced significantly, while output per farm size increased considerably since the arrival of white farmers in the area. In order to provide sustainability of the posi­tive development, there is the need to seek a policy option that will calm local farmers who once in a while exhibit signs of dissatisfaction for the way in which white farmers came to settle on their land. These could be achieved through the use of the participatory approach to agricultural development in the area. This approach could also be relevant in other re­gions of the world with similar situations. Muchos observadores consideran que la creciente liberalización del mundo tendrá efectos negativos en la agricultura en pequeña escala tanto en los países desarrollados como en aquéllos en vías de desarrollo. Este estudio pretende capturar los efectos de la presencia de agricultores migrantes extranjeros en los sistemas de agricultura a pequeña escala prevale­cientes en Nigeria. El Proyecto de Desarrollo de la Agricultura Zona D, en el cual los agricul­tores blancos se establecieron en el estado de Kwara, fue utilizado como caso de estudio. La información primaria fue obtenida de agricultores blancos así como de agricultores locales considerando su situación pre y post la llegada de los agricultores blancos. Las estadísticas descriptivas y el análisis del presupuesto de cada parcela fueron utilizados para evaluar la información. La mayoría de los agricultores locales (98.63% han transitado hacia el monocultivo desde la llegada de los agricultores blancos a la región. Se ha observado un incremento significativo en la tasa de uso de semillas, el uso de fertilizantes y otros agro­químicos, así como en el trabajo humano por agricultor en el área en comparación con la situación prevaleciente antes de la llegada de los agricultores blancos. El tamaño promedio de sus tierras, la distancia de estas con respecto de sus hogares y uso de tractores se ha reducido de forma importante, mientras que la producción por agricultor se ha incrementa­do. La búsqueda de políticas que tranquilicen a los agricultores locales quienes en ocasio­nes manifiestan su insatisfacción por la forma en que los agricultores blancos han llegado a establecerse en estas tierras resulta imperativa. Esto permitirá lograr un desarrollo positivo y sustentable. Estas políticas pueden ser desarrolladas a través de un enfoque participativo en el desarrollo de la agricultura en el área. Este enfoque también podría resultar relevante en otras regiones del mundo que presentan situaciones similares.

Matthew Olaniyi Adewumi

2013-05-01

62

Small scale and microdosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture, after explaining the limitations of the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) method, describes the small scale dosimetry for electrons and photons as well as the basis for the microdosimetry. The techniques for doses calculations are outlined

63

A farmers' market in a food desert: Evaluating impacts on the price and availability of healthy food. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have examined supermarket access for low-income residents, but few have explored how access to healthy food changes when a new food retailer such as a farmers' market opens in a place previously known as a 'food desert'. This paper uses a 'before and after' approach to examine the impact of the introduction of a farmers' market on the price and availability of healthy food in an underserved urban neighbourhood.

64

Small scale windmill  

Science.gov (United States)

In this letter the authors report experimental results on an optimized small scale piezoelectric windmill, which can solve the problems associated with autonomous sensor networks in outdoor, remote or inaccessible locations. The whole structure of the windmill is made of plastic, and it utilizes 18 piezoelectric bimorphs which makes this design extremely cost effective. The windmill was tested at average wind speed of 10miles/h and it provided 5mW continuous power. The threshold wind speed for the windmill was found to be of the order of 5.4miles/h. Further, the authors present analysis on two other windmill structures which illustrate the design parameters required for small scale windmill.

Myers, Robert; Vickers, Mike; Kim, Hyeoungwoo; Priya, Shashank

2007-01-01

65

Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)  

OpenAIRE

During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range ...

Stefan Schmidt; Joyce Thamaga-Chitja; Fezile Mdluli

2013-01-01

66

Current Scenario of the Small-scale Broiler Farming in Bangladesh: Potentials for the Future Projection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Bangladesh, there are two types of broiler farming of which contract broiler farming is still under trial while independent small-scale broiler farming is dominant and performed for the development of broiler sector. The present study examined the potentials of small-scale independent broiler farms and farmers’ economic behavior in relation to farm size. Farm size is found to be closely related to farmers’ behavior and attitude. Farmers’ behavior and attitude appeared to be very crucial factor for the development of broiler production. The primary data were collected from the independent small-scale farms in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. The results showed that independent small-scale broiler farming is a profitable venture for rural farmers. Farmers are involving in this sector because of lower investment, less space requirement, utilization of family labor and quick returns. To examine the farmers’ behavior, farmers were classified into two income goal groups in terms of total per capita income: a First Income Goal Group (FIGG and b Second Income Goal Group (SIGG. The economic behaviors of the farmers were differed by income goal groups. Most of the farmers belonging to the FIGG were interested to enlarge their farm size, the opposed trend has been observed in farmers of SIGG. Economic behavior and attitude should be considered in making any suggestion and recommendation for changing the existing level of small-scale broiler farming.

Kaniz Quamrun Nahar Chhabi

2010-01-01

67

Small-scale hydropower systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report covers several aspects of small-scale hydropower systems. The topics covered are: head and flow; waterwheels; impulse and reaction turbines; feasibility and practicality; environmental impact; and economics. 24 refs., 5 figs. (JF)

1988-04-01

68

The Use of Rainfall Forecasts as a Decision Guide for Small-Scale Farming in Limpopo Province, South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: New innovative ways of communicating agrometeorological information are needed to help farmers, especially subsistence/small-scale farmers, to cope with the high climate variability experienced in most parts of southern Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The article introduces an early warning system for farmers. It utilizes short…

Moeletsi, M. E.; Mellaart, E. A. R.; Mpandeli, N. S.; Hamandawana, H.

2013-01-01

69

Sustainable Small-Scale Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For at least the past 8000 years, small-scale farmers in semi-arid environments have had to mitigate shortfalls in crop production due to variation in precipitation and stream flow. To reduce their vulnerability to a shortfall in their food supply, small-scale farmers developed short-term strategies, including storage and community-scale sharing, to mitigate inter-annual variation in crop production, and long-term strategies, such as migration, to mitigate the effects of sustained droughts. We use the archaeological and paleoclimatic records from A.D. 900-1600 in two regions of the American Southwest to explore the nature of variation in the availability of water for crops, and the strategies that enhanced the resilience of prehistoric agricultural production to climatic variation. Drawing on information concerning contemporary small-scale farming in semi-arid environments, we then suggest that the risk coping and mitigation strategies that have endured for millennia are relevant to enhancing the resilience of contemporary farmers' livelihoods to environmental and economic perturbations.

Scott Ingram

2011-03-01

70

Small scale helium liquefaction systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed two small-scale helium liquefaction systems that provide solutions for liquid helium usage in laboratories. These helium liquefaction systems use two-stage pulse tube cryocoolers to provide cooling at 4 K. The cold head/liquefier resides inside of the neck of a dewar. The room temperature helium gas to be liquefied enters the neck of the dewar and is efficiently pre-cooled down to 5-6 K by means of the regenerators and pulse tubes of the cold head before being liquefied. Two models of liquefaction system, LHeP12 and LHeP18, produce liquid helium from room temperature gas with the rates of >12 L/day and 18 L/day.

71

Small Scale Farming and Agricultural Products Marketing for Sustainable Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Agricultural productions in developing countries have largely been on subsistence basis. The farmers only produce for their families and quantity of food produced are grossly inadequate for the growing population. There is increase widespread in the level of poverty amongst the people, most especially those living in the rural areas. Small scale farming has become one of the ways to tackle the problem of lack and poverty amongst these people. The paper therefore, examines how Small Scale farm...

Bamiduro, J. A.; Rotimi Ayodele Gbadeyan

2011-01-01

72

Climate change impacts and adaptations on small-scale livestock production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper estimated the impacts of climate change and adaptations on small-scale livestock production. The study is based on a survey of 1484 small-scale livestock rural farmers across the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Regression estimates finds that with warming, the probability of choosing the following species increases; goats, dual purpose chicken (DPC, layers, donkeys and ducks. High precipitation increases the probability of choosing the following animals; beef, goats, DPC and donkeys. Further, socio-economic estimates indicate that livestock selection choices are also conditioned by gender, age, marital status, education and household size. The paper therefore concluded that as climate changes, rural farmers switch their livestock combinations as a coping strategy. Unfortunately, rural farmers face a limited preferred livestock selection pool that is combatable to harsh climate which might translate to a bleak future for rural livestock farmers.

Taruvinga, A.

2013-06-01

73

Quality management in small-scale production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quality control for the planning before small-scale production and the process control during the production are conducted according the related standards and the documents in quality management system of NPIC.This paper briefly introduces the quality control for the small-scale production of several products, and proposes some issues interested and recommendations. (author)

74

Biomass for energy - small scale technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

Salvesen, F.; Joergensen, P.F. [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

1997-12-31

75

Small scale structure on cosmic strings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs

76

Small-scale mechanical testing of materials  

OpenAIRE

Small-scale mechanical testing of materials has gained prominence in the last decade or so due to the continuous miniaturization of components and devices in everyday application. This review describes the various micro-fabrication processes associated with the preparation of miniaturized specimens, geometries of test specimens and the small scale testing techniques used to determine the mechanical behaviour of materials at the length scales of a few hundred micro-meters and below. This is fo...

Jaya, Nagamani B.; Alam, Md Zafir

2013-01-01

77

Development of small-scale peat production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the project is to develop production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat production to such a level that the productivity is improved and competitivity maintained. The aim in 1996 was to survey the present status of small-scale peat production, and research and development needs and to prepare a development plan for small-scale peat production for a continued project in 1997 and for the longer term. A questionnaire was sent to producers by mail, and its results were completed by phone interviews. Response was obtained from 164 producers, i.e. from about 75 - 85 % of small-scale peat producers. The quantity of energy peat produced by these amounted to 3.3 TWh and that of other peat to 265 000 m3. The total production of energy peat (large- scale producers Vapo Oy and Turveruukki Oy included) amounted to 25.0 TWh in 1996 in Finland, of which 91 % (22.8 TWh) was milled peat and 9 % (2.2 TWh) of sod peat. The total production of peat other than energy peat amounted to 1.4 million m3. The proportion of small-scale peat production was 13 % of energy peat, 11 % of milled peat and 38 % of sod peat. The proportion of small-scale producers was 18 % of other peat production. The results deviate clearly from those obtained in a study of small-scale production in the 1980s. The amount of small-scale production is clearly larger than generally assessed. Small-scale production focuses more on milled peat than on sod peat. The work on milled peat than on sod peat. The work will be continued in 1997. Based on development needs appeared in the questionnaire, the aim is to reduce environmental impacts and runoff effluents from small- scale production, to increase the efficiency of peat deliveries and to reduce peat production costs by improving the service value of machines by increasing co-operative use. (orig.)

78

A Comparative Study of Selected Small Scale Irrigation (SSI Schemes in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine what variations exist in the measured attributes of farmers from different selected SSI schemes. Mechanization survey data collected between October 2005 and March 2007 from 12 SSI schemes with the aid of structured interview were statistically compared. The result showed considerable degree for variations in the socio-economic, agronomic and technological resources among 551 operators in the same ecological, cultural and linguistic zones of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Similar data collected between October 2007 and March 2008 were examined to quantify the differences in the attributes of literate and illiterate farmers. It was observed that the literate farmers have higher awareness, good management and willingness indices than illiterate farmers. Among others, education and training was recommended as a result of the important role they play in the efforts to mechanize Traditional Irrigation Practice (TIP in Small Scale Irrigation in developing countries.

Udom, I. J.

2010-12-01

79

Management of broadleaved weeds in small-scale in an on-farm perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An on-farm trial was conducted at eight different sites in Rongai and Njoro areas of Nakuru district and only six of the sites were finally harvested. The study was mainly to evaluate different weed control methods to offer a variety of recommendations for small scale wheat farmers. Of the treatments tested Buctril Mc out performed all the treatments except for Ariane. Cultural methods of control seemed to be inferior to almost all the chemical control. (author)

80

Pesticide safety training and practices in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Objectives Unregulated use of pesticides continues in developing countries in the presence of illiteracy and limited safety training and practices. This paper describes training and safety practices when mixing and spraying pesticides, and acetylcholinesterase levels among women farmers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in women working in small-scale agriculture in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2006 assessed pesticide training and safety practic...

Naidoo, S.; London, L.; Rother, H. A.; Burdorf, A.; Naidoo, R. N.; Kromhout, H.

2010-01-01

81

The production of vegetable crops under protection for small-scale farming situations  

OpenAIRE

Experiments were conducted with tomato under shade netting and with lettuce in a vertical hydroponic system at the Hatfield Experimental Farm, University of Pretoria. The objectives of the study were: 1. To evaluate the effect of different types of shade netting on tomato production 2. To develop a vertical hydroponic system for lettuce production which would be suitable for use by small-scale farmers. In the tomato trial the highest number of fruit per plant (47) ...

Mashego, Distshwanelo Cynthia

2001-01-01

82

SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE  

Science.gov (United States)

A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

83

Integrating science with farmer knowledge: Sorghum diversity management in north-east Ghana  

OpenAIRE

Keywords:   Convergence of sciences, diversity management, experimentation, farmer knowledge, genetic diversity, Ghana, plant variation, private sector, research, Sorghum bicolor (L.)Moench, small-scale farmers, seed quality.Sub-optimal impact of agricultural research is connected to lack of involvement of farmers. This is especially...

Kudadjie, C. Y.

2006-01-01

84

Small-scale forestry in Sweden  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the thesis was to improve the tools for decision making for small-scale forest owners in Sweden. Understanding the objectives of forest owners is crucial for the success of policy initiatives and for promoting successful sustainable forest management. The aims of this thesis were to: a) depict the green forest management plan from a nature conservation point of view; b) identify objectives of owners’; c) analyse different types of owners; and d) evaluate the suitability of si...

Ingemarson, Fredrik

2004-01-01

85

Credit for small scale fishery in Mozambique  

OpenAIRE

The small-scale fishery is a traditional activity and enrolled in social and cultural practices of the coastal communities and some places of the inland waters of Mozambique. This activity is one of the largest sources of income and employment. In 1990, Mozambique adopted the market economy and since 1992, the State begun a progressive liberalisation of financial institutions. At the same time, Government defined politics with the aim to establish some institutions to provide credit for small...

Momade, Fernando Charamatane

2005-01-01

86

Small-scale hydro power in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present there are around 150 operating small-scale hydro power plants in Finland, the power generating capacity of which varies between 50 and 1000 kW. The annual output in terms of produced energy is about 270 GWh which accounts for only 0.5 % of the total consumption of electricity. The plants are mainly owned by electricity distributing companies and industry. There are numerous old dams and abandoned small hydro power stations, once used as power source for flour mills and saw mills. The role of overall energy economics is reviewed in this article, as well as the increase potential for small-scale hydro power and the international cooperation in this field. The potential for small-scale hydro power in Finland has been estimated to be 370 MW in 1580 falls, of which 45 MW is used at 150 stations. Easily exploitable sites, usually with abandoned station or dam were calculated to be around 80 MW, corresponding to an annual energy output at 350 GWh

87

Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

NONE

1997-12-01

88

Small Scale Solar PV Overview and Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation and model curriculum for high school and community college energy technology instructors. The material focuses on the career path for small scale solar PV technicians. It includes information on career outlook, occupational competencies, sample syllabi and curriculum, high school applications and a sample lesson. The document may be downloaded in PDF file format. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2012-10-03

89

Profitability of small-scale power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several small-scale power plants have been constructed in Finland during the last few years. Fuel oil and natural gas has been used as a fuel in diesel plants, natural gas in gas-turbine plants, and peat and industrial waste wood in solid fuel fired plants. Larger towns have already acquired combined power and heat generation either in their own power plants or in cooperation with industry. A usual mean of cooperation has been buying of district heat from industrial back-pressure power plants. Numerous small district heat loads still rely on separate heat production. The cheap price of electric power, caused by the good water and nuclear power conditions and long-term delivery contracts, has rendered the construction of small-scale power plants. The fuel prices have been stable for the last few years. The most significant changes have been caused by changing of exchange rate of the Finnish mark and the fuel taxation. Two power plant are reviewed in detail: 6/17 MW peat fired steam power plant and 6/6 MW oil fueled diesel power plant. The electricity prices of these two have been compared with coal condensing power and the electricity tariffs. The price comparisons have been made using the present price level. Energia-Ekono has compiled a new simulation program ELMO, operating in PC-WINDOWS environment, for simulation of cogeneration

90

Small-scale universality in fluid turbulence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Turbulent flows in nature and technology possess a range of scales. The largest scales carry the memory of the physical system in which a flow is embedded. One challenge is to unravel the universal statistical properties that all turbulent flows share despite their different large-scale driving mechanisms or their particular flow geometries. In the present work, we study three turbulent flows of systematically increasing complexity. These are homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box, turbulent shear flow between two parallel walls, and thermal convection in a closed cylindrical container. They are computed by highly resolved direct numerical simulations of the governing dynamical equations. We use these simulation data to establish two fundamental results: (i) at Reynolds numbers Re ? 10(2) the fluctuations of the velocity derivatives pass through a transition from nearly Gaussian (or slightly sub-Gaussian) to intermittent behavior that is characteristic of fully developed high Reynolds number turbulence, and (ii) beyond the transition point, the statistics of the rate of energy dissipation in all three flows obey the same Reynolds number power laws derived for homogeneous turbulence. These results allow us to claim universality of small scales even at low Reynolds numbers. Our results shed new light on the notion of when the turbulence is fully developed at the small scales without relying on the existence of an extended inertial range. PMID:25024175

Schumacher, Jörg; Scheel, Janet D; Krasnov, Dmitry; Donzis, Diego A; Yakhot, Victor; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

2014-07-29

91

Expanded Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test  

Science.gov (United States)

Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT)ootnotetextH. W. Sandusky, R. H. Granholm, D. G. Bohl, ``Small-Scale Shock Reactivity Test,'' NSWC Technical Report (in publication), Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, MD 20640 uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter, with the reactions quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block. This test has been expanded to simultaneously measure both early and late-time reactions from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. The sample apparatus is further confined within a small chamber instrumented with a pressure gage for internal air blast. This provides a measure of late-time reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion. Results are shown from several simultaneous early- and late-reaction measurements.

Granholm, Richard

2005-07-01

92

Beyond the field : Impact of Farmer Field Schools on food security and poverty alleviation  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we estimate the impact of a farmer field school intervention among small scale farmers in Northers Tanzania. Unlike previous farmer field school evaluations, we go beyond the immediate agricultural impact and estimate the impact of farmer field school participation in the pre-specified development objects, namely poverty alleviation and food security among participating households. We wxploit the implementation design of a gradual project roll-out to establish a quasi-experimen...

Lilleør, Helene Bie; Larsen, Anna Folke

2013-01-01

93

Small-scale turbulence in cometrary tails  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fluctuations in the intensity of radio waves during occultation by cometary tails indicate the existence of small-scale turbulence with wavenumber kapprox. =1.25 x 10-8 cm-1 in the comet's tail. We suggest that the turbulence may be attributed to the hydromagnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability due to a strong velocity shear. The excited waves are, in general, a mixture of Alfven waves and fast magnetosonic waves. We find that the instability may generate a turbulence spectrum with a peak at kapprox. =1.25 x 10-8 cm-1, which is consistent with observation. It is shown that the observed turbulence may scatter solar-wind protons, transfer momentum from the solar wind to the plasma in the comet's tail, and give an acceleration of aapprox. =30--300 cm s-2 for the cometary ions

94

Small-scale turbulence in cometrary tails  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluctuations in the intensity of radio waves during occultation by cometary tails indicate the existence of small-scale turbulence with wavenumber kapprox. =1.25 x 10/sup -8/ cm/sup -1/ in the comet's tail. We suggest that the turbulence may be attributed to the hydromagnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability due to a strong velocity shear. The excited waves are, in general, a mixture of Alfven waves and fast magnetosonic waves. We find that the instability may generate a turbulence spectrum with a peak at kapprox. =1.25 x 10/sup -8/ cm/sup -1/, which is consistent with observation. It is shown that the observed turbulence may scatter solar-wind protons, transfer momentum from the solar wind to the plasma in the comet's tail, and give an acceleration of aapprox. =30--300 cm s/sup -2/ for the cometary ions.

Lee, L.C.; Wu, C.S.

1979-03-15

95

Universal nonlinear small-scale dynamo.  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider astrophysically relevant nonlinear MHD dynamo at large Reynolds numbers (Re). We argue that it is universal in a sense that magnetic energy grows at a rate which is a constant fraction C(E) of the total turbulent dissipation rate. On the basis of locality bounds we claim that this "efficiency of the small-scale dynamo", C(E), is a true constant for large Re and is determined only by strongly nonlinear dynamics at the equipartition scale. We measured C(E) in numerical simulations and observed a value around 0.05 in the highest resolution simulations. We address the issue of C(E) being small, unlike the Kolmogorov constant which is of order unity. PMID:22400750

Beresnyak, A

2012-01-20

96

Small scale soft x-ray lasers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The widespread application of soft x-ray laser technology is contingent on the development of small scale soft x-ray lasers that do not require large laser facilities. Progress in the development of soft x-ray lasers pumped by a Nd laser of energy 6-12J is reported below. Application of an existing soft x-ray laser to x-ray microscopy has begun. A soft x-ray laser of output energy 1-3 mJ at 18,2 nm has been used to record high resolution images of biological specimens. The contact images were recorded on photoresist which was later viewed in a scanning electron microscope. The authors present a composite optical x-ray laser microscope design

97

Small scale structure formation in chameleon cosmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chameleon fields are scalar fields whose mass depends on the ambient matter density. We investigate the effects of these fields on the growth of density perturbations on sub-galactic scales and the formation of the first dark matter halos. Density perturbations on comoving scales R<1 pc go non-linear and collapse to form structure much earlier than in standard ?CDM cosmology. The resulting mini-halos are hence more dense and resilient to disruption. We therefore expect (provided that the density perturbations on these scales have not been erased by damping processes) that the dark matter distribution on small scales would be more clumpy in chameleon cosmology than in the ?CDM model

98

Cold dark matter: controversies on small scales  

CERN Document Server

The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: recent numerical simulations and analytic models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star-formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. H...

Weinberg, David H; Governato, Fabio; de Naray, Rachel Kuzio; Peter, Annika H G

2013-01-01

99

Simulation of efficiency impact of drainage water reuse: case of small-scale vegetable growers in North West Province, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

This paper focuses on estimating the effect of drainage water reuse on the technical efficiency of small-scale vegetable growers in South Africa applying a data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the semi-arid North West Province of South Africa water scarcity and the soon to be implemented water charges have urged farmers in small-scale irrigation schemes to evaluate the efficiency of their water use. Data on 60 farmers were used to estimate the level of technical efficiency and the effect that ...

Speelman, S.; D Haese, M. F. C.; D Haese, L.

2011-01-01

100

Small-scale nonlinear dynamics of K-mouflage theories  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the small-scale static configurations of K-mouflage models defined by a general function K (? ) of the kinetic terms. The fifth force is screened by the nonlinear K-mouflage mechanism if K'(? ) grows sufficiently fast for large negative ? . In the general nonspherically symmetric case, the fifth force is not aligned with the Newtonian force. For spherically symmetric static matter density profiles, we show that the results depend on the potential function W-(y )=y K'(-y2/2 ) ; i.e., W-(y ) must be monotonically increasing to +? for y ?0 to guarantee the existence of a single solution throughout space for any matter density profile. Small radial perturbations around these static profiles propagate as travelling waves with a velocity greater than the speed of light. Starting from vanishing initial conditions for the scalar field and for a time-dependent matter density corresponding to the formation of an overdensity, we numerically check that the scalar field converges to the static solution. If W- is bounded, for high-density objects there are no static solutions throughout space, but one can still define a static solution restricted to large radii. Our dynamical study shows that the scalar field relaxes to this static solution at large radii, whereas spatial gradients keep growing with time at smaller radii. If W- is not bounded but nonmonotonic, there is an infinite number of discontinuous static solutions. However, the Klein-Gordon equation is no longer a well-defined hyperbolic equation, which leads to complex characteristic speeds and exponential instabilities. Therefore, these discontinuous static solutions are not physical, and these models are not theoretically sound. Such K-mouflage scenarios provide an example of theories that can appear viable at the cosmological level, for the cosmological background and perturbative analysis, while being meaningless at a nonlinear level for small-scale configurations. This shows the importance of small-scale nonlinear analysis of screening models. All healthy K-mouflage models should satisfy K'>0 , and W±(y )=y K'(±y2/2 ) are monotonically increasing to +? when y ?0 .

Brax, Philippe; Valageas, Patrick

2014-12-01

101

TURBULENT SMALL-SCALE DYNAMO ACTION IN SOLAR SURFACE SIMULATIONS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We demonstrate that a magneto-convection simulation incorporating essential physical processes governing solar surface convection exhibits turbulent small-scale dynamo action. By presenting a derivation of the energy balance equation and transfer functions for compressible magnetohydrodynamics, we quantify the source of magnetic energy on a scale-by-scale basis. We rule out the two alternative mechanisms for the generation of the small-scale magnetic field in the simulations: the tangling of magnetic field lines associated with the turbulent cascade and Alfvenization of small-scale velocity fluctuations (turbulent induction). Instead, we find that the dominant source of small-scale magnetic energy is stretching by inertial-range fluid motions of small-scale magnetic field lines against the magnetic tension force to produce (against Ohmic dissipation) more small-scale magnetic field. The scales involved become smaller with increasing Reynolds number, which identifies the dynamo as a small-scale turbulent dynamo.

102

Turbulent small-scale dynamo action in solar surface simulations  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate that surface convection in "realistic" solar simulations exhibits turbulent small-scale dynamo action. By presenting a derivation of the energy balance equation and transfer functions for compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we quantify the source of magnetic energy on a scale-by-scale basis. We rule out the two alternative mechanisms for the generation of small-scale magnetic field in the simulations: the tangling of magnetic field lines associated with the turbulent cascade and Alfvenization of small-scale velocity fluctuations ("turbulent induction"). Instead, we find the dominant source of small-scale magnetic energy is stretching by inertial-range fluid motions of small-scale magnetic field lines against the magnetic tension force to produce (against Ohmic dissipation) more small-scale magnetic field. The scales involved become smaller with increasing Reynolds number, which identifies the dynamo as a small-scale turbulent dynamo.

Graham, Jonathan Pietarila; Schuessler, Manfred

2010-01-01

103

Analysis of Labour Supply & Use in Small Scale Farming In Ikwuano/Umuahia L.G.A. of Abia State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study examines the supply and utilisation of labour resources among farmers in Ikwuano-Umuahia Local Government Area of Abia State. A total of 175 small scale farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with the use of structured questionnaires in five out of the nine autonomous communities that make up the local government area. The data collected were analysed and the results showed that average family labour force of 200 man days was not enough to cu...

Jonah, Ikoku John

2014-01-01

104

Soil Properties as Influenced by Soil Fertility Management in Small Scale Maize Farms in Njoro, Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most farmers are aware of soil fertility gradients within their farms which influence their management decisions and further accentuate these variations. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of soil amendments on soil properties under farmers management. Soil sampling was done in 37 small scale maize farms in Njoro Division of Nakuru District at 0-20 cm depth. Results of a structured questionnaire showed that 65% of the farmers used inorganic fertilizers predominately diammonium phosphate (DAP, 15% used only farmyard manure, 15% used both organic and inorganic fertilizer, while 6% did not use any soil amendments. Most of the farms had a pH (CaCl2 of less than 5.2, 27% of the farms had a pH lower than 4.0. Organic carbon (C ranged from 1.6 to 5.8%, with a median value of 2.6%. Most of the farms were phosphorus (P deficient with an Olsen-P of less than 10 mg kg-1. All farms had sufficient amounts of extractable potassium (K. Total nitrogen (N ranged from 0.12 to 0.33% with 97% of the farms with N content (>0.12%. Farms amended with farmyard manure had higher organic C and total N levels in Kikapu with correspondingly lower C: N ratios. Soil pH and total N were higher for farms with gentle and undulating slopes. Overall most of the farms were acidic and of moderate fertility. Liming increased maize biomass production in Njoro. This study underscores the need for organic inputs and regular soil testing for small scale farmers.

N.W. Mungai

2009-01-01

105

Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english ABSTRACT Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances in land ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational study was conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistribution project in [...] Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For the purposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than 500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and design appropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the second phase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. These were: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residues with minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a total mixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank from the cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoption was monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulated rations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded that veterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option for such complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extension services appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditional model of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labour intensive.

N. Patience, Manzana; Cheryl M.E., McCrindle; P. Julius, Sebei; Leon, Prozesky.

2014-01-01

106

Methods of biodiesel production for small scale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The global production arrangement of biodiesel provides employments and profits. It might promote the country people social inclusion, moreover using castor plant and familiar agriculture. This culture demands use of an intensive labor and a good potential of value aggregation in their products. In front of the Biodiesel potentialities in each region, the decentralized production model shows up as an important alternative. The Brazilian biodiesel production in small scale is not well established and there are some critic aspects that could make it inviable. Among these, we can mention: low operationality, energetic inefficiency and small potentially of sub products utilities. However, this research shows an availability study of castor biodiesel production with agriculture familiar participation and aggregate value to sub products of productive process. This project minimizes investments and also the costs of operation, achieve, in this way, the economic availability of decentralized production model of biodiesel. Beyond that, the final objective of project is the execution of two models plants of biodiesel production and their utilization to labor capacity and models to others future initiative. The plant will integrate transesterification with biodigestion. The anaerobic process could be tried in each steps of the biodiesel production by technically and economically evaluation. (orig.)

Franca Belo, L. de; Viana Canabrava, D.; Serpa da Cruz, R.; Aevivanio Lins Miranda, A.; Sa Parente, E.J. Jr. de; Nascimento, R.A. (Tecbio - Tecnologias Bioenergeticas (Brazil))

2007-07-01

107

Small-scale clad-effects study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Small-Scale Clad Effects Study of the HSST Program was initiated to study the interaction of stainless cladding with flaws initiated in and propagating in base metal. From the designer's viewpoint stainless cladding is primarily viewed as a corrosion- and crud-prevention measure in light-water reactor vessel design, and except for its effect upon fatigue in thermal transients, its effect upon structural integrity has heretofore been largely disregarded. With the more recent focus of safety studies upon LOCA scenarios that emphasize the behavior of small flaws, it has become evident that stainless cladding may have a key role in the propagation and/or arrest of propagating flaws. A complicating factor in understanding the role of stainless cladding in this setting is its fracture toughness as a function of radiation dose and as a function of fabrication process for which meager data exist. The initial phase of this study has attempted to address this question by testing stainless-clad specimens that had been subjected to heat treatments to simulate beginning-of-life and end-of-life toughness conditions to fast-running cracks

108

The Small-Scale Environment of Quasars  

CERN Document Server

Where do quasars reside? Are quasars located in environments similar to those of typical L* galaxies, and, if not, how do they differ? An answer to this question will help shed light on the triggering process of quasar activity. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to study the environment of quasars and compare it directly with the environment of galaxies. We find that quasars (M_i < -22, z < 0.4) are located in higher local overdensity regions than are typical L* galaxies. The enhanced environment around quasars is a local phenomenon; the overdensity relative to that around L* galaxies is strongest within 100 kpc of the quasars. In this region, the overdensity is a factor of 1.4 larger than around L* galaxies. The overdensity declines monotonically with scale to nearly unity at ~1 Mpc, where quasars inhabit environments comparable to those of L* galaxies. The small-scale density enhancement depends on quasar luminosity, but only at the brightest end: the most luminous quasars reside in higher local ove...

Serber, W; Ménard, B; Richards, G; Bahcall, Neta; Menard, Brice; Richards, Gordon; Serber, Will

2006-01-01

109

Small scale combined woodgas power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a first attempt to introduce biomass gasification technology in Latvia at the Faculty of Engineering of Latvia University of Agriculture an integral small scale combined heat and power (CHP) system based on a used Russian-made diesel-alternator set with electrical output 100 kWe was developed. The diesel is converted to dual fuel gas engine, using producer gas as the main fuel and gas oil as pilot fuel. To get sufficiently clean (tar content ? 250 mg/m3) woodgas for using in IC engine a downdraft type of gasifier was chosen designed and constructed on the IMBERT gasifier principles. The test runs of the first experimental model showed that the engine does not develop expected power because of high resistance of gasifier and gas cleaning system does not work sufficiently enough. There was rather high level of tar content in woodgas because the temperature in the reduction zone was low. Calculations were carried out and new technological scheme of gasification system was worked out, introducing innovative ideas aimed on improving the working parameters (author)

110

Economics of Small Scale Deep Litter System of Egg Production in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general objective of this study is to examine the economics of small-scale deep litter system of egg production in Oredo Local Government Area Edo State, Nigeria. The Specific objectives are to determine the profitability in deep litter system of poultry production among small-scale farmers, to examine the socioeconomic characteristics of egg producers and to identify the constraints to egg production in the study area. Primary and secondary data were obtained from farmers. A purposive sampling of small-scale egg producers was carried first in the study area. Then a simple random sampling technique was then employed to select 182 egg producers using a well-structured questionnaire from the entire population of small-scale farmers. Descriptive statistics such as means and percentages were using to examine the socioeconomic characteristics. The gross margin analysis was used to determine the profitability. While the constraints to egg production was analyzed using the likert scale technique. The result of the analysis reveals that the average number of birds raised in deep litter is 760 birds. The study also shows that 68% and 32% of women and men produce eggs at this level respectively. The result of the study reveals that the fixed capital investment per bird was N 624.17 and total fixed cost less depreciation per bird was N.208.88 and total variable cost per bird was N 331.62. The study also reveals that total revenue from the sales of eggs per and other sources were N 3,749.22 per bird with a gross margin per bird of N 3,417.6 and a net profit of N 3,208.72. Finally the major constraints faced by the farmers are in the order of inadequate finance, high cost of feed, low egg price and high cost of medicine and vaccine Investments on Poultry building.

P.A. Ekunwe

2006-01-01

111

The assessment of some factors influencing the survival of kids in a small- scale communal goat production system  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the survivability of goat kids to weaning, in a small-scale communal grazing system. Goat kids are the most vulnerable component of communal goat flocks and increasing their survival could increase productivity. Some of the main factors which contributed towards kid survivability were evaluated and ranked and cost benefit analysis was done. Initially 20 farmers in Jericho District, North West Province, were subjected to ...

Sebei, Phokgedi Julius

2005-01-01

112

Small scale imaging using ultrasonic tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ultrasound technology progressed through the 1960 from simple A-mode and B-mode scans to today M-mode and Doppler two dimensional (2-D) and even three dimensional (3-D) systems. Modern ultrasound imaging has its roots in sonar technology after it was first described by Lord John Rayleigh over 100 years ago on the interaction of acoustic waves with media. Tomography technique was developed as a diagnostic tool in the medical area since the early of 1970s. This research initially focused on how to retrieve a cross sectional images from living and non-living things. After a decade, the application of tomography systems span into the industrial area. However, the long exposure time of medical radiation-based method cannot tolerate the dynamic changes in industrial process two phase liquid/ gas flow system. An alternative system such as a process tomography systems, can give information on the nature of the flow regime characteristic. The overall aim of this paper is to investigate the use of a small scale ultrasonic tomography method based on ultrasonic transmission mode tomography for online monitoring of liquid/ gas flow in pipe/ vessel system through ultrasonic transceivers application. This non-invasive technique applied sixteen transceivers as the sensing elements to cover the pipe/ vessel cross section. The paper also details the transceivers selection criteria, hardware setup, the electronic measurement circuit and also the image reconstruction algorithm applied. T image reconstruction algorithm applied. The system was found capable of visualizing the internal characteristics and provides the concentration profile for the corresponding liquid and gas phases. (author)

113

Cassini RTG's -- Small scale module tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Cassini spacecraft, scheduled for a 1997 launch to Saturn, will be powered by three GPHS RTGs (General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope thermoelectric Generators). The RTGs are the same type as those powering the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft. Three new converters (F-6, F-7, and F-8) are to be built and one converter (F-2) remaining from the GPHS program will be used. F-6 and F-7 are to be fueled and F-8 serves as a spare converter. In addition, the back-up RTG (F-5) from the Ulysses launch, which is still fueled, will serve as the Cassini back-up RTG. The new RTGs will have a lower fuel loading than in the past and will provide a minimum of 276 watts each at B.O.M. (beginning of mission). The mission length is 10.75 years, at which time these RTGs will provide a minimum of 216 watts and a possible extension to 16 years when the power will be 199 watts. This paper discusses tests performed to date to confirm the successful re-establishment of the unicouple production at Martin Marietta. This production line, shut down 10 years ago, has been restarted and over 1,500 unicouples have been produced to date. Confirmation will be primarily obtained by the performance of three small scale converters in comparison with previously tested modules from the Multi Hundred Watt (MHW) (Voyager) and GPHS (Galileo, Ulysses) programs. Test results to date have shown excellent agreement with the data base

114

Impacts of Domestic Maize Price Changes on the Performance of Small-scale Broiler Farming in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aimed at analyzing the impact of maize price changes on the performance of small-scale broiler farming in Indonesia using a multimarket model analysis. The multimarket model analysis is partial equilibrium analysis that contains six blocks of equations: prices, supply, input demand, consumption, income and equilibrium. This model analysis was originally designed in General Algebric Modelling System (GAMS using the Path NLP solver. Employed data in this study were classified into 3 types, namely: (1 production and input, consumption, and household income; (2 inputs and outputs, and (3 elasticities. Decreased domestic maize price was responded by farmer through reducing maize planted area and fertilizers uses. It further had undesired impact on the maize production and maize farmer’s income. Whereas, this policy had positive impact on meat production and small-scale broiler farming income. The opposite impact will happen on those variables, if government increases domestic maize price. This policy caused the maize demand for feed industry decreased. As a result of this condition, it decreased the chicken meat production and small-scale broiler farming income.

S. J. K. Umboh

2014-12-01

115

Concepções de agricultores ecológicos do Paraná sobre alimentação saudável Concepciones de agricultores ecológicos de Paraná (Sur de Brasil sobre alimentación saludable Conceptions of healthy eating among ecological farmers in Paraná, Southern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as concepções de agricultores ecológicos sobre alimentação saudável. MÉTODOS: Estudo com abordagem qualitativa. Entre janeiro e fevereiro de 2007, foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade com o apoio de um roteiro com 11 mulheres e um homem residentes em comunidade agrícola de Rio Branco do Sul, PR, selecionados aleatoriamente dentre as 20 famílias de agricultores ecológicos desse município. RESULTADOS: Três categorias de análise foram identificadas: "tomada de consciência da alimentação saudável", "capacidade de compra" e "terra saudável". O significado da alimentação saudável para as mulheres agricultoras envolve a ideia de que os alimentos devem ser naturais, sem agrotóxicos nem produtos químicos industrializados. Cotidianamente o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes somado ao básico feijão, arroz e carne deve ser abundante e a composição do prato deve visar à prevenção de obesidade e doenças crônico-degenerativas. O cuidado com os recursos naturais para garantir a produção de alimentos saudáveis, a segurança alimentar, a sustentabilidade do meio ambiente e a vida futura do planeta integram o conceito de alimentação saudável. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento, a autocrítica e o discernimento acompanharam as concepções em relação à alimentação saudável.OBJETIVO: Describir las concepciones de agricultores ecológicos sobre alimentación saludable. MÉTODOS: Estudio con abordaje cualitativo. Entre enero y febrero de 2007, se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad con el apoyo de un itinerario con 11 mujeres y un hombre residentes en comunidad agrícola de Rio Branco do Sul, Sur de Brasil, seleccionados aleatoriamente entre las 20 familias de agricultores ecológicos de este municipio. RESULTADOS: Tres categorías de análisis fueron identificadas: "tomada de consciencia de la alimentación saludable", "capacidad de compra" y "tierra saludable". El significado de la alimentación saludable para las mujeres agricultoras incluye la idea de que los alimentos deben ser naturales, sin pesticidas y productos químicos industrializados. Cotidianamente el consumo de frutas, verduras y legumbres sumado al básico grano, arroz y carne debe ser abundante y la composición del plato debe buscar la prevención de obesidad y enfermedades crónico-degenerativas. El cuidado con los recursos naturales para garantizar la producción de alimentos saludables, la seguridad alimentaria, la sustentabilidad del medio ambiente y la vida futura del planeta integran el concepto de alimentación saludable. CONCLUSIONES: El conocimiento, la autocrítica y el discernimiento acompañaron las concepciones con relación a la alimentación saludable.OBJECTIVE: To describe ecological farmers' conceptions of healthy eating. METHODS: Study with a qualitative approach. In January and February 2007, supported by a guide, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 women and one man who were living in an agricultural community in Rio Branco do Sul, Southern Brazil. The interviewees were selected randomly from among the 20 ecological farming families in this municipality. RESULTS: Three analysis categories were identified: "awareness of healthy eating"; "purchasing power" and "healthy land". The significance of healthy eating for the female farmers involved the idea that foods should be natural, without agricultural pesticides or manufactured chemical products. The daily routine should include abundant consumption of fruits, greens and other vegetables, in addition to the basic rice, beans and meat, and the composition of dishes should aim towards prevention of obesity and chronic-degenerative diseases. Care regarding natural resources in order to ensure production of healthy foods, food safety, environmental sustainability and the future of life on the planet form part of the concept of healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge, self-criticism and discernment accompanied the conceptions of healthy eating.

Erica Ell

2012-04-01

116

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Production Efficiency and Constraints Among Small Scale Farmers in Southern Kaduna, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is mostly grown in southern Kaduna Sate, the traditional home of ginger in Nigeria. Its production was boosted with the aim of generating internal trade for the people and improved foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria. However, ginger yields in Nigeria are comparatively very low; and this is ascribed to various factors such as poor agronomic practices, unimproved varieties, laborious farming, harvesting and processing operations amongst others....

Ayodele, Titilayo J.; Sambo, Banake E.

2014-01-01

117

Incorporating small-scale farmers into sustainable supply chains: the Manobi case  

OpenAIRE

Increased globalization and outsourcing to developing countries is fostering the interest in supply chain sustainability. From the academic point of view, while environmental impacts of supply chains have been largely analysed, the research on social issues has been scattered and fragmented. This paper thereby sets out to close this gap. We have identified an emerging sphere of knowledge at the interface between sustainable supply chain management, business strategy and international developm...

Borrella Alonso La Torre, Inmaculada; Carrasco Gallego, Ruth; Mataix Aldeanueva, Carlos; Fisac Garcia, Ramo?n

2012-01-01

118

Coming to Grips with Farmers' variety Selection- the Case of New Improved Rice Varieties under Irrigation in South East Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

In collaboration with farmers, rice varieties were evaluated under small-scale irrigation in two villages of south east Tanzania for two consecutive cropping seasons (1999/2000 –2000/2001). The objectives were to give farmers access to new improved rice varieties; to identify the selection criteria farmers consider important in irrigated rice production; and to come to grips with their arguments. Farmers were provided with eleven improved varieties, which they compared with their own ones. ...

Kafiriti, Em; Dondeyne, S.; Msomba, S.; Deckers, J.; Raes, D.

2003-01-01

119

Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality, nutrition (balanced feed reproduction (mineral supplementation, and general management (training of farmers were identified and implemented in a participatory approach at the selected dairy farms. The calf mortality was reduced from 35 to 13 percent up to the age of 3 months. Use of Alfa Deval post milking teat dips reduced the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis from 34 to 5% showing economical benefits of the interventions. Partial budget technique was used to analyze its impact in the registered herds. The farmers recorded monthly quantities of different feed ingredients and seasonal green fodder offered to the animals. From this data set total metabolizeable energy requirements and availability from feed were computed which revealed that animals were deficient in metabolizeable energy in all locations. This was also confirmed by seasonal variation in body condition scoring. At some selected farms the mineral mixture supplement was introduced which exhibited increased milk yield by 5 % in addition to shorten service period by 30 days. Three sessions of training were arranged to train the farmers to care new born calves, daily farm management and detect the animals in heat efficiently to enhance the over all income of the farmers. The overall income of the farm was increased by 40%.

A. Ghaffar

2010-02-01

120

Tailor-made solutions : Small-scale biofuels and trade  

OpenAIRE

In current debates on biofuels trade, the focus tends to be on large-scale production. However, the production of small-scale biofuels is better suited for many smaller developing and least-developed countries. Small-scale biofuels can bring many social and environmental benefits at the local level and, cumulatively, their production and utilisation can bring significant trade benefits.

Pacini, Henrique; Khatiwada, Dilip; Lo?nnqvist, Tomas

2010-01-01

121

Electricity generating costs in small-scale dispersed energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small-scale dispersed energy sources - small-scale-gas-fired cogeneration heat and power (CHP) plants, fuel cells, wind generators and others are playing bigger and bigger role in the world's electricity production. These sources will be not an alternative for the electricity supply system (including nuclear power plants), during the nearest two decades. (author)

122

Pesticides use by smallholder farmers in vegetable production in Northern Tanzania.  

OpenAIRE

Small-scale farmers in Northern Tanzania grow vegetables that include tomatoes, cabbages and onions and use many types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these crops. Based on the use of questionnaires and interviews that were conducted in Arumeru, Monduli, Karatu, and Moshi rural districts, this study investigates farmers’ practices on vegetable pest management using pesticides and related cost and health effects. The types of pesticides used by the farmers in the stud...

Ngowi, A. V. F.; Mbise, T. J.; Ijani, A. S. M.; London, L.; Ajayi, O. C.

2007-01-01

123

Financing small scale wind energy projects in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper shows how wind energy projects in the UK have obtained finance. It attempts to list the financing options open to small scale developments and to note any likely problems which may occur. (UK)

124

The potential for small scale hydropower development in the US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an earlier paper (), the potential for small scale hydropower to contribute to US renewable energy supplies, as well as reduce current carbon emissions, was investigated. It was discovered that thousands of viable sites capable of producing significant amounts of hydroelectric power were available throughout the United States. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the cost-effectiveness of developing these small scale hydropower sites. Just because a site has the necessary topographical features to allow small scale hydropower development, does not mean that it should be pursued from a cost-benefit perspective, even if it is a renewable energy resource with minimal effects on the environment. This analysis finds that while the average cost of developing small scale hydropower is relatively high, there still remain hundreds of sites on the low end of the cost scale that are cost-effective to develop right now.

125

Submerged vinegar fermentation in small scale culture systems  

OpenAIRE

In industry, vinegar is widely produced by submerged fermentation. Although vinegar production is established on the large scale, small scale culture methods, in which bioprocesses are typically developed or optimized nowadays, are missing. To reinvestigate the established fermentation process, the aim of this thesis was the development of suitable small scale culture methods and systems for submerged vinegar fermentation. Since obligatory aerobic acetic acid bacteria in vinegar production su...

Schlepu?tz, Tino

2013-01-01

126

Small-Scale Variations of HI Spectra from Interstellar Scintillatio  

CERN Document Server

I suggest that radio-wave scattering by the interstellar plasma, in combination with subsonic gradients in the Doppler velocity of interstellar HI, is responsible for the observed small-scale variation in HI absorption spectra of pulsars. Velocity gradients on the order of 0.05 to 0.3 km/s across 1 AU can produce the observed variations. I suggest observational tests to distinguish between this model and the traditional picture of small-scale opacity variations from cloudlets.

Gwinn, C R

2001-01-01

127

Identifying Lenses with Small-Scale Structure. I. Cusp Lenses  

OpenAIRE

The inability of standard models to explain the flux ratios in many 4-image gravitational lenses has been cited as evidence for significant small-scale structure in lens galaxies. That claim has generally relied on detailed lens modeling, so it is both model dependent and somewhat difficult to interpret. We present a more robust and generic method for identifying lenses with small-scale structure. For a close triplet of images associated with a source near a cusp caustic, th...

Keeton, Charles R.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Petters, A. O.

2002-01-01

128

Development of small-scale peat production; Pienturvetuotannon kehittaeminen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the project is to develop production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat production to such a level that the productivity is improved and competitivity maintained. The aim in 1996 was to survey the present status of small-scale peat production, and research and development needs and to prepare a development plan for small-scale peat production for a continued project in 1997 and for the longer term. A questionnaire was sent to producers by mail, and its results were completed by phone interviews. Response was obtained from 164 producers, i.e. from about 75 - 85 % of small-scale peat producers. The quantity of energy peat produced by these amounted to 3.3 TWh and that of other peat to 265 000 m{sup 3}. The total production of energy peat (large- scale producers Vapo Oy and Turveruukki Oy included) amounted to 25.0 TWh in 1996 in Finland, of which 91 % (22.8 TWh) was milled peat and 9 % (2.2 TWh) of sod peat. The total production of peat other than energy peat amounted to 1.4 million m{sup 3}. The proportion of small-scale peat production was 13 % of energy peat, 11 % of milled peat and 38 % of sod peat. The proportion of small-scale producers was 18 % of other peat production. The results deviate clearly from those obtained in a study of small-scale production in the 1980s. The amount of small-scale production is clearly larger than generally assessed. Small-scale production focuses more on milled peat than on sod peat. The work will be continued in 1997. Based on development needs appeared in the questionnaire, the aim is to reduce environmental impacts and runoff effluents from small- scale production, to increase the efficiency of peat deliveries and to reduce peat production costs by improving the service value of machines by increasing co-operative use. (orig.)

Erkkilae, A.; Kallio, E. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

1997-12-01

129

Rainwater harvesting for small-scale irrigation of maize in the Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, small scale farmers mostly rely on rainfall for crop production. The erratic nature of rainfall causes frequent crop failures and makes the region structurally dependent on food aid. Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) is a technique to collect and store runoff that could provide water for livestock, domestic use or small scale irrigation. Usually, such irrigation is promoted for high value crops, but in the light of regional food security it may become interesting to invest in irrigation of maize. In this research, two cemented RWH cisterns were investigated to determine their economic and social potential for supplemental irrigation of maize using drip irrigation. For this, data from test fields with irrigated maize and monitoring of water levels of the cisterns were used, as well as a survey under 30 farmers living close to the experimental site. The results show that catchment size and management should be in balance with the designed RWH system, to prevent too little runoff or flooding. An analysis with Cropwat 8.0 was used to investigate the possibility of irrigating maize with the observed amounts of water in the RWH cisterns. This would suffice for 0.3-0.8 ha of maize. For a RWH cistern with a drip irrigation system to be economically viable, the production on this acreage should become 3-4 ton/ha; 2.5 times higher than the current yield. But the biggest challenge would be to change the perception of respondents, who don't find it logical to spend precious water on a common crop like maize. Therefore, if the Ethiopian government considers the irrigation of maize to be important for regional food security, it is recommended to either subsidize the construction of RWH cisterns or provide credit on favourable terms.

Keesstra, Saskia; Hartog, Maaike; Muluneh, Alemayehu; Stroosnijder, Leo

2013-04-01

130

A Survey of Early Chick Mortality on Small-Scale Poultry Farms in Jos, Central Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to investigate early chick mortality and its causes during the first two weeks on small-scale poultry farms in Jos, central Nigeria. The survey covered layer and broiler farms procuring day-old chicks from three selected hatcheries. Flock sizes varied from 20 birds up to 2000. Average mortality was 10.4 per flock with a standard deviation of 14.4. As a percentage of flock size, mortality was 11.4% with a standard deviation of 18.8%. The major causes of mortality were stress, Pullorum disease and diarrhoea. There was no significant relationship (p = 0.01, R2 = 0.02 between flock size and mortality. There was also no significant relationship (p = 0.01, R2 = 0.04 between mortality and the breed of stock. Of farms experiencing mortalities, only 28.8% consulted a veterinarian for diagnosis and treatment. The other 71% self-diagnosed the problems and instituted treatment which included vitamin supplementation or antimicrobial therapy, with enrofloxacin and gentamycin being the most popular drugs. Medication without consultation with qualified veterinarians may result in the abuse and misuse of antibiotics with the attendant consequences of resistance and the occurrence of drug residues in poultry and poultry products. The wide-spread use of antibiotics in the study area is cause for concern from both a veterinary and public health point of view. Although factors responsible for early chick mortality are complex, information on chick mortality on small-scale farms can be used for the training of farmers on its control. A better understanding of the causes of mortality in the crucial first few weeks of the chick’s life may lead farmers to rely more on better management such as better hygiene and sanitation and less on antibiotics for problems encountered during the early brooding period.

A.G. Ambali

2010-01-01

131

Farmers Insures Success  

Science.gov (United States)

Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

Freifeld, Lorri

2012-01-01

132

Financing Sustainable Small-Scale Forestry: Lessons from Developing National Forest Financing Strategies in Latin America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problems that hamper the financing of sustainable forest management (SFM are manifold and complex. However, forestry is also facing unprecedented opportunities. The multiple functions and values of forests are increasingly recognized as part of the solution to pressing global issues (e.g., climate change, energy scarcity, poverty, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and raw material supply. Emerging initiatives to enhance forest carbon stocks and cut greenhouse gas emissions associated with forest clearing (known as REDD+, together with voluntary carbon markets, are offering additional funding options for SFM. Indigenous peoples, local communities and small scale farmers feature as key players in the discourse on implementing such initiatives. Based on the experience of countries developing national forest financing strategies and instruments, we suggest the following points be considered when financing such initiatives, particularly for small scale forestry: (1 Integrate financing of REDD+ and similar initiatives within broader national strategies for SFM financing; (2 Design REDD+ finance mechanisms that are ‘community ready’, i.e., tailored to local realities; (3 Consider existing livelihood strategies as the starting point; (4 Build on existing structures, but be mindful of their strengths and weaknesses; (5 Be strategic with your priority actions; and (6 Promote innovation, knowledge sharing and information exchange.

Herman Savenije

2010-12-01

133

Airfoil optimization for noise emission problem on small scale turbines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind power is a preferred natural resource and has had benefits for the energy industry and for the environment all over the world. However, noise emission from wind turbines is becoming a major concern today. This study paid close attention to small scale wind turbines close to urban areas and proposes an optimum number of six airfoils to address noise emission concerns and performance criteria. The optimization process aimed to decrease the noise emission levels and enhance the aerodynamic performance of a small scale wind turbine. This study determined the sources and the operating conditions of broadband noise emissions. A new design is presented which enhances aerodynamic performance and at the same time reduces airfoil self noise. It used popular aerodynamic functions and codes based on aero-acoustic empirical models. Through numerical computations and analyses, it is possible to derive useful improvements that can be made to commercial airfoils for small scale wind turbines.

Gocmen, Tuhfe; Ozerdem, Baris [Mechanical Engineering Department, Yzmir Institute of Technology (Turkey)

2011-07-01

134

Contributions of small scales to statistics of Hall MHD turbulence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A direct numerical simulation of decaying, homogeneous and isotropic turbulence of the incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamic equations is carried out to clarify its statistical natures. Contributions of small scales to the statistics are examined. It is shown that the probability density function (PDF) of the enstrophy density is well characterized by the Gaussian distribution when the short wave number coefficients are removed, even though the vortex field shows intermittent structures. It is also shown that the local vortex structures are aligned to the magnetic field lines especially when the turbulent field is under developing and small scales are going to be excited. The alignment is lost in the relaxation process, suggesting the small scale current density field is less affected by the dissipations than the vorticity field. (author)

135

Can small scale structure ever affect cosmological dynamics?  

CERN Document Server

The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the universe is generally thought to imply a well defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today - which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N-body numerical simulations - a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is...

Adamek, Julian; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

2014-01-01

136

Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(?)??^{?}, where v(?) is the eddy velocity at a scale ?. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ?=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ?=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm^{(1-?)/(1+?)}. We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{crit}, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rm_{crit} is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rm_{crit} provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales. PMID:23368064

Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

2012-12-01

137

Small scale wood combustion in Germany. Recent research and trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To reduce Europe`s greenhouse gas emission CO{sub 2} it is a challenging task utilising biomass fuels as there are wood or wood residues from the forest industry. The utilisation can be done either in commercially operated medium (> 50 kWth) or full scale (> 1 MWth) decentralised heat and power stations or in small scale (< 50 kWth) domestic heating systems. In small scale heating systems untreated wood logs, wood briquette or wood pellets and in few cases wood chips are used. The present market in Germany is focused on the use of wood logs. Presently, the use of wood pellets in small scale automatically operated boilers < 15 kW especially for low energy houses is discussed more and more. Since 1980 the installation of new wood fired small scale domestic heating systems reached a significant size due to the interest of the customers to have a alternative inhouse heating system and to increase the living comfort. In 1994 the amount of sold small scale heaters in Germany were in total about 133.258 units. The thermal power of in 1994 sold units is estimated of about 1350 MW which is a significant size in total with regard to domestic heating purposes. Since few years there is a clear market trend in Germany towards the installation of open fire stoves. Due to this trend in Germany and the design characteristic of open fire stoves using huge glass doors of glass windows it is very difficult to achieve a further reduction of emissions like CO and unburned volatile hydrocarbons (VOC). In the text the requirements for modern small scale wood fired stoves in Germany as well as the actual stage and trend of research and development (R and D) are discussed 4 refs.

Maier, H.; Unterberger, S.; Hein, K.R.G. [Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

1998-12-31

138

Trends in Agriculturally-Relevant Rainfall Characteristics for Small-scale Agriculture in Northern Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study set out to investigate the trends of agriculturally-relevant rainfall characteristics among small-scale farmers in the rainfall-sensitive dry savanna agro ecological zone of northern Ghana.  Interviews are used to identify characteristics of rainfall which are deemed by the farmers as important in their food production. Time series daily rainfall data from 1960-2007 is then used to identify trends in these variables which include the amount and temporal distribution of rainfall, occurrence of extreme daily rainfall events, the onset of rains, risk of dry spells and coefficient of variability of rains. The risk of dry spells for varying number of days following the planting period is computed using first-order Markov chain modeling. We find that there is a significant increase in mean rainfall per rain day and the coefficient of variation or summer rainfall amounts. No significant change in the onset of rains, the annual rainfall amount and maximum rainfall days are established. However, a significant decrease in the number of rain days and the probability of dry spells of up to seven and eleven days in the first four weeks of the planting season is revealed. There is need for development of an agricultural policy framework designed to understand the growing risks associated with agricultural production among small-scale farmers, and to improve management practices to accommodate and adapt to the new challenges of varying rainfall.

Genesis Tambang Yengoh

2010-08-01

139

Small-Scale Retailers in an Island Town  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the competition faced by small-scale general store and textile retailing in an island town in Malaysia. The study was carried out in Labuan Town in Labuan Island of East Malaysia. A qualitative research design was utilized, involving primarily interview data which were collected from 12 in-depth interviews with 6 sundry and general store retailers and 6 textile retailers. Content analysis was executed to analyse the narrative data. The findings reveal that large store retailing negatively impact the small traders on trade diversion, but also positively modernize their retail formats. Competition was intense for the town centre small-scale retailers who were facing multiple competitions from large retailers and bazaar retailers in the town centre, small-scale retailers from the rural areas, as well as place competition in the region. The study suggests the need for creative response of the local authority in place making and balanced development, coupled with the strategic response of small-scale retailers in cultivating local enterprise.

Sivapalan Selvadurai

2013-10-01

140

Abelian Higgs Cosmic Strings: Small Scale Structure and Loops  

CERN Document Server

Classical lattice simulations of the Abelian Higgs model are used to investigate small scale structure and loop distributions in cosmic string networks. Use of the field theory ensures that the small-scale physics is captured correctly. The results confirm analytic predictions of Polchinski & Rocha [1] for the two-point correlation function of the string tangent vector, with a power law from length scales of order the string core width up to horizon scale with evidence to suggest that the small scale structure builds up from small scales. An analysis of the size distribution of string loops gives a very low number density, of order 1 per horizon volume, in contrast with Nambu-Goto simulations. Further, our loop distribution function does not support the detailed analytic predictions for loop production derived by Dubath et al. [2]. Better agreement to our data is found with a model based on loop fragmentation [3], coupled with a constant rate of energy loss into massive radiation. Our results show a stron...

Hindmarsh, Mark; Bevis, Neil

2008-01-01

141

DISPOSAL OF SMALL-SCALE FISH PROCESSING WASTE THROUGH COMPOSTING  

Science.gov (United States)

Large catfish processors in the U.S. typically recycle fish waste into fish meal. For small-scale processors or aquaculture research facilities, fish waste disposal can be problematic. We adapted a design developed for composting wastes from Minnesota fishing lodges and tested it for suitability fo...

142

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

Tillman, Gus

143

DESIGN OF A SMALL ? SCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER  

Science.gov (United States)

After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

144

Small Scale Marine Fisheries: An Extension Training Manual. TR-30.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual is designed for use in a preservice training program for prospective volunteers whose Peace Corps service will be spent working with small-scale artisanal fishing communities in developing nations. The program consists of 8 weeks of intensive training to develop competencies in marine fisheries technology and fisheries extension work…

Martinson, Steven; And Others

145

2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

Dr. Thomas Balk

2010-07-30

146

Application of improved management and nutrition technologies for small-holder dairy production and their adoption by farmers in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The objectives of this presentation are to consider some of the factors concerned in the application of technical change to small-scale dairying and the adoption of change by farmers. The presentation will consider (1) the motives of the small-scale dairy farmer, (2) the small-scale dairy farmer's own perceptions of his problems and needs, (3) how farmers deal with the two fundamental technologies implicit in dairy farming, feeding their animals and getting their cows in calf, and (4) dissemination routes most favoured by small scale dairy farmers. The geographical focus of the presentation is East Africa, a region associated with considerable progress and success in small-scale dairying (Kenya) as well as dairying projects in their early development (Tanzania). The concerns of small-scale farmers have been characterised; thus the farmers have multiple objectives, their households have low capacity to bear risk, their livestock enterprises are often integrated with cropping activities, and their livestock are often expected to be multi-functional. Some of the expected implications for small-scale dairy farmers are that: (1) inputs (including feed) are low and therefore milk yields are expected to be low; (2) inputs are often matched to output so that a reduction in milk price results in a reduction in concentrate allowance for the cows; (3) the use of time and cash are optimised, implying that priority will not be given to cattle if other farm enterprises seem financially more attractive. Perhaps not surprisingly, attitudes and systems vary within the farming community, allowing sub-groups of small-scale dairy farmers to be identified and defined. Thus some farmers emerge as more specialist or entrepreneurial than others, prepared to make greater investment in return for higher outputs. Attitudes and activities also differ according to location. Small-scale farmers close to urban centres may well have off-farm employment, diverting their attention from their cows. The problems faced by small-scale dairy farmers are diverse but some common threads emerge from a number of different studies. As well as the usual farmer concerns about the low prices received for their product and the high price of inputs, the availability of working capital appears to be a general anxiety. Poor feeding practices, partly consequent on weather but also a result of cash shortages, are widely recognised. Animal disease is also a general source of concern. It is clear from farmer consultations that farmers do respond to these problems with technical innovations appropriate to their resources. Often these innovations represent adaptations to the limited inputs available or affordable. Thus long inter calving intervals, probably a function of chronic under feeding as well as difficulties associated with bull availability, are countered by exploiting the long flat lactation curve associated with the failure of the cow to peak in early lactation as a result of the inadequate feeding. Cows are milked for many months, often with no intervening dry period between lactations. Although this maintains milk production, the production of replacement heifer calves is jeopardised by the long calving intervals, threatening the sustainability of small-scale dairying at both the household and national level. It follows from the above that small-scale dairy farmers have limited capacity for technical change. However, in some areas, the very adoption of small-scale dairying over the past few years is sufficiently novel to illustrate that its practitioners are prepared to adopt change if the proposals are considered feasible within the recognised constraints. Sometimes innovations fail to get to farmers because of inadequate extension services, although increasing access to the internet may signal rapid change in some regions. However, it is also clear that scepticism remains widespread. Recent studies indicate that, in some areas, extension services have limited success at disseminating innovation. Farmers' preferred sources of information are their chur

147

Large- and small-scale dynamics of the polar cusp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two cases of a midday cusp auroral dynamics are studied in relation to changes in the solar wind. Attention is focused on the small-scale dynamics of individual auroral forms in the midday cusp as well as more large-scale behavior of the oval in the magnetic midday sector. One case illustrates the response of the optical aurora and the geomagnetic field in the cusp when a compression in the solar wind impinges on the earth's magnetosphere. The effect of the IMF B(Y) component on the geomagnetic signature at different stations close to the cusp aurora is shown. The response of the midday port of the oval to distinct southward and northward turnings of the magnetosheath magnetic field is described, and certain small-scale auroral dynamics are discussed as possible effects of impulsive plasma transport across the dayside magnetosphere. 37 references

148

The small-scale structure of quantum spacetime  

CERN Document Server

Planck-scale quantum spacetime undergoes probabilistic local curvature fluctuations whose distributions cannot explicitly depend on position otherwise vacuum's small-scale quantum structure would fail to be statistically homogeneous. Since the collection of fluctuations is a many-body system, the natural explanation for their position-independent statistics is that they are in equilibrium with each other and distributed at maximum entropy. Consequently, their probability distributions obey the laws of statistical physics which enforces small-scale smoothness, prevents the homogeneity-violating diffusion found in any free quantum system, and maintains decoherence. Their entropy, calculated using the explicitly-constructed phase space of the Riemann whose statistics are derived using a background-independent graviton exchange ensemble, is proportional to the Einstein-Hilbert action evaluated on the macroscopic expected geometry and includes a small, positive cosmological constant. Entropy maximization yields qu...

Burton, Christopher D

2012-01-01

149

Cold Dark Matter's Small Scale Crisis Grows Up  

CERN Document Server

The Cold Dark Matter (CDM) theory predicts a wealth of substructure within dark halos. These predictions match observations of galaxy clusters like the nearby Virgo cluster. However, CDM has a "small scale crisis" since galaxies define {\\it overmerging} wherein a single galaxy dominates the halo with little substructure while the model predicts that galaxies should be scaled versions of galaxy clusters with abundant rich substructure.Compared to CDM predictions the Milky Way and Andromeda are "missing" ~500 objects with velocity dispersions $\\sigma \\sim 10$ km$^{-1}$. The energy scale of these missing satellites is low enough that stellar winds and supernovae might remove gas and suppress the formation of their luminous stellar components. Here, we show that the small scale crisis persists in fossil groups that have masses of up to 40% of the nearby Virgo cluster of galaxies. Fossil groups are missing ~500 satellites with luminosities that occur at the predicted frequency in the Virgo cluster. Moreover, the "...

D'Onghia, E; Onghia, Elena D'; Lake, George

2003-01-01

150

Examples of backreaction of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

CERN Document Server

In previous work, we introduced a new framework to treat large scale backreaction effects due to small scale inhomogeneities in general relativity. We considered one-parameter families of spacetimes for which such backreaction effects can occur, and we proved that, provided the weak energy condition on matter is satisfied, the leading effect of small scale inhomogeneities on large scale dynamics is to produce a traceless effective stress-energy tensor that itself satisfies the weak energy condition. In this work, we illustrate the nature of our framework by providing two explicit examples of one-parameter families with backreaction. The first, based on previous work of Berger, is a family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus, which satisfies all of the assumptions of our framework. As the parameter approaches its limiting value, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth background metric, but spacetime derivatives of the deviation of the metric from the background metric do not converge uniformly to...

Green, Stephen R

2013-01-01

151

Effect of small-scale architecture on polymer mobility  

CERN Document Server

Processes on different length scales affect the dynamics of chain molecules. In this work, we focus on structures on the scale of a monomer and investigate polyolefins, i.e. hydrocarbon chains with different small scale architectures. We present an exact enumeration scheme for the simulation of interactions and relative motion of two short chain sections on a lattice and employ it to deduce the probability for segmental motion for polymers of four different architectures in the melt. The probability for segmental motion is inversely proportional to the monomeric friction coefficient and hence the viscosity of a polymer. Combining our simulation results with an equation of state for the thermodynamic properties of the polymers, we are able to make predictions about the variation of the friction coefficient with temperature, pressure, and small scale architecture. To compare our results with experimental data, we have determined monomeric friction coefficients from experimental viscosity data for the four polyo...

Luettmer-Strathmann, J

1999-01-01

152

Working Capital Management of Small Scale Industries in Rajasthan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small scale industry (SSI plays an important role in the economy of the state Rajasthan of India. In spite of all the odds, the SSI sector has emerged as India’s engine of growth in the new millennium. The SSI sector in India contribute almost 40% of the gross industrial value added, the study is undertaken by taking 5 years data from secondary source. From this study, it has been found the working capital management is to decide the pattern of financing of the current assets, which is one of the biggest problems of working capital management. The SSIs has to decide about the sources of funds which can be avail to make investment in the current assets. The problem of working capital management of small-scale industries is not new.

Bashar Matarneh

2012-04-01

153

LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

1996-06-01

154

Brightness of the Sun's small scale magnetic field: proximity effects  

CERN Document Server

The net effect of the small scale magnetic field on the Sun's (bolometric) brightness is studied with realistic 3D MHD simulations. The direct effect of brightening within the magnetic field itself is consistent with measurements in high-resolution observations. The high 'photometric accuracy' of the simulations, however, reveal compensating brightness effects that are hard to detect observationally. The influence of magnetic concentrations on the surrounding nonmagnetic convective flows (a 'proximity effect') reduces the brightness by an amount exceeding the brightening by the magnetic concentrations themselves. The net photospheric effect of the small scale field (~ -0.34% at a mean flux density of 50 G) is thus negative. We conclude that the main contribution to the observed positive correlation between the magnetic field and total solar irradiance must be magnetic dissipation in layers around the temperature minimum and above (not included in the simulations). This agrees with existing inferences from obs...

Thaler, I

2014-01-01

155

Small-Scale Retailers in an Island Town  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the competition faced by small-scale general store and textile retailing in an island town in Malaysia. The study was carried out in Labuan Town in Labuan Island of East Malaysia. A qualitative research design was utilized, involving primarily interview data which were collected from 12 in-depth interviews with 6 sundry and general store retailers and 6 textile retailers. Content analysis was executed to analyse the narrative data. The findings reveal that large store reta...

Sivapalan Selvadurai; Er, A. C.; Lyndon, N.; Buang, A.; Mohd Fuad, M. J.; Habibah, A.; Hamzah, J.; Azima, A. M.; Junaidi, A. B.; Mohd Yusof Hussein

2013-01-01

156

Small scale experiments on severe slugging in flexible risers.  

OpenAIRE

Severe slugging is an undesirable unsteady multiphase flow phenomenon which occurs in riser-pipeline systems. During the course of this masters thesis work, a dynamic coupling has been shown to exist between this flow phenomenon and the flexible riser in which it occurs. To analyse the influence of this coupling, the cyclic displacement of the riser and the loads exerted by this cyclic displacement on the risers attachment point to a topside vessel have been evaluated.A small scale experimen...

Ita, Eyamba

2011-01-01

157

Streamers generation by small-scale drift-Alfvén waves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Excitation of streamers by modulationally unstable small-scale drift-Alfvén wave (SSDAW) is investigated. It is found that the excitation depends strongly on the propagation direction of the SSDAW, and the ion and electron diamagnetic drift waves are both unstable due to the generation of streamers. It is also shown that zonal flows can be effectively excited by the SSDAW with the propagation direction different from that for streamer excitation

158

Development of a small scale orange juice extractor  

OpenAIRE

A small scale motorized orange juice extractor was designed and fabricated, using locally-available construction materials. The essential components of the machine include feeding hopper, top cover, worm shaft, juice sieve, juice collector, waste outlet, transmission belt, main frame, pulleys and bearings. In operation, the worm shaft conveys, crushes, presses and squeezes the fruit to extract the juice. The juice extracted is filtered through the juice sieve into juice collector while the re...

Olaniyan, A. M.

2010-01-01

159

Optimal Combustion Conditions for a Small-scale Biomass Boiler  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports on an attempt to achieve maximum efficiency and lowest possible emissions for a small-scale biomass boiler. This aim can be attained only by changing the control algorithm of the boiler, and in this way not raising the acquisition costs for the boiler. This paper describes the experimental facility, the problems that arose while establishing the facility, and how we have dealt with them. The focus is on discontinuities arising after periodic grate sweeping, and on finding t...

Viktor Pla?ek; Cyril Oswald; Jan Hrdli?ka

2012-01-01

160

Fourier space intermittency of the small-scale turbulent dynamo  

OpenAIRE

The small-scale turbulent dynamo in the high Prandtl number regime is described in terms of the one-point Fourier space correlators. The second order correlator of this kind is the energy spectrum and it has been previously studied in detail. We examine the higher order k-space correlators which contain important information about the phases of the magnetic wavepackets and about the dominant structures of the magnetic turbulence which cause intermittency. In particular, the ...

Nazarenko, S.; West, R. J.; Zaboronski, O.

2003-01-01

161

Simulations of the small-scale turbulent dynamo  

OpenAIRE

We report the results of an extensive numerical study of the small-scale turbulent dynamo. The primary focus is on the case of large magnetic Prandtl numbers Prm, which is relevant for hot low-density astrophysical plasmas. A Prm parameter scan is given for the model case of viscosity-dominated (low Reynolds number) turbulence. We concentrate on three topics: magnetic energy spectra and saturation levels, the structure of the magnetic field lines, and intermittency of the field strength distr...

Schekochihin, Aa; Cowley, Sc; Taylor, Sf; Maron, Jl; Mcwilliams, Jc

2004-01-01

162

An introduction to small scale reflection in Coq  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This tutorial presents the SSReflect extension to the Coq system. This extension consists of an extension to the Coq language of script, and of a set of libraries, originating from the formal proof of the Four Color theorem. This tutorial proposes a guided tour in some of the basic libraries distributed in the SSReflect package. It focuses on the application of the small scale reflection methodology to the formalization of finite objects in intuitionistic type theory.

Georges Gonthier

2010-01-01

163

Small-scale turbulence can reduce parasite infectivity to dinoflagellates  

OpenAIRE

Small-scale turbulence and parasite infection are 2 important factors that govern the dynamics and fate of phytoplankton populations. We experimentally investigated the influence of turbulent mixing on the infectivity of the parasite Parvilucifera sinerae to dinoflagellates. Natural phytoplankton communities were collected during 3 stages of a bloom event in Arenys de Mar Har- bour (NW Mediterranean). The 15 to 60 ?m size fraction was used as the inoculum and distributed into spherical flask...

Llaveria, Gisela; Garce?s, Esther; Ross, Oliver N.; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Sampedro, Nagore; Berdalet, Elisa

2010-01-01

164

Can small scale structure ever affect cosmological dynamics?  

OpenAIRE

The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the universe is generally thought to imply a well defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matt...

Adamek, Julian; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

2014-01-01

165

Small Scale Microwave Background Fluctuations from Cosmic Strings  

OpenAIRE

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) fluctuations at very small angular scales (less than $10'$) induced by matter sources are computed in a simplified way. The result corrects a previous formula appearing in the literature. The small scale power spectrum from cosmic strings is then calculated by a new analytic method. The result compares extremely well with the spectrum computed by numerical techniques (when the old, incorrect, formula is used). The upper bound on the stri...

Hindmarsh, Mark

1993-01-01

166

Effect of generator usage on small scale businesses in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Energy has a major impact on socio-economic development by playing a key role in economic, social and political advancement of any Nation. Inadequate supply of energy limits advancement in all spheres thereby causing depreciation in the quality of life among citizens. Small scale businesses in Nigeria also have their fair share of the effects of inadequate energy supply in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to analyze the awareness, economic and environmental effects and attitudes of gener...

Ikhuosho-asikhia, Juliet

2014-01-01

167

Small Scale Solar ORC system for distributed power  

OpenAIRE

A solar thermal organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can provide affordable energy supplies in remote regions. The advent of low-cost medium temperature parabolic trough collectors and ORC technology taking advantage of mass produced fluid machinery from HVAC industries are enabling developments for the production of small scale autonomous power generation units. Construction and testing of this type of system is discussed, including benchmarking of scrolls expanders (up to 75% isentropic ...

Orosz, Matthew; Mueller, Amy; Quoilin, Sylvain; Hemond, Harold

2009-01-01

168

Small Scale Simulation Chamber for Space Environment Survivability Testing  

OpenAIRE

A versatile vacuum system for long duration testing of materials modifications due to exposure to simulated space environment conditions has been designed and built. The chamber is particularly well suited for cost-effective tests of multiple small scale materials samples over prolonged exposure. Critical environmental components simulated include neutral gas [ultrahigh vacuum (10-7 Pa) to ambient], FUV/UV/VIS/NIR solar spectrum, electron plasma fluxes, and temperature. The UV/VIS/NIR solar s...

Johnson, Robert H.; Montierth, Lisa D.; Dennison, Jr; Dyer, James S.; Lindstrom, Ethan; Chanson, Alex

2012-01-01

169

Small scale combined heat and power units using external combustion  

OpenAIRE

Combined heat and power plants are of increasing interest due to the rising concern over global warming as they can lower emissions, by having very higher efficiencies than traditional power plants. Implemented on a small scale units and with external combustion they allow for great flexibility in implementation and fuel, and can allow for remote locations to serve their own heat and power needs. This thesis investigates in the first part the available technologies for such plants on a small ...

Johansen, Pa?l Andre?

2013-01-01

170

Solar Receiver Design and Verification for Small Scale Polygeneration Unit  

OpenAIRE

Against a backdrop of our world’s changing climate solar thermal power generation shows great potential to move global energy production away from fossil fuels to non-polluting sources. The Department of Energy Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm is contributing to the development and research of solar thermal power by building a solar driven small scale polygeneration unit based on an externally fired micro gas turbine. This project focused on the design, analysis and...

Aichmayer, Lukas

2011-01-01

171

Spatial Nonlocality of the Small-Scale Solar Dynamo  

CERN Document Server

We explore the nature of the small-scale solar dynamo by tracking magnetic features. We investigate two previously-explored categories of the small-scale solar dynamo: shallow and deep. Recent modeling work on the shallow dynamo has produced a number of scenarios for how a strong network concentration can influence the formation and polarity of nearby small-scale magnetic features. These scenarios have measurable signatures, which we test for here using magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on Hinode. We find no statistical tendency for newly-formed magnetic features to cluster around or away from network concentrations, nor do we find any statistical relationship between their polarities. We conclude that there is no shallow or "surface" dynamo on the spatial scales observable by Hinode/NFI. In light of these results, we offer a scenario in which the sub-surface field in a deep solar dynamo is stretched and distorted via turbulence, allowing the field to emerge at random locations on the photo...

Lamb, Derek A; DeForest, Craig E

2014-01-01

172

Abelian Higgs cosmic strings: Small-scale structure and loops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Classical lattice simulations of the Abelian Higgs model are used to investigate small-scale structure and loop distributions in cosmic string networks. Use of the field theory ensures that the small-scale physics is captured correctly. The results confirm analytic predictions of Polchinski and Rocha 29 for the two-point correlation function of the string tangent vector, with a power law from length scales of order the string core width up to horizon scale. An analysis of the size distribution of string loops gives a very low number density, of order 1 per horizon volume, in contrast with Nambu-Goto simulations. Further, our loop distribution function does not support the detailed analytic predictions for loop production derived by Dubath et al. 30. Better agreement to our data is found with a model based on loop fragmentation 32, coupled with a constant rate of energy loss into massive radiation. Our results show a strong energy-loss mechanism, which allows the string network to scale without gravitational radiation, but which is not due to the production of string width loops. From evidence of small-scale structure we argue a partial explanation for the scale separation problem of how energy in the very low frequency modes of the string network is transformed into the very high frequency modes of gauge and Higgs radiation. We propose a picture of string network evolution, which reconciles the apparent differences between Nambu-Goto and field theory simulations.bu-Goto and field theory simulations.

173

Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

Gerkman, Linda

2012-07-01

174

Subcritical small-scale dynamos at low magnetic Prandtl numbers  

CERN Document Server

Saturated small-scale dynamo solutions driven by isotropic non-helical turbulence are presented at low magnetic Prandtl numbers down to 0.02, and, with less certainty, down to 0.01. In that range, most of the energy is dissipated via Joule heat and, in agreement with earlier results for helical large-scale dynamos, kinetic energy dissipation is shown to diminish proportional to the square root of the magnetic Prandtl number. Nevertheless, the rms magnetic field strength of the small-scale dynamo is found to depend only weakly on the value of the magnetic Prandtl number and decreases by about a factor of 2 as its value is decreased from 1 to 0.01. Restarting a simulation with a down-scaled magnetic field leads to decay, giving evidence for a subcritical nature of small-scale dynamos at low magnetic Prandtl numbers. This is argued to be a consequence of a suppression of the bottleneck seen in the kinetic energy spectrum in the absence of a dynamo and, more generally, a suppression of kinetic energy near the dis...

Brandenburg, Axel

2011-01-01

175

Does Small Scale Structure Significantly Affect Cosmological Dynamics?  

Science.gov (United States)

The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe is generally thought to imply a well-defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today—which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N -body numerical simulations—a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is added, in fact the virialization of structure saturates the backreaction effect at the same level independently of the equality scale. This implies that backreaction is a small effect independently of initial conditions. Nevertheless, it may still contribute at the percent level to certain cosmological observables and therefore it cannot be neglected in precision cosmology.

Adamek, Julian; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

2015-02-01

176

Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

Zhou, Caizhi

2010-12-15

177

Nature of the solar dynamo at small scales  

CERN Document Server

It is often claimed that there is not only one, but two different types of solar dynamos: the one that is responsible for the appearance of sunspots and the 11-yr cycle, frequently referred to as the "global dynamo", and a statistically time-invariant dynamo, generally referred to as the "local dynamo", which is supposed to be responsible for the ubiquitous magnetic structuring observed at small scales. Here we examine the relative contributions of these two qualitatively different dynamos to the small-scale magnetic flux, with the following conclusion: The local dynamo does not play a significant role at any of the spatially resolved scales, nearly all the small-scale flux, including the flux revealed by Hinode, is supplied by the global dynamo. This conclusion is reached by careful determination of the Sun's noise-corrected basal magnetic flux density while making use of a flux cancellation function determined from Hinode data. The only allowed range where there may be substantial or even dominating contrib...

Stenflo, J O

2012-01-01

178

Relative risk for human illness of biogas effluent use in horticulture at small-scale pig farms in northern Vietnam  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Treatment of animal manure in small-scale biogas systems are spreading rapidly in developing countries like Vietnam. The anaerobic fermentation breaks down solid matter and transforms it into methane which can be used for cooking and generation of light. Other benefits include a high-quality fertilizer effluent, reduction of problems with mal odour and a potential also to treat human waste products. Often the hygiene and health aspects of handling and digesting these organic wastes are unknown and the promotion of biogas technologies does rarely consider hygienic aspects. The aim of the current study was therefore to establish simple hygiene models for Vietnamese small-scale farmers that could describe the relative health risks associated with management of manure and consumption of the fertilized crop when using; i) fresh manure, ii) stored manure or iii) manure processed in the biogas plants. The hygiene models were developed based on information collected during interviews and observations of Vietnamese farmers operating biogas digesters as well as from the literature. Rather than calculating the specific risk for one person to become infected when handling a specific type of manure, we established hygiene models to calculate the relative risks of infection with the two model pathogens, Salmonella Typhimurium and Ascaris, allowing a comparison of risks for the different manure handling systems. Results showed that there was ten times higher risk of a human S. Typhimurium infection when handling fresh manure or composted manure as compared to handling of manure treated in a biogas system. In contrast, the risk for infection with the more resistant Ascaris was equivalent for all three manure handling systems. There is an urgent need to document the hygiene aspects of biogas systems developed and promoted to farmers in developing counties. Thus, further studies are needed on human exposure when handling animal manure and human excreta and pathogen survival in biogas systems as such information is essential to further refine the hygiene models developed and to formulate hygiene guidelines for biogas systems.

Kiilholma, Jenni; Stockmarr, Anders

2010-01-01

179

Rethinking the Risk Management Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale, Traditionally Based Agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proponents of genetically engineered (GE crops often assume that the risk management used in the industrial world is appropriate for small-scale, traditionally based agriculture in the Third World. Opponents of GE crops often assume that risk management is inappropriate for the Third World, because it is inherently biased in favor of the industrial world. We examine both of these assumptions, by rethinking risk management for GE crops and transgenes, using the example of maize transgene flow from the U.S. to Mexico. Risk management for the Third World is a necessary first step of a broader benefit–cost analysis of GE crops, which would include comparisons with existing varieties and with alternative varieties such as transgenic farmer varieties and organic varieties. Our goal is to use existing information on GE crops and on the social and biological characteristics of Third World agriculture to identify key processes that need to be considered in risk management, and the additional research required to adequately understand them. The four main steps in risk management are hazard identification, risk analysis (exposure x harm, risk evaluation, and risk treatment. We use informal event trees to identify possible exposure to GE crops and transgenes, and resulting biological and social harm; give examples of farmers' ability to evaluate social harm; and discuss the possibilities for risk treatment. We conclude that risk management is relevant for Third World agriculture, but needs to be based on the unique biological and social characteristics of small-scale, traditionally based agriculture, including the knowledge and values of Third World farmers and consumers.

Daniela Soleri

2005-06-01

180

Determinants of Farmers’ Agricultural Diversification: The Case of Cambodia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Heckman sample selection approach is employed with the data on Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey CSES-2007 to explore price and non-price factors determining farmers’ crop diversification decision, and consequently affecting diversification intensity. "The findings suggest that high relative price discourages farmers from diversifying crops." Irrigation, agricultural equipment ownership and farming expenditure have significantly positive effects on the decision, and sequentially increasing the intensity. Arable land size per household member, agricultural and transportation equipments have positive correlation with the diversification decision. Small scale of farming is a major hindrance to the decision, and consequently reducing the intensity. Land dispute, one of the main institutional matters in Cambodia, is found to have significantly negative marginal-effect on farmers’ decision on crop diversification.

Kimty Seng

2014-08-01

181

Putting farmers first: reshaping agricultural research in West Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

How agricultural research is funded, organised, controlled and practised can have a huge impact on small-scale producers in the global South. In many countries, such research is driven by external funds, priorities and technological fixes, such as hybrid seeds, which can erode crop diversity. But food producers across the world are beginning to raise their voices to ensure that agricultural research better meets their needs and priorities. A series of farmer assessments and citizens' juries in West Africa has helped farmers assess existing approaches and articulate recommendations for policy and practice to achieve their own vision of agricultural research. In 2012, a high-level policy dialogue between farmers and the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa hopes to take this discussion to the next level and develop a shared agenda that can serve development and the public good.

Pimbert, Michel

2012-01-15

182

Coming to Grips with Farmers' variety Selection- the Case of New Improved Rice Varieties under Irrigation in South East Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In collaboration with farmers, rice varieties were evaluated under small-scale irrigation in two villages of south east Tanzania for two consecutive cropping seasons (1999/2000 –2000/2001. The objectives were to give farmers access to new improved rice varieties; to identify the selection criteria farmers consider important in irrigated rice production; and to come to grips with their arguments. Farmers were provided with eleven improved varieties, which they compared with their own ones. Farmers' preferred varieties with short to medium maturity period, which produce many tillers and mature uniformly; and with long translucent aromatic grains for their own use and marketing. This study identified qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria which farmers are using for selecting rice varieties. The implication for further research on rice in south east Tanzania is that the breeding programme should incorporate these attributes to address farmers' preferences, rather than to go for absolute maximum yield levels.

Kafiriti, EM.

2003-01-01

183

The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1 on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1 of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P, Limousine(L, Kianina(C, Sharole(Sh and Markixhana(M on meat production increasing on small scale farms. To carried out this objective, two study methods were used: (i The survey - 284 small scale farms was observed in the Albanian coastal field and (ii Comparative essay of fattening calves (F1 in semi intensive small scale farm condition - 32 calves, F1 crosses of Holstein cows with above mentioned meat breeds were put in fattening in semi intensive small scale farm condition. 6 Holstein breed (H calves of 3-4 months age was used as control group. The feeding of animals was based on forages produced in farm: corn silage 30 % D.M, fresh alpha-alpha and its hay. 35 % of dry matter requirements were supplied by bought concentrate feedstuffs with 15 % crude protein on dry matter bases. The fattening period lasted 8 months . The average daily body weight increasing for each crosses and control group were respectively 889g (PxH, 998g (LxH, 850g (KxH, 1010g( ChxH, 953g (MxH and 702g (HxH. Multivariate analyses according to a linear model with constant factors ( genotype, sex, genotype x sex and covariance “live body weight in the beginning of experiment” showed that: (i The effect of crossbreds on average daily gain is evident under the small-scale farms conditions, also, (ii The average daily gain increases with 23 -38 % , depending on the type of crosses, (iii The crosses of dairy cattle with Limousine and Sharole result as most effective. The differences between F1 crosses of Markigiana, Kianine and Piemonteze are not statistically significant, (iv In semi intensive small scale farms the calf fattening can start from second month of life, (v The farmers even though small scale farm condition can produce more meat though the crossing of dairy cattle with meat breeds in comparison with pure dairy breed calves.

L. Papa

2010-01-01

184

Characteristics of Feed Mills at Farmers Group Scale in Supporting the Development of Beef Cattle  

OpenAIRE

One of the strategies to increase the availability of beef cattle feed in small holder livestock farms is to build feed industry of raw material agricultural waste-based. Development of small scale feed mills at the farmers group level is a necessity in supporting their farm. The important thing to consider in feed production not only on the quality aspect, but also the economical aspects need to be considered, which can be affordable by the farmers. The farmer group of Padang Tawang is one o...

A Syamsu, Jasmal; Yusuf, Muhammad; Abdullah, Agustina

2014-01-01

185

Analysis of hydrological triggered clayey landslides by small scale experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrological processes, such as slope saturation by water, are a primary cause of landslides. This effect can occur in the form of e.g. intense rainfall, snowmelt or changes in ground-water levels. Hydrological processes can trigger a landslide and control subsequent movement. In order to forecast potential landslides, it is important to know both the mechanism leading to failure, to evaluate whether a slope will fail or not, and the mechanism that control the movement of the failure mass, to estimate how much material will move in which time. Despite numerous studies which have been done there is still uncertainty in the explanation of the processes determining the failure and post-failure. Background and motivation of the study is the Barcelonnette area that is part of the Ubaye Valley in the South French Alps which is highly affected by hydrological-controlled landslides in reworked black marls. Since landslide processes are too complex to understand it only by field observation experiments and computer calculations are used. The main focus of this work is to analyse the initialization of failure and the post-failure behaviour of hydrological triggered landslides in clays by small-scale experiments, namely by small-scale flume tests and centrifuge tests. Although a lot of effort is made to investigate the landslide problem by either small-scale or even large-scale slope experiments there is still no optimal solution. Small-scale flume tests are often criticised because of their scale-effect problems dominant in dense sands and cohesive material and boundary problems. By means of centrifuge tests the scale problem with respect to stress conditions is overcome. But also centrifuge testing is accompanied with problems. The objectives of the work are 1) to review potential failure and post-failure mechanisms, 2) to evaluate small-scale experiments, namely flume and centrifuge tests in the analysis of the failure behaviour in clayey slopes and 3) to interpret the failure behaviour and possible mechanisms in tests on Zoelen clay and black marls by numerical calculations. After a general view of mechanisms that might initialise failure and mechanisms that might determine post-failure motion relevant for landslides occurring in non-cohesive and cohesive slopes, the performed tests on reworked black marls are presented. The problems and restrictions of both test methods are explained and discussed strategies for future tests given. The assumed mechanisms that might trigger failure and control post-failure motion that have been observed in the tests are examined by numerical modelling. It is shown that the results of the numerical simulation give an important contribution to the interpretation of the experimental observations and to the evaluation of the small-scale experiments.

Spickermann, A.; Malet, J.-P.; van Asch, T. W. J.; Schanz, T.

2010-05-01

186

Dynamics of small-scale precipitation enhancement in mountainous terrain  

Science.gov (United States)

In mountainous terrain precipitation patterns are strongly influenced by the topography. At larger scales the complex topography induces orographic cloud formation, while at smaller scales the local flow field leads to the preferred deposition of precipitation in leeward slopes. In this study, we focus on the small-scale precipitation enhancement close to the ridge controlled by the topographically induced local flow field. A mobile polarimetric X-band radar was deployed in the area of Davos (Switzerland) to determine the spatial variability of snow fall at a high spatial resolution of 75 m. In order to relate measured precipitation fields to flow dynamics, we modelled flow fields with the atmospheric prediction model Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS). Additionally, comparison of precipitation fields at a height of hundreds of meters above the surface with snow accumulation at the surface was facilitated by modelling/measuring snow accumulation fields with Alpine3D and Airborne Laser Scans respectively. Based on this dataset we investigated the small-scale precipitation dynamics for one heavy snow fall event in March 2011. The results showed a clear precipitation enhancement close to the ridge at the transition between the updraft and downdraft zone. The precipitation concentration increased in the presence of flow acceleration at windward slopes and decreased in the presence of flow deceleration at the leeward slopes. Measurements show that the temporal variation of the location of maximum concentration is strongly dependent on the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity. For situations with strong horizontal winds, the concentration maximum is shifted from the ridge crest towards the leeward slopes. Results further suggest that the small-scale precipitation enhancement at the ridge crest can be temporally and locally increased by the seeder-feeder mechanism. Although precipitation concentration at the height seen by the radar is different to the snow accumulation measured at the ground, these results strongly support the concept of preferential deposition of precipitation.

Mott, R.; Scipion, D.; Berne, A.; Dawes, N.; Lehning, M.

2012-04-01

187

Imaging Medium and Small Scale Ionospheric Electron Density Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decade, methods and techniques to image the global, large scale ionospheric electron density have matured to the point where routine 3D images of the global electron density field are now available from a number of research institutions. While a large number of issues remain related to accuracy and limits on spatial and temporal resolution, the overall methodologies and techniques for the assimilation of various data sources and types are fairly well advanced. However, accurate, high resolution imaging of medium scale (~ few kilometers to a few hundred kilometers) and small scale (few meters to kilometers) electron density structures from various sets of observations is an active area of current research, and is the focus of this presentation. Methods and techniques aimed at overcoming challenges in imaging medium scale structures will be discussed. Some of the salient issues include the quantification of relative importance of various data types for a specific structure to be imaged, the impact of the type of basis expansion for representing the structure to be imaged, and the limitations to the accuracy and resolution of the imaged structure. For imaging small scale structures, the focus will be on recent advances in the use of clusters of GPS scintillation receivers and diffraction tomography techniques to retrieve physical information regarding electron density irregularities that cause scintillations. Issues related to required observations for the underlying irregularities will be discussed as well as the applicability of approximations to the electro-magnetic propagation such as a single phase screen and the Rytov approximation. Finally, simulation and experimental results obtained from observations will be presented to illustrate the capabilities and limitations in accuracy and resolution of imaging medium and small scale structures.

Bust, G. S.; Kamalabadi, F.

2012-12-01

188

Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Plants Using Biofuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this time period where energy supply and climate change are of special concern, biomass-based fuels have attracted much interest due to their plentiful supply and favorable environmental characteristics (if properly managed). The effective capture and continued sustainability of this renewable resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants with high fuel energy conversion. At the same time, deregulation of the electricity market offers new opportunities for small-scale power plants in a decentralized scheme. These two important factors have opened up possibilities for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. The objective of this pre-study is to assess the possibilities and technical limitations for increased efficiency and energy utilization of biofuels in small size plants (approximately 10 MWe or lower). Various energy conversion technologies are considered and proven concepts for large-scale fossil fuel plants are an especially important area. An analysis has been made to identify the problems, technical limitations and different possibilities as recognized in the literature. Beyond published results, a qualitative survey was conducted to gain first-hand, current knowledge from experts in the field. At best, the survey results together with the results of personal interviews and a workshop on the role of small-scale plants in distributed generation will serve a guideline for future project directions and ideas. Conventional and novel technologies are included in the survey such as Stirling engines, combustion engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, steam motors, fuel cells and other novel technologies/cycles for biofuels. State-of-the-art heat and power plants will be identified to clarify of the advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles for their implementation.

Salomon-Popa, Marianne [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

2002-11-01

189

Small-scale power plant potential in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation discusses the small-scale power plant potential in Finland. The study of the potential is limited to W-scale power plants producing both electric power and heat using solid fuels. The basic power plant dimensioning and electric power load determination is based on traditional boiler and gas turbine technology. The possible sites for power plants are communities using district heating, and industrialized sites needing process steam or heat. In 1990 70 % (17 TWh) of district heat was produced by gas turbines. Ten communities have an own back-pressure power plant, and 40 communities buy heat from industrial plants, owing back-pressure power generation. Additionally about 40 communes buy district heat from companies, owned by power companies and industry. Estimates of small-scale power plant potential has been made plant wise on the basis of district heat loads and industrial heat needs. The scale of the plants has been limited to scale 3 MWe or more. The choosing of the fuel depends on the local conditions. The cheapest indigenous fuels in many communes are industrial wood wastes, and both milled and sod peat. The potential of steam technology based small-scale power plants has been estimated to be about 50 plants in 1992/1993, the total power of which is 220-260 MW. The largest estimate is base situation, in which there would be energy cooperation between the communes and industry. The fuel used by the power plants would be about 5.4-6.6 TWh/a corresponnts would be about 5.4-6.6 TWh/a corresponding to 270-330 million FIM/a. The total investment costs of the plants would be about 2.0 billion FIM. The plants would employ about 250 persons, and the fuel supply (wood or peat) about 100 persons

190

Small Scale Testing of Core Fast Reactor Materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fuel Cycle R and D (FCRD) initiative is investigating methods of burning minor actinides in a transmutation fuel. To achieve this goal, the fast reactor core materials (cladding and duct) must be able to withstand very high doses (>200 dpa design goal). While mechanical testing on large samples delivers direct engineering data these types of tests are only possible if enough sample material and required hot cell capabilities are available. Small scale materials testing methods in addition to large scale materials testing allows one to gain more insight on the same specimen and directly probe areas of interest which are not accessible otherwise (small welds, areas with different microstructure, etc.). However, in order to use small scale testing techniques and to probe materials microstructures using these methods, the relationship between the different scales needs to be investigated. In order to establish a research based relationship between small scale and large scale materials testing several different mechanical testing techniques were conducted on the same specimen irradiated in the Spallation Target Irradiation Program (STIP) at the Swiss spallation source (SINQ) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) up to a dose of 19 dpa. Tensile testing, micro hardness testing and micro compression testing on focused ion beam (FIB) manufactured pillars were performed on remaining parts of tensile test specimens tested and irradiated at PSI. It is shown that the yield streed at PSI. It is shown that the yield strength increases measured by tensile testing, micro compression testing and micro hardness testing all show the same trend. In addition FIB based techniques also allow one to cut local electrode atom probe (LEAP) samples. In this procedure samples are cut of such a small size that no radioactivity on the prepared sample can be measured. In order to establish trust in these FIB based techniques estimations of residual activity on these samples is essential and presented here. (author)

191

Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

2014-01-01

192

Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification ofwoody biomass  

OpenAIRE

A small-scale stratified downdraft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The...

Barrio, Maria

2002-01-01

193

Small scale studies of production of fissium aerosols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A small scale study concerning the production and analysis of fission product aerosols formed at various temperatures as a function of the chemical composition of the fissium/corium mixture at the source is presented. CsOH, CsJ and Te are the main aerosol components to be expected. The thermodynamic characterization of occuring Te-iodides and other phases is of great importance for reactor core meltdown chemistry and for the evaluation of the aerosol transport tests. Elemental iodine seems not to be released in significant amounts in reducing atmosphere. Analysis data concerning elements, phases, themral analysis and gases are presented. (G.B.)

194

''Flicker'' in small scale laser--plasma self-focusing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small amplitude, short wavelength ion acoustic waves in laser-produced plasmas cause fluctuations in the trajectories of light rays that can lead to time-dependent, self-sustaining shifting of focal spots and a somewhat random redistribution of the light near the critical surface. This flickering is seen in simulations involving small scale beam inhomogeneities over a uniform background laser profile, which model the center of a realistic laser beam. The effect can cause significant intensity multiplication in long scale length high-Z plasmas with only modest beam imperfections

195

Monitoring Results of a Small Scale CHCP System  

OpenAIRE

A small scale trigeneration system for combined heat, cold and power production was developed and installed at the Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, I.P. campus in Lisbon, Portugal. This system is one of the twelve experimental trigeneration systems being developed and tested across Europe within the PolySMART project. The CHCP system main constituents are a purpose made CHP prototype with an estimated 27kW maximum heat capacity and 9,6kW maximum electrical capacity and a TDC pr...

Mendes, J. Farinha; Cardoso, Joa?o P.; Coelho, Ricardo; Costa, Joa?o P.; Ferna?ndez, David; Silva, Anto?nio R.; Morgado, Miguel; Ada?o, Pedro

2010-01-01

196

Working Capital Management of Small Scale Industries in Rajasthan  

OpenAIRE

Small scale industry (SSI) plays an important role in the economy of the state Rajasthan of India. In spite of all the odds, the SSI sector has emerged as India’s engine of growth in the new millennium. The SSI sector in India contribute almost 40% of the gross industrial value added, the study is undertaken by taking 5 years data from secondary source. From this study, it has been found the working capital management is to decide the pattern of financing of the current assets, which is one...

Bashar Matarneh

2012-01-01

197

Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183 angstrom has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a ''portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs

198

Small Scale Dairy Farming Practice in a Selective Area of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was assigned to determine the present status including general information, feeding breeding housing milking etc. and costs & returns of small dairy farms, to compare the productive and reproductive performance of crossbred and indigenous cows and to make recommendation for development of small scales dairy farm. With this view, the empirical data were collected by using protested questionnaire. The study was conducted at 8 thanas in Rangpur district, and four months-long survey was diminished on thirty small dairy owners. It appeared from the study that 57% farm owners belong to business class and remaining 43 per cent to different categories. Fifty three per cent took dairying as a side-business whereas only 47 per cent took it as a main business enterprise. Major percentage of farm owner education level that was Higher Secondary level (60% and the average number of animal per farm was 13.01. The average monthly income of farm owners found in the study area was Tk. 4387. It was observed that farm owners had 85.4% crossbred (like Friesian cross and Jersey cross and was 14.6% indigenous cattle, and 87% farmers used artificial insemination and rest used both artificial and natural services. Daily milk yield/cow/farm was 4.27 and 1.78 liters for a crossbred and indigenous dairy cow, respectively. It was estimated that the rearing cost of dairy cow was Tk. 67.5/cow/day and return from rearing dairy cow was Tk. 85.2/cow/day. The net return was Tk. 17.7/cow/day from crossbred in the study area and cost benefit ratio was 1: 1.26. The study showed that there were significant (P<0.01 differences within the dry period, service per conception, calving to first service, highest and lowest milk production and lactation period of crossbred and indigenous dairy cows. The study also showed non-significant differences within calving interval for crossbred and indigenous. Incase of small dairy farming, the farms were facing a lot of problems such as scarcity of feeds and fodder, high price of concentrate and lack of technical knowledge. Although the dairy cow owners face problems, the study observed that there were potentials particularly for the small dairy farmers. The small farmers by keeping 8-10 crossbred cows could earn a modest living by adopting small dairy farming as a profession.

M.M. Hossain

2005-01-01

199

Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2013-09-12

200

The Small-Scale Dynamo at Low Magnetic Prandtl Numbers  

CERN Document Server

The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(l) \\propto l^{theta}, where v(l) is the eddy velocity at a scale l. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with theta = 1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with theta = 1/2. In this work we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the...

Schober, Jennifer; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

2012-01-01

201

NONLINEAR SMALL-SCALE DYNAMOS AT LOW MAGNETIC PRANDTL NUMBERS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saturated small-scale dynamo solutions driven by isotropic non-helical turbulence are presented at low magnetic Prandtl numbers PrM down to 0.01. For PrM 1/2M down to values of 0.1. In agreement with earlier work, there is, in addition to a short Golitsyn k –11/3 spectrum near the resistive scale, also some evidence for a short k –1 spectrum on larger scales. The rms magnetic field strength of the small-scale dynamo is found to depend only weakly on the value of PrM and decreases by about a factor of two as PrM is decreased from 1 to 0.01. The possibility of dynamo action at PrM = 0.1 in the nonlinear regime is argued to be a consequence of a suppression of the bottleneck seen in the kinetic energy spectrum in the absence of a dynamo and, more generally, a suppression of kinetic energy near the dissipation wavenumber.

202

A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver  

Science.gov (United States)

Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

2014-07-01

203

Scaling and small-scale structure in cosmic string networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examine the scaling properties of an evolving network of strings in Minkowski spacetime and study the evolution of length scales in terms of a three-scale model proposed by Austin, Copeland, and Kibble (ACK). We find good qualitative and some quantitative agreement between the model and our simulations. We also investigate small-scale structure by altering the minimum allowed size for loop production Ec. Certain quantities depend significantly on this parameter: for example, the scaling density can vary by a factor of 2 or more with increasing Ec. Small-scale structure as defined by ACK disappears if no restrictions are placed on loop production, and the fractal dimension of the string changes smoothly from 2 to 1 as the resolution scale is decreased. Loops are nearly all produced at the lattice cutoff. We suggest that the lattice cutoff should be interpreted as corresponding to the string width, and that in a real network loops are actually produced with this size. This leads to a radically different string scenario, with particle production rather than gravitational radiation being the dominant mode of energy dissipation. At the very least, a better understanding of the discretization effects in all simulations of cosmic strings is called for. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

204

Small-scale morphology across the surf zone  

Science.gov (United States)

Small-scale (< 5 m horizontal length) nearshore morphologic height variations were measured by combining CRAB surveys with bed elevations acquired with a 1 MHz sonic altimeter mounted on the CRAB during the October Phase of the DUCK94 experiment. Bedform plan views were recorded simultaneously using a 500 kHz side-scan sonar mounted on the CRAB. Waves and currents were measured at the same time. Significant temporal and spatial variations in the small-scale morphology were measured in response to changing waves and currents during the 2 weeks examined. Three cases are examined in detail: (1) mild waves and weak longshore currents resulting in wave ripples throughout the study area; (2) storm waves with strong longshore currents resulting in lunate and straight-crested mega-ripples in the trough of the barred beach; and (3) narrow-band, normally incident waves with a strong rip current resulting in a planar bed except in the throat of the rip where mega-ripples were measured. Wavenumber spectra of the bed were generally broad, indicating newly formed ripples coexisted with residual ripples from the past to form complex, multi-scaled ripple patterns.

Thornton, E.B.; Swayne, J.L.; Dingler, J.R.

1998-01-01

205

CMB spectral distortions from small-scale isocurvature fluctuations  

Science.gov (United States)

The damping of primordial perturbations at small scales gives rise to distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Here, the dependence of the distortion on the different types of cosmological initial conditions is explored, covering adiabatic, baryon/cold dark matter isocurvature, neutrino density/velocity isocurvature modes and some mixtures. The radiation transfer functions for each mode are determined and then used to compute the dissipative heating rates and spectral distortion signatures, utilizing both analytic estimates and numerical results from the thermalization code COSMOTHERM. Along the way, the early-time super-horizon behaviour for the resulting fluid modes is derived in conformal Newtonian gauge, and tight-coupling transfer function approximations are given. CMB spectral distortions caused by different perturbation modes can be estimated using simple k-space window functions which are provided here. Neutrinos carry away some fraction of the primordial perturbation power, introducing an overall efficiency factor that depends on the perturbation type. It is shown that future measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum have the potential to probe different perturbation modes at very small scales (corresponding to wavenumbers 1 ? k ? few × 104 Mpc- 1). These constraints are complementary to those obtained at large scales and hence provide an exciting new window to early-universe physics.

Chluba, J.; Grin, D.

2013-09-01

206

Experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of small scale combustion  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, the demand increased for the development of microdevices such as microsatellites, microaerial vehicles, micro reactors, and micro power generators. To meet those demands the biggest challenge is obtaining stable and complete combustion at relatively small scale. To gain a fundamental understanding of small scale combustion in this thesis, thermal and kinetic coupling between the gas phase and the structure at meso and micro scales were theoretically, experimentally, and numerically studied; new stabilization and instability phenomena were identified; and new theories for the dynamic mechanisms of small scale combustion were developed. The reduction of thermal inertia at small scale significantly reduces the response time of the wall and leads to a strong flame-wall coupling and extension of burning limits. Mesoscale flame propagation and extinction in small quartz tubes were theoretically, experimentally and numerically studied. It was found that wall-flame interaction in mesoscale combustion led to two different flame regimes, a heat-loss dominant fast flame regime and a wall-flame coupling slow flame regime. The nonlinear transition between the two flame regimes was strongly dependent on the channel width and flow velocity. It is concluded that the existence of multiple flame regimes is an inherent phenomenon in mesoscale combustion. In addition, all practical combustors have variable channel width in the direction of flame propagation. Quasi-steady and unsteady propagations of methane and propane-air premixed flames in a mesoscale divergent channel were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The emphasis was the impact of variable cross-section area and the flame-wall coupling on the flame transition between different regimes and the onset of flame instability. For the first time, spinning flames were experimentally observed for both lean and rich methane and propane-air mixtures in a broad range of equivalence ratios. An effective Lewis number to describe the competition between the mass transport in gas phase and the heat conduction in gas and solid phases was defined. Experimental observation and theoretical analysis suggested that the flame-wall coupling significantly increased the effective Lewis number and led to a new mechanism to promote the thermal diffusion instability. Due to the short flow residence time in small scale combustion, reactants, and oxidizers may not be able to be fully premixed before combustion. As such, non-premixed combustion plays an important role. Non-premixed mixing layer combustion within a constrained mesoscale channel was studied. Depending on the flow rate, it was found that there were two different flame regimes, an unsteady bimodal flame regime and a flame street regime with multiple stable triple flamelets. This multiple triple flame structure was identified experimentally for the first time. A scaling analytical model was developed to qualitatively explain the mechanism of flame streets. The effects of flow velocity, wall temperature, and Lewis number on the distance between flamelets and the diffusion flame length were also investigated. The results showed that the occurrence of flame street regimes was a combined effect of heat loss, curvature, diffusion, and dilution. To complete this thesis, experiments were conducted to measure the OH concentration using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) in a confined mesoscale combustor. Some preliminary results have been obtained for the OH concentration of flamelets in a flame street. When the scale of the micro reactor is further reduced, the rarefied gas effect may become significant. In this thesis, a new concentration slip model to describe the rarefied gas effect on the species transport in microscale chemical reactors was obtained. The present model is general and recovers the existing models in the limiting cases. The analytical results showed the concentration slip was dominated by two different mechanisms, the surface reaction induced concentration slip (RIC) and the temperature slip induced concentrati

Xu, Bo

207

Small Scale Gasification: Gas Engine CHP for Biofuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a joint project, Linnaeus Univ. in Vaexjoe (LNU) and the Faculty of Engineering at Lund Univ. (LTH) were commissioned by the Swedish Energy Agency to make an inventory of the techniques and systems for small scale gasifier-gas engine combined heat and power (CHP) production and to evaluate the technology. Small scale is defined here as plants up to 10 MW{sub th}, and the fuel used in the gasifier is some kind of biofuel, usually woody biofuel in the form of chips, pellets, or sawdust. The study is presented in this report. The report has been compiled by searching the literature, participating in seminars, visiting plants, interviewing contact people, and following up contacts by e-mail and phone. The first, descriptive part of the report, examines the state-of-the-art technology for gasification, gas cleaning, and gas engines. The second part presents case studies of the selected plants: - Meva Innovation's VIPP-VORTEX CHP plant - DTU's VIKING CHP plant - Guessing bio-power station - Harbooere CHP plant -Skive CHP plant The case studies examine the features of the plants and the included unit operations, the kinds of fuels used and the net electricity and overall efficiencies obtained. The investment and operating costs are presented when available as are figures on plant availability. In addition we survey the international situation, mainly covering developing countries. Generally, the technology is sufficiently mature for commercialization, though some unit operations, for example catalytic tar reforming, still needs further development. Further development and optimization will probably streamline the performance of the various plants so that their biofuel-to-electricity efficiency reaches 30-40 % and overall performance efficiency in the range of 90 %. The Harbooere, Skive, and Guessing plant types are considered appropriate for municipal CHP systems, while the Viking and VIPP-VORTEX plants are smaller and considered appropriate for replacing hot water plants in district heating network. The Danish Technical Univ. (DTU) Biomass Gasification Group and Meva International have identified a potentially large market in the developing countries of Asia. Areas for suggested further research and development include: - Gas cleaning/upgrading - Utilization of produced heat - System integration/optimization - Small scale oxygen production - Gas engine developments

Brandin, Jan (Linnaeus Univ., Vaexjoe. Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering (Sweden)); Tuner, Martin; Odenbrand, Ingemar (The Faculty of Engineering at Lund Univ. (LTH) (Sweden))

2011-07-01

208

Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems to productive smallholder irrigation: soil nutrient depletion, salinization, disease and pest resulting from inefficient irrigation practices, infrastructure problems leading to a reduction of the size of the command area and decrease in reservoir volume. The major causes have been poor irrigation infrastructure, poor on-farm soil and water management, prevalence of various crop pests and diseases, lack of inputs and reservoir siltation. On-farm participatory research focusing on soil, crop and water management issues, including technical, institutional and managerial aspects, to identify best performing innovations while taking care of the environment was recommended. Currently, a range of interlinked activities are implemented a multiple scales, combining participatory and scientific approaches towards innovation development and up-scaling of promising technologies and institutional and managerial approaches from local to regional scales. ____________________________ Key words: Irrigation scheme, productivity, innovation, participatory method, Gumselassa, Ethiopia

Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

2014-05-01

209

Strategies to improve yield and quality of sweet sorghum as a cash crop for small scale farmers in Botswana  

OpenAIRE

Strategies to improve stem yield and juice quality in sweet sorghum were investigated in this study. Seed quality of sixty five accessions (landraces) from Botswana was investigated. Standard germination tests revealed that only 66% of the accessions had germination percentages in excess of 85%. The Accelerated Ageing test showed that only 50%of the 26 accessions had germination percentages above 80%. The results indicated that Botswana sweet sorghum seed quality is generally poor. Seed devel...

Balole, Thabsile Virginia

2002-01-01

210

TROPICAL MAIZE SYNTHETICS BREEDING IN MOISTURE-STRESS TOLERANCE FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN BRAZILIAN SEMI ARID REGIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate 144 S2 progenies from each of two synthetic maize populations, Syndent and Synflint, from a breeding program for drought tolerance, to obtain synthetics with high yield potential and good agronomic performance in the semi-arid regions in Brazil. The 288 S2 progenies from the two synthetics were evaluated using a 12 x 12 lattice design with two replications in two conditions with water stress (WS and non water stress (NS in Janaúba, MG, Brazil, in 2000. The combining analysis of variance showed highly significant (P<0.01 effects in environments and progenies and their interaction for Synflint, and significant ones (P<0.05 in the interaction for Syndent. The estimates of the broad sense heritability of ear yield were: Synflint h2 = 0.382 and 0.752 for WS and NS, respectively; Syndent h2 = 0.607 and 0.635 for WS and NS, respectively. The genetic variance estimates were greater in NS than in WS environments. The error variance estimates were the greatest in WS x NS interaction for the two synthetics. The predicted responses to selection pointed out better gains for yield when selection is performed in NS rather than WS environments. Substantial variability exists in these two synthetics for drought tolerance and its characteristics, indicating that there is an opportunity for improving their tolerance via recurrent selection.

ELTO EUGENIO GOMES E GAMA

2004-04-01

211

Small scale renewable solar energy and the best result project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The European Community has established programmes with different Projects in relation with the develop of an energy system according to de Kyoto objectives, improving energy efficiency, maintaining security supply and doubling the share of renewable energy use. The Best Result Project (Building and Energy Systems and Technology in Renewable Energy Sources Update and Linked Training), is financed by the European Commission, Intelligent Energy Agency (EIE) and the project objectives are to develop training and diffusion activities in the field of Renewable Energy Technology. The project aims to raise the renewable energy knowledge among suppliers and general public. The project activities are: basis and specialized training events, workshops, meetings, visits and e-learning common platform. The final objective is to extend the market of small scale RES applications in the building and energy sector through common and local activities addressing RES suppliers and consumers. (orig.)

Bilbao, J.; Miguel, A.H.; Perez-Burgos, A.M. [Valladolid Univ. (Spain)

2008-07-01

212

Concept for integrity assurance of small scale piping systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There may be safety and economic reasons which make it absolutely necessary that the integrity of small-scale piping systems be guaranteed. This might be problematic considering experience to date. Analysing the damages detected it has been possible to assign these to systems and operational modes. They are primarily due to the insufficient design, which in turn is connected to the low safety relevance assumed for these systems. Determination of the degradation mechanisms and the causes give sufficient information for preventing further damage of this kind. Non-allowable dynamic loads as well as quick crack growth caused by corrosion are to be avoided by taking the proper action. Even if the measures taken may be different from plant to plant or component to component, it is possible to state a generally applicable systematic approach to guarantee integrity. (orig.)

213

Stability of small-scale baryon perturbations during cosmological recombination  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we study small-scale fluctuations (baryon pressure sound waves) in the baryon fluid during recombination. In particular, we look at their evolution in the presence of relative velocities between baryons and photons on large scales ($k \\sim 10^{-1} \\ {\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$), which are naturally present during the era of decoupling. Previous work concluded that the fluctuations grow due to an instability of sound waves in a recombining plasma, but that the growth factor is small for typical cosmological models. These analyses model recombination in an inhomogenous universe as a perturbation to the parameters of the homogenous solution. We show that for relevant wavenumbers $k\\gtrsim 10^3\\ {\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ the dynamics are significantly altered by the transport of both ionizing continuum ($h\

Venumadhav, Tejaswi

2014-01-01

214

Economic feasibility of small scale button mushroom production in pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abstract:- Mushroom is widely cultivated as a proteineous vegetable in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Its cultivation requires less space, care, equipment and cost compared to many other crops and livestock. The present study was conducted in 2010 to estimate the profitability of small scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross return of mushroom was estimated at 155.6 kg ha and Rs.77,800 ha , respectively. The results indicated the fact that mushroom production is very much remunerative to its producers as it can give maximum net return by reducing their cost of production as its cultivation is dependent on the agricultural raw material which is cheaply available. (author)

215

Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

2010-07-01

216

Analytic Study of Small Scale Structure on Cosmic Strings  

CERN Document Server

The properties of string networks at scales well below the horizon are poorly understood, but they enter critically into many observables. We argue that in some regimes, stretching will be the only relevant process governing the evolution. In this case, the string two-point function is determined up to normalization: the fractal dimension approaches one at short distance, but the rate of approach is characterized by an exponent that plays an essential role in network properties. The smoothness at short distance implies, for example, that cosmic string lensing images are little distorted. We then add in loop production as a perturbation and find that it diverges at small scales. This need not invalidate the stretching model, since the loop production occurs in localized regions, but it implies a complicated fragmentation process. Our ability to model this process is limited, but we argue that loop production peaks a few orders of magnitude below the horizon scale, without the inclusion of gravitational radiati...

Polchinski, J; Polchinski, Joseph; Rocha, Jorge V.

2006-01-01

217

Numerical simulation of small scale soft impact tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the small scale soft missile impact tests. The purpose of the test program is to provide data for the calibration of the numerical simulation models for impact simulation. In the experiments, both dry and fluid filled missiles are used. The tests with fluid filled missiles investigate the release speed and the droplet size of the fluid release. This data is important in quantifying the fire hazard of flammable liquid after the release. The spray release velocity and droplet size are also input data for analytical and numerical simulation of the liquid spread in the impact. The behaviour of the impact target is the second investigative goal of the test program. The response of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete walls is studied with the aid of displacement and strain monitoring. (authors)

218

Radar measurement of small-scale surface texture - Syrtis Major  

Science.gov (United States)

Available data on Syrtis Major is examined and compared in light of lunar experience in order to infer the small-scale structure and study the problem of origin and present state. The radar data are reviewed, introducing three previously unpublished sets of observations obtained during the 1978 Mars opposition. Syrtis Major is shown to be smooth and relatively homogeneous when sensed at centimeter wavelengths, root mean square surface slopes ranging from more than 1.5-2.0 deg in the east to less than 0.5 deg along the western margin at wavelength 12.6 cm. Radar reflectivity increases from about 5% to about 12% across Syrtis Major, being greatest near the western margin. A self-consistent model for the surface of Syrtis Major is arrived at which includes structure on all scales. It is shown that the moon is not a good radar analog for Syrtis Major.

Simpson, R. A.; Tyler, G. L.; Harmon, J. K.; Peterfreund, A. R.

1982-01-01

219

Small-Scale Shock Reactivity and Internal Blast Test  

Science.gov (United States)

Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT) uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter. Early and late-time reactions are simultaneously measured from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. Prompt reactions are quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block, while later reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion, are measured by recording blast pressure. Internal blast quasi-static pressure is obtained by confining the sample apparatus within a three-liter chamber. Late-time reaction effects of plastics, and results from HMX, HMX/Aluminum, and a plastic-bonded explosive (PBX) are reported.

Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.

2006-07-01

220

Small-scale resistance spot welding of austenitic stainless steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) was carried out for austenitic stainless steels. A weld lobe that shows the process window for making sound joints was obtained for type 304 stainless steel thin sheets, and the effects of welding current, force and weld time on joint strength and nugget size were investigated. The cooling rate that was estimated from the solidification cell size was approximately 2.4 x 105 K/s which is almost similar to that produced by laser beam welding. The microstructures of weld zones were almost fully austenitic due to the rapid solidification rate. Despite the fully austenitic microstructure, no hot cracking was found in types 302, 304, 316L, 310S and 347 austenitic stainless steels by SSRSW. Rapid cooling rate in SSRSW made it difficult to predict the microstructures from the conventional Schaeffler diagram

221

Small-scale resistance spot welding of austenitic stainless steels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) was carried out for austenitic stainless steels. A weld lobe that shows the process window for making sound joints was obtained for type 304 stainless steel thin sheets, and the effects of welding current, force and weld time on joint strength and nugget size were investigated. The cooling rate that was estimated from the solidification cell size was approximately 2.4 x 10{sup 5} K/s which is almost similar to that produced by laser beam welding. The microstructures of weld zones were almost fully austenitic due to the rapid solidification rate. Despite the fully austenitic microstructure, no hot cracking was found in types 302, 304, 316L, 310S and 347 austenitic stainless steels by SSRSW. Rapid cooling rate in SSRSW made it difficult to predict the microstructures from the conventional Schaeffler diagram.

Fukumoto, Shinji [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)], E-mail: sfukumot@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Fujiwara, Kana; Toji, Shin [University of Hyogo (Japan); Yamamoto, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)

2008-09-25

222

Structures and dynamics of small scales in decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence  

CERN Document Server

The topological and dynamical features of small scales are studied in the context of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows using direct numerical simulations. Joint probability density functions (PDFs) of the invariants of gradient quantities related to the velocity and the magnetic fields demonstrate that structures and dynamics at the time of maximum dissipation depend on the large scale initial conditions. This is evident in particular from the fact that each flow has a different shape for the joint PDF of the invariants of the velocity gradient in contrast to the universal teardrop shape of hydrodynamic turbulence. The general picture that emerges from the analysis of the invariants is that regions of high vorticity are correlated with regions of high strain rate $\\bm S$ also in contrast to hydrodynamic turbulent flows. Magnetic strain dominated regions are also well correlated with region of high current density $\\bm j$. Viscous dissipation ($\\propto \\bm S^2$) as well as Ohmic dissipation ($\\propt...

Dallas, Vassilios

2013-01-01

223

CMB spectral distortions from small-scale isocurvature fluctuations  

CERN Document Server

The damping of primordial perturbations at small-scales gives rise to distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Here the dependence of the distortion on the different types of cosmological initial conditions is explored, covering adiabatic, baryon/cold dark matter isocurvature, neutrino density/velocity isocurvature modes and some mixtures. The radiation transfer functions for each mode are determined and then used to compute the dissipative heating rates and spectral distortion signatures, utilizing both analytic estimates and numerical results from the thermalization code CosmoTherm. Along the way, the early-time super horizon behavior for the resulting fluid modes is derived in conformal Newtonian gauge, and tight-coupling transfer function approximations are given. CMB spectral distortions caused by different perturbation modes can be estimated using simple k-space window functions which are provided here. Neutrinos carry away some fraction of the primordial perturbation power, introducing an ...

Chluba, Jens

2013-01-01

224

Small Scale Field Emergence and Its Impact on Photospheric Granulation  

CERN Document Server

We used photospheric intensity images and magnetic field measurements from the New Solar Telescope in Big Bear and Helioseismic Magnetic Imager on board Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to study the the effect that the new small-scale emerging flux induces on solar granulation. We report that emerging flux appears to leave different types of footprint on solar granulation: i) diffuse irregular patches of increased brightness, ii) well defined filament-like structures and accompanied bright points, and iii) bright point-like features that appear inside granules. We suggest that the type of the footprint depends on the intensity of emerging fields. Stronger fields, emerging as a part of large magnetic structure, create on the solar surface a well defined filamentary pattern with bright points at the ends of the filaments, while weak turbulent fields are associated with bright patches inside the host granule.

Yurchyshyn, V; Abramenko, V; Goode, P; Cao, W

2012-01-01

225

Emissions from small scale combustion of pelletized wood fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Combustion of wood pellets in small scale heating systems with an effect below 20 kW has increased. During the winter season 1995/96 1500 small plants for heating houses are estimated to be in operation. Stack emissions from three pellet burners and two pellet stoves have been studied at laboratory. Different pellet qualities were tested. When the fraction of fines increased also the NOx emissions increased with about 10 %. As reference fuel 8 mm pellets was used. Tests with 6 mm pellets gave, in most cases, significant lower emissions of CO and THC. Eleven stoves, burners and boilers were studied in a field test. The results show that all the plants generally have higher emissions in the field than during conditions when the plants are adjusted with a stack gas monitoring instrument. A conclusion is that it is difficult for the operator to adjust the plant without a monitoring instrument. The emissions from the tested plants give an estimation of stack gas emissions from small scale pellet plants. The difference between the 'best' and 'worst' technologies is big. The span of emissions with the best technology to the worst is given below. The interval is concerning normal combustion . During abnormal conditions the emissions are on a significant higher level: * CO 80-1 000 mg/MJ; * Tar 0,3-19 mg/MJ; * THC (as methane equivalents) 2-100 mg/MJ; * NOx 50-70 mg/W;, and * Dust emissions 20-40 mg/MJ. Emissions from pellets heating are lower than from wfrom pellets heating are lower than from wood combustion and the best technology is close to the emission from oil burners. Wood and pellets have the same origin but the conditions to burn them in an environmental friendly way differ. Combustion of pellets could be improved through improved control of the air and fuel ratio that will create more stable conditions for the combustion

226

Properties of small-scale magnetism of stellar atmospheres  

Science.gov (United States)

The magnetic field outside of sunspots is concentrated in the intergranular space, where it forms a delicate filigree of bright ribbons and dots as seen on broad band images of the Sun. We expect this small-scale magnetic field to exhibit a similar behavior in stellar atmospheres. In order to find out more about it, we perform numerical simulations of the surface layers of stellar atmospheres. Here, we report on preliminary results from simulations in the range between 4000 K and 6500 K effective temperature with an initial vertical, homogeneous magnetic field of 50 G strength. We find that the field strength of the strongest magnetic flux concentrations increases with decreasing effective temperature at the height level where the average Rosseland optical depth is one. On the other hand, at the same level, the field is less strong than the thermal equipartition value in the coolest model but assumes superequipartition in the models hotter than 5000 K. While the Wilson depression of the strongest field concentrations is about one pressure scale height in the coolest model, it is more than four times the pressure scale height in the hottest one. We also find that the relative contribution of the bright filigree to the bolometric, vertically directed radiative intensity is most significant for the Teff = 5000 K model (0.6%-0.79%) and least significant for the hottest and coolest models (0.1%-0.46% and 0.14%-0.32%, respectively). This behavior suggests that the effect of the small-scale magnetic field on the photometric variability is more significant for K dwarf stars than for F-type and also M-type stars.

Steiner, Oskar; Salhab, René; Freytag, Bernd; Rajaguru, S. P.; Schaffenberger, Werner; Steffen, Matthias

2014-10-01

227

Properties of small-scale magnetism of stellar atmospheres  

Science.gov (United States)

The magnetic field outside of sunspots is concentrated in the intergranular space, where it forms a delicate filigree of bright ribbons and dots as seen on broad band images of the Sun. We expect this small-scale magnetic field to exhibit a similar behavior in stellar atmospheres. In order to find out more about it, we perform numerical simulations of the surface layers of stellar atmospheres. Here, we report on preliminary results from simulations in the range between 4000 K and 6500 K effective temperature with an initial vertical, homogeneous magnetic field of 50 G strength. We find that the field strength of the strongest magnetic flux concentrations increases with decreasing effective temperature at the height level where the average Rosseland optical depth is one. On the other hand, at the same level, the field is less strong than the thermal equipartition value in the coolest model but assumes superequipartition in the models hotter than 5000 K. While the Wilson depression of the strongest field concentrations is about one pressure scale height in the coolest model, it is more than four times the pressure scale height in the hottest one. We also find that the relative contribution of the bright filigree to the bolometric, vertically directed radiative intensity is most significant for the Teff = 5000 K model (0.6%-0.79%) and least significant for the hottest and coolest models (0.1%-0.46% and 0.14%-0.32%, respectively). This behavior suggests that the effect of the small-scale magnetic field on the photometric variability is more significant for K dwarf stars than for F-type and also M-type stars.

Steiner, Oskar; Salhab, René; Freytag, Bernd; Rajaguru, Paul; Schaffenberger, Werner; Steffen, Matthias

2014-12-01

228

Small-scale production of straight vegetable oil from rapeseed and its use as biofuel in the Spanish territory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biofuels nowadays are an important topic of study. The most significant point is the availability of bioethanol or biodiesel and their production from different raw materials. It is already known that large-scale production of first-generation biodiesel cannot be seen as an alternative to fossil fuels due to land requirements, competition with food, increase in fertilizer requirements and pressure on tropical forests among others. This fact does not necessarily apply to second-generation biofuels or small-scale niche productions. Straight vegetable oil (SVO) can be used directly in diesel engines with minor modifications. Our proposal is a small-scale SVO production system for self-supply in agricultural machinery. In this paper a model to provide SVO to local farmers in a specific area in Catalonia (Spain) is presented. We also present a discussion about the regulations to be changed in order to make possible the incorporation of SVO as engine fuel in diesel vehicles and a comparative analysis between the emissions of tractors fed with SVO and petrodiesel. Moreover, a quantitative economic analysis of modifying diesel engines and long-term operability costs are shown and a first-run economic analysis comparing the actual crop rotation with the proposed one and some alternatives is studied.

229

The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1) on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions  

OpenAIRE

About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha) is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1) of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P), Lim...

Papa, L.; Kume, K.

2010-01-01

230

Productivity, Efficiency, and Competitiveness of Small-Scale Organic Cotton Production in Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cotton is known as the “white gold” of Africa since it is the only export crop in which the continent’s share in the world market has increased over the past decades. Total cotton production as well as productivity grew particularly in Western and Central Africa. In contrast, cotton production grew much less in Eastern and Southern Africa and the increase in production was mainly a result of expansion of land under cultivation and the number of producers, rather than of improved productivity (e.g. Poulton et al., 2004; Delpeuch and Vandeplas, 2011). Organic production methods could be an attractive option for cotton farmers in Eastern Africa, because in this region, the use of chemical inputs is anyway virtually absent, the labor cost is low, and organic cotton has a higher sales price than conventional cotton. In order to scrutinize this option, we use microeconomic production theory and stochastic frontier models to thoroughly analyze organic cotton production in Tanzania. Our study is based on a unique data set of 180 small-scale organic cotton farmers in the Meatu region in Tanzania. This data set does not only provide information on input and output quantities, prices of traded inputs and output, as well as socio-economic and agronomic factors, but also on the shadow prices of all sparsely traded inputs, i.e. land, labor, and organic fertilizer. Hence, we can not only analyze productivity, technical efficiency, and scale efficiency, but also allocative efficiency, profitability, and competitiveness. Traditionally, the measurement of allocative efficiency assumed that all inputs can be freely traded at a given price on a perfectly functioning market. This assumption was relaxed by Tauer (1993) who suggested an approach that can additionally account for quasi-fixed input quantities, which cannot be adjusted in the short run. However, land, labor, and organic fertilizer can neither be traded on a perfect market nor are their quantities completely fixed for cotton production, but these input quantities can be adjusted by adjusting their use for other activities of the household. Hence, these inputs face non-constant shadow prices, which are determined by their opportunity costs. In order to account for the endogeneity of these shadow prices when calculating allocative efficiencies, we use the approach for modeling imperfect markets developed by Henning and Henningsen (2007). Based on our results, we can evaluate the current situation of organic cotton production as well as the potential and the directions for improving its profitability and competitiveness. Unfortunately, we did not finish the empirical analysis before the submission deadline. However, we will definitely include the results in our presentation at the conference.

Mgeni, Dotto; Henningsen, Arne

231

Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long-lived fission products could result in an irradiation effective half-life of a few years with a three order magnitude increase in the on-target neutron flux accomplishable through a combination of technological enhancements to the source and system design optimization; (3) the transmutation of long-lived fission products requires a thermal-slow energy spectrum to prevent the generation of activation products with half-lives even longer than the original radionuclide; (4) there is no benefit in trying to transmute short-lived fission products due to the ineffectiveness of the transmutation process and the generation of a multiplicity of counterproductive activation products; (5) for actinides, irradiation effective half-lives of neutron energy spectra for transmuting actinides is highly dependent on the particular radionuclide and its fission-to-capture ratio as they determine the generationrate of other actinides; and (7) the methodology developed in this dissertation provides a mechanism that can be used for studying the feasibility of transmuting other radionuclides, and its application can be extended to studying the production of radionuclides of interest in a transmutation process. Although large-scale transmutation technology is presently being researched world-wide for spent fuel management applications, such technology will not be viable for a couple of decades. This dissertation investigated the concept of a small-scale transmutation device using present technology. The results of this research show that with reasonable enhancements, transmutation of specific radionuclides can be practical in the near term.

Sit, Roger Carson

232

EFFICIENCY OF RESOURCE USE IN SMALL-SCALE WHITE SHRIMP (PENAEUS VANNAMEI PRODUCTION IN LAMONGAN REGENCY, EAST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study carried out to determine the efficiency of recourses used in white shrimp (Pe-naeus Vannamei production in Lamongan Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia. The simple random sampling technique used to select 125 small-scale white shrimp farmers from six-study areas in Lamongan Regency. The white shrimp production function was es-timated using Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique. The results indicated that Double Log production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of white shrimp and inputs used. The coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.846 indicated that the eighty-four point six percent of variation in output of white shrimp was explained by the independent variables in the model. Findings showed that labor, fertilizer, feed and stocking density are significant determinants of production inputs. Moreover, the estimates of the ra-tio of the value of marginal product (VMP to marginal factor cost (MFC revealed that the non-optimal combination of inputs among the white shrimp farmers, it showed that the aq-uaculture farms resources were inefficiently utilized for labor, feed and stocking density by 1.94, 1.93 and 171.4 respectively, while fertilizer showed otherwise by 0.11 or over uti-lized.

Riski A. Lestariad

2012-01-01

233

EFFICIENCY OF RESOURCE USE IN SMALL-SCALE WHITE SHRIMP (PENAEUS VANNAMEI PRODUCTION IN LAMONGAN REGENCY, EAST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study carried out to determine the efficiency of recourses use in white shrimp (Penaeus Vannamei production in Lamongan Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia. The simple random sampling technique used to select 125 small-scale white shrimp farmers from six-study areas in Lamongan Regency. The white shrimp production function was estimated using Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique. The results indicated that Double Log production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of white shrimp and inputs used. The coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.846 indicated that the eighty-four point six percent of variation in output of white shrimp was explained by the independent variables in the model. Findings showed that labor, fertilizer, feed and stocking density are significant determinants of production inputs. Moreover, the estimates of the ratio of the value of marginal product (VMP to marginal factor cost (MFC revealed that the non-optimal combination of inputs among the white shrimp farmers, it showed that the aquaculture farms resources were inefficiently utilized for labor, feed and stocking density by 1.94, 1.93 and 171.4 respectively, while fertilizer showed otherwise by 0.11 or over utilized.

Riski A. Lestariadi

2012-09-01

234

Calibration of farmer dosemeters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Farmer Dosemeters of Atomic Energy Medical Centre (AEMC) Jamshoro were calibrated in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) at PINSTECH, using the NPL Secondary Standard Therapy level X-ray exposure meter. The results are presented in this report. (authors)

235

Small-scale recombination He - Sr+(Ca+ ) lasers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of specific features and output characteristics of small-scale (l?30 cm, d?1.1cm) gas-discharge recombination He-Sr+ (?=430.5 nm) and He- Ca+ (?=373.7nm) lasers is provided. Such compact lasers are characterised by a relatively high reliability and durability. These lasers are easy to operate and are capable of generating laser pulses with high repetition rates f, a high specific mean power Psp, and an improved quality of output radiation. A typical mean power P of self-heating sealed-off He-Sr+ (Ca+) laser tubes with l? 30 cm and d? 1 cm is ? 0.5 W. The best specific characteristics of a He-Sr+ laser with tubes of this type were achieved with l=20 cm and d=0.6 cm (Psp=73 mW cm-3) and l=9 cm and d=0.55 cm (Psp=65 W cm-3). The best specific characteristics for a He-Ca+ laser were achieved with l=26.5 cm and d=0.7 cm (Psp=50 mW cm-3). The use of forced water cooling in a He-Sr+(Ca+) laser allowed the powers P=3.9 W and Psp=137 mW cm-3 to be achieved with a tube with l=30 cm and d=1.1 cm for f=29 kHz. A new method of inputting metal vapours based on cataphoresis is considered in detail. Using this method allowed the output characteristics of a He-Sr+ laser to be considerably improved and a record specific power Psp=277 mW cm-3 to be a277 mW cm-3 to be achieved for a tube with l=26 cm and d=0.3 cm with f=30 kHz and P=510 mW. A record gain, 0.15 cm-1, was also achieved under these conditions. Some possible areas of applications of small-scale He-Sr+(Ca+) lasers in semiconductor microtechnology, holography, ecology, and medicine are outlined. (invited paper)

236

Rural electrification in Malaysia via small scale biomass gasifier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is the government of Malaysia's vision to see that the rural community is not left behind in its endeavour to be an industrialised nation in the year 2020. The standard of living in the rural areas is very far different from that in the urban areas. To obtain equality the standard of living of the rural folks need to be ungraded. This is done largely by electrification. Electricity has been in the past the catalyst for development and raising the standard of living of the poor. Electricity supplied by the nation's electricity company might not reach all remote areas and therefore there must be a means to provide alternative electrical supply to these places. Present method employ the use of diesel generator sets to provide electricity. The availability of biomass source of supply in the rural areas could be effectively exploited to provide alternative source of energy via a gasification system to run a reciprocating engine coupled to a generator to generated electricity. A small-scale biomass gasification generator set in the range of 2-5 kW is suitable to provide electrical supply to a typical house in the rural area. The present use of biomass source of energy is in its utilisation to provide source of heat for cooking. Several tests have been conducted and the performance is very good. Alternatively another medium scale system generating about 50-20O kW would be suitable for a typical village having about 50 houses. A small-scale system has been developed in USMall-scale system has been developed in USM to provide 5 kW of electrical power. The system used a petrol engine and produces an overall efficiency of 7% with a specific consumption of about 3 kg/kWh. The biomass material used is wood. However for application in the rural areas the biomass material will depend on the type available. A further 50 kW system is being develop in USM. (Author)

237

Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. Results To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. Conclusion We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs.

Sohoni Sujata

2012-01-01

238

Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. RESULTS: To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and comparedits performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs.

Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudan

2012-01-01

239

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

2013-08-01

240

An exergy analysis of small scale LNG processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation evaluated the following 4 processes for producing small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG): a single-stage mixed refrigerant process; a two-stage expander nitrogen refrigerant; and, two open loop turbo expander processes. Each process was evaluated in terms of energy costs and suitability for an offshore production facility. The Commercial software and the Peng-Robinson Equation of State thermodynamic package were used to simulate all processes. An exergy analysis was performed in two stages for each process. The first involved the analysis of composite curves for the feed and recycle streams compared to the refrigerant or cold recycle stream. The degree of optimization available to each process was illustrated and information on the relative size of the LNG exchanger was provided. The second stage involved a full exergy analysis of each process. The relative contributions to the total shaft work requirements were demonstrated. The main factor responsible for the reduced efficiencies of the expander process was the lower efficiencies of the turbo expander driven compressors. It was suggested that a nitrogen process is the preferred option for producing LNG at offshore facilities.

Remeljej, C.W. [BHP Billiton, Melbourne (Australia); Hoadley, A.F.A. [Monash Univ., Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2004-07-01

241

Efficient small-scale dynamo in solar convection zone  

CERN Document Server

We investigate small-scale dynamo action in the solar convection zone through a series of high resolution MHD simulations in a local Cartesian domain with 1$R_\\odot$ (solar radius) of horizontal extent and a radial extent from 0.715 to 0.96$R_\\odot$. The dependence of the solution on resolution and diffusivity is studied. For a grid spacing of less than 350 km, the root mean square magnetic field strength near the base of the convection zone reaches 95% of the equipartition field strength (i.e. magnetic and kinetic energy are comparable). For these solutions the Lorentz force feedback on the convection velocity is found to be significant. The velocity near the base of the convection zone is reduced to 50% of the hydrodynamic one. In spite of a significant decrease of the convection velocity, the reduction in the enthalpy flux is relatively small, since the magnetic field also suppresses the horizontal mixing of the entropy between up- and downflow regions. This effect increases the amplitude of the entropy pe...

Hotta, H; Yokoyama, T

2015-01-01

242

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales.  

Science.gov (United States)

Next-generation sequencing technologies with markers covering the full Glomeromycota phylum were used to uncover phylogenetic community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Festuca brevipila. The study system was a semi-arid grassland with high plant diversity and a steep environmental gradient in pH, C, N, P and soil water content. The AMF community in roots and rhizosphere soil were analyzed separately and consisted of 74 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in total. Community-level variance partitioning showed that the role of environmental factors in determining AM species composition was marginal when controlling for spatial autocorrelation at multiple scales. Instead, phylogenetic distance and spatial distance were major correlates of AMF communities: OTUs that were more closely related (and which therefore may have similar traits) were more likely to co-occur. This pattern was insensitive to phylogenetic sampling breadth. Given the minor effects of the environment, we propose that at small scales closely related AMF positively associate through biotic factors such as plant-AMF filtering and interactions within the soil biota. PMID:24824667

Horn, Sebastian; Caruso, Tancredi; Verbruggen, Erik; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

2014-11-01

243

A Small-Scale Safety Test for Initiation Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have developed a small-scale safety test for initiation train components. A low-cost test was needed to assess the response of initiation components to an abnormal shock environment and to detect changes in the sensitivity of initiation components as they age. The test uses a disk of Detasheet to transmit a shock through a PMMA barrier into a the test article. A schematic drawing of the fixture is shown. The 10-cm-diameter disk of 3-mm-thick Detasheet, initiated at its center by a RISI, RP detonator, produces a shock wave that is attenuated by a variable-thickness PMMA spacer (gap). Layers of metal and plastic above the test article and the material surrounding the test article may be chosen to mock up the environment of the test article at its location in a warhead. A metal plate at the bottom serves as a witness plate to record whether or not the test article detonated. For articles containing a small amount of explosive, it can be difficult to determine whether or not a detonation has occurred. In such cases, one can use a pressure transducer or laser velocimeter to detect the shock wave from the detonation of the article. The assembly is contained in a 10-cm-ID section of PVC pipe and fired in a containment vessel rated at 100 g. Test results are given for a hemispherical, exploding-bridgewire (EBW) detonator.

Cutting, J; Chow, C; Chau, H; Hodgin, R; Lee, R

2002-04-22

244

Social and Ecological Dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalization's reach is rapidly extending to touch some of the most remote communities of the world, but we have yet to understand its scale and impact. On Nicaragua's previously remote Miskitu Coast, the introduction of new markets and global demand for seafood has resulted in changes in fishermen's harvest behavior manifested within the local fishery. Small-scale fisheries are a significant component in sustaining global fish trade, ensuring food security, and alleviating poverty, but because the fishermen are disperse, numerous and located in remote areas, the social and ecological dynamics of the system are poorly understood. Previous work has indicated a decline in fish abundance as a result of connection to markets, yet fishermen's response to this decline and the resulting shift in harvest strategy requires further examination. I identify the ecological and social factors that explain changes in fishermen behavior and use an innovative application of social network analysis to understand these changes. I also use interviews with fishermen and fishery-dependent surveys to measure catch and release behavior and seasonal gear use. Results demonstrate multiple cliques within a community that mitigate the response of fishermen to changes in the fishery. This research applies techniques in social science to address challenges in sustainable management of fisheries. As fisheries managers consider implementing new regulations, such as seasonal restrictions on gear, it is essential to understand not just how this might impact fish abundance, but how and why human systems respond as they do.

Stevens, K.; Kramer, D.; Frank, K.

2012-12-01

245

Analytic study of small scale structure on cosmic strings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The properties of string networks at scales well below the horizon are poorly understood, but they enter critically into many observables. We argue that in some regimes, stretching will be the only relevant process governing the evolution. In this case, the string two-point function is determined up to normalization: the fractal dimension approaches one at short distance, but the rate of approach is characterized by an exponent that plays an essential role in network properties. The smoothness at short distance implies, for example, that cosmic string lensing images are almost undistorted. We then add in loop production as a perturbation and find that it diverges at small scales. This need not invalidate the stretching model, since the loop production occurs in localized regions, but it implies a complicated fragmentation process. Our ability to model this process is limited, but we argue that loop production peaks a few orders of magnitude below the horizon scale, without the inclusion of gravitational radiation. We find agreement with some features of simulations, and interesting discrepancies that must be resolved by future work

246

Numerical Simulation of a Small-Scale Mild Combustor  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports numerical simulations of a small-scale cylindrical combustor operating in the mild combustion regime. Preheated air is supplied by a central nozzle, while the fuel (methane) is injected through 16 holes placed equidistantly in a circumference concentric with the air nozzle. The calculations were carried out using the commercial code Ansys-Fluent. Turbulence was modelled using the realizable k-epsilon model. Two different combustion models were employed, namely the eddy dissipation concept and the joint composition pdf transport model. In both cases, a chemical mechanism comprising 13 transported species and 73 chemical reactions was used, as well as a global single-step reaction. A thorough comparison of the predictions obtained using the pdf transport model and the eddy dissipation concept with detailed experimental data is presented. Both models are able to accurately predict the temperature and the O2 and CO2 molar fractions over most of the combustor, but the temperature field is overestimated in the vicinity of the burner. Discrepancies are found in the prediction of the CO molar fraction, particularly when the eddy dissipation concept is used.

Veríssimo, A.; Oliveira, R.; Coelho, P. J.; Costa, M.

2012-11-01

247

Emergence of undulatory magnetic flux tubes by small scale reconnections  

Science.gov (United States)

With Flare Genesis Experiment (FGE), a balloon borne observatory launched in Antarctica on January 2000, series of high spatial resolution vector magnetograms, Dopplergrams, and H? filtergrams have been obtained in an emerging active region (AR 8844). Previous analyses of this data revealed the occurence of many short-lived and small-scale H ? brightenings called 'Ellerman bombs' (EBs) within the AR. We performed an extrapolation of the field above the photosphere using the linear force-free field approximation. The analysis of the magnetic topology reveals a close connexion between the loci of EBs and the existence of "Bald patches" (BP) regions (BPs are regions where the vector magnetic field is tangential to the photosphere). Some of these EBs/BPs are magnetically connected by low-lying field lines, presenting a serpentine shape. This results leads us to conjecture that arch filament systems and active regions coronal loops do not result from the smooth emergence of large scale ?-loops, but rather from the rise of flat undulatory flux tubes which get released from their photospheric anchorage by reconnection at BPs, which observational signature is Ellerman bombs.

Pariat, E.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.

2006-01-01

248

Calvin’s election mix in small-scale theology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows how Calvin’s ideas about the Old Testament concept of Israel’s election can be dangerous when they are applied uncritically. The main illustration material is drawn from a context the author was himself part of, notably the South African apartheid theology of Calvinist provenance. The paper begins with documenting Calvin’s views on Israel and Israel’s election in the Old Testament, moving to a consideration of how this motif was connected to the idea of predestination and construed to become an instrument to defend apartheid in what may be called a substandard theology. It is suggested that a glance at the English-speaking world shows surprising similarities that justify further consideration. In this title several dimensions are present that need to be explicated.

How to cite this article: Loader, J.A., 2009, ‘Calvin’s election mix in small-scale theology’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 65(1, Art. #337, 6 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.337

James A. Loader

2009-11-01

249

Small Scale Microwave Bursts in Long-duration Solar Flares  

CERN Document Server

Solar small scale microwave bursts (SMBs), including microwave dot, spike, and narrow band type III bursts, are characterized with very short timescales, narrow frequency bandwidth, and very high brightness temperatures. Based on observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou with superhigh cadence and frequency resolution, this work presents an intensive investigation of SMBs in several flares occurred in active region NOAA 10720 during 2005 Jan 14-21. Especially long-duration flares, SMBs occurred not only in early rising and impulsive phase, but also in the flare decay phase, and even in time of after the flare ending. These SMBs are strong bursts with inferred brightness temperature at least 8.18*10^11 - 1.92*10^13 K, very short lifetime of 5-18 ms, relative frequency bandwidths of 0.7-3.5%, and superhigh frequency drifting rates. Together with their obviously different polarizations from the background emission (the quiet Sun, and the underlying flaring broadband continuum), su...

Tan, Baolin

2013-01-01

250

Jet Collimation by Small-Scale Magnetic Fields  

CERN Document Server

A popular model for jet collimation is associated with the presence of a large-scale and predominantly toroidal magnetic field originating from the central engine (a star, a black hole, or an accretion disk). Besides the problem of how such a large-scale magnetic field is generated, in this model the jet suffers from the fatal long-wave mode kink magnetohydrodynamic instability. In this paper we explore an alternative model: jet collimation by small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields are assumed to be local, chaotic, tangled, but are dominated by toroidal components. Just as in the case of a large-scale toroidal magnetic field, we show that the ``hoop stress'' of the tangled toroidal magnetic fields exerts an inward force which confines and collimates the jet. The magnetic ``hoop stress'' is balanced either by the gas pressure of the jet, or by the centrifugal force if the jet is spinning. Since the length-scale of the magnetic field is small (< the cross-sectional radius of the jet << the ...

Li, L X

2002-01-01

251

Small scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge  

CERN Document Server

High-resolution broad-band filtergrams of active region NOAA 11271 in Ca ii H and G-band were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode to identify the physical driver responsible for the dynamic and small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge. We identified the jets in the Ca images using a semi-automatic routine. The chromospheric jets consist of a bright, triangular-shaped blob that lies on the light bridge, while the apex of this blob extends into a spike-like structure which is bright against the dark umbral background. The majority of the jets have apparent lengths of less than 1000 km and about 30% of them have lengths between 1000-1600 km. They are oriented within +/-35 deg. to the normal of the light bridge axis. A majority of them are clustered near the central part within a 2 arcsec wide area. The jets are seen to move rapidly along the light bridge and a majority of them cannot be identified in successive images taken with a 2 min cadence. The jets are primarily loc...

Louis, Rohan E; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

252

Small Scale Turbopump Manufacturing Technology and Material Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of an internal research and development project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a high specific impulse 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine testbed with the capability to throttle 10:1. A Fuel Turbopump (FTP) with the ability to operate across a speed range of 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm was developed and analyzed. This small size and flight-like Fuel Turbopump has completed the design and analysis phase and is currently in the manufacturing phase. This paper highlights the manufacturing and processes efforts to fabricate an approximately 20-lb turbopump with small flow passages, intricately bladed components and approximately 3-in diameter impellers. As a result of the small scale and tight tolerances of the hardware on this turbopump, several unique manufacturing and material challenges were encountered. Some of the technologies highlighted in this paper include the use of powder metallurgy technology to manufacture small impellers, electron beam welding of a turbine blisk shroud, and casting challenges. The use of risk reduction efforts such as non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE), fractography, material testing, and component spin testing are also discussed in this paper.

Alvarez, Erika; Morgan, Kristin; Wells, Doug; Zimmerman, Frank

2011-01-01

253

Velocities measured in small scale solar magnetic elements  

CERN Document Server

We have obtained high resolution spectrograms of small scale magnetic structures with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. We present Doppler measurements at $0\\farcs{2}$ spatial resolution of bright points, ribbons and flowers and their immediate surroundings, in the C {\\small{I}} 5380.3 {\\AA} line (formed in the deep photosphere) and the two Fe {\\small{I}} lines at 5379.6 {\\AA} and 5386.3 {\\AA}. The velocity inside the flowers and ribbons are measured to be almost zero, while we observe downflows at the edges. These downflows are increasing with decreasing height. We also analyze realistic magneto-convective simulations to obtain a better understanding of the interpretation of the observed signal. We calculate how the Doppler signal depends on the velocity field in various structures. Both the smearing effect of the non-negligible width of this velocity response function along the line of sight and of the smearing from the telescope and atmospheric point spread function are discussed. These studies lead us to t...

Langangen, O; van der Voort, L R; Stein, R F; Carlsson, Mats; Voort, Luc Rouppe van der

2006-01-01

254

An analytical model for small-scale rural bioenergy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The strong international growth of agrofuels in the last decade brought the interest in bioenergy back on the agenda. While rural areas are typically highly dependent on bioenergy and have at the same time the largest biomass potentials, most approaches focus on large-scale production and processing of biomass for the energy demand of urban areas. This paper presents an analytical model for rural bioenergy supply pathways, which supports a simplified and manageable small-scale bioenergy planning. To this aim, different supply pathways are quantitatively compared by their conversion and cost efficiency to analyse technological feasibility and economical viability. The focus lies on the three basic rural service categories of lighting, cooking and motive power. Additionally, a set of criteria is developed to qualitatively discuss other effects on rural livelihood. The methodology is applied to a Jatropha project on the Indonesian island Sumbawa. Results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis are combined to evaluate different energy supply pathways. The paper concludes with a discussion of the proposed methodology. (orig.)

Gaul, Mirco [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Energy Engineering and Centre for Technology and Society

2011-07-01

255

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

2012-09-01

256

Estimation of GPS instrumental biases from small scale network  

Science.gov (United States)

With 4 GPS receivers located in the equatorial anomaly region in southeast China, this paper proposes a grid-based algorithm to determine the GPS satellites and receivers biases, and at the same time to derive the total electron content (TEC) with time resolution of 15 min and spatial resolution of 1° by 3.5° in latitude and longitude. By assuming that the TEC is identical at any point within a given grid block and the biases do not vary within a day, the algorithm arranges unknown biases and TECs with slant path TEC from the 4 receivers’ observations into a set of equations. Then the instrumental biases and the TECs are determined by using the least squares fitting technique. The performance of the method is examined by applying it to the GPS receiver chain observations selected from 16 geomagnetically quiet days in four seasons of 2006. It is found that the fitting agrees with the data very well, with goodness of fit ranging from 0.452 TECU to 1.914 TECU. Having a mean of 0.9 ns, the standard deviations for most of the GPS satellite biases are less than 1.0 ns for the 16 days. The GPS receiver biases are more stable than that of the GPS satellites. The standard deviation in the 4 receiver bias is from 0.370 ns to 0.855 ns, with a mean of 0.5 ns. Moreover, the instrumental biases are highly correlated with those derived from CODE and JPL with independent methods. The typical precision of the derived TEC is 5 TECU by a conservative estimation. These results indicate that the proposed algorithm is valid and qualified for small scale GPS network.

Ma, Guanyi; Gao, Wei; Li, Jinghua; Chen, Yanhong; Shen, Hua

2014-09-01

257

Thermalhydraulic analysis of small-scale tube rupture experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Guillotine failure of a rupturing pressure tube is an accident situation currently being investigated in the safety analysis of CANDU reactors. One of the reasons for initiating the investigation was to determine the major factors controlling the onset of guillotine failure. As part of this program, small-scale rupture tests using fuel sheaths have been performed and numerically simulated. The fluid dynamic aspects of rupturing fuel sheaths simulated with a multi-dimensional prototype of the two-fluid thermalhydraulic code CATHENA are described in this paper. The results of the numerical simulations were examined by observing the behaviour of pressure transients of the fluid inside the tube during the rupture. A parametric study was first performed to determine optimum model conditions for two-dimensional simulations. Results from CATHENA simulations using these conditions were then compared with experimental data. Calculations were also extended to a three-dimensional thermalhydraulic analysis. This paper describes the results of the parametric and comparative studies. The effect of varying the simulation conditions on calculated pressure transients is also described. Although agreement between simulated results and experimental data was found to be good, some discrepancies were noted and are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of the three-dimensional study are also presented. This investigation has been successful in demonstrating a method that can be used to emonstrating a method that can be used to enhance the understanding of the behaviour of pressure-tube rupture under accident conditions. Areas in which the numerical analysis could be advanced to further the understanding of rupturing pressure tubes are provided. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

258

Gas explosion characterization, wave propagation (small-scale experiments)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of experiments have been performed with blast waves arising from the ignition of homogeneous and well defined mixtures of methane, oxygen and nitrogen, contained within spherical balloons with controlled initial dimensions. In the initial small scale experiments pressure characteristics, ground reflection phenomena and pressure distribution on box like obstacles were studied. Both configurations with one box and two closely spaced boxes have been considered, and a wave-wave interaction phenomenom was observed in the case of closely spaced obstacles. Main emphasis has been placed on the half scale field experiments. In these, the maximum flame speed has been of the order of 100 m/s, resulting in positive peak pressures of 50-100.102Pa in 5 - 10 m distance from the source. The explosion process was found to be reasonable symmetric. The attenuation of the blast wave due to vegetation and the influence of obstacles as banks, walls and houses on the pressure field have been investigated. The presence of the bank and the house was felt in a zone with a length corresponding to a typical dimension of the obstacles, whereas the overall pressure field is shown to be unaffected by the type of obstacles and vegetation investigated. For the wall and house, reflection factors have been established, and some variation over the surface has been measured. The scatter of the pressure measurements is estimated for stable, neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions, and an attempt to determine the ground reflection factor has been performed. Finally the accelerations of a house exposed to the blast wave have been examined

259

Beyond the field : Impact of Farmer Field Schools on food security and poverty alleviation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we estimate the impact of a farmer field school intervention among small scale farmers in Northers Tanzania. Unlike previous farmer field school evaluations, we go beyond the immediate agricultural impact and estimate the impact of farmer field school participation in the pre-specified development objects, namely poverty alleviation and food security among participating households. We wxploit the implementation design of a gradual project roll-out to establish a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference setup, which can account for potential selection info the project, both at village and household level, despite the lack of baseline data. we find strong positive effects on measures of food security, but we find no effect on the poverty indicators. We investigate possible mechanisms for this and conclude that both reallocation of labor ressources and improved production smoothing among participation households may, in part, lead to this finding.

LilleØr, Helene Bie; Larsen, Anna Folke

2013-01-01

260

FARMERS SUICIDE : CAUSES & REMEDIES  

OpenAIRE

In the today economical structure creating paradox or line “Excellent far, medium business and subordinate service. Since ancient age in India most of changes in political views but in Rural society and economical system of self sufficient and self-dependence intact till Britisher arrival. In British rule drain process Rural aria and destroy the farms, and related Business on the farm are destroy. In this period most of the farmer expoted by the natural adversity and critica...

Pimple, B. S.

2014-01-01

261

Financing Small Scale Business Enterprises in Nigeria: A Review of the Problems and the Way Forward  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reviewed the problems of financing small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and the way forward. It has identified the sources of finance, types of finance available for small business enterprises and problems inhibiting small scale business enterprises in Nigeria in securing funds for their smooth operations. The study concluded that adequate finance is indispensable for the successful operations of small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and recommended among others that government should increase loanable funds granted to small scale businesses, while micro finance banks should also live up to expectation in granting loanable funds to small scale businesses in Nigeria and a host of others for the effective operations of small scale business enterprises.

Oboro, O. G.

2011-12-01

262

La recherche scientifique face à la pêche artisanale = Research and small-scale fisheries  

OpenAIRE

The state authorities having realized the importance of small-scale fisheries in Senegalese economy, instituted several development projects. The most important are the motorization of fishing canoes and the introduction of purse seine gear in the small-scale fishery. These two projects benefit enormously from financial support programs through subsidies, credits and tax incentives. The financial aid to fisheries has contributed to the profitability of the Senegalese small-scale fishery but h...

Deme, M.

1991-01-01

263

Financing Small Scale Business Enterprises in Nigeria: A Review of the Problems and the Way Forward  

OpenAIRE

This study reviewed the problems of financing small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and the way forward. It has identified the sources of finance, types of finance available for small business enterprises and problems inhibiting small scale business enterprises in Nigeria in securing funds for their smooth operations. The study concluded that adequate finance is indispensable for the successful operations of small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and recommended among others that ...

Oboro, O. G.; Ighoroje, E. J.

2011-01-01

264

A Discussion on the Crisis Management of Small Scale Thermal Power Plant Basing on Sustainable Development  

OpenAIRE

The strategy of sustainable development is one of the two important strategies for Chinese economic development. The present small scale thermal power plants cause much pollution, and consume too much energy, so they are being confronted with the crises of existence and management. Accordingly, it is urgent for small scale thermal power plants to carry out study on the crisis management about their own existence and development. Starting with the deficiencies of small scale thermal power plan...

Shijun Yang; Dongxiao Niu; Yongli Wang

2009-01-01

265

A Discussion on the Crisis Management of Small Scale Thermal Power Plant Basing on Sustainable Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strategy of sustainable development is one of the two important strategies for Chinese economic development. The present small scale thermal power plants cause much pollution, and consume too much energy, so they are being confronted with the crises of existence and management. Accordingly, it is urgent for small scale thermal power plants to carry out study on the crisis management about their own existence and development. Starting with the deficiencies of small scale thermal power plants, this paper found out the reasons for the difficulties in small scale thermal power plant management and put forward corresponding countermeasures.

Shijun Yang

2009-02-01

266

Growth rate of small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, we discuss two key issues relating to a small-scale dynamo instability at low magnetic Prandtl numbers and large magnetic Reynolds numbers, namely: (i) the scaling for the growth rate of a small-scale dynamo instability in the vicinity of the dynamo threshold; (ii) the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in small-scale dynamos. There are two different asymptotics for the small-scale dynamo's growth rate: in the vicinity of the threshold of the excitation of the small-scale dynamo instability, ??ln(Rm/Rmcr), and when the magnetic Reynolds number is much larger than the threshold of the excitation of the small-scale dynamo instability, ??Rm1/2, where Rmcr is the small-scale dynamo instability threshold in the magnetic Reynolds number Rm. We demonstrate that the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations requires a finite correlation time of the random velocity field. On the other hand, the influence of the Golitsyn spectrum on the small-scale dynamo instability is minor. This is the reason why it is so difficult to observe this spectrum in direct numerical simulations for the small-scale dynamo with low magnetic Prandtl numbers. (comment)

267

Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification of woody biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small-scale stratified down draft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The CO content of the product gas (23-26 % vol.) is higher than in similar gasifiers and the H{sub 2} content has been found to vary between 14 and 16 % vol. The tar content in the product gas (Ca. 3 g/Nm{sup 3}) is rather high compared with similar gasifiers. The temperature profile, together with other relevant parameters like the air-excess ratio, the air to fuel ratio and gas to fuel ratio have been calculated. The experiments show that the air excess ratio is rather constant, varying between 0,25 and 0,3. Experiments have been conducted with a gas engine using mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as a fuel. NO{sub x} and CO emissions are analysed. The char gasification process has been studied in detail by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis. The study comprises the chemical kinetics of the gasification reactions of wood char in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, including the inhibition effect of CO and H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics has been found which relates the mass loss rate to the temperature, gas composition and degree of conversion for each reaction. The ratio CO/CO{sub 2} has been found to be a relevant parameter for reactivity. The gasification experiments in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O give reasons to believe that the rate of desorption for the complex C(O) varies depending on the gas mixture surrounding the char. It has been found that if the experimental data are obtained from separate H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} experiments, the reactivity of the char in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O can be fairly predicted. (author)

Barrio, Maria

2002-05-01

268

Small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge  

Science.gov (United States)

Context. The chromosphere above sunspot umbrae and penumbrae shows several different types of fast dynamic events such as running penumbral waves, umbral flashes, and penumbral microjets. Aims: The aim of this paper is to identify the physical driver responsible for the dynamic and small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge. Methods: High-resolution broadband filtergrams of active region NOAA 11271 in Ca ii H and G band were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. We identified the jets in the Ca ii H images using a semi-automatic routine and determined their length and orientation. We applied local correlation tracking (LCT) to the G-band images to obtain the photospheric horizontal velocity field. The magnetic field topology was derived from a Milne-Eddington inversion of a simultaneous scan with the Spectropolarimeter. Results: The chromospheric jets consist of a bright, triangular-shaped blob that lies on the light bridge, while the apex of this blob extends into a spike-like structure that is bright against the dark umbral background. Most of the jets have apparent lengths of less than 1000 km and about 30% of the jets have lengths between 1000-1600 km. The jets are oriented within ±35° to the normal of the spine of the light bridge. Most of them are clustered near the central part of the light bridge within a 2'' area. The jets are seen to move rapidly along the light bridge and many of them cannot be identified in successive images taken with a 2 min cadence. The jets are primarily located on one side of the light bridge and are directed into the umbral core. The Stokes profiles at or close to the location of the blobs on the LB exhibit both a significant net circular polarization and multiple components, including opposite-polarity lobes. The magnetic field diverges from the light bridge towards the umbral cores that it separates. The LCT reveals that in the photosphere there is a predominantly uni-directional flow with speeds of 100-150 m s-1 along the light bridge. This unidirectional flow is interrupted by a patch of weak or very small motions on the light bridge which also moves along the light bridge. Conclusions: The dynamic short-lived chromospheric jets above the LB seem to be guided by the magnetic field lines. Reconnection events are a likely trigger for such phenomenon since they occur at locations where the magnetic field changes orientation sharply and where we also observe isolated patches of opposite-polarity magnetic components. We find no clear relation between the jets and the photospheric flow pattern.

Louis, Rohan E.; Beck, Christian; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

2014-07-01

269

Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water  

Science.gov (United States)

The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three units have been installed in Obama Hot Spring area, Nagasaki Prefecture, where about 15,000 tonnes of hot water are produced in a day and more than 35% of the hot water flow directly to the sea. Another demonstration experiments are also conducted in several hot spring areas. In this study we will review several examples to utilise low temperature hot springs in Japan. Binary Power Unit at Obama (Fujino, 2013)

Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

2013-12-01

270

Experiments for comparison of small scale rainfall simulators  

Science.gov (United States)

Small scale portable rainfall simulators are an essential tool in research of recent process dynamics of soil erosion. Such rainfall simulators differ in design, rainfall intensities, rain spectra etc., impeding comparison of the results. Due to different research questions a standardisation of rainfall simulation is not in sight. Nevertheless, the data become progressively important for soil erosion modelling and therefore the basis for decision-makers in application-oriented erosion protection. The project aims at providing a criteria catalogue for estimation of the different simulators as well as the comparability of the results and a uniform calibration procedure for generated rainfall. Within the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" many rainfall simulators used by European research groups were compared. The artificially generated rainfall of the rainfall simulators at the Universities Basel, La Rioja, Malaga, Trier, Tübingen, Valencia, Wageningen, Zaragoza and at different Spanish CSIC-institutes (Almeria, Cordoba, Granada, Murcia, Zaragoza) were measured with the same methods (Laser Precipitation Monitor for drop spectra and rain collectors for spatial distribution). The data are very beneficial for improvements of simulators and comparison of simulators and results. Furthermore, they can be used for comparative studies with natural rainfall spectra. A broad range of rainfall data was measured (e.g. intensity: 30 - 149 mmh-1, Christiansen Coefficient for spatial rainfall distribution 61 - 98 %, mean drop diameter 0.375 - 5.0 mm, mean kinetic energy expenditure 25 - 1322 J m-2 h-1, mean kinetic energy per unit area and unit depth of rainfall 4 - 14 J m-2 mm-1). Similarities among the simulators could be found e.g. concerning drop size distributions (maximum drop numbers are reached within the two smallest drop classes Wageningen were compared on a prepared bare fallow field during the Rainfall Simulator Workshop in Trier (Germany). The results show a clear and consistent relationship in runoff, erosion and infiltration behaviour of the different used rainfall simulators. With all the devices total soil loss was measurable, but different plot sizes, intensities and kinetic energies of the simulated rainfall caused differences in soil loss and runoff quantities per unit of area. Regarding course characteristics over runs, similarities could be observed especially in runoff behaviour.

Iserloh, T.; Ries, J. B.

2012-04-01

271

Danish farmer’s perception of GM-crops  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a study of 185 farmer’s perception of GM-crops in Denmark. The respondent’s attitude to GM-crops mainly reflects a conservative view of the adoption of GM-crops. Among farmers only the exciting crops in rotation is seen as their future potential GM-crops. Findings from this study show that more the 60 pct do not expect any or less than 13 EUR increase in gross margins on their farms from adopting GM-crops. This assessment illustrates that the farmers regard the GM-crops more as a way of ‘staying in business” than a technology to increase their profits.

SØndergaard, Janus; Pedersen, SØren Marcus

2005-01-01

272

Climate Kids: Farmer's Market Manager  

Science.gov (United States)

In this career-oriented interview, readers are introduced to the manager of several farmer's markets in Portland, Oregon. Following a brief description of his job and the general operations of a farmer’s market, he explains why these venues are beneficial to the vendors, the customers and the environment. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

273

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2013-05-29

274

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2012-11-01

275

Changes in farmers' knowledge of maize diversity in highland Guatemala, 1927/37-2004  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Small-scale studies on long-term change in agricultural knowledge might uncover insights with broader, regional implications. This article evaluates change in farmer knowledge about crop genetic resources in highland Guatemala between 1927/37 and 2004. It concentrates on maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) in one Guatemalan township, Jacaltenango, an area with much ecological and maize diversity. It relies on a particular type of baseline information: lists of f...

van Etten Jacob

2006-01-01

276

Farmers, Markets and Contracts: Chain Integration of Smallholder Producers in Costa Rica  

OpenAIRE

Contract farming is frequently considered as an appropriate mechanism for integrating smallholders into dynamic markets. We discuss the rationale for the variety in contractual arrangements between small-scale producers and agro-processing firms in the Northern and Central region of Costa Rica. Different market configurations give rise to delivery conditions, ranging from spot market negotiations to verbal or written contracts. We analyse which types of farmers are typically engaged in eac...

Ruerd Ruben; Fernando Sáenz-Segura

2008-01-01

277

Farmer’s union and the economic sustainability of cocoa farmers in Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

This research on the activities and rule of cocoa farmers unions and organizations in Cameroon and the impact on cocoa farming, I will be looking at cocoa farmers unions in Cameroon and what they do to improve on the quality of cocoa farming while looking at how they have helped to make cocoa farming more economically profitable for farmers. The worry is that cocoa farmers in Cameroon take the activity as professional but are not able to produce on a mega scale and therefore cannot or find i...

Ambrose Kwankam, Njila

2013-01-01

278

Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

High-resolution ocean color observation offers an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data are used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of the order of 10 km are frequently observed during upwelling season of each year over 2004-2009. These small-scale eddies are generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagate eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed is consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies keep rotating high levels of the phytoplankton away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticylconic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current become meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

2014-09-01

279

Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

1980-06-01

280

An Appraisal of Farmer Variety Selection in Drought Prone Areas and Its Implication to Breeding for Drought Tolerance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize production and productivity among small scale farmers of southern Africa is limited mainly by drought and low soil fertility. This study aimed at assessing how farmers prioritize selection of varieties for planting under drought stress and how this could help improve the breeding approaches for varieties for resource constrained farmers in marginal environments. A survey was conducted in two drought prone districts of Zimbabwe. Data collection was done using a structured questionnaire, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The study revealed that farmers have limited options for drought tolerant varieties available on the market. Contrary to breeders, farmers in drought prone areas do not consider disease resistance as an important trait. The farmer preferred traits include, high yield potential, drought tolerance, early maturity, and good performance even under poor soil conditions. Drought tolerance associated traits such as resistance to leaf rolling, tassel blast, general plant recovery to stress and stay green characteristics were identified as the most important traits but most of the varieties currently available on the market do not have these traits. The farmers were willing to make trade-offs among traits like taste or disease resistance for increased yield potential when selecting varieties to grow. Traits preferences or ranking and possible trade-offs were specific to specific areas and groups of farmers. In this study farmers still planted the traditional varieties or landraces because they are drought tolerant, taste better and can be propagated from farm saved seed. These findings show that farmers have limited options on drought tolerant varieties on the market and that scientists need to tap into farmer knowledge, especially on possible trade offs, trait ranking and germplasm for use in developing better adapted varieties which are specific to target farmers. Policies and seed systems analysis on variety availability, distribution and marketing channels also need to be strengthened.

Xavier Mhike

2012-04-01

281

Estimating Growth in Investment of Micro and Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzed the growth in investment of Micro and Small Scale Enterprises Intermediated by the informal credit market in Nigeria. Primary data for this study were collected from 10 (ten Local Government Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria using a multi-stage sampling technique. The result indicates that size of lending, experience in lending business have positive and significant impact on growth in investment of micro and small scale enterprises. Policy aimed at making fund increasingly available to small scale enterprises is recommend to boost growth in small and micro enterprises.

Ojenike

2013-01-01

282

Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas; Smaaskalig uppgradering och foeraedling av biogas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas is a report which aims to compile the state of knowledge in small-scale biogas upgrading. The project have been a collaboration with Agrovaest and Energy Farm and was funded by the Foundation for Agricultural Research, Western Goetaland and the Agriculture Department. The technology available for small scale upgrade has been examined from the technical and economic standpoint. An economic comparison has been made and the production of upgraded biogas has been estimated for different raw gas flows. The work also contains information related to biogas production, upgrading and a comparison of liquid biogas, DME and Ecopar-diesel

Blom, Helena; Mccann, Michael; Westman, Johan (Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

2012-02-15

283

Smallholder farmers' attitudes toward the provision of drinking water for dairy cows in Kagera, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculture's large share of Tanzanian GDP and the large percentage of rural poor engaged in the sector make it a focus for many development projects that see it as an area of attention for reducing rural poverty. This paper uses a case of the Kamachumu community, where a dairy cow loan project was implemented using the heifer-in-trust (HIT) model. This study finds that productivity is limited by how the cows are being managed, particularly with many animals not having ad lib access to drinking water. The paper explores reasons why farmers do or do not provide their cows with unlimited access to drinking water. The study concludes that there are many barriers farmers face, including water accessibility, education and training, infrastructure, simple negligence, and security. These results suggest an increase in extension services and national and local livestock policies that consider the specific realities of small-scale dairy farmers. PMID:25433649

Forbes, Barbara; Kepe, Thembela

2015-02-01

284

ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITIES AND FOOD SECURITY AMONG FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study analysed income inequalities and food security status of farmers in South Eastern Nigeria, using Abia State. Specifically, the study accessed the income inequalities of the farmers; determine the food security status of the farmers; estimate the factors that influence food security among the farmers in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of location and 180 respondents used for the study. The study employed Gini-coefficient, food security index and multiple regressions in the analysis of the data collected. Result shows that Gini coefficient value was 0.67, showing that there was high income inequality in the study area. Majority of the respondents, constituting about 68.57 percent were food insecurity in the study area. The regression results showed that age of the household head, educational attainment of the household head and monthly income of the head were the major determinants of food security status in the study area. The study recommends that government policies targeted at farmers should be strengthened, in order to bridge the gap in farmers’ income. Government should also create opportunities for small scale businesses to flourish in ural areas. This will provide the people the much needed income, amongst other things.

Nnanna M. AGWU

2014-10-01

285

An analysis of the Peruvian jungle cocoa farmers: Acopagro cooperative vs. Intermediaries- A case of study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Peruvian jungle, there are two main cocoa marketing channels: the intermediaries and the cooperative. TheAcopagro Cooperative, a Peruvian organization, for example, has contributed to the shift from illegal crops likecoca to an alternative crop like cocoa which gives small scale farmers a sustainable welfare. A survey of 243farmers in Juanjui, San Martin-which is the main cocoa production area in Peru-was carried out betweenDecember 2009-January 2010. This study analyzes Peruvian cocoa farmers’ socio-economic characteristics asthese attributes affect their decision-making process in the cocoa commercialization for their self-improvementand evaluates if the farmers’ participation in Acopagro or not influences the increment of the cocoa production.Policy makers and farmers’ organizations should consider these results in order to contribute to improve thecompetitiveness of the farmers’ marketing channels not only towards the development of these organizations’but also to that of their communities as a whole.

A. Higuchi

2010-12-01

286

Analysis of Labour Supply & Use in Small Scale Farming In Ikwuano/Umuahia L.G.A. of Abia State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the supply and utilisation of labour resources among farmers in Ikwuano-Umuahia Local Government Area of Abia State. A total of 175 small scale farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with the use of structured questionnaires in five out of the nine autonomous communities that make up the local government area. The data collected were analysed and the results showed that average family labour force of 200 man days was not enough to cultivate the average farm size of 2.158 hectares. Labour shortage exists. Farmers are making up for this shortage by using communal and hired labour. Each farmer uses on the average 48.0 mandays of communal labour and 222.24 mandays of hired labour in order to cultivate the average farm size. Shortage of farm labour was found to be due to increasing rate of migration of rural labour force to the urban centres, non-farm employment, non-availability of saving technologies e.g. fertilizers etc.. A labour demand function was estimated against the following independent variables: Wage rate, farm size ,cost of capital, cost of other inputs, family labour in mandays, communal labour and hired labour in mandays. The result showed that farm size, family labour, communal labour and hired labour were all significant while the other independent variables though not significant, have signs which agree with economic theory. Based on the findings of the analysis, some recommendations were made namely reducing drastically the rate of migration of rural labour force by embarking on rural development projects, provision of labour saving technologies.

Jonah, Ikoku John

2014-04-01

287

Farm, household, and farmer characteristics associated with changes in management practices and technology adoption among dairy smallholders.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored whether technology adoption and changes in management practices were associated with farm structure, household, and farmer characteristics and to identify processes that may foster productivity and sustainability of small-scale dairy farming in the central highlands of Mexico. Factor analysis of survey data from 44 smallholders identified three factors-related to farm size, farmer's engagement, and household structure-that explained 70 % of cumulative variance. The subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis yielded three clusters. Cluster 1 included the most senior farmers with fewest years of education but greatest years of experience. Cluster 2 included farmers who reported access to extension, cooperative services, and more management changes. Cluster 2 obtained 25 and 35 % more milk than farmers in clusters 1 and 3, respectively. Cluster 3 included the youngest farmers, with most years of education and greatest availability of family labor. Access to a network and membership in a community of peers appeared as important contributors to success. Smallholders gravitated towards easy to implement technologies that have immediate benefits. Nonusers of high investment technologies found them unaffordable because of cost, insufficient farm size, and lack of knowledge or reliable electricity. Multivariate analysis may be a useful tool in planning extension activities and organizing channels of communication to effectively target farmers with varying needs, constraints, and motivations for change and in identifying farmers who may exemplify models of change for others who manage farms that are structurally similar but performing at a lower level. PMID:25404038

Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Ugoretz, Sarah Janes; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Wattiaux, Michel André

2014-11-18

288

Large scale and small scale energy transport in relativistic nuclear reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility of large scale and small scale energy transport between nucleons during relativistic collision process is examined and critically discussed in view of recent Monte-Carlo calculations. Deviations from a purely hydrodynamical motion are exhibited

289

A new framework for analyzing the effects of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

CERN Document Server

We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett's formulation of the "shortwave approximation", which we generalize to analyze the effects of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a "background metric", but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small scale inhomogeneities can have on the dynamics of the background metric is to provide an "effective stress-energy tensor" that is traceless and has positive energy density---corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy....

Green, Stephen R

2010-01-01

290

Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

1981-04-01

291

Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

1980-07-01

292

Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

293

Estimating Growth in Investment of Micro and Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study analyzed the growth in investment of Micro and Small Scale Enterprises Intermediated by the informal credit market in Nigeria. Primary data for this study were collected from 10 (ten) Local Government Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria using a multi-stage sampling technique. The result indicates that size of lending, experience in lending business have positive and significant impact on growth in investment of micro and small scale enterprises. Policy aimed at making fund increasingly ava...

Ojenike; Joseph Olusola; Olowoniyi; Adeyemi Olusola

2013-01-01

294

GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50) small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significant...

Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

2013-01-01

295

Women's occupational health working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

In developing economies women’s contributions are in agriculture. Trends indicate that women’s participation in small-scale agriculture is increasing. On the Makhatini Flats in northern KwaZulu-Natal intensive small-scale farming takes place with > 4 000 women involved. A cross-sectional study on the Irrigation Scheme and Drylands areas of the Makhatini Flats described and compared occupational activities, crop production, pesticide use and adverse health outcomes among women working in s...

Naidoo, S.

2011-01-01

296

The Use of Small Scale Aerial Photography in a Regional Agricultural Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of performing inventories of agricultural resources using very small scale aerial or space photography has been investigated. Results to date are encouraging on two counts: (1) the questions posed initially are being answered, and (2) it would seem that a fully operational agricultural inventory using very small scale photography is not beyond the scope of present technology. The biggest problems to be faced in establishing a functional inventory system are those concerning logistics and data handling.

Draeger, W. C.

1971-01-01

297

Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text...

Margaret Njeri Gathura

2013-01-01

298

What scatter-hoarding animals have taught us about small-scale navigation  

OpenAIRE

Many animals use cues for small-scale navigation, including beacons, landmarks, compasses and geometric properties. Scatter-hoarding animals are a unique system to study small-scale navigation. They have to remember and relocate many individual spatial locations, be fairly accurate in their searching and have to remember these locations for long stretches of time. In this article, we review what is known about cue use in both scatter-hoarding birds and rodents. We discuss the importance of lo...

Gould, Kristy L.; Kelly, Debbie M.; Kamil, Alan C.

2010-01-01

299

La recherche scientifique face à la pêche artisanale = Research and small-scale fisheries  

OpenAIRE

The decline of the semi-industrial purse seine fishery, in contrast to the growth of the small-scale fishery, has led the state authorities and professionals to call upon research to provide the objective reasons for the decline. After an assessment of the fishery, of the legal framework, and the economic aspects, the different levels of competition between the small-scale and semi-industrial fisheries were identified and the potential for cooperation between the two activities were analysed....

Deme, M.; Levenez, Jean-jacques

1991-01-01

300

Performance limitations and improvements of small-scale free-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

OpenAIRE

Fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of fuel directly into electricity and heat without combustion with flame. The range of potential applications is from small-scale portable electronics to transportation and large-scale power production. An interesting approach for small-scale applications are free-breathing fuel cells, i.e. cells that take the oxygen needed in the reactions passively from ambient air. This thesis concentrates on performance limitations c...

Hottinen, Tero

2004-01-01

301

Watermill and Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Plant Landscapes Assessed According to Ecological Aspects  

OpenAIRE

Research of watermill and small-scale hydroelectric power plant (HPP) landscapes in Latvia according to ecological aspects is a part of a more complex research. The aim of this research is to examine the existing situation of watermill and small-scale HPP landscapes in Latvia by applying the ecological assessment criteria, and then try to formulate a definition of common tendencies of the landscape character. This paper provides a landscape inventory matrix for research in the field stu­d...

Lilita Lazd?ne

2013-01-01

302

Poverty measurement :an application for small-scale fisheries in Bich Dam island, Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

Small-scale fisheries are one of the key sectors in Vietnam economy. This has been explained by its noticeable contribution to GDP, sizable share in the total export value in addition to the significant role in employment generation and food security. Contrary to the promising signs of sectorial performance, most of fishermen are considered the poorest of the poor and poverty is dominantly characteristic in small-scale fisheries. Poverty alleviation has emerged as an urgent requirement to sus...

Dien, Vo

2009-01-01

303

Small scale fisheries in Europe: A comparative analysis based on a selection of case studies  

OpenAIRE

Small-scale fisheries have traditionally received less research effort than large-scale fisheries and are generally under-studied in Europe. In spite of their comparatively low volume of catches and economic importance, small-scale fisheries are socially important and an integral part of the European coastal zone. Considering the high heterogeneity of situations and the paucity of quantitative data, we used an analytical methodology based on the comparative method. We carried out an analysis ...

Guyader, Olivier; Berthou, Patrick; Koutsikopoulos, Constantin; Alban, Frederique; Demaneche, Sebastien; Gaspar, M. B.; Eschbaum, R.; Fahy, E.; Tully, O.; Reynal, Lionel; Curtil, Olivier; Frangoudes, Katia; Maynou, F.

2013-01-01

304

Irrigation water value at small-scale schemes : evidence from the North West Province, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Insight into the value of water is essential to support policy decision making about investments in the water sector, efficient allocation of water and water pricing. However, information on irrigation water values at small-scale schemes is scarce and in general little attention is paid to the determinants of these values. In this study values are calculated for small-scale irrigation schemes in the North West Province of South Africa, using the residual imputation method. An average water va...

Speelman, S.; Farolfi, S.; Perret, S.; D Haese, L.; D Haese, M.

2008-01-01

305

Forest certification as an instrument for improved forest management within small-scale forestry  

OpenAIRE

Since early 1990 ties, Swedish forest land is increasingly becoming certified. Today all major forest owners have joined the Swedish FSC-standard (Forest Stewardship Council), while small-scale forest owners preferably are joining the PEFC scheme (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification). With the overall aim of gaining a better insight into which small-scale forest owners that have decided to take up on forest certification, and how their forest management practices have been a...

Lidestav, Gun; Berg Lejon, Solveig

2011-01-01

306

Design and testing of small-scale thin-film palm oil refinery  

OpenAIRE

The design and testing improvement of a small-scale palmoil refinery was carried out as a continuity of the development of palmoil refinery under the Royal Project for promotion of Small-scale Palmoil Industry. The intended objective is to develop a continuous palmoil refining process which has a higher effeciency than the existing batch refining process. The thin-film refining thechnique was selected among various semi-continuous and continuous refining processes. A pilot palmoil refinery at...

Kooptanond, C.; Wanichwiriya, S.; Limworaphan, C.; Klinpikul, S.

2000-01-01

307

Irrigation Water Value at Small-scale Schemes: Evidence from the North West Province, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Insight into the value of water is essential to support policy decision making about investments in the water sector, efficient allocation of water and water pricing. However, information on irrigation water values at small-scale schemes is scarce and in general little attention is paid to the determinants of these values. In this study values are calculated for small-scale irrigation schemes in the North West Province of South Africa, using the residual imputation method. An average water va...

Speelman, S.; Farolfi, S.; Perret, S.; D Haese, L.; D Haese, M.

2008-01-01

308

Performance of small-scale photovoltaic systems and their potential for rural electrification in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic systems is tested under the climatic conditions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. With climatic data obtained at a station in the Rift Valley, the photovoltaic systems performance is estimated for those climatic conditions. The economics of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic system applications under Ethiopian conditions are analysed. The potential of photovoltaics for the rural electrification of Ethiopia is discussed. (Author)

Stutenbaeumer, Ulrich; Negash, Tesfaye; Abdi, Amensisa [Addis Ababa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

1999-09-01

309

Extreme Sensitivity of the YORP Effect to Small-Scale Topography  

OpenAIRE

Radiation recoil (YORP) torques are shown to be extremely sensitive to small-scale surface topography. Starting from simulated objects representative of the near-Earth object population, random realizations of three types of small-scale topography are added: Gaussian surface fluctuations, craters, and boulders. For each, the resulting expected relative errors in the spin and obliquity components of the YORP torque are computed. Gaussian power produces errors of order 100% if...

Statler, Thomas S.

2009-01-01

310

An Investigation of Innovation in Small Scale Industries Located in Science Parks of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent decades with increasing of global economic competition, small scale industries have known as aneconomic growth engine and a tool for employment so they have important role in growth and development ofcountries. The importance small scale industries of is its need more investment for their survival and competitioncapability than big firms to new products and processes. Therefore, small scale industries are a potential resourcefor achieving new ideas and innovation. Previous studies on science and technology parks' performance in themost of countries demonstrate the effective and positive roles of these institutions in entrepreneurship,technology and economical development, increasing technological innovation and employment. This paperinvestigates the innovation in small scale industries which is settled in science parks of Iran. The primary datacollected from questionnaire and has been analyzed through using SPSS version 16 software. The results of thisstudy indicate that there are some factors that accelerate innovation within firms. Beside small scale industrieshas a positive and significant effect on innovation and the range of innovation in small scale industries is morethan other firms.

Alireza Fazlzadeh

2010-09-01

311

Auto Farmer Using Renewable Energy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AUTO FARMER is one of the mean machine project. In the world of increasing population the demand for increase in growth of the food increases, this demands greater productivity with greater quality. The aim of AUTO FARMER USING RENEWABLE ENERGY is to provide automation and create a imprint in the field of agriculture. Today the farming underwent many difficulties like depending on rain, the restless manual work and the efforts .

TANAY CHOWDHURY

2013-02-01

312

An Investigation of Challenges Facing Home Gardening Farmers in South Africa: A Case Study of Three Villages in Nkokonbe Municipality Eastern Cape Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper therefore addresses the challenges facing the home garden farmers in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Sixty households farmer were selected through systematic sampling from Nkokonbe municipality which were purposively selected. The small scale farmers were interviewed with the help of an interview schedule containing open and closed ended questions. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. The results revealed that small scale farmers in Eastern Cape Province lack awareness of improved agricultural practices and technical knowhow because the extension staffs to farmer ratio is high. Results further reveals that they also lacked finance, experienced high interest rates on credit facilities and uncertainty of the right seed to use due to flooding of the market by many seed companies. In view of the research findings, several policy proposals are suggested. These include ensuring the availability of market information to all farmers, capacitating smallholder farmers with production and financial management skills and extension support service.

Ogundiran Oluwasola Adekunle

2013-12-01

313

Ways of removal of legislative and regulatory contradictions in sphere of small-scale business state administration  

OpenAIRE

Author investigated the problems of small-scale business state administration. The legislative and regulatory basis which regulates the small-scale business management was considered in the article. Legislative and regulatory contradictions were revealed in sphere of small-scale business state administration. The ways of removal of the conflictness were offered.

Mytnyk, Ulyana Mykolayivna

2011-01-01

314

Ways of removal of legislative and regulatory contradictions in sphere of small-scale business state administration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Author investigated the problems of small-scale business state administration. The legislative and regulatory basis which regulates the small-scale business management was considered in the article. Legislative and regulatory contradictions were revealed in sphere of small-scale business state administration. The ways of removal of the conflictness were offered.

Mytnyk, Ulyana Mykolayivna

2011-11-01

315

The combined effect of plate motions and small-scale convection on mantle stirring efficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

The Earth's mantle convection generates large scale, vigorous motions often thought to be the primary mechanism of mantle mixing. However, additional thermal instabilities may progressively develop below the lithospheric plates, leading to smaller scale convective motions. While there is a growing body of evidence supporting the presence of small-scale convective motions in the Earth's mantle, little is known about its contribution to the stirring of mantle heterogeneities. We therefore investigated the influence of small-scale convection on mantle stirring efficiency using numerical models of infinite Prandtl number convection with imposed surface ridge motion. We measured stirring efficiency using Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents, and we systematically varied the aspect ratio of the convective domain, and the plate Péclet number, Pe, which expresses the ridge half-spreading rate. For moderate Pe numbers, small-scale convection is well developed. However, at larger Pe numbers the development of small-scale convection is gradually inhibited. Mantle motion is closely related to its stirring efficiency. The coupled contribution of small scale convection and plate-driven flow to the efficiency of stirring leads to a non-monotone relationship between ridge spreading rates and mantle stirring efficiency, a more complex relationship than previously considered. Stirring efficiency first decreases with increasing ridge spreading rate until small-scale convection ceases completely. Beyond this point, a further increase in ridge spreading rate progressively enhances stirring efficiency via pure plate-driven flow. Our results indicate that: (i) both small scale convection and large scale flow contribute significantly to mantle stirring efficiency, (ii) mantle stirring efficiency may spatially vary significantly due to the local magnitude of plate velocity and plate age, (iii) the relationship between mantle stirring efficiency and large scale convective motions may be more complex than previously thought. These experiments provide an alternative to the interpretation of MORB isotopic variability, and may reconcile the apparent discrepancy of slow spreading ridges associated with small isotopic variability, as observed, for example, along the South West Indian Ridge.

samuel, H.; King, S. D.

2013-12-01

316

Spelt - a pilot crop to strengthen co-operation between farmers, food processors, distributors and consumers  

OpenAIRE

In the beginning of the 1990's, spelt cultivation in Finland was rather unknown. First cultivation experiments at the organic research farm of MTT/Agricultural Engineering Research (Vakola) were done in co-operation with some farmers since 1993. Many farmers showed interest in cultivating spelt because of curiosity about crops suitable for organic farming, competition leadership by marketing new niche products, and consumers demand for healthy and high quality food produced pro-environmentall...

Scha?fer, Winfried

2001-01-01

317

Proceedings of a workshop on agroforestry tree seeds for farmers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Forest & Landscape Denmark, ICRAF and National Tree Seed Centres in three African countries implement an innovative twinning project. The project seeks to identify the major constraints and opportunities for improving seed/seedling production and distribution to small-scale tree-planting farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. The project analyses existing production and distribution systems in three countries (Malawi, Uganda and Burkina Faso) and will test innovations on seed systems in pilot projects. A situation analysis of the Malawi tree seed sub sector carried out by this project has been prepared. This report presents the findings from the workshop. It provides information on workshop presentations and discussions as well as findings by working groups.

LillesØ, Jens-Peter Barnekow

2007-01-01

318

THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF OSMANABAD DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small Scale Industry is one of the major components of our economic development which provides more employment opportunities particularly to the rural people, export potentials and acts as ancillary units for the large scale industry. Small Scale Industry is the blood stream of the Indian economy. They feed the large industries and they cannot survive without small units, which are the major source of innovation in Indian Industry. But these units are facing certain problems such as finance, marketing, non-availability of raw material, low productivity etc. In this study we have analyzed the growth and trend in production, working capital and employment in small scale industries during the year 1998-99 to 2007-08. Thus this paper highlighted the performance of the Small Scale Industries in the Osmanabad district. It is concluded that the performance of the Small Scale Industries in the Osmanabad district is a good. If they got the effective services and facilities from the Government and Institutions, they can perform very well in future. They may increase in production, employment and income.

AJIT ASHTE

2013-01-01

319

GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50 small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significantly different from male. For female small scale enterprise owners, marital status (64% Age of Children (68%, Role Model/ advisors (58% were significant factors that affect their business performance. For male small-scale enterprise owners, Friends (70%, a lack of Government support (80%, inability to display innovativeness (78% and Risk-Taking (84% were significant for male. Lack of availability of capital and finances were significant for the two. Other factors that affect performance include friends, inadequate training and business location. Adequate knowledge of factors that affect gender enterprise performance will go a long way in alleviating these problems. Small-scale enterprises should be supported for poverty alleviation, especially among women and for the nation’s economic development

Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

2013-05-01

320

Combine Effects of Plate Motions and Small-Scale Convection on Mantle Stirring Efficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Convection in Earth's mantle generates large scale, vigorous motions often thought to be the primary mechanism of mantle stirring. However additional thermal instabilities may progressively develop below lithospheric plates, leading to smaller scale convective motions. While there is growing evidence supporting the presence of small-scale convection in Earth's mantle, little is known of its contribution to the mixing of mantle heterogeneities. We have thus investigated the influence of small-scale convection on mantle stirring efficiency using 2D numerical modeling of infinite Prandtl number convection with imposed surface plate motion and temperature and pressure dependent rheology. We measure stirring efficiency using Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) and we vary systematically the Peclet number, Pe, defined as the ratio of the advection time scale based on surface plate velocity to a characteristic diffusion time. Our computational domain has an aspect ratio of 1:3. For moderate Pe, small-scale convection is well developed, leading to efficient stirring. However large Pe numbers do not allow the development of small-scale convection and result in significantly lower stirring efficiency, although plate motions are faster. This indicates that (i) small-scale convection contributes significantly to mantle stirring efficiency, (ii) mantle stirring efficiency many spatially vary significantly due to the local magnitude of plate velocity and (iii) the relationship between mantle stirring efficiency and large-scale convective motions may be more complex than previously thought.

King, S.; Samuel, H.

2012-04-01

321

Small scale effects on the mechanical behaviors of protein microtubules based on the nonlocal elasticity theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the nonlocal elastic theory, small scale effects are considered in the investigation of the mechanical properties of protein microtubules. A new prediction formula for the persistence lengths of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect is presented. Subsequently, the buckling of microtubules is studied based on a nonlocal elastic beam model. The predicted results of our model indicate that the length-dependence of persistence length is related not only to the shear terms, but also to the small scale effect. The Eular beam model, which is always considered unable to explain the length-dependence of microtubules, can capture the length-dependence of the persistence length of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect. The elastic buckling behaviors of microtubules in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm are also considered using the nonlocal Timoshenko beam model in this paper, and the results indicate that the small scale effect of microtubules also plays an important role in the buckling of microtubules.

322

IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the impact of socio-economic characteristics on the performance of small-scale enterprises in the study area. It also identified the salient impacts of socio-economic traits on the development and expansion of small-scale enterprises in the country; established the productive prospects of progressive small-scale enterprises in the study area. The study was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria where copies of structured questionnaire were purposively administered on selected respondents. Evidence from the study shows that socio-economic characteristics of small scale entrepreneurs tend to influence the performance and productivity of Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria.Further analysis shows that gender, age and educational qualification had significant influence on the performance of the selected small-scale enterprises in the study area . The paper suggests integrated approach to the development of individual entrepreneurial capacity and promotion of sustainable small-scale enterprises.

Abdul-azeez ibraheem adegoke

2010-03-01

323

Cocoa Farmer Field School Graduate Farmers Perceived Benefits of FFS Training in Ondo State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study assessed the perceived benefits of Farmer Field School graduate farmers as a result of their participation in FFS training. The specific objectives were to: describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, identify major cocoa farmers’ perceived benefit items; determine the level of benefit; compare cocoa FFS farmers performance in terms of benefits/costs with non-FFS cocoa farmers. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in composing 77 FFS graduate farmers and 7...

Ebewore, S. O.

2013-01-01

324

Small-Scale Magnetics Structures in the Sun's Corona Observed by HI-C  

Science.gov (United States)

Some small-scale magnetic structures are indirectly observed via flows in the Sun's Corona. The scales involved require high resolution imaging techniques in order to observe the fine flow structure. Using the observations from NASA's High-resolution Coronal Imager (HI-C) sounding rocket experiment (the highest resolution extreme-ultraviolet imager to date), we are now able to analyze these flows to asses their association with the small-scale coronal magnetic field in an active region. HI-C was launched by NASA on 2012 July 11 to observe fine coronal features at a pixel size of nearly 0.1 arcsec/pixel and has proven to be one of NASA's most successful sounding rocket programs thus far. We used observations from HI-C's central 100x100 arcsec field of view to track small-scale plasma flows.

Douglas, J.; Winebarger, A. R.

2013-12-01

325

Economic Underdevelopment and Total Factor Growth in Small Scale Industries: Some Evidences from India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globalization of Indian economy and fast and large industrialization questioned the sustainability and endurance of small scale industries (SSIs from 1991. In this regard productivity and performance is remaining an issue that needs analysis for their development. However economic underdevelopment is remain a problem for the development of small scale industries. In this paper an attempt has been made to examine the productive performance of in small scale industries in India in underdeveloped areas with special reference to Assam. The findings of the study suggest the Total Factor Productivity (TFP of SSIs in underdeveloped areas seemed to be growing steadily over the time. The overall linear trend line of TFPG of SSIs of India indicates a declining trend over the periods from 1973- 74 to 2001-2002.

Hemanta Saikia

2011-09-01

326

Reducing cosmological small scale structure via a large dark matter-neutrino interaction: constraints and consequences  

CERN Document Server

Cold dark matter explains a wide range of data on cosmological scales. However, there has been a steady accumulation of evidence for discrepancies between simulations and observations at scales smaller than galaxy clusters. Solutions to these small scale structure problems may indicate that simulations need to improve how they include feedback from baryonic matter, or may imply that dark matter properties differ from the standard cold, noninteracting scenario. One promising way to affect structure formation on small scales is a relatively strong coupling of dark matter to neutrinos. We construct an experimentally viable, simple, renormalizable, model with new interactions between neutrinos and dark matter. We show that addressing the small scale structure problems requires dark matter with a mass that is tens of MeV, and a present-day density determined by an initial particle-antiparticle asymmetry in the dark sector. Generating a sufficiently large dark matter-neutrino coupling requires a new heavy neutrino ...

Bertoni, Bridget; McKeen, David; Nelson, Ann E

2014-01-01

327

African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath the western margin of African cratons and the eastern margin of South American cratons. Small-scale, edge-driven convection is an alternative to plumes for explaining intraplate African and South American hot spot volcanism, and small-scale convection is consistent with mantle downwellings beneath the African and South American lithosphere. PMID:11073447

King, S D; Ritsema, J

2000-11-10

328

Lensing dispersion of SNIa and small scales of the primordial power spectrum  

CERN Document Server

Probing the primordial power spectrum at small scales is crucial for discerning inflationary models, especially if BICEP2 results are confirmed. We demonstrate this necessity by briefly reviewing single small field models that give a detectable gravitational waves signal, thus being degenerate with large field models on CMB scales. A distinct prediction of these small field models is an enhancement of the power spectrum at small scales, lifting up the degeneracy. We propose a way to detect this enhancement, and more generally, different features in the power spectrum at small scales $1\\lesssim k \\lesssim 10^2-10^3 \\,\\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$ by considering the existing data of lensing dispersion in Type Ia supernovae. We show that for various deviations from the simplest $n_s\\simeq 0.96$ the lensing dispersion cuts considerably into the allowed parameter space by PLANCK and constrains the spectrum to smaller scales beyond the reach of other current data sets.

Ben-Dayan, Ido

2014-01-01

329

Responding to the challenge of artisanal and small-scale mining. How can knowledge networks help?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews what is known about the problems and structural challenges facing the 20-30 million artisanal and small-scale miners and their communities worldwide. Better understanding of these structural challenges is needed to improve policies and policy implementation to further sustainable development opportunities for the sector. The paper explores the current gaps in knowledge to achieve policy change from researchers, practitioners and artisanal and small-scale miners themselves. It explores how a 'knowledge intermediary', which acts to link knowledge with policy, could address these gaps and includes case studies of IIED’s work on knowledge networks and programmes. The paper concludes by proposing a way forward for designing a knowledge programme to meet the particular needs of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector, and by inviting ASM sector stakeholders to share their views on the options outlined.

Buxton, Abbi

2013-02-15

330

Effect of Transaction Costs on Marketing of Small Scale Maize Farming in Limpopo Province  

OpenAIRE

The deregulated and highly competitive nature of current South African markets has created new barriers for capital-poor emerging farmers. Many of these barriers are related to the cost of transacting. A linear regression model and a Multinomial logit regression model were used to predict the hypotheses that transaction costs affect the quantity sold and that factors that affect transaction cost affects market integration respectively on farmers who produce maize. From the an...

Meliko, Majory O.

2014-01-01

331

Development of small-scale directly gas-fired integrated HVAC system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A small-scale directly gas-fired integrated HVAC system is being investigated. The main principle is to use the waste heat of a CHP plant, possibly in conjunction with solar energy, for dehumidification of ambient air. Driving a small-scale absorption chiller is not feasible because of the high waste heat temperature required and the high cost of an absorption chiller. The required cooling capacity of the mechanically / electrically driven compression-type chiller is reduced drastically since no further dehumidification by condensation is necessary. In contrast to Desiccant Cooling Systems no water is required. (author)

332

Informal Credit Markets and the Development of Micro and Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzed the development in investment of Micro and Small Scale Enterprises Intermediated by theinformal credit market in Nigeria. Primary data for this study were collected from 10 (ten Local GovernmentAreas of Oyo State, Nigeria using a multi-stage sampling technique. The result indicates that size of lending,experience in lending business have positive and significant impact on growth in investment of micro and smallscale enterprises. Policy aimed at making fund increasingly available to small scale enterprises is recommend toboost growth in small and micro enterprises.

Ojenike Joseph Ojenike

2012-11-01

333

Air emissions of small-scale (< 10 MW) biomass boilers. Review of three field tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives of greenhouse gases emission reduction, which encourages bio-energy development for heat purposes, are compatible with air-quality policies if the concept of clean biomass combustion is applied. This paper presents actual emission levels of atmospheric pollutants of small-scale (2, NOx, fine particulate matters, metallic compounds. Installation design (power, flue-gas cleaning techno logy) also has a major impact on organic pollutants and fine particulate matter emissions. A large majority of boilers have very low emission levels. Guidelines are finally stated to keep on promoting small-scale biomass boilers in order to be air-quality compatible and efficient to fight climate change. (author)

334

INVITED PAPER: Small-scale recombination He — Sr+(Ca+ ) lasers  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of specific features and output characteristics of small-scale (lcataphoresis is considered in detail. Using this method allowed the output characteristics of a He—Sr+ laser to be considerably improved and a record specific power Psp=277 mW cm-3 to be achieved for a tube with l=26 cm and d=0.3 cm with f=30 kHz and P=510 mW. A record gain, 0.15 cm-1, was also achieved under these conditions. Some possible areas of applications of small-scale He—Sr+(Ca+) lasers in semiconductor microtechnology, holography, ecology, and medicine are outlined.

Latush, Evgeny L.; Chebotarev, Gennady D.; Sem, M. F.

2000-06-01

335

Efficient Term Extraction and Indexing Approach in Small-Scale Web Search of Uyghur Language  

OpenAIRE

In order to avoid the frequently read-write of hard disk and to speed up the search, the index should be saving in the memory in the small-scale web search. But, to express the original information by fewer memory spaces, also needs for index compression, and this would increases the computation expenses or brings certain harm to the original information in a way. In this research of Uyghur small-scale web search, in order to speed up the retrieval and query speed, inverted index has establis...

Turdi Tohti; Winira Musajan; Askar Hamdulla

2013-01-01

336

Small-scale biomass CHP using gasa turbines: a scoping study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various options for small-scale (up to 250 KWe) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants evaluated in this scoping study. Plants using small gas turbines, and able to use biomass fuels when available are included. Three detailed case studies of small-scale biomass CHP plants are compared to match specific technical options with customer requirements. The commercial development of such biomass-fired CHP units, using gas turbines, is shown to be economically viable depending on fuel costs and the continuation of existing financial incentives. (UK)

337

Linking birds, fields and farmers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dramatic decline in the presence of farmland birds during recent decades has provoked much attention in agri-environmental policy and ecological research. However, the still limited understanding of the socio-economical mechanisms that govern the decline in bird presence hampers the formulation of effective adjustments in land-use and farming practices that could support the return of birds to farmland, i.e. the required fine-tuning of management practices. As a consequence, the existing agri-environmental schemes that offer financial compensation to farmers for implementing generally simple and rather crude measures to stimulate the presence of birds have been limited in their effectiveness and subject to much debate. The objective of this paper is to provide a sociological appraisal of farmers' experiences with meadow bird protection in a mainly dairy farming area in the Netherlands. The methodology combined visual map analysis, surveys, interviews with farmers and experts, and monitoring farmers' discussions. The results allowed an assessment of (i) farmers' views on historical changes in bird numbers in the area and the current distribution of bird nests, (ii) locally adjusted, fine-tuned management practices that were considered to be promising for protecting bird nests, (iii) the importance of farm management with 'an eye for birds', i.e. farmers and/or birdwatchers paying additional attention to the presence of nests and chicks before carrying out farming activities, and (iv) the views of key experts in the socio-institutional network in the case study area. The paper concludes that there are various promising options for fine-tuning farm management so it offers better bird protection, but it is expected that such measures will predominantly be adopted on less intensively managed farms. PMID:19111966

Swagemakers, Paul; Wiskerke, Han; Van Der Ploeg, Jan Douwe

2009-05-01

338

Adoption of Coccidiosis Vaccines by Poultry Farmers in Ijebu Area of Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper focused on adoption of coccidiosis vaccines by poultry farmers in Ijebu-Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Specifically, the poultry farmers selected personal characteristics such as age, sex, religion, marital status, educational attainment, farm income and sources of credit were identified Their level of awareness and adoption of the coccidiosis vaccines were also determined. The relationship between adoption and the selected personal characteristics was established. The relationship between adoption and constraints to adoption was also established. Eighty eight (88 poultry farmers were selected through a stratified sampling method from six (06 local government councils using a pre-tested Questionnaire. Examination of the poultry farmer's personal characteristics revealed that 80.7 percent were male and is between age-range of thirty-one and fifty years. Sixty seven (67 percent were Christians while 98.9 percent had formal education. Almost forty one percent (40.9% reared between 500 and 1000 birds while 29.5 percent reared above 1000 birds with farm income ranging from 25,000 to above N50, 000 per month. 88.6% are aware of coccidiosis vaccines, 83 percent had adopted and immuncox® is the most commonly used (66.2%. The study revealed that age and sex were significantly related to adoption amongst other personal characteristics tested. The study also revealed that there is no significant relationship between adoption and constraints to adoption. Coccidiosis vaccines were found to have gained widespread acceptance among poultry farmers in Ijebu area of Ogun State, Nigeria. It was recommended that Unified Extension Agents in the area should facilitate the transfer of the technology and dissemination of information on coccidiosis vaccines to both small and medium poultry farmers in the study areas. There should also be effective extension services to small-scale commercial poultry farmers will enhance their productivity and eventually elevate them to large-scale level of production.

M.A. Oladoja

2007-01-01

339

Evaluation of real-time operating system for small-scale embedded systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the performance of some real-time operating systems for small-scale embedded systems are evaluated based on some criteria. The evaluation is performed qualitatively and quantitatively. The evaluation results based on a case study on an engineering application will be presented. (author)

340

Large grazers modify effects of aboveground–belowground interactions on small-scale plant community composition  

OpenAIRE

Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales interact with small-scale aboveground– belowground interactions on plant community heterogeneity. Here, we investigate how cattle (Bos taurus) modify the effects of interactions ...

Veen, G. F.; Geuverink, E.; Olff, H.

2011-01-01

341

A Small-Scale Pilot Study into Language Difficulties in Children Who Offend  

Science.gov (United States)

This small-scale pilot research project investigates the prevalence of Speech Language and Communication Difficulties in a sample of children attending a Youth Offending Service in the UK. Using the CELF-4, approximately 90% of the sample displayed some form of language difficulty and, overall, this population displayed mild to moderate…

Games, Fran; Curran, Anita; Porter, Sarah

2012-01-01

342

The impact of small-scale turbulence on laminar magnetic reconnection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initial states in incompressible two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics that are known to lead to strong current sheets and (laminar) magnetic reconnection are modified by the addition of small-scale turbulent perturbations of various energies. The evolution of these states is computed with the aim of ascertaining the influence of the turbulence on the underlying laminar solution. Two main questions are addressed here: (1) What effect does small-scale turbulence have on the energy dissipation rate of the underlying solution? (2) What is the threshold turbulent perturbation level above which the original laminar reconnective dynamics is no longer recognizable. The simulations show that while the laminar dynamics persist the dissipation rates are largely unaffected by the turbulence, other than modest increases attributable to the additional small length scales present in the new initial condition. The solutions themselves are also remarkably insensitive to small-scale turbulent perturbations unless the perturbations are large enough to undermine the integrity of the underlying cellular flow pattern. Indeed, even initial states that lead to the evolution of small-scale microscopic sheets can survive the addition of modest turbulence. The role of a large-scale organizing background magnetic field is also addressed

343

The Rural Landscapes and Small-Scale Agricultural Practices in the Transylvanian Plain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is focused on the relationships between small-scale agricultural practices and cultural landscape of Transylvanian Plain. The geographical position of Transylvanian Plain in central part of Romania shows with relevance its favourability for sustainable agriculture and developing assumptions. Despite of this, the region was kept outside of the major infrastructural and economic trends. We could, also, include the Transylvanian Plain into a typical rural “central isolation space” relating on this historical-political tendencies, concluding on different types of rural and agricultural landscapes. In this context, small-scale agriculture practices are alternatives to factory farming or more broadly, intensive agriculture or unsustainable farming methods. Sustainable agriculture is not only a package of prescribed methods but is a pre-requisite for territorial development of rural areas. Small scale agriculture include a number of sustainable farm practices such as: organic farming, which removes all chemical pesticides, herbicides and fertilizer from agriculture; permaculture, which provides a holistic methodology for farm design; arable land use that is used for growing crops; non-arable land use; pastoral land use etc. Generally speaking, the small-scale agricultural practices are oriented to: produce enough food; produce safe food; take care of the environment; build thriving and strong rural communities.

Nicolae BACIU

2010-06-01

344

SMALL-SCALE BUSINESS AS THE FACTOR OF A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TERRITORIES ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article, the role of small business in social and economic development of territorially-economic systems is considered. Conditions and possibilities of development of small-scale business at the municipal level are defined, allowing considerably raising investment appeal and financial independence of rural territorial formations

Agalarova E. G.

2012-03-01

345

SMALL-SCALE BUSINESS AS THE FACTOR OF A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TERRITORIES ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????  

OpenAIRE

In the article, the role of small business in social and economic development of territorially-economic systems is considered. Conditions and possibilities of development of small-scale business at the municipal level are defined, allowing considerably raising investment appeal and financial independence of rural territorial formations

Agalarova E. G.

2012-01-01

346

Trading by groups. The benefits for small-scale energy consumers of the energy trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The power trade is currently still reserved for traders, producers and customers. It will be a few years yet before all customers are free to choose their own supplier. To be able to allow these small-scale users to benefit from the power market as well, they have to be grouped according to certain consumer profiles

347

Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun  

Science.gov (United States)

There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

Klimchuk, James

2010-01-01

348

Fuel From Farms: A Guide to Small-Scale Ethanol Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol and blends of ethanol and gasoline (such as gasohol) offer a near-term fuel alternative to oil. The focus of this handbook is upon the small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as the source of raw materials. Provided are chapters on ethanol production procedures, feedstocks, plant design, and financial planning. Also presented…

Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO.

349

"It's Really Making a Difference": How Small-Scale Research Projects Can Enhance Teaching and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Following an internal evaluation exercise, using Action Research, this paper identifies the positive impact of small-scale research projects on teaching and learning at a single case study UK University. Clear evidence is given of how the projects benefited students and staff, and enhanced institutional culture. Barriers to better practice are…

Dexter, Barbara; Seden, Roy

2012-01-01

350

A comparison of relative toxicity rankings by some small-scale laboratory tests  

Science.gov (United States)

Small-scale laboratory tests for fire toxicity, suitable for use in the average laboratory hood, are needed for screening and ranking materials on the basis of relative toxicity. The performance of wool, cotton, and aromatic polyamide under several test procedures is presented.

Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

1977-01-01

351

A Small-Scale Concept-Based Laboratory Component: The Best of Both Worlds  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we describe an exploratory study of a small-scale, concept-driven, voluntary laboratory component of Introductory Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. We wished to investigate whether students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of basic biological principles would improve through concept-based…

Halme, Dina Gould; Khodor, Julia; Mitchell, Rudolph; Walker, Graham C.

2006-01-01

352

Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its? product?s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products? samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product ?telemea?. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers? products and their reliability for the consumers.

Carmen JECAN

2012-05-01

353

Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations  

Science.gov (United States)

Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

2008-01-01

354

Comparison between full- and small-scale sensory assessments of air quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Thirty-nine untrained subjects made small- and full-scale evaluations of the acceptability of the quality of air at 22 deg.C and 40% RH, polluted by either carpet, felt floor covering, painted gypsum board, linoleum or chipboard. Small-scale evaluations were made on the air extracted from 200-L glass chambers ventilated at an airflow of 0.9 L/s. Full-scale assessments were made immediately upon entering offices ventilated at an outdoor air supply rate of 1.9 h-1. The ratio of ventilation rate to surface area of a building material was identical in the chambers and in the offices. Full-scale sensory ratings of acceptability of air polluted by carpet and by linoleum were systematically better than small-scale assessments, but not for the other three materials. Calculated sensory emission rates from carpet and linoleum were significantly lower in full scale than in small scale. When modelling the perceived air quality in spaces, sensory emission rates estimated in small scale may require a correction, probably depending on the nature of the chemicals emitted by a building material.

Wargocki, Pawel; Sabikova, J.

2002-01-01

355

Assessing Arsenic Removal by Metal (Hydr)Oxide Adsorptive Media Using Rapid Small Scale Column Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid small scale column test (RSSCT) was use to evaluate the the performance of eight commercially available adsorptive media for the removal of arsenic. Side-by-side tests were conducted using RSSCTs and pilot/full-scale systems either in the field or in the laboratory. ...

356

Mechanisms of Obtaining Membership of Farmer Collectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper puts forward the corresponding solutions and suggestions through analyzing mechanisms of obtaining membership of farmer collectives in the normative sense, and aiming at the plight of obtaining farmer collective membership.

Debin HOU

2013-12-01

357

NCI at Frederick: Farmers Market  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no fee to participate in the Farmer's Market, but every vendor does share in the cost of the insurance policy sponsored by the Department of Agriculture, State of Maryland, in which the Market participates. This insurance covers general liability, and all Market participants will share equally.

358

Entrepreneurship of Dutch dairy farmers  

OpenAIRE

Keywords: Dairy farming, farm size, Theory of Planned Behaviour, goals, attitudes, entrepreneur entrepreneurship, competencies, psychological characteristics, agriculture, entrepreneur, dairy farms, entrepreneurial success, job satisfaction, training programme.Several developments in theNetherlandsas well as in the other countries within the EU are forcing dairy farmers to reconsider their in...

Bergevoet, R. H. M.

2005-01-01

359

Conversion of fracture toughness testing values from small scale three point bending test specimens to small scale yielding state (SSY) by elastic-plastic stress analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the work performed for achieving readiness to calculate fracture toughness dependence on dimension effects and loading conditions in fracture test specimens and real structures. In the report two- and three-dimensional computer codes developed and calculational methods applied are described. One of the main goals is to converse fracture toughness from small scale three point bending test specimens to case of a depth crack in plane strain i.e. to small scale yielding state (SSY) by numerical elastic-plastic stress analysis. Thickness effect of a test specimens and effect of a crack depth are separately investigated. Tests of three point bending specimens with and without sidegrooves and curved crack front are numerically simulated and experimental and computed results are compared. J-integral is calculated along crack front and also from force-deflection dependence of the beam. For the analyses the computing system was thoroughly automatized. Measuring capacity of three point bending test specimens was tried to evaluate. (orig.) (7 refs., 54 figs.)

360

Large grazers modify effects of aboveground-belowground interactions on small-scale plant community composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales interact with small-scale aboveground-belowground interactions on plant community heterogeneity. Here, we investigate how cattle (Bos taurus) modify the effects of interactions between yellow meadow ants (Lasius flavus) and European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) on the formation of small-scale heterogeneity in vegetation composition. In the absence of cattle, hares selectively foraged on ant mounds, while under combined grazing by hares and cattle, vertebrate grazing pressure was similar on and off mounds. Ant mounds that were grazed by only hares had a different plant community composition compared to their surroundings: the cover of the grazing-intolerant grass Elytrigia atherica was reduced on ant mounds, whereas the relative cover of the more grazing-tolerant and palatable grass Festuca rubra was enhanced. Combined grazing by hares and cattle, resulted in homogenization of plant community composition on and off ant mounds, with high overall cover of F. rubra. We conclude that hares can respond to local ant-soil-vegetation interactions, because they are small, selective herbivores that make their foraging decisions on a local scale. This results in small-scale plant patches on mounds of yellow meadow ants. In the presence of cattle, which are less selective aboveground herbivores, local plant community patterns triggered by small-scale aboveground-belowground interactions can disappear. Therefore, cattle modify the consequences of aboveground-belowground interactions for small-scale plant community composition. PMID:21863246

Veen, G F Ciska; Geuverink, Elzemiek; Olff, Han

2012-02-01

361

New framework for analyzing the effects of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett's formulation of the shortwave approximation, which we generalize to analyze the effects of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric, but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the dynamics of the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and has positive energy density-corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Under various assumptions concerning the absence of gravitational radiation and the nonrelativistic behavior of the matter, we argue that the behavior of the matter, we argue that the short-wavelength deviations of the metric from the background metric near a point x should be accurately described by Newtonian gravity, taking into account only the matter lying within a homogeneity length scale of x. Finally, we argue that our framework should provide an accurate description of the actual universe.

362

Low and High Potentials of Entrepreneurial Development within the Framework of Indigenious Small Scale Management in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work looked at the potentials of entrepreneurship development within the framework of indigenous small scale management. It also show those potentials that are inherent in entrepreneurs of small scale business both low and high potentials and possibly expose some of the problems or drawbacks of entrepreneur of small scale business in Africa. The writer try to show what small scale business is like and possibly other scholars’ assumptions of what small scale business is all about. Finally, some suggestions were proffered by the writer based on the personal experiences on how to enhance the potentials of entrepreneurs of small scale business in Nigeria and possibly, the entire continent of Africa; talking about how to cope with, both internal and external environmental forces of the business.

Olatunji Eniola Sule

2013-05-01

363

Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

2013-01-01

364

Zimbabwean farmers in Nigeria: exceptional farmers or spectacular support?  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2004, white commercial farmers displaced under Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform programme have established new successful farms near the central Nigerian town of Shonga. This article explores the basis of that success. It addresses three key questions: (1) What has actually happened near Shonga since 2004? (2) What or who is driving the process of agrarian transformation? And (3) What are the long-term consequences for the peasantry since Nigerian agriculture is still largely peasant-based? It argues that contrary to popular myths of ‘enterprising’ white Zimbabwean farmers, the process is driven by a complex group of actors, including the national and regional states. Comparative evidence from similar transplantations of Zimbabwean farmers suggests that active state support is central to the success of Shonga. With respect to the relationship between the commercial farms and the peasantry, it is argued that all the synergies included in the project design to promote a symbiotic development have failed to materialize. As a result, the peasantry faces a process of ‘development by dispossession’. PMID:22165434

Mustapha, Abdul Raufu

2011-01-01

365

Healthy Aging  

Science.gov (United States)

... project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy lifestyle at all stages of life will help you to stay active, healthy, and ...

366

Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

Brown, E.; Mann, M.

2008-01-01

367

Operating Experiences of a Gas-Bearing Circulator in a Small-scale Gas Loop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A small scale gas loop that can simulate a VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor) is in operation at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Control of gaseous impurities in the circulating gas at a high-temperature experimental loop is a significant operating requirement for the loop maintenance. Especially, the oil vapor induced by a circulator will contaminate and damage the sophisticated high temperature components such as the heat-generation material in the high temperature heater. Therefore, the high temperature gas loop generally requires the circulation without lubricant as oil. A gas-bearing circulator is widely used in the industry for low-pressure turbo-machinery without the oil. In this study, we discussed operational experiences of a laboratory scale high-pressure gas bearing circulator of the small-scale gas loop

368

Small-scale piezoelectric energy harvesting devices using low-energy-density sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last decade, small-scale energy harvesting devices that can power household electronic systems have experienced rapid development in both the research and the industrial fields. However, the large majority of work done in this domain still focuses on high-energy-density sources, which are not always available in the vicinity of the device. In that case, it is, therefore, important to use other sources, which, nevertheless, present lower energy densities. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate such harvesting methods, highlighting their differences with classical techniques that rely on high-density energy resources. Additionally, the present study also aims at reviewing existing techniques for small-scale energy harvesting using piezoelectric devices, as well as presenting new designs when dealing with low energy density sources, with a particular focus on wind and rain.

369

Small-scale patterning methods for digital image correlation under scanning electron microscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digital image correlation (DIC) is a powerful, length-scale-independent methodology for examining full-field surface deformations. Recently, it has become possible to combine DIC with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), enabling the investigation of small-scale deformation mechanisms such as the strains accommodated within grains in polycrystalline metals, or around micro-scale constituents in composite materials. However, there exist significant challenges that need to be surmounted before the combination of DIC and SEM (here termed SEM-DIC) can be fully exploited. One of the primary challenges is the ability to pattern specimens at microstructural length scales with a random, isotropic and high contrast pattern needed for DIC. This paper provides a thorough survey of small-scale patterning methods for SEM-DIC and discusses their advantages and disadvantages for different applications

370

Energy transfers and magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo  

CERN Document Server

In this letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo by studying energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers. We perform dynamo simulation for magnetic Prandtl number $\\mathrm{Pm}=20$ on $1024^3$ grid using pseudospectral method. We demonstrate using flux and shell-to-shell energy transfer computations that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large scale velocity field to small scale magnetic field. The energy transfers $U2U$ (velocity to velocity) and $B2B$ (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. We also show that the magnetic energy grows exponentially with time, and it tends to have equipartition with kinetic energy.

Kumar, Rohit; Samtaney, Ravi

2013-01-01

371

Constraints on small-scale cosmological perturbations from gamma-ray searches for dark matter  

CERN Document Server

Events like inflation or phase transitions can produce large density perturbations on very small scales in the early Universe. Probes of small scales are therefore useful for e.g. discriminating between inflationary models. Until recently, the only such constraint came from non-observation of primordial black holes (PBHs), associated with the largest perturbations. Moderate-amplitude perturbations can collapse shortly after matter-radiation equality to form ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs) of dark matter, in far greater abundance than PBHs. If dark matter self-annihilates, UCMHs become excellent targets for indirect detection. Here we discuss the gamma-ray fluxes expected from UCMHs, the prospects of observing them with gamma-ray telescopes, and limits upon the primordial power spectrum derived from their non-observation by the Fermi Large Area Space Telescope.

Scott, Pat; Akrami, Yashar

2012-01-01

372

Magnetic Field Tunable Small-scale Mechanical Properties of Nickel Single Crystals Measured by Nanoindentation Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Nano- and micromagnetic materials have been extensively employed in micro-functional devices. However, measuring small-scale mechanical and magnetomechanical properties is challenging, which restricts the design of new products and the performance of smart devices. A new magnetomechanical nanoindentation technique is developed and tested on a nickel single crystal in the absence and presence of a saturated magnetic field. Small-scale parameters such as Young's modulus, indentation hardness, and plastic index are dependent on the applied magnetic field, which differ greatly from their macroscale counterparts. Possible mechanisms that induced 31% increase in modulus and 7% reduction in hardness (i.e., the flexomagnetic effect and the interaction between dislocations and magnetic field, respectively) are analyzed and discussed. Results could be useful in the microminiaturization of applications, such as tunable mechanical resonators and magnetic field sensors.

Zhou, Hao; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

2014-04-01

373

Small-scale disequilibrium in a magmatic inclusion and its more silicic host  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation of small-scale isotopic, compositional, and mineralogical variation across the interface of a basaltic-andesite inclusion and its dacitic host from Cerro-Chascon, a Holocene dome in northern Chile, is discussed. Serial sectioning across the interface of the inclusion and its host dacite, complemented by microdrill sampling and detailed microprobe work, has enabled an examination of the scale of mixing and chemical disequilibrium. The composition of the inclusion is found to be relatively homogeneous; the dacite host is heterogeneous on a small scale; the isotopic composition in the marginal zone shows the highest Sr-87/Sr-86 and lowest Nd-143/Nd-144; the large plagioclase crystals in the inclusions and host are xenocrystic. These differences are reconciled with a model of magma evolution in a crustal magma chamber.

Davidson, Jon P.; Holden, Peter; Halliday, Alex N.; De Silva, Shanaka L.

1990-01-01

374

Small-scale piezoelectric energy harvesting devices using low-energy-density sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the last decade, small-scale energy harvesting devices that can power household electronic systems have experienced rapid development in both the research and the industrial fields. However, the large majority of work done in this domain still focuses on high-energy-density sources, which are not always available in the vicinity of the device. In that case, it is, therefore, important to use other sources, which, nevertheless, present lower energy densities. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate such harvesting methods, highlighting their differences with classical techniques that rely on high-density energy resources. Additionally, the present study also aims at reviewing existing techniques for small-scale energy harvesting using piezoelectric devices, as well as presenting new designs when dealing with low energy density sources, with a particular focus on wind and rain.

Lallart, Mickael; Priya, Shashank; Bressers, Scott; Inman, Daniel [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States)

2010-10-15

375

Fractal properties and small-scale structure of cosmic string networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results from a detailed numerical study of the small-scale and loop production properties of cosmic string networks, based on the largest and highest resolution string simulations to date. We investigate the nontrivial fractal properties of cosmic strings, in particular, the fractal dimension and renormalized string mass per unit length, and we also study velocity correlations. We demonstrate important differences between string networks in flat (Minkowski) spacetime and the two very similar expanding cases. For high resolution matter era network simulations, we provide strong evidence that small-scale structure has converged to 'scaling' on all dynamical length scales, without the need for other radiative damping mechanisms. We also discuss preliminary evidence that the dominant loop production size is also approaching scaling

376

Validation of the CUPID code for the natural circulation in a small scale pool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A three dimensional thermal hydraulic code, CUPID, has been developed for the component scale analysis of a nuclear reactor. The CUPID code has been used for the analysis of the PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop) test. The PAFS is one of the safety features of the APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor +), which is intended to completely replace the conventional active feedwater system. However, the PASCAL test does not give the velocity field information so that a small scale pool test was performed to investigate the velocity and temperature in a pool. In this research, the velocity field of the small scale pool in single and two phase natural circulation is calculated, and the CUPID code is validated qualitatively

377

Small scale magnetic field evolution in the first objects formed in the universe  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Large scale magnetic fields in galaxies are thought to be generated, by a mean field dynamo. In order to have generated the fields observed, the dynamo would have had to have operated for a sufficiently long period of time. However, magnetic fields of similar intensities to the one in our galaxy, ar [...] e observed in high redshift galaxies, where a mean field dynamo would not have had time to produce the observed fields. MHD turbulence produces small scale magnetic fields at a faster rate than it does mean fields, which can diffuse toward larger scales. If the turbulence is helical, magnetic fields generated at small scales can become correlated over large scales. We study the evolution of magnetic field correlations in the first objects formed in the universe, due to the action of a turbulent, helical, stochastic dynamo, for redshifts 5

Alejandra, Kandus; Reuven, Opher; Saulo M. R., Barros.

1651-16-01

378

Prevalence of small-scale jets from the networks of the solar transition region and chromosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

As the interface between the Sun’s photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80 to 250 kilometers per second from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20 to 80 seconds and widths of ?300 kilometers. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with amplitudes of ~20 kilometers per second. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~105 kelvin and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind.

Tian, H.; DeLuca, E. E.; Cranmer, S. R.; De Pontieu, B.; Peter, H.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Golub, L.; McKillop, S.; Reeves, K. K.; Miralles, M. P.; McCauley, P.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Weber, M.; Murphy, N.; Lemen, J.; Title, A.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wuelser, J. P.; Kleint, L.; Kankelborg, C.; Jaeggli, S.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.; McIntosh, S. W.

2014-10-01

379

[Uranium Concentration in Drinking Water from Small-scale Water Supplies in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the drinking water of 212 small-scale water supplies, mainly situated in areas with intensive agriculture or fruit-growing, was analysed for uranium. The median uranium concentration amounted to 0.04?µg/lL, the 95(th) percentile was 2.5?µg/L. The maximum level was 14?µg/L. This sample exceeded the guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in small-scale water supplies was found to be slightly higher than that in central water works in Schleswig-Holstein. Water containing more than 10?mg/L nitrate showed significantly higher uranium contents. The results indicate that the uranium burden in drinking water from small wells is mainly determined by geological factors. An additional anthropogenic effect of soil management cannot be excluded. Overall uranium concentrations were low and not causing health concerns. However, in specific cases higher concentrations may occur. PMID:25356561

Ostendorp, G

2014-10-30

380

Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

None,

1980-05-01

381

Transversally small-scale perturbations in arbitrary plasma configurations with magnetic surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that in arbitrary plasma systems with magnetic surfaces there are transversally small-scale (ballooning) perturbations with the vector of displacement lying in a magnetic surface. The equations of small oscillations for these perturbations are derived. It is shown that the spectrum of eigenmodes of these equations coincides with a continuous spectrum of resonant MHD modes (Cheng and Chance 1986 Phys. Fluids 29 3695-01). The case of a dipole magnetic field is analysed.

Cheremnykh, O K, E-mail: oleg.cheremnykh@gmail.co [Space Plasma Department, Space Research Institute of NASU and NSAU, prosp. Akad. Glushkova, 40, korp. 4/1, Kyiv-187, 03680 MSP (Ukraine)

2010-09-15

382

Feasibility of solar water heating in small-scale poultry processing in Darlington, Indiana  

OpenAIRE

The focus of this case study was to examine a singular process within the food system, identify the energy requirements of this process, apply alternative energy technology to the solution, and verify this feasibility of an alternative energy technology within this process; the process isolated for study is a small-scale poultry processing operation (maximum of 350 birds per day) during the extreme end of the pastured poultry season. An energy audit was performed of the poultry processing pro...

Smith, Erick

2009-01-01

383

Small Scale Dairy Farming Practice in a Selective Area of Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

The present study was assigned to determine the present status including general information, feeding breeding housing milking etc. and costs & returns of small dairy farms, to compare the productive and reproductive performance of crossbred and indigenous cows and to make recommendation for development of small scales dairy farm. With this view, the empirical data were collected by using protested questionnaire. The study was conducted at 8 thanas in Rangpur district, and four mon...

Hossain, M. M.; Rashid, M. M.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Rahman, M. M.

2005-01-01

384

RATAN-600 Observations of Small Scale Structures with High Spectral Resolution  

OpenAIRE

We present observations of quiet-sun small-scale structures (SSS) in the microwave range with the {\\it Radio Astronomical Telescope of the Academy of Sciences 600} (RATAN-600) spectral-polarization facility in a wide range of frequencies. SSS are regularly recorded in routine observations of the large reflector-type radio telescope and represent manifestations in the radio range of various structures of the quiet-sun: supergranulation network, bright points, plage patches an...

Bogod, V. M.; Alissandrakis, C. E.; Kaltman, T. I.; Tokhchukova, S. Kh

2014-01-01

385

Precise Optimization of Cattle Manure Composting using an Experimental Small-scale Instrument  

OpenAIRE

Ordinary manure composting requires a large amount of material to be processed and it is difficult to compost manure uniformly and repeatedly. The objective of this study was to determine optimal conditions for composting cattle manure using a Kaguyahime unit, an experimental small-scale instrument. The instrument was filled with 7 kg cattle manure from breeding adult beef cows, which grazed on bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) pasture and were f...

Yusuke Kajiya; Yasuyuki Ishii; Kiichi Fukuyama; Sachiko Idota

2014-01-01

386

The Rural Landscapes and Small-Scale Agricultural Practices in the Transylvanian Plain  

OpenAIRE

This paper is focused on the relationships between small-scale agricultural practices and cultural landscape of Transylvanian Plain. The geographical position of Transylvanian Plain in central part of Romania shows with relevance its favourability for sustainable agriculture and developing assumptions. Despite of this, the region was kept outside of the major infrastructural and economic trends. We could, also, include the Transylvanian Plain into a typical rural “central isolation space”...

Baciu, Nicolae; Malos?, Cristian; Ros?ian, Gheorghe; Mures?ianu, Mircea; Schuster, Eduard; Barta, Andras; Sta?nescu, Carmen; Muntean, Octavian-liviu; Miha?iescu, Radu

2010-01-01

387

A small-scale experimental reactor combined with a simulator for training purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors discuss how a small-scale reactor combined to a training simulator can be a valuable aid in all forms of training. They describe the CEN-based SILOETTE reactor in Grenoble and its combined simulator. They also take a look at prospects for the future of the system in the light of experience acquired with the ARIANE reactor and the trends for the development of simulators for training purposes

388

ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE WITH REFERENCE TO RURAL SMALL SCALE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY IN PUNE DISTRICT  

OpenAIRE

Entrepreneurial Leadership is a significant concept in entrepreneurship literature. Different leadership styles effect on effectiveness and performance of the organizations. Present research investigates the impact ofEntrepreneurial Leadership style onOrganizational Performance with reference to Rural Small Scale Engineering Industry in Pune District of India. A ten items scale developed by (Boltan 2012) was used to find leadership styles. The data werecollected from one h...

Dilip Jagdale; Sarang Shankar Bhola

2014-01-01

389

The onset of a small-scale turbulent dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers  

OpenAIRE

We study numerically the dependence of the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rmc for the turbulent small-scale dynamo on the hydrodynamic Reynolds number Re. The turbulence is statistically homogeneous, isotropic, and mirror-symmetric. We are interested in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl number Pm = Rm/Re < 1, which is relevant for stellar convective zones, protostellar disks, and laboratory liquid-metal experiments. The two asymptotic possibilities are Rmc ? const as Re ? ? (a small...

Schekochihin, Aa; Haugen, Nel; Brandenburg, A.; Cowley, Sc; Maron, Jl; Mcwilliams, Jc

2004-01-01

390

The small-scale dynamo: breaking universality at high Mach numbers  

OpenAIRE

The small-scale dynamo plays a substantial role in magnetizing the Universe under a large range of conditions, including subsonic turbulence at low Mach numbers, highly supersonic turbulence at high Mach numbers and a large range of magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, i.e. the ratio of kinetic viscosity to magnetic resistivity. Low Mach numbers may, in particular, lead to the well-known, incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence, while for high Mach numbers, we are in the highly compressible regime, thus...

Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Schober, Jennifer; Federrath, Christoph; Bovino, Stefano; Schmidt, Wolfram

2013-01-01

391

Assessment and design of small-scale hydro-electric power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Techniques for appraisal of small hydropower schemes, the selection and specification of scheme components, their costing and economic evaluation are examined. These appraisal techniques are subsequently applied to regional assessment of small-scale hydro-electric potential in the U.K., and to the development and application of a new type of ultra low-head hydropower generator called the Salford Transverse Oscillator (STO). (author).

Jones, I.D.

1988-06-01

392

Feasibility Study of Small Scale Standalone Wind Turbine for Urban Area : Case study: KTH Main Campus  

OpenAIRE

The recent worldwide economic crisis, climate change and global warming have emphasized that the need for low carbon emissions while also ensuring the economic feasibility. In this paper, wind power potential of ETD in KTH was investigated. The technical and economical feasibility of tower mounted small scale standalone wind turbine installation is conducted. The potential of wind power production was statistically analysed. The average wind speed data of four-season interval of one year peri...

Gebrelibanos, Kalekirstos Gebremariam

2013-01-01

393

Quantitative analysis and evaluation of AVHRR and terrian data for small scale soil pattern recognition  

OpenAIRE

Previous research has demonstrated that data from air- and spaceborne sensors can be used effectively in identifying and delineating soil patterns and certain soil properties. However, little is known about the potential use of small scale satellite data, such as AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) in extracting soil information. The general objective of this study is to evaluate the use of coarse spatial resolution satellite imagery and digital terrain data as potential data sou...

Dobos, Endre Zsolt

1998-01-01

394

Small-scale convection during continental rifting : evidence from the Rio Grande rift  

OpenAIRE

Recent seismic imaging across the Rio Grande rift, western United States, revealed unexpected structures in the underlying mantle. Low seismic wave velocity anomalies below the Rio Grande rift have been interpreted as being partially of melt origin, and high-velocity structures below the western Great Plains have been proposed to be the result of small-scale convection, i.e., cold downwelling lithospheric material with probably a compositional contribution. We perform a dynamic...

Wijk, J.; Hunen, J.; Goes, S.

2008-01-01

395

Large- and small-scale turbulent spectra in MHD and atmospheric flows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present review we discuss certain studies of large- and small-scale turbulent spectra in MHD and atmospheric flows performed by S. S. Moiseev and his co-authors during the last years of his life and continued by his co-authors after he passed away. It is shown that many ideas developed in these works have not lost their novelty and urgency until now, and can form the basis of future studies in this field.

O. G. Chkhetiani

2006-01-01

396

Radiative Transfer Effects and The Dynamics of Small-Scale Magnetic Structures on The Sun  

OpenAIRE

The dynamical consequences of radiative energy transport on the evolution of gas confined to small-scale magnetic structures on the Sun are studied. Convective collapse, which transforms weak-field structures into intense structures of field strengths in the 1-2 kG range on the photosphere, is strongly in influenced by radiative heating from the surroundings and cooling due to losses in the vertical direction. We first present analytic results in the quasi-adiabatic approximation to attempt a...

Rajaguru, Sp; Hasan, Ss

2000-01-01

397

Systems analysis of small-scale systems for food supply and organic waste management  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis, systems for recycling of household organic waste (easily degradable food waste and sewage water) and small-scale systems for food supply were evaluated to see if they could be environment and energy-conserving options. They were evaluated using simulation of static substance-flow models (SFA) combined with life cycle assessment methodology (LCA) for aggregation and interpretation of the results. Three systems were modelled and simulated: i) organic waste management (including ...

Thomsson, Olof

1999-01-01

398

Model-based energy optimisation of a small-scale decentralised membrane bioreactor for urban reuse  

OpenAIRE

The energy consumption of a small-scale membrane bioreactor, treating high strength domestic wastewater for community level wastewater recycling, has been optimised using a dynamic model of the plant. ASM2d was chosen as biological process model to account for the presence of phosphate accumulating organisms. A tracer test was carried out to determine the hydraulic behaviour of the plant. To realistically simulate the aeration demand, a dedicated aeration model was used incorporating the depe...

Verrecht, Bart; Maere, Thomas; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Nopens, Ingmar; Judd, Simon J.

2010-01-01

399

Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

James O' Brien

2012-09-01

400

Direct driven axial flux permanent magnet generator for small-scale wind power applications  

OpenAIRE

Small-scale wind power applications require a cost effective and mechanically simple generator in order to be a reliable energy source. The use of direct driven generators, instead of geared machines, reduces the number of drive components, which offers the opportunity to reduce costs and increases system reliability and efficiency. For such applications, characterized by low speed of rotation, the axial flux permanent magnet generator is particularly suited, since it can be designed with a l...

Ferreira, A?ngela P.; Costa, A. F.

2011-01-01

401

Small scale purification of human pituitary lutropin (hLH) for use in radioligand assays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human lutropin (hLH) is a relatively unstable protein, which even in lyophilised form tends to dissociate into subunits during long storage periods. Considering the limited disposibilty of human pituitaries, a small-scale extraction method is proposed for radioassays. Starting from 10 and 20 hypophyses after Sephadex G 100 purification, 10 ?g/gland with approximate 10% purity was obtained. After the last purification, hLH recovery was of 1.5 ?g/gland. (author)

402

Mobile Phone usage by Micro and Small Scale Enterprises in Semi-Rural Ghana  

OpenAIRE

This work looked at the use of mobile technology among entrepreneurs/managers of micro and small scale businesses in the Akuapem North district of Ghana. The major findings were that entrepreneurs/business managers would use more than one mobile phone and/or subscribed to more than one network in order to make affordable calls, to enjoy excellent service from other network providers, for business purposes, security reasons and to have a place for their many contact numbers. Apart from marketi...

Paul Adjei kwakwa

2012-01-01

403

Feasibility of small-scale gas engine-based residential cogeneration in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays all countries are developing their own policies to promote cogeneration in the small-scale residential sector. In this paper the feasibility of small-scale gas engine-based residential cogeneration plants under the current Spanish regulation is studied. A unitary thermal load profile is obtained to characterised the thermal demand of residential applications in Spain. This unitary profile is used to analyse the potential of cogeneration in the small-scale range of powers (100-1000 kW). A complete characterisation of the gas fuelled engines in the market is performed and subsequently used to evaluate the economic feasibility within the selected range by means of a self-tailored simulation model. It is underlined how the thermal storage is a crucial element that should be suitably included in a residential cogeneration plant and the distortions that the actual pricing system adds to the profitability of residential plants of different sizes. Finally a sensibility study is carried out in order to evaluate how the Spanish regulation is able to deal with future variations in the energy prices. It is shown that a rise in the price of the natural gas increases the current feasibility of a plant while a decrease descends the profitability. - Highlights: ? Profitability is obtained within the whole small-scale range of powers. ? The stepped structure of prices strongly affect the feasibility of the projects. ? The inclusion of thermal storage notably affects the thermal storage notably affects the profitability of the plant. ? Big chance for increase the feasibility exists in retrofitting old installations. ? The system of tariff updating balances the future variations in the price of fuels.

404

Probing the inflaton: Small-scale power spectrum constraints from measurements of the CMB energy spectrum  

OpenAIRE

In the early Universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk-damping, a process that inevitably generates mu- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k < 10^4 Mpc^{-1}. Here we study constraints on the primordial power spectrum derived from COBE/FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that me...

Chluba, Jens; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ben-dayan, Ido

2012-01-01

405

Radar measurement of heterogeneous small-scale surface texture on Mars Chryse  

Science.gov (United States)

Radar measurements from Chryse Planitia in 1978 confirm earlier estimates of 4-5 deg rms slope (on meter scales) over 45-50 deg W longitude. The new measurements also confirm a skewing of the measured spectra. This has now been interpreted as a combined result of large-scale surface tilt and a side effect of the decrease in small-scale roughness as the subradar point moves from the basin floor toward the west.

Simpson, R. A.; Tyler, G. L.

1980-01-01

406

Small-scale semi-continuous reactor for the conversion of wood to fuel oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design and operation of a small-scale semi-continuous reactor to convert aspen wood meal into an oil product is described. Modifications that reduce erosion/corrosion are also presented. Short residence times and relatively low operating pressures have been achieved for the reaction of aspen with CO and H2O in the presence of Na2CO3. Conversions, char formation, and the effect of sodium carbonate concentration on oil product are reported.

Eager, R.L.; Pepper, J.M.; Mathews, J.F.

1983-04-01

407

The challenging modelling of kLa in a periodic constricted small-scale tube  

OpenAIRE

An extensive use in chemistry, biological and pharmaceutical laboratories is envisaged for a novel continuous screening reactor based on the oscillatory flow technology (Harvey, 2001). The basic unit of this reactor was recently presented by Harvey et al. (2003) and Reis et al. (2004) and consists in a 4.4 mm internal diameter and 350 mm long jacketed glass small-scale tube provided with smooth periodic constrictions, SPCs (Figure 1). Prediction of fluid mixing and residence time within th...

Reis, N.; Vicente, A. A.; Teixeira, J. A.

2005-01-01

408

Small scale variations in the microbenthic loop of Posidonia oceanica meadows: an experimental interpolation design.  

OpenAIRE

In the sediment compartment of Posidonia oceanica meadows, there is a severe lack of information on small scale variations. In an attempt to understand spatial variations of the microbenthic loop (bacteria, organic matter, microphytobenthos and meiofauna), an experiment based on interpolation methods was led in Calvi Bay (Corsica, France), in March 2008, at 10 m depth. Twelve points were sampled randomly in a 125 x 125 cm square, divided into twenty-five 25 x 25 cm squares, to assess and desc...

Pete, Dorothe?e; Lenartz, Fabian; Velimirov, Branko; Bouquegneau, Jean-marie; Gobert, Sylvie

2008-01-01

409

Spatial heterogeneity at small scale in the microbenthic loop of Posidonia oceanica meadows  

OpenAIRE

In the Mediterranean coastal zone, one the most important ecosystem is the Posidonia oceanica meadow. This seagrass is endemic of the Mediterranean Sea and plays many important ecological roles like oxygen production, nursery for numerous commercial species of fishes and protection of coastal zones by reducing the impact of waves. However, there is a severe lack of informations on small scale variations in its sediment compartment. In an attempt to understand spatial variations in the mic...

Pete, Dorothe?e; Lenartz, Fabian; Velimirov, Branko; Bouquegneau, Jean-marie; Gobert, Sylvie

2008-01-01

410

Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

NONE

1996-03-01

411

Small-scale plasma irregularities produced during electron attachment chemical releases  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ measurements of small-scale plasma density irregularities made during sounding rocket experiments that released electron attachment materials into the ionosphere are presented. A 2D electrostatic simulation model that includes attachment chemistry is used to study the source and evolution of these irregularities. The simulation shows (1) that large electron flow velocity shears develop on the boundary of the electron depletion and (2) these shears drive a plasma instability that is the likely source of the irregularities.

Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Ganguli, G.; Siefring, C. L.; Rodriguez, P.

1994-01-01

412

Observational signatures of numerically simulated MHD waves in small-scale fluxtubes  

CERN Document Server

We present some results obtained from the synthesis of Stokes profiles in small-scale flux tubes with propagating MHD waves. To that aim, realistic flux tubes showing internal structure have been excited with 5 min period drivers, allowing non-linear waves to propagate inside the magnetic structure. The observational signatures of these waves in Stokes profiles of several spectral lines that are commonly used in spectropolarimetric measurements are discussed.

Khomenko, E; Felipe, T

2008-01-01

413

A study of dynamic resistance during small scale resistance spot welding of thin Ni sheets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dynamic resistance has been investigated during small scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets. Electrical measurements have been correlated with scanning electron microscope images of joint development. The results show that the dynamic resistance curve can be divided into the following stages based on physical change in the workpieces: asperity heating, surface breakdown, asperity softening, partial surface melting, nugget growth and expulsion. These results are also compared and contrasted with dynamic resistance behaviour in large scale RSW.

Tan, W; Zhou, Y; Kerr, H W; Lawson, S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue W., Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2004-07-21

414

A study of dynamic resistance during small scale resistance spot welding of thin Ni sheets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamic resistance has been investigated during small scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets. Electrical measurements have been correlated with scanning electron microscope images of joint development. The results show that the dynamic resistance curve can be divided into the following stages based on physical change in the workpieces: asperity heating, surface breakdown, asperity softening, partial surface melting, nugget growth and expulsion. These results are also compared and contrasted with dynamic resistance behaviour in large scale RSW

415

A study of dynamic resistance during small scale resistance spot welding of thin Ni sheets  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamic resistance has been investigated during small scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets. Electrical measurements have been correlated with scanning electron microscope images of joint development. The results show that the dynamic resistance curve can be divided into the following stages based on physical change in the workpieces: asperity heating, surface breakdown, asperity softening, partial surface melting, nugget growth and expulsion. These results are also compared and contrasted with dynamic resistance behaviour in large scale RSW.

Tan, W.; Zhou, Y.; Kerr, H. W.; Lawson, S.

2004-07-01

416

Small-Scale Spatial Variation in Population Dynamics and Fishermen Response in a Coastal Marine Fishery  

OpenAIRE

A major challenge for small-scale fisheries management is high spatial variability in the demography and life history characteristics of target species. Implementation of local management actions that can reduce overfishing and maximize yields requires quantifying ecological heterogeneity at small spatial scales and is therefore limited by available resources and data. Collaborative fisheries research (CFR) is an effective means to collect essential fishery information at local scales, and to...

Wilson, Jono R.; Kay, Matthew C.; Colgate, John; Qi, Roy; Lenihan, Hunter S.

2012-01-01

417

Effects of halo triaxiality, anisotropy and small scale clumping on WIMP direct detection exclusion limits  

CERN Document Server

Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) direct detection experiments are closing in on the region of parameter space where neutralinos may constitute the Galactic halo dark matter. Numerical simulations and observations of galaxy halos indicate that the standard Maxwellian halo model is likely to be a poor approximation to the dark matter distribution. We examine how halo models with triaxiality and/or velocity anisotropy affect exclusion limits, before discussing the consequences of the possible survival of small scale clumps.

Green, A M

2002-01-01

418

Small-scale coherent EUV light sources from high-harmonic generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coherent EUV light can be generated using the process of high-harmonic upconversion of pulses from a high-intensity femtosecond laser. Recent advances in ultrafast laser technology, combined with the development of efficient techniques for high-harmonic generation (HHG), now make routine small-scale, table-top experiments using coherent EUV light. New advances, such as the use of pulse shaping and quasi-phase matched geometries, give new flexibility in the design of coherent EUV sources

419

ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SMALL- SCALE WOOD INDUSTRIES IN IKOT EKPENE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

This study assessed the environmental impactsassociated with Small Scale Wood Industries (SSWl) inIkot Expene town, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three (3)industrial locations, namely sawmill (SM), Furniture (F)and Wood Carving (WC), including a Control (C) wererandomly sampled for the study. Data were collected withthe aid of measurements, using standard instruments,and compared with those of National (FMENV) andInternational (WHO) regulatory limits. Analysis ofVariance (ANOVA) statistics was us...

Akpan, Michael; Okwara, Obasi Udo

2012-01-01

420

Benefits of small scale projects such as Ekokoti on the Environmental Status  

OpenAIRE

Understanding the household behavior on its consumptions patterns has become an indispensable tool to achieve sustainability (Mohan, 2010). Therefore many countries started taking into consideration household lifestyle choices. In Finland, Finnish Ministry of Environment has launched programmes of sustainable consumption and production. Ekokoti is a small scale project, where the authorities will try to help the households to understand the connection between their lifestyle choices, beha...

Edahbi, Youssef

2014-01-01

421

Cogeneration with an ORC application in a small-scale existing district heating system  

OpenAIRE

A part of reducing the increased greenhouse effect is to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide.Much of the carbon dioxide emitted by the energy sector comes from electricity produced incondensing power plants. These emissions can be reduced by the development ofcogeneration, i.e. simultaneous production of heat and electricity. One way to do this is tocomplement the existing, small-scale heat plants with electricity production via a productionintegrated ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle). The purpose o...

Karlsson, Andreas

2010-01-01

422

Evaluation of the joint effect of glyphosate and dimethoate using a small-scale terrestrial ecosystem  

OpenAIRE

In the present work a small-scale terrestrial ecosystem (STEM) containing a soil collected from an agricultural field in Central Portugal was used to evaluate the effects of the combination of the herbicide glyphosate and the insecticide dimethoate. Earthworms (Eisenia andrei), isopods (Porcellionides pruinosus), turnip seeds (Brassica rapa), and bait-lamina strips were placed in the STEM. The results showed that the application of the recommended field dose of both pesticides did not cause a...

Santos, Mjg; Morgado, R.; Ferreira, Ngc; Soares, Amvm; Loureiro, S.

2011-01-01

423

Small scale irrigation using collector wells. Pilot project - Zimbabwe. Fourth progress report April 1994 - September 1994  

OpenAIRE

The ODA TC pilot project "Small scale irrigation using collector wells - Zimbabwe" began in October 1992. This report outlines progress made on all aspects during the fourth six months of work. The six project schemes are now complete. Two additional schemes for Plan International (NGO) are also near to completion. As planned, these schemes represent a range of physical, social, economic and institutional settings. The number of families obtaining domestic water from 011k-fu...

Lovell, C. J.; Murata, M.; Brown, M. W.; Batchelor, C. H.; Thompson, D. M.; Dube, T.; Semple, A. J.; Chilton, P. J.

1994-01-01

424

Small scale spatial and temporal variability of microclimate in a fellfield landscape, Marion Island  

OpenAIRE

Marion Island is situated in the South Indian Ocean and belongs to the sub-Antarctic island group, Prince Edward Islands. The islands in the sub-Antarctic have over the past few decades been exposed to a warmer and drier climate trend. The aim of this thesis is to achieve better understanding of the small-scale spatial and temporal variability between Azorella selago andthe surrounding microclimate. Due to the consequences of climate change, the interactions between Azorella selago, landforms...

Berg, Oskar

2009-01-01

425

La recherche scientifique face à la pêche artisanale = Research and small-scale fisheries  

OpenAIRE

The history of public intervention in the marine fisheries sector in Senegal illustrates the existence of perverse effects, leading especially to a reinforcement of small-scale fisheries while the local industrial fishhery encounters great difficulties in modernising and developing, despite the fact that it receives most public assistance. We call this the "informal effect" in the fishery management system. The difference between the initial development plan and the observed results can be ex...

Laloe?, Francis; Chauveau, Jean-pierre; Samba, A.

1991-01-01

426

ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP: EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN RURAL SMALL SCALE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Entrepreneurial Leadership is a relatively new, sometimes controversial, andburgeoning field of management research. Significance of this concept is increasing day by day in entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneur’s different leadership styles effect on performanceof the organizations. Present research investigates the impact of employee perceived EntrepreneurialLeadership style on Organizational Performance. Study is conducted with reference to RuralSmall Scale Engineering Industry in Pune District of India.

Dilip Dnyandeo Jagdale

2015-01-01

427

Design of a small-scale organic Rankine cycle engine used in a solar power plant  

OpenAIRE

Under the economic and political pressure due to the depletion of fossil fuels and global warming concerns, it is necessary to develop more sustainable techniques to provide electrical power. In this context, the present study aims at designing, building and testing a small-scale organic Rankine cycle (ORC) solar power plant ( 3 kWe) in order to define and optimize control strategies that could be applied to larger systems. This paper presents a first step of the design of the s...

Georges, Emeline; Declaye, Se?bastien; Dumont, Olivier; Quoilin, Sylvain; Lemort, Vincent

2013-01-01

428

SMALL-SCALE FILAMENT WINDING MACHINE FOR PRODUCING FIBER COMPOSITE PRODUCTS  

OpenAIRE

Over the years, filament winding has been recognized as a cost effective technique to produce composite products with superior properties. In this paper, small-scale automated filament winding machine was designed and fabricated. In filament winding process, the fiber is impregnated with resin and wrapped on a cylindrical shape mandrel. The designed machine integrates mechanical, electrical and electronics components all controlled by a single PIC 18F452 microcontroller. The paper presents se...

SAAD MUTASHER; NAZIM MIR-NASIRI; LEE CHAI LIN

2012-01-01

429

Development of a Coconut Dehusking Machine for Rural Small Scale Farm Holders  

OpenAIRE

A coconut dehusking machine comprising of two rollers with spikes, screw conveyor, barrier plates, conveyor belt, two spur gears and a handle was developed for small scale production in the rural areas. Performance test analysis conducted shows that the machine dehusks coconut fruits without nut breakage and distortion of the extracted fibre length and also that its average dehusking efficiency and capacity are 93.45% and 79 coconuts per hour. All materials used in the fabrication of this mac...

B N Nwankwojike, O. Onuba

2012-01-01

430

Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B ? 10{sup ?11} Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations.

Jedamzik, Karsten [Laboratoire de Univers et Particules, UMR5299-CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Abel, Tom, E-mail: karsten.jedamzik@um2.fr, E-mail: tabel@slac.stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC/Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

2013-10-01

431

Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B ? 10?11 Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations

432

Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix

433

Capturing Compostables: A Case Study of Small Scale Composting in Vancouver  

OpenAIRE

This research study explores the role of small-scale composting for the processing of food scraps in the City of Vancouver within the nexus of organics diversion and the municipality’s Greenest City policy goals. Conceptually the study is informed by the integration of public policy, the policy cycle, and concepts relating to diversified, scalable technology. Empirically the study adopts a soft systems methodology that employs an inquiry-based approach, predicated on in-depth semi-structu...

Blakeway, Elizabeth Ashley

2013-01-01

434

Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix

435

Dry season feeding for Smallholder Dairy Farmers: Making Silage in Polythene tubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Milk production in Kenya follows the annual climatic seasonal patterns consisting of dry and wet seasonal patterns consisting of dry and wet seasons being times of over supply of milk and dry seasons being periods of acute shortages. This paper argues that appropriate silage making techniques need to be developed as a way of addressing the dry season feeding problem to which these fluctuations in milk production and pricing are attributed. Furthermore, the conventional silage making techniques that are available currently are to a large extent, only suitable for large scale farmers and those in the developed world where most of the technology was developed. Not much work has been done on silage making for smallholder farmers and those in Kenya and the few recommendations that have been put forward have not been adopted. The paper emphasizes the need to work with farmers in developing suitable techniques for small scale silage making that will be adoptable. A technique for making silage in plastic tubes, which is currently being tested with hundreds of smallholder farmers is described in the paper

436

Evaluation of Small-Scale Laterally Loaded Non-Slender Monopiles in Sand  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In current design of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopiles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated, e.g. the diameter effect on the soil response. In this paper the diameter effect on laterally loaded non-slender piles in sand is evaluated by means of results from six small-scale laboratory tests, numerical modelling of the same test setup and existing theory. From the numerical models p-y curves are conducted and compared to current design regulations. It is found that the recommendations in API (1993) and DNV (1992) are in poor agreement with the numerically obtained p-y curves. The initial stiffness, Epy*, of the p-y curves, is found to be dependent on the pile diameter, i.e. the initial stiffness increases with increasing pile diameter. Further, the dependency is found to be in agreement with the suggestions in Sørensen et al. (2010). It is found that considerable uncertainties are related to small-scale testing, and the different evaluations clearly indicate that the accuracy of small-scale testing is increased when increasing the pile diameter and applying overburden pressure.

Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Thomassen, Kristina

2010-01-01

437

High-temperature Elastic Structural Analysis on a Small-Scale PHE prototype  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen is considered a promising future energy solution because it is clean, abundant, and storable, and has high-energy density. One of the major challenges in establishing a hydrogen economy is how to produce massive quantities of hydrogen in a clean, safe, and economical way. Among the various hydrogen production methods, nuclear hydrogen production is garnering worldwide attention since it can produce hydrogen, a promising energy carrier, without an environmental burden. The PHE (Process Heat Exchanger) is a component that utilizes the nuclear heat from the nuclear reactor to provide hydrogen. A PHE is used in several processes such as nuclear steam reforming, nuclear methanol, nuclear steel, nuclear oil refinery, and nuclear steam. The PHE of the SO{sub 3} decomposer, which generates the process gas such as H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 3} at a very high temperature, is a key component in the nuclear hydrogen program in Korea. Recently, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) established a small-scale gas loop for the performance test of VHTR components and manufactured a small-scale PHE prototype made of Hastelloy-X. A performance test on the PHE prototype is under way in the small-scale gas loop at KAERI. In this study, in an effort to evaluate the high-temperature structural integrity of the PHE prototype under the test condition of the gas loop, a high-temperature elastic structural analysis was performed

Song, Kee Nam; Hong, S. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, H. Y. [AD solution, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-15

438

An Attempt of Formalizing the Selection Parameters for Settlements Generalization in Small-Scales  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper covers one of the most important problems concerning context-sensitive settlement selection for the purpose of the small-scale maps. So far, no formal parameters for small-scale settlements generalization have been specified, hence the problem seems to be an important and innovative challenge. It is also crucial from the practical point of view as it is necessary to develop appropriate generalization algorithms for the purpose of the General Geographic Objects Database generalization which is the essential Spatial Data Infrastructure component in Poland. The author proposes and verifies quantitative generalization parameters for the purpose of the settlement selection process in small-scale maps. The selection of settlements was carried out in two research areas - in Lower Silesia and ?ód? Province. Based on the conducted analysis appropriate contextual-sensitive settlements selection parameters have been defined. Particular effort has been made to develop a methodology of quantitative settlements selection which would be useful in the automation processes and that would make it possible to keep specifics of generalized objects unchanged.

Karsznia, Izabela

2014-12-01

439

Mixing at mid-ocean ridges controlled by small-scale convection and plate motion  

Science.gov (United States)

Oceanic lavas are thought to be derived from different sources within the Earth’s mantle, each with a distinct composition. Large-scale plate motions provide the primary mechanism for mixing these sources, yet the geochemical signature of lavas erupted at different mid-ocean ridges can still vary significantly. Geochemical variability is low where plate spreading rates are high, consistent with plate-scale mixing. However, slow-spreading centres, such as the Southwest Indian Ridge in the Indian Ocean, are also geochemically homogeneous, which is inconsistent with plate-scale mixing. Here we use numerical simulations of mantle flow to