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Small-scale Farmer’s Perception on the Impact of Grazing Livestock Animals on Crop Production in Abuja, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The production of crops and livestock animals in Nigeria is not mutually exclusive hence a study was conducted to determine small-scale crop farmers’ perception of the impact of grazing livestock animals like cattle, goat, sheep and domestic fowls on crop production in Abuja, Nigeria. A multi-stage technique was adopted for sample selection while semi-structured questionnaires were used for data collection. A total of 384 small-scale crop farmers were randomly interviewed in four agricultur...

Ajah Julius

2012-01-01

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Economic Efficiency of Small Scale Farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cassava holds a prominent position as a food and industrial crop in the Nigerian economy. Thus, there are government initiatives to support its mass production for domestic use and export. This study investigated the efficiencies of cassava production in Odeda Local Government of Ogun State. A random sample of 200 cassava producers was taken and subjected to budgetary and stochastic frontier analyses. Results indicated that most of the farmers were male (90%) with more than half (53%) above 5...

2010-01-01

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Assessing Farm Record Keeping Behaviour among Small-Scale Poultry Farmers in the Ga East Municipality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study sought to investigate the farm record keeping behaviour among small-scale poultry farmers in the Ga
East Municipality. Data was collected by the use of the simple random sampling technique. All the poultry
farmers interviewed kept at least production and financial records. The chi-square test of independence showed
that farm record keeping was independent of age, educational level, experience in poultry farming, farmer status,
number of bi...

Enoch Kwame Tham-Agyekum; Patrick Appiah; Fred Nimoh

2010-01-01

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Diversity of shifting cultivation cycles among small-scale farmers in Peruvian Amazon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although shifting cultivation is practiced by millions of farmers, it is often blamed for caus-ing deforestation and keeping farmers in pov-erty. Our study focused on the Amazon basin, where small-scale farmers widely practice shift- ing cultivation. The objective was to identify the diversity in land use after initial slash-and- burn land clearing among migrant peasants. Our research aimed at documenting typical crop sequences, plant species composition and specific lengths of particular pha...

Bohdan Lojka; Jan Banout; Lucie Banoutova; Vladimir Verner; Patrick Van Damme

2011-01-01

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Economic Efficiency of Small Scale Farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassava holds a prominent position as a food and industrial crop in the Nigerian economy. Thus, there are government initiatives to support its mass production for domestic use and export. This study investigated the efficiencies of cassava production in Odeda Local Government of Ogun State. A random sample of 200 cassava producers was taken and subjected to budgetary and stochastic frontier analyses. Results indicated that most of the farmers were male (90% with more than half (53% above 50 years of age. Land holding by inheritance (78% was prevalent. The gross margin and profit were N105, 775 and N95. 738,10 respectively. Cost ratio (1.8 and percentage profit (80% indicated that cassava farming was profitable in the area. Total variable and labour costs were 91.6% and 68.2% of the total cost respectively. The return to scale was 1.024. Farm size (0.771 and quantity of planting stakes (0.203 significantly (p ? 0.01 affected cassava production. Age and farming experience contributed to technical inefficiency while cost of fertilizer, cost of herbicides, membership of cooperative and level of education enhanced technical efficiency. Efficiency of cassava growers ranged between 88.69 and 100 with a mean of 89.4. It was concluded that cassava production was highly profitable in the area and farmers operated with maximum efficiency given the current technology. Farmers were advised to reduce labour costs and thus increase profit margin.

Adeyemo, R.

2010-01-01

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Can Cultivars from participatory plant breeding improve seed provision to small-scale farmers?  

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Seed provision for small-scale farmers deals with multiple constraints. These include, on the supply side, high seed production costs and poor adaptedness of the cultivars, and on the demand side, anticyclical demand and low and variable sales. Approaches to improve seed provision to this sector of farmers have so far not been very successful. This paper discusses how well-adapted cultivars developed through participatory plant breeding (PPB) initiatives create new opportunities for productio...

Almekinders, C. J. M.; Thiele, G.; Danial, D. L.

2007-01-01

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Assessing Farm Record Keeping Behaviour among Small-Scale Poultry Farmers in the Ga East Municipality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study sought to investigate the farm record keeping behaviour among small-scale poultry farmers in the GaEast Municipality. Data was collected by the use of the simple random sampling technique. All the poultryfarmers interviewed kept at least production and financial records. The chi-square test of independence showedthat farm record keeping was independent of age, educational level, experience in poultry farming, farmer status,number of birds owned by respondents and respondents’ membership of a farmer association. The reason whymost of the farmers did not keep all the farm records was because they assert that those records were notbeneficial to them. An award for the best farm record keeper must be instituted by the Ministry of Food andAgriculture (MoFA in collaboration with other non-governmental agencies to help boost farmers’ interest inkeeping farm records.

Enoch Kwame Tham-Agyekum

2010-11-01

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Securing household income among small-scale farmers in Kakamega district: Possibilities and limitations of diversification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the debate of sustainable rural livelihoods, diversification is seen as a way to secure incomes and to increase food security. On the basis of a data set on income security, this paper analyses to what extent this applies to small-scale farmers in Kakamega District, Kenya. Using the sustainable rural livelihoods approach, this paper draws the conclusion, that (1) diversification in agricultural production is not sufficient for securing rural livelihoods in Kakamega District; (2) a sufficie...

Dose, Henriette

2007-01-01

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Worth assessment of information and their access points by small scale cassava farmers in Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This study determined the access, worth assessment and use of information by small-scale farmers in Oyo State. The study described socio-economic characteristics of small-scale cassava farmers; ascertained information access point preferences and analyzed information worth assessment. A multi stage [...] sampling was used to select 360 respondents and data were collected through pre-tested and face validated questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.88. The results show that majority of the cassava farmers (76.4%) had low access to information and 85.6% rated cassava innovation packages as of low worth. The most frequently used access point is oral communication (83%), which was also rated highest in motivation ability (77.7%), regularity (96.3%) and relevance of information (83.4%). Radio was rated as the most persistent (68.5%). social participation, farm size and use of hired labour had a statistically significant effect on access to information (p

B., Osikabor; I. O., Oladele; I, Ogunlade.

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A Comparative Study of Marketing Problems Faced by Small-scale Crop Farmers in Botswana and Kenya. Is There a Way out?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most governments in third world countries including sub Saharan Africa, tend to either neglect or fail to the avail the necessary resources to small-scale farmers to enable such farmers attain any meaningful development. The small-scale farmers contribute the biggest percentage of the national food requirement compared to large-scale farmers who produce largely for international markets. Besides, small-scale farmers contribute to the creation of employment, development of agro-based industrie...

Mburu, P. T.; Massimo, S. K.

2005-01-01

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Diversity of shifting cultivation cycles among small-scale farmers in Peruvian Amazon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although shifting cultivation is practiced by millions of farmers, it is often blamed for caus-ing deforestation and keeping farmers in pov-erty. Our study focused on the Amazon basin, where small-scale farmers widely practice shift- ing cultivation. The objective was to identify the diversity in land use after initial slash-and- burn land clearing among migrant peasants. Our research aimed at documenting typical crop sequences, plant species composition and specific lengths of particular phases of shifting cultivation cycles on the basis of farmers re-lated field histories. Land use was examined in two settlements: Antonio Raimondi and Pimen-tal in Ucayali region, Peru. Data was gathered via semi-structured questionnaires that focused on the socio-demographic characterization of agriculture-dependent households and their land use characteristics. More in-depth as-sessments of crop occurrence, cropping se-quence and length of the different shifting cul-tivation cycles were conducted on 114 fields in Pimental and 44 fields in Antonio Raimondi. In-terview analysis showed that in both villages, forest cover has substantially decreased over the last 10 years. Results also indicate consid-erable variation in swidden-fallow systems. Whereas settlers in Antonio Raimondi plant annual crops after slashing and burning the forest, settlers in Pimental gave more impor-tance to perennial crops. Progress in deforesta-tion and land degradation is relatively more pronounced in the younger settlement (Antonio Raimondi. These differences are likely caused by the different social backgrounds of settlers and histories of each site. Small-scale farmers in the study area are now facing a problem with the transition from shifting cultivation to sed-entary farming. Farmers in areas with a preva-lence of annual cropping use a significantly shorter fallow period, which causes a higher rate of forest degradation. As annual cropping seems to be unsustainable in relation with for-est degradation, farmers should either use a longer natural fallow to sustain longer cropping cycles, or shift to tree-based land use systems.

Patrick Van Damme

2011-05-01

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Resource Use and Technical Efficiency of Small Scale Poultry Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis  

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The study examined the factors that affect poultry production among small scale poultry farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria. Thirty six respondents were sampled from a list of poultry farmers derived from Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme Office. The Cob Douglas stochastic production function was used to determine factors that affect poultry output as well as the factors that affect the technical efficiency of poultry production. Farm size (p = 0.05), capital input (p = 0.01), labour...

2011-01-01

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Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. Further potential for earning carbon credits and generating Payments for Environmental Services (PES) lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrubland and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. These studies indicate that funds raised from PES could be used to foster the development of small-scale farming in northern Namibia. However, the limited information on soil quality and the rationale for particular soil management and land use practices applied by small-scale farmers in Namibia prohibits a conclusive assessment of the potential of Payment for PES as a source of income or funding opportunity for development initiatives in Northern Central Regions of Namibia. Therefore, the aim of this study is the identification of potential intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of PES in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The work in Namibia aimed at identifying existing soil management and land use practices as well as soil quality, including carbon stocks, on land used by small-scale farmers in the densely populated northern central region. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of farming practices and soil quality as well as sampling and interviewing approaches. Four settlements were selected for the field work based on their distance to the urbanized road corridor between Oshakati and the Angolan border. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity on land used by small-scale farmers as well as the opportunity to develop landscape carbon stocks. However, limits to earning PES might be the lack of a market, and thus incentive for the farmers, to shift from subsistence to commercial farming.

Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Asino, Josefina; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

2013-04-01

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Fruit germplasm resources and demands for small scale farmers post-tsunami and conflicts in nanggroe aceh darussalam province, Indonesia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Civil conflicts and the December 2004 tsunami have impeded the development of local fruit germplasm despite the inherent high quality and potential of Aceh's fruit germplasm. Most of Aceh communities are composed of small scale farmers with land ownership averaging from 0.25 to 4 ha per capita; they plant various trees species (fruits, rubber, cocoa, etc.) in a mixed-tree based system (agroforestry) with extensive management. In Aceh' village markets most fruit is produced by local farmers. Increased prices for fruits in the Aceh region has urged the farmers to enhance their fruit production by planting more fruit trees. Farmers prefer to plant tree species that have good market prices and are easy to domesticate, such as durian, rambutan, mango and duku. However, currently farmers have limited access to good quality fruit seedlings. Farmers with financial resources buy seedlings from Medan while most cash-limited farmers produce seedlings themselves. Farmers need good quality fruit germplasm resources if they are going to produce high-quality seedlings. As part of the post-tsunami and conflict rehabilitation activities in Aceh region, we inventoried fruit germplasm resources (both indigenous and introduced cultivars) and demands in Aceh as a source for livelihood and to ensure food security (nutritional standpoint) particularly of the local community. The work was completed through discussion with local stakeholders (farmers, governments, universities) and by direct observation. In this paper, we list the fruit germplasm resources' location and condition in Aceh and how small scale farmers could access and use it to improve their fruit production. © 2013 ISHS.

Martini, Enrica; Roshetko, J.M.

2013-01-01

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Resource Use and Technical Efficiency of Small Scale Poultry Farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis  

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Full Text Available The study examined the factors that affect poultry production among small scale poultry farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria. Thirty six respondents were sampled from a list of poultry farmers derived from Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme Office. The Cob Douglas stochastic production function was used to determine factors that affect poultry output as well as the factors that affect the technical efficiency of poultry production. Farm size (p = 0.05, capital input (p = 0.01, labour input (p = 0.05, quantity of feed used (p = 0.05 as well as drugs and veterinary services (p = 0.05 were the major factors that determined poultry output while age of farmer (p = 0.05, production systems (p = 0.1, farming experience (p = 0.1 and educational status (p = 0.1 determined the technical efficiency of poultry production. The mean technical efficiency of poultry production by small scale poultry farmers in Enugu State, Nigeria is 62%, implying that there are yet about 38% of chances for improvement on the technical efficiency of production. Given the existing technology of the poultry farmers, proper management that bears in mind the use of improved breeds and increased education of the poultry farmers on current techniques of production are policy measures that could help improve on the technical efficiency of poultry production in the study area.

P.C. Ike

2011-01-01

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Climate Variability and Land-use Change in Danangou Watershed, China. Examples of Small-Scale Farmers' Adaptation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With global concern on climate change impacts, developing countries are given special attention due their susceptibility. In this paper, change and variability in climate, land use and farmers' perception, adaptation and response to change are examined in Danangou watershed in the Chinese Loess Plateau. The first focus is to look at how climate data recorded at meteorological stations recently have evolved, and how farmers perceived these changes. Further, we want to see how the farmers respond and adapt to climate variability and what the resulting impact on land use is. Finally, other factors causing change in land use are considered. Local precipitation and temperature instrumental data and interview data from farmers were used. The instrumental data shows that the climate is getting warmer and drier, the latter despite large interannual variability. The trend is seen on the local and regional level. Farmers' perception of climatic variability corresponds well with the data record. During the last 20 years, the farmers have become less dependent on agriculture by adopting a more diversified livelihood. This adaptation makes them less vulnerable to climate variability. It was found that government policies and reforms had a stronger influence on land use than climate variability. Small-scale farmers should therefore be considered as adaptive to changing situations, planned and non-consciously planned.

Hageback, J.; Sundberg, J. [Department of Earth Sciences, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg (Sweden); Ostwald, M. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 54-1411, 77 Mass Ave, MA, 02139 (United States); Chen, D. [Laboratory for Climate Studies at National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing (China); Yun, X. [Department of Resource and Environment Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Knutsson, P. [Section of Human Ecology, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg (Sweden)

2005-09-01

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Small scale farmers’ access to and participation in markets : The case of the P4P program in western Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis is to understand how small scale farmers navigate the market to access and participate in the formal maize market to improve their revenue, utilising the case of the P4P program inKenya. The empirical material was collected during fieldwork in Kenya. Qualitative methods were found to be the most suitable for this thesis. The methods that was utilised were a case study strategy, semi structured interviews, focus groups, observations and analysis of secondary sources....

Skjo?ldevald, Maja

2012-01-01

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Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. However, at the current price for a ton of carbon, the potential to earn significant carbon credits is limited. Therefore carbon storage should not be seen as a goal in itself. Potential for earning carbon credits and generating further benefits lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrub land and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. Therefore, soil management has to be addressed from a holistic understanding of the livelihoods of small-scale farmers. This includes a detailed understanding of the constraints in farming, as well as the motivation behind farming. The aim of this study is the identification of intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of soil quality, farm management and the constraints and motivations regarding farming. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity of land while at the same time building up landscape carbon stocks. They furthermore show the importance of carefully choosing the way new farming techniques are introduced, as many farmers are afraid of trying something new.

Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Böller, Marianne; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

2014-05-01

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EFFECT OF MICRO FINANCE ON POVERTY REDUCTION OF SMALL SCALE FARMERS OF PAKISTAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study revealed the impact of micro finance with regard to poverty alleviation, employment generation opportunities, upraise in the standards of living of the small farmers of Pakistan along with the access of such finances and their financial cost. Small farmers often rely on the loans and finance from the formal and informal sources of finance. There is low rate of sustainability in the micro finance sector. These schemes remain for a small time period. Another challenge is that there i...

2013-01-01

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A Comparative Study of Marketing Problems Faced by Small-scale Crop Farmers in Botswana and Kenya. Is There a Way out?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most governments in third world countries including sub Saharan Africa, tend to either neglect or fail to the avail the necessary resources to small-scale farmers to enable such farmers attain any meaningful development. The small-scale farmers contribute the biggest percentage of the national food requirement compared to large-scale farmers who produce largely for international markets. Besides, small-scale farmers contribute to the creation of employment, development of agro-based industries, improvement of social welfare and the contribution to economic advancement of most developing countries. The development of this sector depends mainly on the availability of ready markets particularly the development of the marketing mix using the original 4P`s of marketing. Any business aims at offering consumers needed products that are competitive, available, well packaged and distributed according to consumer preferences. Pricing, distribution and promotion issues should also be incorporated in order to boost sales of locally produced products in preference to imported goods. With proper management and marketing improvement in this sector, most African countries could increase food production and cease to be dependent on food relief aid from donors. A comparative study approach was used to compile this study comparing the problems of small-scale farmers in Botswana and Kenya. We made use of available secondary data form publications in the two countries. This study aimed at finding out whether marketing problems faced by small-scale farmers in Botswana also affect their Kenyan counterparts and suggest possible solutions.

P.T. Mburu

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Resource Use Efficiency of Turkish Small Scale Dairy Farmers Supported Through Cooperatives in Cukurova Region, Turkey  

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Full Text Available Technical efficiencies of cooperative member dairy farmers in Cukurova region were estimated with a stochastic frontier model. Effects of several factors on technical efficiency were analyzed. Farms were grouped based on their efficiency scores. Unit milk costs and gross margins per head cow were calculated for each farm group to give a sense what efficiency means in terms of some farm economic criteria. Concentrate feed and capital costs were found to have statistically significant contributions to milk production. Farm location, herd size, farming experience, on-farm feed growing, milking by equipment and grazing had effects on efficiency. However, only positive effect of farming experience and negative effect of grazing were statistically significant. Results show that 75% of the variation in milk production can be attributed to inefficiency. Mean efficiency score of the sample farms was estimated to be 68% implying there is plenty of scope to increase production under existing technology without incurring higher costs. Lower unit costs of milk and higher gross returns of efficient farmers show that technical efficiency is an important component of competitiveness. It was concluded that farmers should be encouraged and supported to increase use of concentrate feed and decrease share of grazing for obtaining higher milk yields. However, in the long run structural enhancements are required to transform small subsistence farms into more market oriented units. Economic analyses show that many farmers cannot cover full economic costs but they can still generate farm income since family labor does not incur cash costs.

Hilal Yilmaz

2011-01-01

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Tick control by small-scale cattle farmers in the central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa  

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A survey conducted in 5 magisterial districts involving rapid rural appraisal and a questionnaire showed participation in state-managed and funded dipping programmes by cattle owners in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape to be nearly complete, with 98 % of livestock owners interviewed participating in all dipping events. Disease control was the main reason for participation, but farmers perceive dipping to have a much broader disease-preventing activity than is really the case. Other ...

2012-01-01

23

Climate Change in the High Andes:implications and adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers  

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Abstract: Global climate change represents a major threat to sustainable farming in the Andes. Farmers have used local ecological knowledge and intricate production systems to cope, adapt and reorganize to meet climate uncertainty and risk, which have always been a fact of life. Those traditional systems are generally highly resilient, but the predicted effects, rates and variability of climate change may push them beyond their range of adaptability. This article examines the extent of actual...

Perez, C.; Nicklin, C.; Dangles, O.; Vanek, S.; Sherwood, S. G.; Halloy, S.; Garrett, K. A.; Forbes, G. A.

2010-01-01

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The influence of intervening variables and subjective norms on the adoption behavior of small scale farmers in South Africa and Lesotho  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main research problem is the low productivity of small scale maize farmers largely as a result of low adoption rates of recommended practices that could enhance yield levels and improve their incomes and livelihoods, and the inability of extension workers to effectively influence farmers’ decision making process by their lack of appropriate predictive extension planning tools. The problem faced by extension workers is the lack of understanding of the wants and needs of farmers, their pr...

2013-01-01

25

Tick control by small-scale cattle farmers in the central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa  

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Full Text Available A survey conducted in 5 magisterial districts involving rapid rural appraisal and a questionnaire showed participation in state-managed and funded dipping programmes by cattle owners in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape to be nearly complete, with 98 % of livestock owners interviewed participating in all dipping events. Disease control was the main reason for participation, but farmers perceive dipping to have a much broader disease-preventing activity than is really the case. Other reasons for participation in dipping programmes were to prevent ticks from sucking blood, provide animals with a clean appearance, and prevent damage to teats of cows. Many livestock owners complement dipping with other tick control measures, including old motor oil, household disinfectant, pour-on acaricide and manual removal of ticks. Recently local farming communities were given the responsibility of buying dipping acaricide. This has presented them with the challenge of developing farmer-managed, cost-effective tick control programmes. At present, this process is constrained by lack of information and farmer training.

P.J. Masika

2012-07-01

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EFFECT OF MICRO FINANCE ON POVERTY REDUCTION OF SMALL SCALE FARMERS OF PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available This study revealed the impact of micro finance with regard to poverty alleviation, employment generation opportunities, upraise in the standards of living of the small farmers of Pakistan along with the access of such finances and their financial cost. Small farmers often rely on the loans and finance from the formal and informal sources of finance. There is low rate of sustainability in the micro finance sector. These schemes remain for a small time period. Another challenge is that there is a need of replicable and scalable model. There is also a requirement of formalization of informal credit source which count for higher. There is high need of reducing the ambiguities in obtaining the credit from these sources. With respect to agriculture, the proportion of finance should be increase with the proportion to its contribution to the economy. The data for this study has been collected through a selfstructured questionnaire and respondents are small farmers who are availing the micro finance facility for any source; informal, formal or semi – informal. The data collected form 150 respondent from Sahiwal and Multan Region. The data has been analyzed through regression and correlation method with the use of SPSS for checking the relationship and impact of micro finance on the living of poor and employment generation. This paper also concluded that the financial cost of such finances is having significant role on the success of such schemes. The research is a contribution to the financial sector to set their focus according to the quality and quantity of micro credit to the agriculture sector.

Zaheer Ahmad SAEED

2013-01-01

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Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Production Efficiency and Constraints Among Small Scale Farmers in Southern Kaduna, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe is mostly grown in southern Kaduna Sate, the traditional home of ginger in Nigeria. Its production was boosted with the aim of generating internal trade for the people and improved foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria. However, ginger yields in Nigeria are comparatively very low; and this is ascribed to various factors such as poor agronomic practices, unimproved varieties, laborious farming, harvesting and processing operations amongst others. It is against this background that this study carried out to examine the production, constraints and efficiency of production amongst the predominantly poor, rural farmers in the ginger production areas of southern Kaduna, Nigeria. Results showed that, the elasticity of production, farm size (1.21, ginger seed (2.19, fertilizer (0.06 and labor (0.09 are positive and had a significant effect on ginger production in the study area. The estimated coefficient of age (0.004, farming experience (-0.003, education (-0.02 and ginger variety (-0.28 were significant; while that of household size (0.007 was not significant. The fore-most problems affecting ginger production are risk and uncertainties (81.56%, inadequate supply of fertilizer (80.31%, lack of modern farm equipment (76.25%, and lack of credit facilities (74.1%. The technical efficiency of ginger farmers ranged between 0.74 and 1.00; with a mean technical efficiency of 0.82. On the whole, this result suggests that the technical efficiency in ginger production in the area could be further increased by 18% through better use of available resources, given the current state of technology. It can be concluded that specific factors such as age, household size, year of farming experience, and the narrow gene pool (variety of ginger planted, contributed positively to the technical and allocative efficiencies of ginger producers in the region. Ginger farmers could be said to be inefficient in the use of resources and/ or were under-utilizing their resources/input. Evidently, they can still use more resources to increase the output of ginger. Without a doubt, addressing these technical deficiencies and/ or inefficiencies could, in effect, boost ginger production, with the concomitant multiplier effect of increasing the profitability of the entire enterprise and up-liftment of the socio-economic living conditions of these predominantly, low technology base and resource poor farmers of the Southern Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Titilayo J. Ayodele

2014-07-01

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Assessment of Small Scale Farmers’ Skills Regarding Integrated Pest Management (IPM in District Sargodha-Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Asurvey study was conducted to assess the knowledge/awareness level in IPM technology among farmers. Fourvillages were randomly selected from Sargodha district fordata collection. Thirteen farmers from each village wereselected randomly and sample size was 52 respondents. Morethan 92% of respondents have no advisory services eitherfrom public or private sector. The findings imply that respondentsneed knowledge for all levels of competence in IPM technology.They need to get high-level of competence for application ofthis technology in the field. In addition, they have littleexposure to long-term training opportunities due to loweducation level for applications of this technology. More than77% of respondents think that government agricultural policiesand no access to information sources regarding integrated pestmanagement at grass-root level are main constraints. Thefindings from correlation and regression analyses indicate thatage and knowledge/awareness level are negatively correlated.It may be concluded that elder respondents have less adaptabilityto new ideas and techniques as compared to young respondents.However, training and information, education, and experienceplay a significant role in enhancing the knowledge/awarenesslevel of respondents in IPM technology.

Ejaz Ashraf

2012-12-01

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ANALYSIS OF PIG PROFILES ON SMALL-SCALE PIG FARMERS IN MANOKWARI-WEST PAPUA  

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Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the profiles of pig farming systems. Participatory situation analysis was employed to gain data relating to pig profiles in the urban and rural areas of Manokwari. Due to the interests of combining many correlated data, multivariate analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA was performed. Cluster Analysis using Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering was applied for analysis of merge samples based on similarity in components’ composition across sites. There were various twelve classes of pig profiles in Manokwari. In principal component of the first axis correlation of several components shows strong positive relation e.g. in piglets, sows, and total herd size. Status of region in the first axis of PCA (P1 through which pigs were raised had negative correlation, including grower, household member and pig production. In the second axis (P2, negative correlations were shown in piglets, grower, boars, total herd size and the Pig Production Potential (PPP. Status of region has underpinned profiles of pigs. Several farmers were able to manage their farm continuity in a steady composition. Selling pigs was the main aim and few farmers play a role as pure breeder.

D. A. Iyai

2011-09-01

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Factors influencing the success of small-scale irrigation farmers in the Komati Down-stream Development Project (KDDP) in Swaziland  

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The main aims of instituting the Komati Downstream Development Project (KDDP) by the Government of Swaziland were to overcome rural poverty and to increase the contribution of Communal Titled Land (CTL) towards the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This was to be achieved through the intensification and commercialization of small-scale sugarcane irrigation farming in the rural areas. Subsistence farmers were encouraged to pool their resources and form farmers’ association (FAs) or c...

2013-01-01

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Factors influencing the success of small-scale irrigation farmers in the Komati Down-stream Development Project (KDDP) in Swaziland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main aims of instituting the Komati Downstream Development Project (KDDP) by the Government of Swaziland were to overcome rural poverty and to increase the contribution of Communal Titled Land (CTL) towards the countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This was to be achieved through the intensification and commercialization of small-scale sugarcane irrigation farming in the rural areas. Subsistence farmers were encouraged to pool their resources and form farmers association (FAs) or co-oper...

2013-01-01

32

Allocative efficiency constraints in snail (Archachatina marginata production by small scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study examined constraints militating against the profitability potentials of snail (Archachatina marginata production by small-scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 120 respondents in the study area by means of structured and semi-structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of three (Ogoja, Ikom and Odukpani local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State, Nigeria. This was followed by random selection of three villages (Igoli in Ogoja Local Government Area, Alesi in Ikom Local Government Area and Adiabo in Odukpani Local Government Area in Cross River State. The respondents were randomly selected from each of the villages, 40 respondents were selected each from three villages, making a total number of 120 respondents. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and costs returns analysis. The results indicated that Cobb-Douglas production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of snail and inputs used, the coefficient of multiple determinant (R2=0.60 indicates that sixty percent of the variability in output of snail is explained by the independent variables. Results from the analysis revealed that the marginal value products of farm size, labour, farm management practices and operating costs were N1080, N20.6, N972.8, N14.84 respectively, there existed allocative inefficiency, there is a high potential for snail farmers to increase their yields and income. Further analysis of results revealed that net returns on snail is N2,935,000.00 with return on every naira invested of N0.14 is also positive indicating a profit from the business, with attractive net return on investment. This study shows that snail farmers are faced with several problems in their production activities. These problems or constraints affect the efficiency of snail production in the study area. Notable among them are high cost of feed supplement, lack of capital, inaccessibility of formal credit source because lack of collaterals, lack of extension agents, lack of medication/vaccines, poor production infrastructures and lack of good farm management practices occupied 15%, 14.17%,11.67%,10%,9.17%,9.17% and 8.33% respectively. The constraints associated with the business as highlighted in this paper if tackled could pave a way to increase profit and this will alleviate poverty in Cross River State. Hence, forefficient production of snail in the study area, these constraints must be drastically reduced to the barest minimum. This can be done through efficient policy formulation and implementation, proper supervision of snail production programme, effective extension services and proper agricultural financing. Snail farmers in the study area should be train by extension agents on how to control some of constraints that militate against the profitability potential of snail production. Beside that snail farmers should form cooperative group (s in order to obtain loans from bank (s to increase their capital base for higher output.

H. A. Ibekwe

2011-11-01

33

An analysis of the Mngcunube "hands-on” mentorship program for small-scale stock farmers in the Eastern Cape, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The Elundini program included small-scale livestock farmers in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The program's data analyses and the impact on farmers and the economy were evaluated. Since program inception, sheep mortality decreased from >20% to 3%. Lamb weaning rates were approximately one lamb for [...] every two ewes (50%). Farmers' annual income increased from R650.00 to R20,956.00 (R1.00~ $0.15) with a total net gain of >R56 million for the region. Strict mentor management principles and payment for services were fundamental to the program's success. The impact of the program was immediately apparent and farmers were willing to pay for mentorship and treatments, provided they experience the benefits.

A J, Jordaan.

34

Allocative efficiency constraints in snail (Archachatina marginata) production by small scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined constraints militating against the profitability potentials of snail (Archachatina marginata) production by small-scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 120 respondents in the study area by means of structured and semi-structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of three (Ogoja, Ikom and Odukpani) local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State, Nigeria. This was...

2011-01-01

35

Precipitins against microbes in mouldy hay in the sera of farmers with farmer's lung or chronic bronchitis and of healthy farmers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine which precipitins against four antigens in 2,440 farmers are associated with the occurrence of farmer's lung (FL). The antigen panel consisted of mycelial antigens of Micropolyspora faeni, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus umbrosus. As reference groups we used healthy farmers and those with chronic bronchitis. For the occurrence of precipitins against the four antigens there was a statistically significant difference between farmers with FL and healthy farmers but not between farmers with chronic bronchitis and healthy farmers. In a stepwise logistic linear regression analysis, farmers with FL and chronic bronchitis were compared to healthy farmers with respect to precipitins to the four antigens. Precipitins against Thermoactinomyces vulgaris differentiated farmers with FL (p less than 0.05) but not farmers with chronic bronchitis from healthy farmers. In Finland the occurrence of FL seems to be associated mainly with precipitins against Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, not with precipitins against Micropolyspora faeni as in Great Britain, and not with precipitins of Aspergillus umbrosus, which occurred most frequently in the sera of Finnish farmers. This association is in accordance with the exposure to spores of airborne moulds in farmers' work environment, where spore concentrations of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris have been measured to be about six times higher than those of Micropolyspora faeni. PMID:3478211

Husman, K; Vohlonen, I; Terho, E O; Mäntyjärvi, R A

1987-01-01

36

What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

2009-01-01

37

Efforts by Small-Scale Farmers to Maintain Soil Fertility and Their Impacts on Soil Properties, Luwero District, Uganda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Low soil fertility remains a major reason for rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. In light of the need to set priorities and formulate development policies, this study investigates efforts by farmers in central Uganda to maintain soil fertility, factors affecting their capacity to act and impacts on soil fertility parameters. Using questionnaire-based interviews and soil chemical analyses, information from 60 randomly selected farms was collected in four subcounties. Farmers use traditional ...

2006-01-01

38

A method for evaluating climate change adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers using survey, experimental and modeled data  

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Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is predicted to experience considerable negative impacts of climate change. The IPCC Fourth Assessment emphasizes that adaptation strategies are essential. Addressing adaptation in thecontext of small-scale, semi-subsistence agriculture raises special challenges. High data demands includingsite-specific bio-physical and economic data are an important constraint. This paper applies a newapproach to impact assessment, the Tradeoff Analysis model for Multi-Dimensional Im...

Claessens, L. F. G.; Antle, J. M.; Stoorvogel, J. J.; Valdivia, R. O.; Thornton, P. K.; Herrero, M.

2012-01-01

39

Small-scale agriculture in a global market: A comparative case study of Bolivian farmers participating in agrifood supply chains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As globalisation draws products from around the world into streamlined value-chains, consumers are simultaneously less connected to the provenance of their food and upstream actors in that chain. Actors such as agrifood producers have little authority to influence the chain or make a viable living from it. Yet the alternatives for many producers in the developing world are often more constricting. This paper compares the barriers faced by small-scale producers in lowland Bolivia before and af...

Tegelberg, Catherine Christina

2009-01-01

40

Analysis of the effects of Zimbabwean white farmers on small scale farming in Nigeria Análisis de los efectos de la presencia de agricultores blancos de Zimbabwe en la agricultura a pequeña escala en Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many observers believe that the on-going liberalization of the world will have dramatic negative effects on small farmers in both developed and developing countries. This study aims to capture the effects of the presence of foreign migrant farmers on small scale farm­ing systems, which are prevalent in Nigeria. The Agricultural Development Project Zone D in which the white farmers settled in the state of Kwara, was used as a case study. Primary data were col...

Matthew Olaniyi Adewumi; Ayodele Jimoh; Olubunmi Abayomi Omotesho

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Convergence of Sciences: the management of agricultural research for the small scale farmers in Benin and Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Convergence of Sciences programme (CoS) addresses the sub-optimal impact of science on the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers in West Africa, particularly in Benin and Ghana where it operates. CoS aims to develop insights into the pathways through which investment in science and technology can improve rural lives. To this end, CoS features participatory experimental and action research by eight PhD students, who each develop technologies and institutional arrangements with groups of far...

2006-01-01

42

Helping small-scale farmers in the semi-arid tropics: Linking participatory research, traditional research and simulation modelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim was to link necessary research skills to increase the range of options available to resource-poor farmers in the study area. The research consisted of on-station research to evaluate and understand cropping-system options resulting from insertion of a legume crop into the sorghum and castor system, on-farm research whereby farmers evaluate cropping-system options that are of interest to them, use of 15N as a label to help understand the nitrogen (N) balance of the various options, and cropping-systems simulation to examine long-term climatic risks from possible options. Particular attention was placed on the option of sorghum/pigeon pea intercrops, and on quantifying the inputs of N from animal manure and by the pigeon-pea component. We were also interested in the process of linking on-station to on-farm research, and simulation modelling to the cropping system research. One important outcome was that different groups identified different problems and posed different questions. The problems identified and questions raised were examined by use of scenario analyses run for ten to thirty years which contrasted the existing practice with a range of alternative practices. The simulations were useful in guiding the design of on-farm experiments. Other likely outcomes are the setting of low-rate fertilizer recommendations specifically for the semi-arid tropics, the marketing of small packs of fertilizers, and increased use of manure resources for crop production. (author)

2005-10-01

43

Fishing Farmers or Farming Fishers? Fishing Typology of Inland Small-Scale Fishing Households and Fisheries Management in Singkarak Lake, West Sumatra, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood sources. The nature of their livelihood strategies is discussed for each identified group. This helps to understand the complexity and diversity of small-scale fishers, particularly in the study area which is still poorly known. This paper concludes with policy implication and possible management initiatives for environmentally prudent policy aiming at improvement of fishers' livelihood.

Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

2013-07-01

44

Induced innovation and productivity-enhancing, resource-conserving technologies in Central America : The supply of soil conservation practices and small-scale farmers? adoption in Guatemala and El Salvador  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim of the study is to investigate the adoption behavior of small-scale farmers in Central America with respect to soil conservation technologies that combine soil protection with productivity enhancing aspects. In two case studies, carried out in the Polochic Valley in Guatemala and the county of Nueva Concepción, El Salvador, farmers were surveyed with regard to soil erosion problems on their farm, the use of soil conservation practices and a number of household characteristics. Particular...

Zurek, Monika Barbara

2002-01-01

45

Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed, irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5–8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were <1,000 MPN per 100 mL irrigation water and <1,000 MPN per g of compost. The vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of <200/g set by the South African Department of Health at the time of sampling. E. coli MPN values for irrigation water and vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains.

Stefan Schmidt

2013-09-01

46

Appraisal of hygiene indicators and farming practices in the production of leafy vegetables by organic small-scale farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa).  

Science.gov (United States)

During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5-8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were <1,000 MPN per 100 mL irrigation water and <1,000 MPN per g of compost. The vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of <200/g set by the South African Department of Health at the time of sampling. E. coli MPN values for irrigation water and vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains. PMID:24065036

Mdluli, Fezile; Thamaga-Chitja, Joyce; Schmidt, Stefan

2013-09-01

47

Small-scale Farmer Access to International Agri-Food Chains : a BOP-Based Reflection on the Need for Socially Embedded Innovation in the Coffee and Flower Sector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Internationalisation of agro-food chains offers agricultural sectors in developing economies prospects in profitable and competitive international markets. Market access strategies often seem to assume poverty alleviation as one of the outcomes. This paper aims to be more precise about the required conditions for linking small-scale farmers and micro and small enterprises to markets and agri-food chains from a pro-poor perspective. In particular, the increasingly strong emphasis on compliance...

Danse, M. G.; Vellema, S.

2007-01-01

48

Small-Scale Farmers Land Use and Socioeconomic Situation in the Mount Elgon District in Northwestern Kenya : A Minor Field Study - Combined Field Mapping and Interview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Minor Field Study was carried out during November and December in 2011 in the Mount Elgon District in Western Kenya. The objective was to examine nine small-scale farming household´s land use and socioeconomic situation when they have joined a non-governmental organization (NGO) project, which specifically targets small-scale farming households to improve land use system and socioeconomic situation by the extension of soil and water conservation measures. The survey has worked along thr...

Kaati, Patrik

2011-01-01

49

Fish trade, food and income security: an overview of the constraints and barriers faced by small-scale fishers, farmers and traders in the Lower Mekong Basin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As riparian governments advoate freer trade and develop physical infrastructure, trade networks, including for aquatic living animals, trade will likely become more efficient through largers investment by fewer traders. Whether this trade efficiency and economic growth are accompanied with a progressive distributional change, among farmers and fishers, is currently under debate. Without a clearer policy agenda that reflects the diversity and social nature of fish trade relations at the local ...

Bush, S. R.; Le Nguyet Minh

2006-01-01

50

Fish trade, food and income security: an overview of the constraints and barriers faced by small-scale fishers, farmers and traders in the Lower Mekong Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As riparian governments advoate freer trade and develop physical infrastructure, trade networks, including for aquatic living animals, trade will likely become more efficient through largers investment by fewer traders. Whether this trade efficiency and economic growth are accompanied with a progressive distributional change, among farmers and fishers, is currently under debate. Without a clearer policy agenda that reflects the diversity and social nature of fish trade relations at the local ...

Bush, S. R.; Nguyet, M.

2005-01-01

51

Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65% of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

S.I. Orewa

2008-01-01

52

Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha) and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65%) of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

Orewa, S. I.

53

Small scale optics  

CERN Document Server

The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

Yupapin, Preecha

2013-01-01

54

Small scale and microdosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture, after explaining the limitations of the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) method, describes the small scale dosimetry for electrons and photons as well as the basis for the microdosimetry. The techniques for doses calculations are outlined

2004-08-09

55

Small scale windmill  

Science.gov (United States)

In this letter the authors report experimental results on an optimized small scale piezoelectric windmill, which can solve the problems associated with autonomous sensor networks in outdoor, remote or inaccessible locations. The whole structure of the windmill is made of plastic, and it utilizes 18 piezoelectric bimorphs which makes this design extremely cost effective. The windmill was tested at average wind speed of 10 miles/h and it provided 5 mW continuous power. The threshold wind speed for the windmill was found to be of the order of 5.4 miles/h. Further, the authors present analysis on two other windmill structures which illustrate the design parameters required for small scale windmill.

Myers, Robert; Vickers, Mike; Kim, Hyeoungwoo; Priya, Shashank

2007-01-01

56

Small-scale anaerobic digesters in Vietnam - development and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small-scale anaerobic digesters, known as biogas plants, were applied as an optimal livestock waste treatment as well as biogas supply for cooking and lighting demand for small-scale farmers in Vietnam. Although the biogas technology was introduced for nearly 30 years, the number of the constructed biogas plants is still limited. The current development of biogas plants is far below the real demand on livestock waste treatment that has increased significantly. This paper gives a comprehensive...

Nguyen, Vo Chau Ngan

2012-01-01

57

Current Scenario of the Small-scale Broiler Farming in Bangladesh: Potentials for the Future Projection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Bangladesh, there are two types of broiler farming of which contract broiler farming is still under trial while independent small-scale broiler farming is dominant and performed for the development of broiler sector. The present study examined the potentials of small-scale independent broiler farms and farmers’ economic behavior in relation to farm size. Farm size is found to be closely related to farmers’ behavior and attitude. Farmers’ behavior and attitude appeared to be very cruc...

Md. Saiful Islam; Sasaki Takashi; Kaniz Quamrun Nahar Chhabi

2010-01-01

58

Current Scenario of the Small-scale Broiler Farming in Bangladesh: Potentials for the Future Projection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Bangladesh, there are two types of broiler farming of which contract broiler farming is still under trial while independent small-scale broiler farming is dominant and performed for the development of broiler sector. The present study examined the potentials of small-scale independent broiler farms and farmers’ economic behavior in relation to farm size. Farm size is found to be closely related to farmers’ behavior and attitude. Farmers’ behavior and attitude appeared to be very crucial factor for the development of broiler production. The primary data were collected from the independent small-scale farms in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh. The results showed that independent small-scale broiler farming is a profitable venture for rural farmers. Farmers are involving in this sector because of lower investment, less space requirement, utilization of family labor and quick returns. To examine the farmers’ behavior, farmers were classified into two income goal groups in terms of total per capita income: a First Income Goal Group (FIGG and b Second Income Goal Group (SIGG. The economic behaviors of the farmers were differed by income goal groups. Most of the farmers belonging to the FIGG were interested to enlarge their farm size, the opposed trend has been observed in farmers of SIGG. Economic behavior and attitude should be considered in making any suggestion and recommendation for changing the existing level of small-scale broiler farming.

Kaniz Quamrun Nahar Chhabi

2010-01-01

59

Small-Scale Hydropower Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report covers several aspects of small-scale hydropower systems. The topics covered are: head and flow; waterwheels; impulse and reaction turbines; feasibility and practicality; environmental impact; and economics. 24 refs., 5 figs. (ERA citation 14:...

1988-01-01

60

Thai indigenous cattle production provide a sustainable alternative for the benefit of smallscale farmers, healthy food, and the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Thailand, there are 5.66 million Thai indigenous cattle and their crossbred derivatives (1.76 million cows). The Department of Livestock Development (DLD) has a policy to conserve and use Thai indigenous cattle as the genetic base for establishing and developing new breeds of beef cattle. The objectives of this study were to study the production performance, carcass quality, healthy food production, economic potential, and environmental impacts of four breeds of Thai indigenous cattle (Kow-Lamphun, Kho-Esarn, Kho-Lan, and Kho-Chon cattle). Data were collected from two studies: i) 1 220 cattle from an experimental trial in DLD part, and ii) 390 cattle kept by smallholders in Northern, Northeastern, Central, and Southern parts of Thailand between October 2004 and September 2008. Data were adjusted by group, location, month, and year to analyse for the above parameters. Kho-Lan and Kho-Esarn cattle had the highest weaning weight and preweaning daily weight gains while Kow-Lamphun cattle had the highest Omega 3 (8.98%) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) levels in their meat (0.02%), and produced the highest net incomes (306 915.80 Baht/y). Through the conservation and use policies of the DLD, Thai indigenous cattle provided various advantages for farmers, consumers, and environment. (author)

2009-06-08

 
 
 
 
61

Soil Properties as Influenced by Soil Fertility Management in Small Scale Maize Farms in Njoro, Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most farmers are aware of soil fertility gradients within their farms which influence their management decisions and further accentuate these variations. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of soil amendments on soil properties under farmers management. Soil sampling was done in 37 small scale maize farms in Njoro Division of Nakuru District at 0-20 cm depth. Results of a structured questionnaire showed that 65% of the farmers used inorganic fertilizers predominately diam...

Mungai, N. W.; Bationo, A.; Waswa, B.

2009-01-01

62

Economics of Small Scale Deep Litter System of Egg Production in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria  

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The general objective of this study is to examine the economics of small-scale deep litter system of egg production in Oredo Local Government Area Edo State, Nigeria. The Specific objectives are to determine the profitability in deep litter system of poultry production among small-scale farmers, to examine the socioeconomic characteristics of egg producers and to identify the constraints to egg production in the study area. Primary and secondary data were obtained from farmers. A purpo...

Ekunwe, P. A.; Soniregun, O. O.; Oyedeji, J. O.

2006-01-01

63

Are Small-Scale Irrigators Water Use Efficient? Evidence from Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

With increasing water scarcity and competing uses and users, water use efficiency is becoming increasingly important in many parts of developing countries. The lake Naivasha basin has an array of different water users and uses ranging from large scale export market agriculture, urban domestic water users to small holder farmers. The small scale farmers are located in the upper catchment areas and form the bulk of the users in terms of area and population. This study used farm household data to explore the overall technical efficiency, irrigation water use efficiency and establish the factors influencing water use efficiency among small scale farmers in the Lake Naivasha basin in Kenya. Data envelopment analysis, general algebraic and modeling system, and Tobit regression methods were used in analyzing cross sectional data from a sample of 201 small scale irrigation farmers in the lake Naivasha basin. The results showed that on average, the farmers achieved only 63 % technical efficiency and 31 % water use efficiency. This revealed that substantial inefficiencies occurred in farming operations among the sampled farmers. To improve water use efficiency, the study recommends that more emphasis be put on orienting farmers toward appropriate choice of irrigation technologies, appropriate choice of crop combinations in their farms, and the attainment of desirable levels of farm fragmentation.

Njiraini, Georgina W.; Guthiga, Paul M.

2013-11-01

64

Development of a small scale orange juice extractor.  

Science.gov (United States)

A small scale motorized orange juice extractor was designed and fabricated, using locally-available construction materials. The essential components of the machine include feeding hopper, top cover, worm shaft, juice sieve, juice collector, waste outlet, transmission belt, main frame, pulleys and bearings. In operation, the worm shaft conveys, crushes, presses and squeezes the fruit to extract the juice. The juice extracted is filtered through the juice sieve into juice collector while the residual waste is discharged through waste outlet. Result showed that the average juice yield and juice extraction efficiency were 41.6 and 57.4%, respectively. Powered by a 2 hp electric motor, the machine has a capacity of 14 kg/h. With a machine cost of about $100, it is affordable for small-scale citrus farmers in the rural communities. PMID:23572610

Olaniyan, A M

2010-01-01

65

Small Scale Farming and Agricultural Products Marketing for Sustainable Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural productions in developing countries have largely been on subsistence basis. The farmers only produce for their families and quantity of food produced are grossly inadequate for the growing population. There is increase widespread in the level of poverty amongst the people, most especially those living in the rural areas. Small scale farming has become one of the ways to tackle the problem of lack and poverty amongst these people. The paper therefore, examines how Small Scale farm...

Bamiduro, J. A.; Rotimi Ayodele Gbadeyan

2011-01-01

66

Wetland farming and small-scale informal irrigation in Malawi: the case of Shire Valley  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Historically, Malawi has depended on rain-fed agricultural systems. It is reported that the frequent droughts and unreliable rainfall since early 1990s have caused many small-scale farmers to turn to the wetlands as alternative sites for crop production. There they use low-cost farming methods and various forms of ‘informal’ irrigation. This study, to better understand the water management practices and the socioeconomic characteristics of the wetland farmers, was carried out in the Shire...

2009-01-01

67

Weed control practices on Costa Rican coffee farms: is herbicide use necessary for small-scale producers?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents research conducted during two coffee farming seasons in Costa Rica. The study examined coffee farmers' weed management practices and is presented in the form of a case study of small-scale farmers' use of labor and herbicides in weed management practices. Over 200 structured interviews were conducted with coffee farmers concerning their use of hired labor and family labor, weed management activities, support services, and expectations about the future of their coffee produ...

Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

2010-01-01

68

Small scale pelletizing equipment for agriculture; Smaaskalig pelleteringsanlaeggning foer lantbruket  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Refining agricultural raw materials is one way for farmers to increase the value of their products. For example, briquettes or pellets made from straw, reed canary grass or hemp can sell for a higher price than in loose or baled forms. The aim of this project was to develop and build a plant for small-scale production of pellets on the farm. Working together with the farmer, the plant would then be tested and adapted for small-scale production of pellets from straw, reed canary grass and hemp. The project also aimed to investigate and summarise suitable systems and solutions for breaking up bales in preparation for use in the pellets module. A pelleting system has been developed and built as a container module (measuring 6 x 2.80 x 2.50 m) by Sweden Power Chippers (SPC). The container system includes a fuel store with push floor, a grinder, an SPC pellet press (pp150, capacity 150 kg/hour for woodbased material), a conveyor belt and a cooling system. The practical operation of the plant was tested on two Swedish farms: Laattra gaard in Vingaaker and Ek gaard in Vara. The bales were broken up in preparation for pelleting using a straw mill of model Tomahawk 505M. The project has demonstrated that the SPC plant has the capacity to be used for agricultural pelleting of fuels from straw, canary reed grass and hemp. Some modification and continued adjustment of the feed system for the fuel remains to be done in order to optimise and ensure the reliability of the pelleting process. A certain amount of modifications to the plant is required to enable cost-effective transportation between different locations. Tests showed that each batch of fuel was unique, even from the same raw material, and that optimisation of the dies is necessary for each specific case. Training is required to run the plant. The farmers have been able to run the plant themselves, for example, starting up the plant, changing the sieve on the grinder, changing dies etc. In order for such small-scale pelleting plants to be economically viable, cheap raw materials or good prices for the final product (pellets) is necessary. The agricultural raw material that is currently considered to have the best economic potential for small-scale processing is straw (for bedding pellets). Since the plant is suitable for mobile use, it can be used for several purposes, for example production of bedding pellets in the autumn and fuel pellets in the spring and summer

Paulrud, Susanne (The Swedish Environmental Research Inst. Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)); Wallin, Mikael (Sweden Powers Chippers AB, Boraas (Sweden))

2009-06-15

69

Simplified small-scale backlight unit tester  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel design is the concept of using charge coupled device camera embedded with calibrated image processing algorithm as a two-dimensional luminance meter to measure the luminance and uniformity of small-scale backlight of unit. A small-scale backlight unit tester was successfully realized and performed to verify this concept

2007-11-01

70

Small scale structure on cosmic strings  

Science.gov (United States)

The current understanding of cosmic string evolution is discussed, and the focus placed on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. A physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms is presented. In this picture it can be seen how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. It is also argued that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small scale structure, which argued in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in the present understanding of cosmic string evolution.

Albrecht, Andreas

1989-01-01

71

Development of small-scale peat production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the project is to develop production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat production to such a level that the productivity is improved and the competitivity maintained. A questionnaire was sent to producers by mail, and its results were completed by phone interviews. Response was obtained from 164 producers i.e. from about 75-85 % of small-scale peat producers. The quantity of energy peat produced by these amounted for 3.3 TWh and that of other peat 265 000 m3. The total production of energy peat (large-scale producers Vapo Oy and Turveruuki Oy) amounted for 25.0 TWh in 1996 in Finland, of which 91 % (22.8 TWh) was milled peat and 9 % (2.2 TWh) of sod peat. The total production of peat other than energy peat amounted for 1.4 million m3. The proportion of small-scale peat production was 13 % of energy peat, 11 % of milled peat and 38 % of sod peat. The share of small-scale producers of other peat production was 18 %. The results deviate clearly from those obtained in a study of small-scale production in 1980s. The amount of small-scale production is clearly larger than generally assessed. Small-scale production focuses more on milled peat than on sod peat. (orig.) 8 refs. BIOENERGY Research Programme

1998-01-01

72

Development of small-scale production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the project was to develop production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat production to such a level that the productivity is improved and competitivity maintained. A questionnaire was sent to producers by mail, and its results were completed by phone interviews. Response was obtained from 164 producers, i.e. from about 75 - 85 % of small-scale peat producers. The quantity of energy peat produced by these amounted to 3.3 TWh and that of other peat to 265 000 m3. The total production of energy peat (large-scale producers Vapo Oy and Turveruukki Oy included) amounted to 25.0 TWh in 1996 in Finland, of which 91 % (22.8 TWh) was milled peat and 9 % (2.2 TWh) sod peat. The total production of peat other than energy peat amounted to 1.4 million m3. The proportion of small-scale peat production was 13 % of the energy peat, 11 % of milled peat and 38 % of sod peat. The proportion of small-scale producers was 18 % of the peat production. The results deviate clearly from those obtained in a study of small-scale production in the 1980s. The amount of small-scale production is clearly larger than generally assessed. Small-scale production focuses more on milled peat than on sod peat. (orig.)

1998-01-01

73

Small-scale explosive welding of aluminum  

Science.gov (United States)

Welding technique uses very small quantities of explosive ribbon to accomplish small-scale lap-welding of aluminum plates. Technique can perform small controlled welding with no length limitations and requires minimal protective shielding.

Bement, L. J.

1972-01-01

74

Small scale structure on cosmic strings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs.

Albrecht, A.

1989-10-30

75

Small scale structure on cosmic strings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs

1989-07-02

76

A Comparative Study of Selected Small Scale Irrigation (SSI Schemes in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine what variations exist in the measured attributes of farmers from different selected SSI schemes. Mechanization survey data collected between October 2005 and March 2007 from 12 SSI schemes with the aid of structured interview were statistically compared. The result showed considerable degree for variations in the socio-economic, agronomic and technological resources among 551 operators in the same ecological, cultural and linguistic zones of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Similar data collected between October 2007 and March 2008 were examined to quantify the differences in the attributes of literate and illiterate farmers. It was observed that the literate farmers have higher awareness, good management and willingness indices than illiterate farmers. Among others, education and training was recommended as a result of the important role they play in the efforts to mechanize Traditional Irrigation Practice (TIP in Small Scale Irrigation in developing countries.

Udom, I. J.

2010-12-01

77

Small scale and self generation opportunities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The opportunities created by new and improved small scale generation technology together with a changing regulatory environment will provide for a more open and competitive marketplace for electricity. Technological advances have made generation equipment more compact, efficient and cost effective. These factors combined with more open transmission and distribution access make it possible for customers to consider small scale and self generation options. An overview of generating equipment now available for small scale and self generation was presented. The primary uses and the viability of each technology was discussed. Fuel cells (or `green` energy) are a notable advancement in small scale generation options. They offer low emissions, high efficiency, quiet operation and low maintenance. Internal combustion or reciprocating gas and diesel engine-driven generators have a proven track record for standby and peak load applications. Combustion turbines for continuous self generation are yet another option available. Further changes that are necessary in order to provide an open competitive market for new small scale generation technologies were outlined. It was concluded that in a truly open market, power customers should have a choice of supplier or have the freedom to decide to generate their own electricity.

Bell, H. [Mercury Electric Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

1997-03-01

78

The Phenomenology of Small-Scale Turbulence  

Science.gov (United States)

I have sometimes thought that what makes a man's work classic is often just this multiplicity [of interpretations], which invites and at the same time resists our craving for a clear understanding. Wright (1982, p. 34), on Wittgenstein's philosophy Small-scale turbulence has been an area of especially active research in the recent past, and several useful research directions have been pursued. Here, we selectively review this work. The emphasis is on scaling phenomenology and kinematics of small-scale structure. After providing a brief introduction to the classical notions of universality due to Kolmogorov and others, we survey the existing work on intermittency, refined similarity hypotheses, anomalous scaling exponents, derivative statistics, intermittency models, and the structure and kinematics of small-scale structure - the latter aspect coming largely from the direct numerical simulation of homogeneous turbulence in a periodic box.

Sreenivasan, K. R.; Antonia, R. A.

79

Air emissions of small-scale (  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives of greenhouse gases emission reduction, which encourages bio-energy development for heat purposes, are compatible with air-quality policies if the concept of clean biomass combustion is applied. This paper presents actual emission levels of atmospheric pollutants of small-scale (2, NOx, fine particulate matters, metallic compounds. Installation design (power, flue-gas cleaning techno logy) also has a major impact on organic pollutants and fine particulate matter emissions. A large majority of boilers have very low emission levels. Guidelines are finally stated to keep on promoting small-scale biomass boilers in order to be air-quality compatible and efficient to fight climate change. (author)

2011-01-01

80

Organised Learning from Small-scale Incidents:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes the search for and findings about methods and mechanisms that help organisations to learn cost-effectively from (small-scale) accidents and other undesired operational surprises. As it shows, organisational learning from such incidents is feasible, but must be organised.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Practical design of small scale settling ponds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most commonly used method of meeting water-discharge standards is the use of one or more settling ponds. This article, prepared with the small-scale miner in mind, describes a practical design method and some points to note in the design, construction, operation and restoration of settling ponds. 5 figs.

Yardley, B.

1994-08-01

82

SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE  

Science.gov (United States)

A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

83

Small-Scale Distributions of Oceanic Diatoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sampling study was designed to investigate small-scale abundance fluctuations of diatoms over a distance of 10 miles. It was carried out at three depths in each of two oceanic environments of the North Pacific. Significant nonrandom distributions were o...

E. L. Venrick

1971-01-01

84

Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality), nutrition (balanced feed) r...

Ghaffar, A.

2010-01-01

85

Management of broadleaved weeds in small-scale in an on-farm perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An on-farm trial was conducted at eight different sites in Rongai and Njoro areas of Nakuru district and only six of the sites were finally harvested. The study was mainly to evaluate different weed control methods to offer a variety of recommendations for small scale wheat farmers. Of the treatments tested Buctril Mc out performed all the treatments except for Ariane. Cultural methods of control seemed to be inferior to almost all the chemical control. (author)

2001-11-01

86

Germination as a processing technique for soybeans in small-scale farming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heat processing is an effective way of reducing antinutritional factors (ANFs) in legumes, but requires expensive facilities and equipment. Accurate control of temperature is critical to avoid under- or overheating. Therefore, heat treatment of soybeans is not a viable option for the average small-scale farmer in remote areas. Germination and other traditional methods, namely soaking and dehulling, were evaluated as alternative processing methods for soybeans. The effect of the processing tre...

Kayembe, Ndonda Charles; Jansen Rensburg, Christine

2013-01-01

87

Profitability of Small Scale Broiler Production in Onitsha North Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out to establish the profitability of small scale broiler production in Onitsha north local government area of Anambra state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to determine the effects of socioeconomic characteristics of broiler producers on output and to estimate the returns of broiler enterprise in the study area. Primary data were collected from one hundred and thirty five (135) broiler farmers by use of well structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferen...

Ike, P. C.; Ugwumba, C. O. A.

2011-01-01

88

farmer survey  

This report contains the findings of a telephone survey conducted amongst ... The \\sample structure allows for analysis by farm type, farm size and by geographic ..... \\provide ideas and helped farmers make changes more effectively and to a.

89

Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small Scale Foundries (SSFs) have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individu...

Andrews, Anthony; Gikunoo, Emmanuel

2011-01-01

90

Small-scale hydro power in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present there are around 150 operating small-scale hydro power plants in Finland, the power generating capacity of which varies between 50 and 1000 kW. The annual output in terms of produced energy is about 270 GWh which accounts for only 0.5 % of the total consumption of electricity. The plants are mainly owned by electricity distributing companies and industry. There are numerous old dams and abandoned small hydro power stations, once used as power source for flour mills and saw mills. The role of overall energy economics is reviewed in this article, as well as the increase potential for small-scale hydro power and the international cooperation in this field. The potential for small-scale hydro power in Finland has been estimated to be 370 MW in 1580 falls, of which 45 MW is used at 150 stations. Easily exploitable sites, usually with abandoned station or dam were calculated to be around 80 MW, corresponding to an annual energy output at 350 GWh

91

The EMR small-scale flame test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The small-scale flame test used by EMR since 1957 for certification of fire-resistant conveyor belting has been critcally re-examined. Some improvements in the apparatus and clarifications of the procedure are recommended. A summary of the certification experience with this test is given. One important conclusion is that the proposed elimination of the 'flowing air' component of the test would allow the passing of unacceptable belting. The tolerances required for the various parameters of the test have been estimated by a detailed study on one particular belting. These tolerances have been incorporated into the Canadian standard on fire-retardant conveyor belting.

Mintz, K.J.

1984-01-01

92

Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

Gleeson, L.

1991-12-01

93

Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

NONE

1997-12-01

94

Profitability of small-scale power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several small-scale power plants have been constructed in Finland during the last few years. Fuel oil and natural gas has been used as a fuel in diesel plants, natural gas in gas-turbine plants, and peat and industrial waste wood in solid fuel fired plants. Larger towns have already acquired combined power and heat generation either in their own power plants or in cooperation with industry. A usual mean of cooperation has been buying of district heat from industrial back-pressure power plants. Numerous small district heat loads still rely on separate heat production. The cheap price of electric power, caused by the good water and nuclear power conditions and long-term delivery contracts, has rendered the construction of small-scale power plants. The fuel prices have been stable for the last few years. The most significant changes have been caused by changing of exchange rate of the Finnish mark and the fuel taxation. Two power plant are reviewed in detail: 6/17 MW peat fired steam power plant and 6/6 MW oil fueled diesel power plant. The electricity prices of these two have been compared with coal condensing power and the electricity tariffs. The price comparisons have been made using the present price level. Energia-Ekono has compiled a new simulation program ELMO, operating in PC-WINDOWS environment, for simulation of cogeneration

1993-03-16

95

Adopting small-scale production of electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Sweden in 2008, a 'new' concept for small-scale electricity production attracted massive media attention. This was mainly due to the efforts of Swedish company Egen El, which is marketing small-scale photovoltaics (PVs) and wind turbines to households, both homeowners and tenants. Their main selling point is simplicity: their products are so easy to install that everyone can do it. Autumn 2008 also saw IKEA announce that within three years it would market solar panels. How, then, do households perceive these products? Why would households choose to buy them? How do households think about producing their own electricity? Analysis of material based on in-depth interviews with members of 20 households reveals that environmental concerns supply the main motive for adopting PVs or micro wind power generation. In some cases, the adopting households have an extensively ecological lifestyle and such adoption represents a way to take action in the energy area. For some, this investment is symbolic: a way of displaying environmental consciousness or setting an example to others. For still others, the adoption is a protest against 'the system' with its large dominant actors or is a way to become self-sufficient. These microgeneration installations are rejected mainly on economic grounds; other motives are respect for neighbours and difficulties finding a place to install a wind turbine.

Tengvard, Maria; Palm, Jenny (Linkoeping Univ., Dept. of Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping (Sweden)). e-mail: maria.tengvard@liu.se

2009-07-01

96

Summary of small scale CHP demonstration projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Efficiency Office, under the United Kingdom Department of Energy`s Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme has part-funded a series of nine projects aimed at demonstrating the benefits of small scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP) in various building types. Monitoring was carried out over a two-year period at each site to establish independently the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the investment in the CHP systems. This report presents an overview of the results to establish the operating requirements and strategy for future users of CHP. Payback periods of under five years were achieved at three sites but, because these projects represent some of the earliest uses of CHP in the UK outside the leisure market, the average payback period was over seven years. Two major factors equally affected the economic viability of these early CHP systems. First, the CHP suppliers and installers were required to rectify equipment failures. Second, the CHP system required integration into the site heating and control system, which involved both the system designer and CHP user. Problems encountered in this project have provided valuable lessons for the development of small scale packaged CHP units. From the lessons learned, general guidelines have been developed to assist with successful installation and operation of units. (author).

1991-03-01

97

Impact of improved technologies on small-scale soybean production: empirical evidence from benue state, nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study examined the impact of improved technologies on the lives of small-scale soybean farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. A total of 160 respondents were selected using simple random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Tobit model and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Findings revealed that 35.6% of the respondents were between 31 and 40 years old, 40.6% had household size of between 6 and 10 members. Majority of the respondents were male, married, and had secondary school education. Tobit analysis revealed that farmers socioeconomic characteristics which include gender, educational status and farming experience; and farmers knowledge on soybean innovations were significant factors determining the adoption of improved soybean production technologies. These factors were statistically significant at p=0.05. The adoption of improved soybean technologies has had a clear positive impact on farmers belief on soybean innovations. The major problems facing farmers in the adoption of improved soybean production technologies according to Kruskal-Wallis ranking were high cost of inputs, problem of labour availability and lack of credit/loan. The results of this study provide a strong case for the promotion of soybean as a solution for malnutrition and a means of poverty alleviation for poor people. (author)

2013-01-01

98

Small-scale clumps of dark matter  

CERN Document Server

Small-scale clumps of dark matter are gravitationally bounded structures that have masses comparable to or lower than stellar masses and consist of noninteracting or weakly interacting dark matter particles. In this paper, the current knowledge about the formation and evolution of such structures is reviewed, various types of spectra of primordial cosmological perturbations are considered, and various dark matter models are discussed. Depending on the particular spectrum type, dark matter clumps may differ considerably in their formation processes and ultimate characteristics. The role of clumps in experiments on indirect detection of dark matter particles via their annihilation products is discussed. A number of astrophysical problems and phenomena that are related to dark matter clumps are examined.

Berezinsky, V S; Eroshenko, Yu N

2014-01-01

99

Norway to increase small-scale hydro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article traces the background to hydro power in Norway and highlights the importance of local micro- and mini-hydro power plants which in the long term may contribute to maintaining rural settlements. The current situation is outlined, and barriers inhibiting the development of new micro- and mini-hydro power plants are examined. The Norwegian government's positive approach to the development of small-scale hydro is discussed along with the aims of a project started by representatives of owners, utilities, municipalities and the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate to find solutions to the barriers. The expected introduction of gas-fired thermal plant, the possible development of large-scale hydro power sites, and the growing attractiveness of small sites in the light of the growing concern over carbon dioxide emissions are considered.

NONE

2000-10-01

100

New markets for small-scale hydro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The market for small and medium sized hydro-electric power plant is more attractive than ever. The boom in Europe has increasingly spread to the emerging countries, and here too small hydro plays an important ecological role. In addition to new plant rehabilitation of 'historical' plant is now a major factor. The last few years have seen a market shift from single machine components to complete plant and systems, requiring a strategy re-think on the part of larger companies. Following the influx of private capital into the power industry, business conditions have also undergone a thorough transformation. In place of 'fast money', hydro power offers the prospect of earning longer-term, sustainable money'. The term small-scale hydro-electric power (or simply 'small hydro') is used slightly differently depending on the country and market. Here, it is used to denote plant with turbines up to 10 MW. (Author)

1997-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Quality management in the Pangasius export supply chain in Vietnam : the case of small-scale Pangasius farming in the Mekong River Delta  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis focuses on three areas: quality control at farm level, quality assurance at chain level, and the business relationships at farm level. The objective of this thesis is to explore the major challenges for the present quality management system to assure safety and quality standards in the export supply chain of small-scale fish farming in Vietnam. The findings show that problems of small-scale farmers involved in export supply chain can be dealt with through developing business re...

Khoi, Le Nguyen Doan

2011-01-01

102

Modeling Small-Scale Nearshore Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years advances in high performance computing have made it possible to gain new qualitative and quantitative insights into the behavior and effects of coastal processes using high-resolution physical-mathematical models. The Coastal Dynamics program at the U.S. Office of Naval Research under the guidance of Dr. Thomas Kinder has encouraged collaboration between modelers, theoreticians, and field and laboratory experimentalists and supported innovative modeling efforts to examine a wide range of nearshore processes. An area of emphasis has been small-scale, time-dependent, turbulent flows, such as the wave bottom boundary layer, breaking surface waves, and the swash zone and their effects on shoaling waves, mean currents, and sediment transport that integrate to impact the long-term and large-scale response of the beach system to changing environmental conditions. Examples of small-scale modeling studies supported by CD-321 related to our work include simulation of the wave bottom boundary layer. Under mild wave field conditions the seabed forms sand ripples and simulations demonstrate that the ripples cause increases in the bed friction, the kinetic energy dissipation rates, the boundary layer thickness, and turbulence in the water column. Under energetic wave field conditions the ripples are sheared smooth and sheet flow conditions can predominate, causing the top few layers of sand grains to move as a fluidized bed, making large aggregate contributions to sediment transport. Complementary models of aspects of these processes have been developed simultaneously in various directions (e.g., Jenkins and Hanes, JFM 1998; Drake and Calantoni, 2001; Trowbridge and Madsen, JGR, 1984). Insight into near-bed fluid-sediment interactions has also been advanced using Navier-Stokes based models of swash events. Our recent laboratory experiments at the Waterways Experiment Station demonstrate that volume-of-fluid models can predict salient features of swash uprush-backwash interactions under controlled conditions. While much has been achieved towards understanding the intricacies of these natural systems using nonlinear models, many questions remain to challenge future engineers and scientists. During his tenure at ONR, Tom Kinder has championed the importance of nearshore science and increased resources within the area, made accomplishments visible to the broader ocean community, increased communication between researchers through comprehensive initiatives, field experiments and workshops, helped develop 10 year plans focusing future priorities, maintained a stable environment for researchers, and encouraged them to tackle the hardest (most interesting) problems and to develop new tools along the way with which to solve them.

Slinn, D.; Holland, T.; Puleo, J.; Puleo, J.; Hanes, D.

2001-12-01

103

Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small Scale Foundries (SSFs have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individuals and private investors are heavily involved in producing several thousands of tonnes of castings annually generating revenue for the government through taxation as well as helping with metal waste disposal. Metal cast products are sold both locally and internationally to neighbouring countries. The industry is however faced with numerous challenges. These include quality issues due to lack of technical know-how, access to funding from both government and private financial institutions and foundry waste management. To promote this industry, government and private financial institutions must be encouraged to come on board. Policies must be established and proper training programme developed to improve and promote this technology. This could go a long way in reducing the high unemployment rate in Ghana.

Emmanuel GIKUNOO

2011-12-01

104

The Small-Scale Environment of Quasars  

CERN Document Server

Where do quasars reside? Are quasars located in environments similar to those of typical L* galaxies, and, if not, how do they differ? An answer to this question will help shed light on the triggering process of quasar activity. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to study the environment of quasars and compare it directly with the environment of galaxies. We find that quasars (M_i < -22, z < 0.4) are located in higher local overdensity regions than are typical L* galaxies. The enhanced environment around quasars is a local phenomenon; the overdensity relative to that around L* galaxies is strongest within 100 kpc of the quasars. In this region, the overdensity is a factor of 1.4 larger than around L* galaxies. The overdensity declines monotonically with scale to nearly unity at ~1 Mpc, where quasars inhabit environments comparable to those of L* galaxies. The small-scale density enhancement depends on quasar luminosity, but only at the brightest end: the most luminous quasars reside in higher local ove...

Serber, W; Ménard, B; Richards, G; Bahcall, Neta; Menard, Brice; Richards, Gordon; Serber, Will

2006-01-01

105

Small scale combined woodgas power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a first attempt to introduce biomass gasification technology in Latvia at the Faculty of Engineering of Latvia University of Agriculture an integral small scale combined heat and power (CHP) system based on a used Russian-made diesel-alternator set with electrical output 100 kWe was developed. The diesel is converted to dual fuel gas engine, using producer gas as the main fuel and gas oil as pilot fuel. To get sufficiently clean (tar content ? 250 mg/m3) woodgas for using in IC engine a downdraft type of gasifier was chosen designed and constructed on the IMBERT gasifier principles. The test runs of the first experimental model showed that the engine does not develop expected power because of high resistance of gasifier and gas cleaning system does not work sufficiently enough. There was rather high level of tar content in woodgas because the temperature in the reduction zone was low. Calculations were carried out and new technological scheme of gasification system was worked out, introducing innovative ideas aimed on improving the working parameters (author)

2003-04-24

106

Small-scale European forestry, an anticommons?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article, I look at a phenomenon present in many small-scale European forests, their underutilisation. This underutilisation is obvious when it comes to timber extraction, but it can be argued that it is also present in relation to certain ecological or social uses of the forest. I do not want to judge this phenomenon in the article, but want to understand the reason this underutilisation occurs. Looking at forest resources worldwide and also in history, we conventionally face a problem of overuse. Taking first the property rights theory, I then refer to the tragedy of the anticommons to analyse the underutilisation. We observe a spatial anticommons in our forests. Even if the outcome of the tragedy of the commons and of the tragedy of the anticommons are opposed, I argue that analysing the solutions to the problems requires the same theoretical background. Both are collective action problems. However, compared to problems observed in forests elsewhere, the conditions for collective action are substantially different in the regarded case. In closing, I briefly compare forests as anticommons with other debates on the anticommons going on in the other debates around the commons.

Achim Schlueter

2008-07-01

107

Soil Properties as Influenced by Soil Fertility Management in Small Scale Maize Farms in Njoro, Kenya  

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Full Text Available Most farmers are aware of soil fertility gradients within their farms which influence their management decisions and further accentuate these variations. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of soil amendments on soil properties under farmers management. Soil sampling was done in 37 small scale maize farms in Njoro Division of Nakuru District at 0-20 cm depth. Results of a structured questionnaire showed that 65% of the farmers used inorganic fertilizers predominately diammonium phosphate (DAP, 15% used only farmyard manure, 15% used both organic and inorganic fertilizer, while 6% did not use any soil amendments. Most of the farms had a pH (CaCl2 of less than 5.2, 27% of the farms had a pH lower than 4.0. Organic carbon (C ranged from 1.6 to 5.8%, with a median value of 2.6%. Most of the farms were phosphorus (P deficient with an Olsen-P of less than 10 mg kg-1. All farms had sufficient amounts of extractable potassium (K. Total nitrogen (N ranged from 0.12 to 0.33% with 97% of the farms with N content (>0.12%. Farms amended with farmyard manure had higher organic C and total N levels in Kikapu with correspondingly lower C: N ratios. Soil pH and total N were higher for farms with gentle and undulating slopes. Overall most of the farms were acidic and of moderate fertility. Liming increased maize biomass production in Njoro. This study underscores the need for organic inputs and regular soil testing for small scale farmers.

N.W. Mungai

2009-01-01

108

Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive. PMID:25026955

Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

2014-01-01

109

Small scale geothermal development strategy framework  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With request to the promotion for diversification of energy resources geothermal energy is an alternative energy, renewable, relatively clean and nonexportable resource; the maximum utilization of these resources therefore has a first priority as Indonesia is one of the world prominent volcanics countries with many active volcanic phenomena. Most of the geothermal prospects are located in rural areas, which have limited small diesel generating plants or no electricity at all; under the energy sector policy of the Government of Indonesia which stressed rural electrification, taking into account the equity of development for ail Indonesia`s regions and with the goal of National benefits. To ensure that small scale geothermal power plants for rural electrification can be implemented most effectively and efficiently, a strategy framework needs to include appropriate arrangement for project planning; from scientific study to construction periods, which are currently a constraint on both cost and time domains. This paper discusses the strategy framework approaches, including a possible combining of a serial plural activities and streamlining of contract packages. Indonesia as a country which is made up more than 16,000 islands of varying sizes, located between 6{degrees} N-11{degrees} S Lat and 95{degrees}-141{degrees} E Long. The Government of Indonesia stresses a guideline for the energy policy, namely: intensification on the survey and exploration of resources; diversification of energy by means of reducing oil depency utilization and promoting through development, utilization and customary use of substitute fuels; conservation of natural resources with goals to economize and efficiently use energy utilization; and indexation of each energy need with the most appropriate energy resources available in the country.

Ciptomulyono, U.

1995-12-31

110

Economics of Small Scale Deep Litter System of Egg Production in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general objective of this study is to examine the economics of small-scale deep litter system of egg production in Oredo Local Government Area Edo State, Nigeria. The Specific objectives are to determine the profitability in deep litter system of poultry production among small-scale farmers, to examine the socioeconomic characteristics of egg producers and to identify the constraints to egg production in the study area. Primary and secondary data were obtained from farmers. A purposive sampling of small-scale egg producers was carried first in the study area. Then a simple random sampling technique was then employed to select 182 egg producers using a well-structured questionnaire from the entire population of small-scale farmers. Descriptive statistics such as means and percentages were using to examine the socioeconomic characteristics. The gross margin analysis was used to determine the profitability. While the constraints to egg production was analyzed using the likert scale technique. The result of the analysis reveals that the average number of birds raised in deep litter is 760 birds. The study also shows that 68% and 32% of women and men produce eggs at this level respectively. The result of the study reveals that the fixed capital investment per bird was N 624.17 and total fixed cost less depreciation per bird was N.208.88 and total variable cost per bird was N 331.62. The study also reveals that total revenue from the sales of eggs per and other sources were N 3,749.22 per bird with a gross margin per bird of N 3,417.6 and a net profit of N 3,208.72. Finally the major constraints faced by the farmers are in the order of inadequate finance, high cost of feed, low egg price and high cost of medicine and vaccine Investments on Poultry building.

P.A. Ekunwe

2006-01-01

111

Incorporating small-scale farmers into sustainable supply chains: the Manobi case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increased globalization and outsourcing to developing countries is fostering the interest in supply chain sustainability. From the academic point of view, while environmental impacts of supply chains have been largely analysed, the research on social issues has been scattered and fragmented. This paper thereby sets out to close this gap. We have identified an emerging sphere of knowledge at the interface between sustainable supply chain management, business strategy and international developm...

Borrella Alonso La Torre, Inmaculada; Carrasco Gallego, Ruth; Mataix Aldeanueva, Carlos; Fisac Garcia, Ramo?n

2012-01-01

112

Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality, nutrition (balanced feed reproduction (mineral supplementation, and general management (training of farmers were identified and implemented in a participatory approach at the selected dairy farms. The calf mortality was reduced from 35 to 13 percent up to the age of 3 months. Use of Alfa Deval post milking teat dips reduced the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis from 34 to 5% showing economical benefits of the interventions. Partial budget technique was used to analyze its impact in the registered herds. The farmers recorded monthly quantities of different feed ingredients and seasonal green fodder offered to the animals. From this data set total metabolizeable energy requirements and availability from feed were computed which revealed that animals were deficient in metabolizeable energy in all locations. This was also confirmed by seasonal variation in body condition scoring. At some selected farms the mineral mixture supplement was introduced which exhibited increased milk yield by 5 % in addition to shorten service period by 30 days. Three sessions of training were arranged to train the farmers to care new born calves, daily farm management and detect the animals in heat efficiently to enhance the over all income of the farmers. The overall income of the farm was increased by 40%.

A. Ghaffar

2010-02-01

113

Electricity generating costs in small-scale dispersed energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small-scale dispersed energy sources - small-scale-gas-fired cogeneration heat and power (CHP) plants, fuel cells, wind generators and others are playing bigger and bigger role in the world's electricity production. These sources will be not an alternative for the electricity supply system (including nuclear power plants), during the nearest two decades. (author)

1999-03-25

114

Tailor-made solutions : Small-scale biofuels and trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In current debates on biofuels trade, the focus tends to be on large-scale production. However, the production of small-scale biofuels is better suited for many smaller developing and least-developed countries. Small-scale biofuels can bring many social and environmental benefits at the local level and, cumulatively, their production and utilisation can bring significant trade benefits.

Pacini, Henrique; Khatiwada, Dilip; Lo?nnqvist, Tomas

2010-01-01

115

Concepções de agricultores ecológicos do Paraná sobre alimentação saudável Concepciones de agricultores ecológicos de Paraná (Sur de Brasil sobre alimentación saludable Conceptions of healthy eating among ecological farmers in Paraná, Southern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as concepções de agricultores ecológicos sobre alimentação saudável. MÉTODOS: Estudo com abordagem qualitativa. Entre janeiro e fevereiro de 2007, foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade com o apoio de um roteiro com 11 mulheres e um homem residentes em comunidade agrícola de Rio Branco do Sul, PR, selecionados aleatoriamente dentre as 20 famílias de agricultores ecológicos desse município. RESULTADOS: Três categorias de análise foram identificadas: "tomada de consciência da alimentação saudável", "capacidade de compra" e "terra saudável". O significado da alimentação saudável para as mulheres agricultoras envolve a ideia de que os alimentos devem ser naturais, sem agrotóxicos nem produtos químicos industrializados. Cotidianamente o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes somado ao básico feijão, arroz e carne deve ser abundante e a composição do prato deve visar à prevenção de obesidade e doenças crônico-degenerativas. O cuidado com os recursos naturais para garantir a produção de alimentos saudáveis, a segurança alimentar, a sustentabilidade do meio ambiente e a vida futura do planeta integram o conceito de alimentação saudável. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento, a autocrítica e o discernimento acompanharam as concepções em relação à alimentação saudável.OBJETIVO: Describir las concepciones de agricultores ecológicos sobre alimentación saludable. MÉTODOS: Estudio con abordaje cualitativo. Entre enero y febrero de 2007, se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad con el apoyo de un itinerario con 11 mujeres y un hombre residentes en comunidad agrícola de Rio Branco do Sul, Sur de Brasil, seleccionados aleatoriamente entre las 20 familias de agricultores ecológicos de este municipio. RESULTADOS: Tres categorías de análisis fueron identificadas: "tomada de consciencia de la alimentación saludable", "capacidad de compra" y "tierra saludable". El significado de la alimentación saludable para las mujeres agricultoras incluye la idea de que los alimentos deben ser naturales, sin pesticidas y productos químicos industrializados. Cotidianamente el consumo de frutas, verduras y legumbres sumado al básico grano, arroz y carne debe ser abundante y la composición del plato debe buscar la prevención de obesidad y enfermedades crónico-degenerativas. El cuidado con los recursos naturales para garantizar la producción de alimentos saludables, la seguridad alimentaria, la sustentabilidad del medio ambiente y la vida futura del planeta integran el concepto de alimentación saludable. CONCLUSIONES: El conocimiento, la autocrítica y el discernimiento acompañaron las concepciones con relación a la alimentación saludable.OBJECTIVE: To describe ecological farmers' conceptions of healthy eating. METHODS: Study with a qualitative approach. In January and February 2007, supported by a guide, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 women and one man who were living in an agricultural community in Rio Branco do Sul, Southern Brazil. The interviewees were selected randomly from among the 20 ecological farming families in this municipality. RESULTS: Three analysis categories were identified: "awareness of healthy eating"; "purchasing power" and "healthy land". The significance of healthy eating for the female farmers involved the idea that foods should be natural, without agricultural pesticides or manufactured chemical products. The daily routine should include abundant consumption of fruits, greens and other vegetables, in addition to the basic rice, beans and meat, and the composition of dishes should aim towards prevention of obesity and chronic-degenerative diseases. Care regarding natural resources in order to ensure production of healthy foods, food safety, environmental sustainability and the future of life on the planet form part of the concept of healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge, self-criticism and discernment accompanied the conceptions of healthy eating.

Erica Ell

2012-04-01

116

Small-scale dynamical processes in quiet stellar atmospheres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-resolution observations of small-scale solar dynamics are discussed, taking into account the phase relations of high degree p-modes, power spectra of short-period oscillations, observations of high frequency waves using CCD array, dynamic signatures of quiet sun magnetic fields, and small-scale dynamical processes in the solar chromosphere. Other topics explored are related to projected improvements to high-resolution measurements, interpretation of high-resolution measurements, modelling of small-scale dynamical processes, convection and wave generation, interaction between solar convection and magnetism, low-resolution observations bearing on small-scale dynamical processes in the sun, the interpretation of low resolution observations, the accuracy of models obtained from low-resolution observations, and observations and interpretations of small-scale dynamical processes in stellar atmospheres. Attention is given to the observation of stellar granulation, and Zeeman broadening in solar type stars.

Keil, S.L.

1984-01-01

117

Pesticides use by smallholder farmers in vegetable production in Northern Tanzania.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small-scale farmers in Northern Tanzania grow vegetables that include tomatoes, cabbages and onions and use many types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these crops. Based on the use of questionnaires and interviews that were conducted in Arumeru, Monduli, Karatu, and Moshi rural districts, this study investigates farmers’ practices on vegetable pest management using pesticides and related cost and health effects. The types of pesticides used by the farmers in the stud...

2007-01-01

118

Environmental management in small-scale mining in Indian context  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper examines the schematics of the EMP (environmental management plan) framework adopted for small-scale mines in India, and the methodology adopted for the prediction of industry's impacts on the environment. Small scale mining (of metals and minerals including coal) is more prevalent in India than large scale mining. It is concluded that widespread environmental improvement can be achieved industry-wide only if additional mining cooperatives are formed, and if the Indian government, through its Ministry of Environment and Forests, oversees the implementation of effective mitigation practices for small-scale mines. 22 refs., 1 tab.

Ghose, M.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

2002-12-01

119

The potential for small scale hydropower development in the US  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an earlier paper (Kosnik 2008), the potential for small scale hydropower to contribute to US renewable energy supplies, as well as reduce current carbon emissions, was investigated. It was discovered that thousands of viable sites capable of producing significant amounts of hydroelectric power were available throughout the United States. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the cost-effectiveness of developing these small scale hydropower sites. Just because a site has the necessary topographical features to allow small scale hydropower development, does not mean that it should be pursued from a cost-benefit perspective, even if it is a renewable energy resource with minimal effects on the environment. This analysis finds that while the average cost of developing small scale hydropower is relatively high, there still remain hundreds of sites on the low end of the cost scale that are cost-effective to develop right now. (author)

Kosnik, Lea [Department of Economics, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121-4499 (United States)

2010-10-15

120

Profitability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Elmina, Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species caught and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Interviews were conducted among 60 fishermen between February and March 2010. Economic assessment of small-scale fishing activities were done using questionnaires based on direct market pricing and co...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Submerged vinegar fermentation in small scale culture systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In industry, vinegar is widely produced by submerged fermentation. Although vinegar production is established on the large scale, small scale culture methods, in which bioprocesses are typically developed or optimized nowadays, are missing. To reinvestigate the established fermentation process, the aim of this thesis was the development of suitable small scale culture methods and systems for submerged vinegar fermentation. Since obligatory aerobic acetic acid bacteria in vinegar production su...

Schlepu?tz, Tino

2013-01-01

122

Small-scale coastal fisheries in Europe. Final report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The necessity of improving knowledge in fisheries and especially small-scale coastal fisheries in order to analyse the conditions for their sustainable development is increasingly recognized. The three main requirements for the sustainable development of fisheries are the simultaneous present and future well being of the bio-ecological system, the human system and the management process. Knowledge on these aspects of small-scale coastal fisheries (SSCF) in Europe is generally limited, althoug...

Guyader, Olivier; Berthou, Patrick; Koustikopoulos, C.; Alban, Frederique; Demaneche, Sebastien; Gaspar, M.; Eschbaum, R.; Fahy, E.; Tully, O.; Reynal, Lionel; Albert, A.

2007-01-01

123

Small-scale processing of biomass for biorefinery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current fossil-based economy is moving towards a more bio-based economy. To enable this transition, many different processes for biorefinery are being developed. Small-scale biorefinery processes can be beneficial, not only socially and ecologically, but also economically. The main motivation for small-scale biorefinery is local re-use of materials, like water, minerals, organic matter, CO2, and heat. This minimizes costs for recycling and transport. A smart and integrated process design ...

Bruins, M. E.; Sanders, J. P. M.

2012-01-01

124

Small-scale study on intestinal parasitosis in a remote hilly village in Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

A small-scale cross sectional study on intestinal parasitosis was conducted in a remote hilly village in western Nepal in January 2001. Stool samples collected from 115 inhabitants (M: 41 and F: 74; Aged: 1 to 89 years) were examined by direct smear method in duplicate. Overall positive rate was 27.0% with a marginally high positive rate in males (P>0.05). Dalits (the lower caste people) had highest prevalence (71.4%) than Tibeto-Burman and Indo-Arvan ethnic (P>0.05). Higher prevalence was observed in adults than in children. Eighty percent of subjects had single parasite infection. Altogether, six types of parasites were detected of which Ascaris lumbricoides was most common. People having toilet had marginally low positive rate. All subjects included in this study were drinking raw water. Occupation wise, farmers had marginally high prevalence. PMID:16583971

Ishiyama, Satoko; Rai, Shiba Kumar; Ono, Kazuo; Uga, Shoji

2003-06-01

125

A Survey of Early Chick Mortality on Small-Scale Poultry Farms in Jos, Central Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to investigate early chick mortality and its causes during the first two weeks on small-scale poultry farms in Jos, central Nigeria. The survey covered layer and broiler farms procuring day-old chicks from three selected hatcheries. Flock sizes varied from 20 birds up to 2000. Average mortality was 10.4 per flock with a standard deviation of 14.4. As a percentage of flock size, mortality was 11.4% with a standard deviation of 18.8%. The major causes of mortality were stress, Pullorum disease and diarrhoea. There was no significant relationship (p = 0.01, R2 = 0.02 between flock size and mortality. There was also no significant relationship (p = 0.01, R2 = 0.04 between mortality and the breed of stock. Of farms experiencing mortalities, only 28.8% consulted a veterinarian for diagnosis and treatment. The other 71% self-diagnosed the problems and instituted treatment which included vitamin supplementation or antimicrobial therapy, with enrofloxacin and gentamycin being the most popular drugs. Medication without consultation with qualified veterinarians may result in the abuse and misuse of antibiotics with the attendant consequences of resistance and the occurrence of drug residues in poultry and poultry products. The wide-spread use of antibiotics in the study area is cause for concern from both a veterinary and public health point of view. Although factors responsible for early chick mortality are complex, information on chick mortality on small-scale farms can be used for the training of farmers on its control. A better understanding of the causes of mortality in the crucial first few weeks of the chick’s life may lead farmers to rely more on better management such as better hygiene and sanitation and less on antibiotics for problems encountered during the early brooding period.

A.G. Ambali

2010-01-01

126

Small Scale Farming and Agricultural Products Marketing for Sustainable Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural productions in developing countries have largely been on subsistence basis. The farmers only produce for their families and quantity of food produced are grossly inadequate for the growing population. There is increase widespread in the level of poverty amongst the people, most especially those living in the rural areas. Small scale farming has become one of the ways to tackle the problem of lack and poverty amongst these people. The paper therefore, examines how Small Scale farming assists in alleviating poverty in both rural and urban cities; most especially through marketing of agricultural products to the people. Relevant data were sought from the 356 respondents selected for the study through the Key Informant Interviews (KII. The Student T test and Chi square statistical techniques were further employed to test the Hypotheses stated in the study. Result of the finding reveals the importance of Small Scale Farming and Agricultural Products Marketing in poverty alleviation, most especially among the rural dwellers. It also indicated lack of access to fund as the major problem facing Small Scale Farming and increase cost of transportation as the major problem facing marketing of agricultural products. The Paper recommends that Individuals and Government can combat some of these challenges facing Small Scale Farming by providing adequate basic social infrastructures; make available more funds to the farmers and create more employment opportunities amongst others. The paper concludes that Agriculture no doubt, is an important sector that needs to be given attention in any developing economy.
Key words: Small scale farming; Marketing; Rural dwellers; Key interview guide; Agricultural products and poverty

Résumé: Les productions agricoles dans les pays en voie de développement étaient principalement sur la base de subsistance. Les agriculteurs ne produisent que pour leurs familles et la quantité des aliments produits est nettement insuffisante pour la population croissante. Il y a une augmentation généralisée de la pauvreté parmi la population, plus particulièrement ceux vivant dans les zones rurales. L'agriculture à petite échelle est devenue l'une des façons pour s'attaquer au problème du manque et de la pauvreté parmi cette population. L'article examine donc comment l'agriculture à petite échelle aide à soulager le problème de la pauvreté dans les villes rurales et urbaines; plus particulièrement à travers la commercialisation des produits agricoles. Des données pertinentes ont été recueillies auprès des 356 répondants sélectionnés pour l'étude en utilisant la méthode des interviews d'informateurs clés (IIC. Le test T et les techniques statistiques de Chi carré ont été employés plus tard pour tester les hypothèses énoncées dans l'étude. Le résultat de la recherche révèle l'importance de l'agriculture à petite échelle et la commercialisation des produits agricoles dans la réduction de la pauvreté, surtout parmi les habitants des zones rurales. Il a également indiqué le manque d'accès aux fonds comme le problème majeur auquel l'agriculture à petite échelle fait face et les coûts de transport croissant comme le problème majeur de commercialisation des produits agricoles. Le document recommande que les individus et le gouvernement peuvent combattre certains de ces défis confrontés par l'agriculture à petite échelle, en assurant des adéquates infrastructures sociales de base; mettant plus de fonds à la disposition des agriculteurs et créant davantage d'emplois entre autres. L'article conclut que l'agriculture est sans aucun doute un secteur important qui doit être accordé plus d'attention dans n'importe quelle économie en développement.
Mots-clés: Petite agriculture à petite échelle; Commercialisation; Habitants ruraux; Guide d'interview clés; Produits agricoles et pauvreté

J. A. Bamiduro

2011-07-01

127

Financing Sustainable Small-Scale Forestry: Lessons from Developing National Forest Financing Strategies in Latin America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problems that hamper the financing of sustainable forest management (SFM are manifold and complex. However, forestry is also facing unprecedented opportunities. The multiple functions and values of forests are increasingly recognized as part of the solution to pressing global issues (e.g., climate change, energy scarcity, poverty, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and raw material supply. Emerging initiatives to enhance forest carbon stocks and cut greenhouse gas emissions associated with forest clearing (known as REDD+, together with voluntary carbon markets, are offering additional funding options for SFM. Indigenous peoples, local communities and small scale farmers feature as key players in the discourse on implementing such initiatives. Based on the experience of countries developing national forest financing strategies and instruments, we suggest the following points be considered when financing such initiatives, particularly for small scale forestry: (1 Integrate financing of REDD+ and similar initiatives within broader national strategies for SFM financing; (2 Design REDD+ finance mechanisms that are ‘community ready’, i.e., tailored to local realities; (3 Consider existing livelihood strategies as the starting point; (4 Build on existing structures, but be mindful of their strengths and weaknesses; (5 Be strategic with your priority actions; and (6 Promote innovation, knowledge sharing and information exchange.

Herman Savenije

2010-12-01

128

Cost of windmill irrigation. Cost analysis of wind pumps and diesel pumps used for small scale irrigation  

Science.gov (United States)

A cost analysis and a method to make a quick economic comparison between wind pumps (water-pumping windmills) and diesel pumps (diesel powered water pumps) intended for use in small-scale lift irrigation are described. The analysis compares CWD wind pumps, designed for production in developing countries, with commercially available, traditional multiblade wind pumps. The variables required for comparison are: static lift, daily water requirement, and average wind speed during the period of irrigation. The analysis shows that for farmers engaged in small-scale lift irrigation on areas of up to 1 ha (2.5 acres), CWD wind pumps are economically more attractive than diesel pumps for average wind speeds during the irrigation season of 3.5 m/sec (7.8 mph). Commercial wind pumps are more attractive than diesel pumps for an average wind speed of 4.5 m/sec (10.1 mph).

Mueller, A. M.; Jansen, A. M.

1984-06-01

129

Jet Collimation by Small-Scale Magnetic Fields  

Science.gov (United States)

A popular model for jet collimation is associated with the presence of a large-scale and predominantly toroidal magnetic field originating from the central engine (a star, a black hole, or an accretion disk). Besides the problem of how such a large-scale magnetic field is generated, in this model the jet suffers from the fatal long-wave mode kink magnetohydrodynamic instability. In this paper we explore an alternative model: jet collimation by small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields are assumed to be local, chaotic, and tangled, but are dominated by toroidal components. Just as in the case of a large-scale toroidal magnetic field, we show that the ``hoop stress'' of the tangled toroidal magnetic fields exerts an inward force which confines and collimates the jet. The magnetic ``hoop stress'' is balanced either by the gas pressure of the jet or by centrifugal force if the jet is spinning. Since the length scale of the magnetic field is small (wave mode kink instability. Many other problems associated with the large-scale magnetic field are also eliminated or alleviated for small-scale magnetic fields. Though it remains an open question how to generate and maintain the required small-scale magnetic fields in a jet, the scenario of jet collimation by small-scale magnetic fields is favored by the current study on disk dynamo which indicates that small-scale magnetic fields are much easier to generate than large-scale magnetic fields.

Li, Li-Xin

2002-01-01

130

Small scale renewable energy resource assessment for Newfoundland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discussed the potential for small-scale hydro and wind power projects in Newfoundland. The province currently uses thermal generation for 20 per cent of its energy requirements, despite the fact that good wind and hydro resources are available. The province may soon construct a multi-billion dollar transmission line in order to import energy from Labrador to replace thermal generation on the island. The aim of the study was to determine if small-scale hydro and wind power could replace current thermal generation using a simplified island system simulation. The study showed that small-scale hydro potential represents approximately 1000 MW of energy that is technically feasible. The wind resource potential of the island is also very high, with a high wind penetration capability. Updates to transmission and control systems are required to enable small-scale hydro and wind development in the province. It was concluded that a combination of small-scale hydro and wind power can be used to replace the province's thermal energy requirements. 38 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

2009-05-12

131

Germination as a processing technique for soybeans in small-scale farming  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Heat processing is an effective way of reducing antinutritional factors (ANFs) in legumes, but requires expensive facilities and equipment. Accurate control of temperature is critical to avoid under- or overheating. Therefore, heat treatment of soybeans is not a viable option for the average small-s [...] cale farmer in remote areas. Germination and other traditional methods, namely soaking and dehulling, were evaluated as alternative processing methods for soybeans. The effect of the processing treatment on the level of different ANFs, nutritional composition and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of soybean seeds was determined. Soybeans were soaked for 24 hours and allowed to germinate for one to six days. Soaked soybeans were manually dehulled. Changes within seeds were noted for nutritional and ANFs during germination. Crude protein and fat content increased with increasing number of days germinated, but germination caused a decrease in starch content. Dehulling also increased the crude protein and fat content of the seeds. All treatments caused a significant decrease in condensed tannins of the soybeans. Trypsin inhibitor levels were numerically lower after germinating, soaking and dehulling of seeds, but not significantly so. There were no changes in IVPD after treatment of the soybeans. It was concluded that germination for a period of three days effectively improved the nutritional value of soybeans and can be considered an alternative treatment of soybeans for the small-scale farmer where heat treatment is impractical or impossible.

Kayembe, N.C.; Jansen van Rensburg, C..

132

The financial sustainability and socio-economic contribution of small-scale sugar-cane growers in Mpumalanga Province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small-scale sugar-cane farming came to Mpumalanga Province in the 1990s. As result of the Nkomazi Irrigation Expansion Programme, 34 projects with farms of on average size of seven hectares were initially allocated by Government to potential farmers in rural areas. This was done to enable them to generate income from sugar-cane to support their families. The initial expectations for the success of the programme were high, but they did not realise as anticipated. The yield results for the firs...

Cloete, Riekie

2013-01-01

133

Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food  

Science.gov (United States)

With all of the talk about the demise of the family farm, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has decided to step in to create this campaign to inform citizens about their own local farmers. The basic idea behind this initiative is to "create new economic opportunities by better connecting consumers with local producers." On their homepage, visitors can check out profiles of farmers in their area and learn about how support for such individuals helps strengthen rural communities and protects natural resources. The "Promote Healthy Eating" area is quite useful, as it contains links to other sites that address community food projects and a farmers market promotion program. The "Sights and Sounds" area includes images and videos from the USDA's campaign along with farmers talking about their work.

134

Engineering development for a small-scale recirculator experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is evaluating the physics and technology of recirculating induction accelerators for heavy-ion inertial-fusion drivers. As part of this evaluation, the authors are building a small-scale recirculator to demonstrate the concept and to use as a test bed for the development of recirculator technologies. System designs have been completed and components are presently being designed and developed for the small-scale recirculator. This paper discusses results of the design and development activities that are presently being conducted to implement the small-scale recirculator experiments. An, overview of the system design is presented along with a discussion of the implications of this design on the mechanical and electrical hardware. The paper focuses primarily on discussions of the development and design of the half-lattice period hardware and the advanced solid-state modulator

1995-09-06

135

Evaluation of Small-Scale Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Sand  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In current designs of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopoles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated. In this paper the diameter effect on laterally loaded non-slender piles in sand is evaluated by means of results from six small-scale laboratory tests, numerical modelling of the same test setup and existing theory. From the numerical models, pâ??y curves are derived and compared to current design regulations. The recommendations in API (1993) and DNV (1992) are observed to be in poor agreement with the numerically obtained pâ??y curves. The initial stiffness, Epy*, of the pâ??y curves is found to increase with increasing pile diameter. Considerable uncertainties are observed to be related to small-scale testing, and the evaluations clearly indicate that the accuracy of small-scale testing is increased when increasing the pile diameter and applying overburden pressure.

Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Thomassen, Kristina

2011-01-01

136

Small-Scale Dynamo Action in Primordial Halos  

CERN Document Server

The first galaxies form due to gravitational collapse of primordial halos. During this collapse, weak magnetic seed fields get amplified exponentially by the small-scale dynamo - a process converting kinetic energy from turbulence into magnetic energy. We use the Kazantsev theory, which describes the small-scale dynamo analytically, to study magnetic field amplification for different turbulent velocity correlation functions. For incompressible turbulence (Kolmogorov turbulence), we find that the growth rate is proportional to the square root of the hydrodynamic Reynolds number, Re^(1/2). In the case of highly compressible turbulence (Burgers turbulence) the growth rate increases proportional to Re^(1/3). With a detailed chemical network we are able to follow the chemical evolution and determine the kinetic and magnetic viscosities (due to Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion) during the collapse of the halo. This way, we can calculate the growth rate of the small-scale dynamo quantitatively and predict the evolution...

Schober, Jennifer; Klessen, Ralf S; Federrath, Christoph; Bovino, Stefano; Glover, Simon; Banerjee, Robi

2012-01-01

137

CO2-impacts of a small-scale consumers levy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of a number of developments (altered budgets of Dutch ministries and implementation of environmental policy plans of energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) the 1993 analyses of the effects of a small-scale consumer levy on the emission of CO2 are updated. First, attention is paid to the conservation impetus as a result of an increase of the energy price for small-scale consumers. Next, the effects that can occur as a consequence of the presently suggested form of the levy (in particular, the exemption of renewable energy and waste heat) are discussed. Subsequently, the alterations of other policy tools, that are necessary in case a higher effectiveness of conservation measures is realized, are dealt with. The direct effect of a higher energy price on the saving behavior of the small-scale consumers is calculated by means of the CENECA-model. 4 tabs., 1 appendix, 8 refs

138

Irrigation Water Management in Small Scale Irrigation Schemes: the Case of the Ethiopian Rift Valley Lake Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Appraisals of irrigation water management scenarios are crucial in project performance monitoring. A comprehensive irrigation water management study has been conducted on four small scale irrigation schemes in the Ethiopian rift valley lake basin. It is observed that from 147 irrigators 68% faced irrigation water supply unreliability, 79.1% encountered unfair distribution of water and 66 % underwent through timeliness problem in water distribution occasionally. All the investigated schemes witnessed a weak (50 % of all scheme users noted poor organization of irrigation scheme administration. The Water Users Associations (WUAs lack clear laws/by-laws and strategies to lead small or major canal operations and maintenances. Without a strong WUA it is impossible to think of filling farmer’s skill gap, to have a working maintenance strategy, fair distribution of irrigation water, reliable irrigation water supply and timely delivery of irrigation water. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.6240

Mihret D. Ulsido

2014-03-01

139

Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(?)??^{?}, where v(?) is the eddy velocity at a scale ?. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ?=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ?=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm^{(1-?)/(1+?)}. We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{crit}, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rm_{crit} is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rm_{crit} provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales. PMID:23368064

Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

2012-12-01

140

Trends in Agriculturally-Relevant Rainfall Characteristics for Small-scale Agriculture in Northern Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study set out to investigate the trends of agriculturally-relevant rainfall characteristics among small-scale farmers in the rainfall-sensitive dry savanna agro ecological zone of northern Ghana.  Interviews are used to identify characteristics of rainfall which are deemed by the farmers as important in their food production. Time series daily rainfall data from 1960-2007 is then used to identify trends in these variables which include the amount and temporal distribution of rainfall, occurrence of extreme daily rainfall events, the onset of rains, risk of dry spells and coefficient of variability of rains. The risk of dry spells for varying number of days following the planting period is computed using first-order Markov chain modeling. We find that there is a significant increase in mean rainfall per rain day and the coefficient of variation or summer rainfall amounts. No significant change in the onset of rains, the annual rainfall amount and maximum rainfall days are established. However, a significant decrease in the number of rain days and the probability of dry spells of up to seven and eleven days in the first four weeks of the planting season is revealed. There is need for development of an agricultural policy framework designed to understand the growing risks associated with agricultural production among small-scale farmers, and to improve management practices to accommodate and adapt to the new challenges of varying rainfall.

Genesis Tambang Yengoh

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
141

Influence of guanxi, trust and farmer-specific factors on participation in emerging vegetable markets in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fast development of market outlets (e.g., supermarkets, processing industries, international markets) in China provides rich opportunities for small-scale farmers to upgrade quality and increase income. However, the high level of transaction costs incurred in small-volume-based vegetable transactions hinders farmers from participating in these emerging markets. This article explores how personal relationships (called guanxi in China) and trust between farmers and their buyers influence tr...

Lu Hualiang; Trienekens, J. H.; Omta, S. W. F.; Feng, S.

2008-01-01

142

Spatial Nonlocality of the Small-scale Solar Dynamo  

Science.gov (United States)

We explore the nature of the small-scale solar dynamo by tracking magnetic features. We investigate two previously explored categories of the small-scale solar dynamo: shallow and deep. Recent modeling work on the shallow dynamo has produced a number of scenarios for how a strong network concentration can influence the formation and polarity of nearby small-scale magnetic features. These scenarios have measurable signatures, for which we test using magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on board Hinode. We find no statistical tendency for newly formed magnetic features to cluster around or away from network concentrations, nor do we find any statistical relationship between their polarities. We conclude that there is no shallow or "surface" dynamo on the spatial scales observable by Hinode/NFI. In light of these results, we offer a scenario in which the subsurface field in a deep solar dynamo is stretched and distorted via turbulence, allowing the small-scale field to emerge at random locations on the photosphere.

Lamb, D. A.; Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.

2014-06-01

143

DESIGN OF A SMALL ? SCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER  

Science.gov (United States)

After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

144

Smoke emissions in small-scale burning of wood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article is based on research carried out in Finland and Sweden on the subject of emissions of smoke in the small-scale burning of wood and the factors affecting it. Due to incomplete combustion, small-scale burning of wood is particularly typified by its emissions of solid particles, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and PAH compounds. Included among factors influencing the volume of emissions are the load imposed on the heating device, the manner in which the fuel is fed into the firebox, fuel quality, and heating device structure. Emissions have been found to be at their minimum in connection with heating systems based on accumulators. Emissions can be significantly reduced by employing state-of-the-art technology, appropriate ways of heating and by dry fuel. A six-year bioenergy research programme was launched early in 1993 in Finland. All leading research institutions and enterprises participate in this programme. Reduction of emissions has been set as the central goal in the part dealing with small-scale burning of wood. Application of catalytic combustion in Finnish-made heating devices is one of the programmes development targets. Up to this date, the emissions produced in the small-scale burning of wood are not mentioned in official regulations pertaining to approved heating devices. In Sweden tar emissions are applied as a measure of the environmental impact imposed by heating devices

1993-01-01

145

Small-scale dynamo action in primordial halos  

Science.gov (United States)

The first galaxies form due to gravitational collapse of primordial halos. During this collapse, weak magnetic seed fields get amplified exponentially by the small-scale dynamo - a process converting kinetic energy from turbulence into magnetic energy. We use the Kazantsev theory, which describes the small-scale dynamo analytically, to study magnetic field amplification for different turbulent velocity correlation functions. For incompressible turbulence (Kolmogorov turbulence), we find that the growth rate is proportional to the square root of the hydrodynamic Reynolds number, Re1/2. In the case of highly compressible turbulence (Burgers turbulence) the growth rate increases proportional to Re1/3. With a detailed chemical network we are able to follow the chemical evolution and determine the kinetic and magnetic viscosities (due to Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion) during the collapse of the halo. This way, we can calculate the growth rate of the small-scale dynamo quantitatively and predict the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field. As the magnetic energy is transported to larger scales on the local eddy-timescale, we obtain an estimate for the magnetic field on the Jeans scale. Even there, we find that equipartition with the kinetic energy is reached on small timescales. Dynamically relevant field structures can thus be expected already during the formation of the first objects in the Universe.

Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Federrath, Christoph; Bovino, Stefano; Glover, Simon; Banerjee, Robi

2013-07-01

146

Small-Scale Retailers in an Island Town  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the competition faced by small-scale general store and textile retailing in an island town in Malaysia. The study was carried out in Labuan Town in Labuan Island of East Malaysia. A qualitative research design was utilized, involving primarily interview data which were collected from 12 in-depth interviews with 6 sundry and general store retailers and 6 textile retailers. Content analysis was executed to analyse the narrative data. The findings reveal that large store retailing negatively impact the small traders on trade diversion, but also positively modernize their retail formats. Competition was intense for the town centre small-scale retailers who were facing multiple competitions from large retailers and bazaar retailers in the town centre, small-scale retailers from the rural areas, as well as place competition in the region. The study suggests the need for creative response of the local authority in place making and balanced development, coupled with the strategic response of small-scale retailers in cultivating local enterprise.

Sivapalan Selvadurai

2013-10-01

147

Development of small-scale peat production. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this three year project was to develop the production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat producers so that the profitability of small-scale peat production is improved and the competitiveness remains. The aim in 1996 was to determine the present situation of small-scale peat producers, and the research and development needs, as well as to prepare a development plan of the small-scale peat production. The aims for 1997 were: the diminishing of the environmental hazards and the run-off waters of the small-scale peat production, the intensification of the peat deliveries from small-scale peat production, and the reduction of the peat production costs by improving the degree of utilization of the equipment via common or shared use. According to the results of the study peat production in Finland in 1996 was 25.0 TWh in total. The share of milled peat was 91 % of the peat production, and that of sod peat 9.0 %. About 1 440 000 m3 of other than energy peat was produced. The share of energy peat producers, replying to the questionnaire was 13 % (3.3 TWh) and the share of other peat producers was 18 %. Peat was produced from the area of 59 000 ha, the share of small-scale peat producers was 9 250 ha corresponding to about 16 % of the total peat production area. The share of milled peat of the peat produced by small-scale peat producers was about 73 %. The number of peat produces replying to the questionnaire was 164. The level of water protection and other environmental protection of twelve peat producers in the Southern Ostrobothnia were studied. According to the survey the main shortages comprised too small or lacking settling ponds. Also other shortages in environmental protection were observed. Feedback on the survey, as well as guidance and suggestions for improvements were given to the producers. Deliveries of peat by the small-scale peat producers to the Rauhalahti power plant of Jyvaeskylaen Energiantuotanto Oy were reviewed in order to intensify the deliveries. By using new delivery regions it would be possible to reduce the number of lorries transporting the peat from the present 17 lorries to 9 lorries. The annual transportation amounts will be normalized and they would be increased from the present average of 53 000 m3 to 109 000 m3. The value of reducing of the waiting times would be about 1.0 FIM/m3 calculated on the basis of the total peat deliveries to the plant. The shared usage of the transportation devices of the Haku method by several producers might in some cases be profitable method for replacing the own pneumatic harvesters of peat producers. Hence the common production area should be at least 50 - 100 ha. The engine-rents determination principles were reviewed in the study. In addition to this it was calculated that on the basis of long-term weather condition data it would be possible to produce 250 - 300 m3 of milled peat along with the sod peat production without interfering the sod peat production by using hired milled peat machines. The profitability of the production depends, however, on the rent determined on the basis of the total usage rate of milled peat production machinery

1998-01-01

148

Farmers’ perceptions of pollinators’ importance in coffee production in Uganda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coffee (Coffea canephora) is the principal cash crop and the country’s largest agricultural foreign revenue earner in Uganda. Previous surveys confirmed that coffee grown in central Uganda was largely depending on bee pollination to set fruit set. Despite its high contribution to the economics of agricultural sector in Uganda and despite its great dependency to bees for fruit set, it is not clear if small-scale farmers are aware of the importance of managing farm-landscapes for pollination ...

Théodore Munyuli

2011-01-01

149

Examples of backreaction of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

CERN Document Server

In previous work, we introduced a new framework to treat large scale backreaction effects due to small scale inhomogeneities in general relativity. We considered one-parameter families of spacetimes for which such backreaction effects can occur, and we proved that, provided the weak energy condition on matter is satisfied, the leading effect of small scale inhomogeneities on large scale dynamics is to produce a traceless effective stress-energy tensor that itself satisfies the weak energy condition. In this work, we illustrate the nature of our framework by providing two explicit examples of one-parameter families with backreaction. The first, based on previous work of Berger, is a family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus, which satisfies all of the assumptions of our framework. As the parameter approaches its limiting value, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth background metric, but spacetime derivatives of the deviation of the metric from the background metric do not converge uniformly to...

Green, Stephen R

2013-01-01

150

Methodological insights from a rigorous small scale design experiment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the methods used to conduct high quality small-scale design experiments. It aims to provide a demonstrator promoting the uptake of more rigorous methods in design research and based on this it aims to specify a body of further work for linking study types and contexts. A small-scale experiment was conducted using methods specifically developed to mitigate four core problem areas identified from review: context, system understanding, methods and controls. The techniques were then critiqued in detail and used to draw several insights for design researchers including the value of control techniques and triangulation of metrics. Finally, the critique is used to specify further research aimed at linking design experimentation and design practice more effectively for design research.

Cash, Philip; Elias, Edward

2012-01-01

151

LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

1996-06-01

152

Brightness of the Sun's small scale magnetic field: proximity effects  

CERN Document Server

The net effect of the small scale magnetic field on the Sun's (bolometric) brightness is studied with realistic 3D MHD simulations. The direct effect of brightening within the magnetic field itself is consistent with measurements in high-resolution observations. The high 'photometric accuracy' of the simulations, however, reveal compensating brightness effects that are hard to detect observationally. The influence of magnetic concentrations on the surrounding nonmagnetic convective flows (a 'proximity effect') reduces the brightness by an amount exceeding the brightening by the magnetic concentrations themselves. The net photospheric effect of the small scale field (~ -0.34% at a mean flux density of 50 G) is thus negative. We conclude that the main contribution to the observed positive correlation between the magnetic field and total solar irradiance must be magnetic dissipation in layers around the temperature minimum and above (not included in the simulations). This agrees with existing inferences from obs...

Thaler, I

2014-01-01

153

Tokamak MHD instabilities: small-scale ideal MHD modes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The history of small-scale ideal MHD modes are discussed. A general and preliminary analysis of the small-scale MHD perturbations of the high-beta /SUB j/ tokamak is presented. Such perturbations are described by a rather complicated small-oscillation equation. The author considers obtaining the Mercier criterion from the equation and discusses various forms of the description and the physical sense of this criterion. It is shown that for large beta /SUB j/ the Mercier stability condition is not reduced to the well known condition 'q"2 is greater than 1', and that this condition is unsatisfied under certain conditions. The anit-Mercier perturbations are discussed, i.e., the ballooning modes at a smaller shear

1986-01-01

154

Working Capital Management of Small Scale Industries in Rajasthan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small scale industry (SSI plays an important role in the economy of the state Rajasthan of India. In spite of all the odds, the SSI sector has emerged as India’s engine of growth in the new millennium. The SSI sector in India contribute almost 40% of the gross industrial value added, the study is undertaken by taking 5 years data from secondary source. From this study, it has been found the working capital management is to decide the pattern of financing of the current assets, which is one of the biggest problems of working capital management. The SSIs has to decide about the sources of funds which can be avail to make investment in the current assets. The problem of working capital management of small-scale industries is not new.

Bashar Matarneh

2012-04-01

155

Small scale contributions to CMB: A coherent analysis  

CERN Document Server

We reanalyse Cosmic Microwave Background data from experiments probing both large and small scales. We assume that measured anisotropies are due not only to primary fluctuations but also, especially at small scales, to secondary effects (namely the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect) and possible point source contaminations. We first consider primary and secondary anisotropies only. For the first time in such analyses, the cosmological dependence of secondary fluctuations is fully taken into account. We show in that case that a higher value of the normalisation $\\sigma\\_8$ is preferred, as found by previous studies, but also higher values of the optical depth $\\tau$ and power spectrum index $n\\_s$ are needed. In the second part of our analysis, we further include possible contaminations from unresolved and unremoved point sources. Under these considerations, we discuss the effects on the cosmological parameters. We further obtain the best combination of relative contributions of the three kinds of sources to the measu...

Douspis, M; Langer, M; Douspis, Marian; Aghanim, Nabila; Langer, Mathieu

2006-01-01

156

SUBSTANTIATION OF ECONOMIC DECISIONS IN THE SMALL-SCALE BUSINESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Formation of economic decisions in the small-scale business takes a leading place in a control system of the enterprise. On a choice of a variant of the decision depends not only the efficiency, but also a survival of a small enterprise. Therefore in the small-scale business the scientists and businessmen give to a substantiation of the economic decision prime attention.The substantiation of the economic decision occurs in the course of planning and regulation of activity of a small enterprise. The correct substantiation of strategic and tactical decisions, to what in the course of a substantiation it is necessary to apply corresponding methods of the complex analysis, is especially important.Limitation of resources of the small businessman causes the necessity of using by him the systems of support and decision-making in the course of a substantiation of economic decisions. Such systems should have a corresponding database, the interface and algorithmic maintenance.

S. Krekotun

2012-09-01

157

The small-scale structure of quantum spacetime  

CERN Document Server

Planck-scale quantum spacetime undergoes probabilistic local curvature fluctuations whose distributions cannot explicitly depend on position otherwise vacuum's small-scale quantum structure would fail to be statistically homogeneous. Since the collection of fluctuations is a many-body system, the natural explanation for their position-independent statistics is that they are in equilibrium with each other and distributed at maximum entropy. Consequently, their probability distributions obey the laws of statistical physics which enforces small-scale smoothness, prevents the homogeneity-violating diffusion found in any free quantum system, and maintains decoherence. Their entropy, calculated using the explicitly-constructed phase space of the Riemann whose statistics are derived using a background-independent graviton exchange ensemble, is proportional to the Einstein-Hilbert action evaluated on the macroscopic expected geometry and includes a small, positive cosmological constant. Entropy maximization yields qu...

Burton, Christopher D

2012-01-01

158

SuperWIMP Solutions to Small Scale Structure Problems  

CERN Document Server

Collisionless, cold dark matter in the form of weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are well-motivated in particle physics, naturally yield the observed relic density, and successfully explain structure formation on large scales. On small scales, however, they predict too much power, leading to cuspy halos, dense cores, and large numbers of subhalos, in apparent conflict with observations. We consider superWIMP dark matter, produced with large velocity in late decays at times 10^5 s - 10^8 s. As analyzed by Kaplinghat in a more general setting, we find that superWIMPs have sufficiently large free-streaming lengths and low phase space densities to help resolve small scale structure problems while preserving all of the above-mentioned WIMP virtues.

Cembranos, J A R; Rajaraman, A; Takayama, F; Cembranos, Jose A. R.; Feng, Jonathan L.; Rajaraman, Arvind; Takayama, Fumihiro

2005-01-01

159

Small-scale turbulence can reduce parasite infectivity to dinoflagellates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small-scale turbulence and parasite infection are 2 important factors that govern the dynamics and fate of phytoplankton populations. We experimentally investigated the influence of turbulent mixing on the infectivity of the parasite Parvilucifera sinerae to dinoflagellates. Natural phytoplankton communities were collected during 3 stages of a bloom event in Arenys de Mar Har- bour (NW Mediterranean). The 15 to 60 ?m size fraction was used as the inoculum and distributed into spherical flask...

Llaveria, Gisela; Garce?s, Esther; Ross, Oliver N.; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Sampedro, Nagore; Berdalet, Elisa

2011-01-01

160

Generalizing digital elevation models for small scale hypsometric tinting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes an automatic procedure for deriving worldwide small-scale hypsometric layers from digital elevation models. A custom generalisation procedure was developed to remove unnecessary details from the elevation model: (1) the elevation data are filtered with lower and upper quartile filters, (2) a drainage network is extracted from the elevation data, (3) the drainage network is simplified with a custom algorithm that removes the shortest streams, (4) a series of buffers are ap...

Leonowicz, A. M.; Jenny, B.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Small Scale Solar ORC system for distributed power  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A solar thermal organic Rankine cycle (ORC) can provide affordable energy supplies in remote regions. The advent of low-cost medium temperature parabolic trough collectors and ORC technology taking advantage of mass produced fluid machinery from HVAC industries are enabling developments for the production of small scale autonomous power generation units. Construction and testing of this type of system is discussed, including benchmarking of scrolls expanders (up to 75% isentropic ...

Orosz, Matthew; Mueller, Amy; Quoilin, Sylvain; Hemond, Harold

2009-01-01

162

Economic Optimization of Small Scale Organic Rankine Cycles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper focuses on the economic optimization of a small scale ORC in waste heat recovery application with specific investment cost as objective function. First, a pre-design model of the ORC was built and simulations run with different working fluids to evaluate their technical performance. In a second step, components and system cost models were built and simulations carried out to evaluate the cost effectiveness of systems associated with different fluids. The working ...

Tchanche, Bertrand; Quoilin, Sylvain; Declaye, Se?bastien; Papadakis, George; Lemort, Vincent

2010-01-01

163

Micro and small-scale generation in urban distribution networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the world moves towards a more sustainable development, the energy coming from fossil fuels still produces the greenhouse gases that threaten the world’s climate. The UK government has established targets for the penetration of renewable energy generation and low-carbon alternatives for the electricity production. One of these technologies is microgeneration. In 2006, the UK government launched the Microgeneration Strategy pushing forward micro and small-scale generation a...

Acosta Alvarez, Jorge Luis; Alvarez, Jorge Luis Acosta; Acosta, Jorge Luis

2013-01-01

164

Small scale combined heat and power units using external combustion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Combined heat and power plants are of increasing interest due to the rising concern over global warming as they can lower emissions, by having very higher efficiencies than traditional power plants. Implemented on a small scale units and with external combustion they allow for great flexibility in implementation and fuel, and can allow for remote locations to serve their own heat and power needs. This thesis investigates in the first part the available technologies for such plants on a small ...

Johansen, Pa?l Andre?

2013-01-01

165

Development of a small-scale catalytic gas turbine combustor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Catalytically supported thermal combustion can provide low NO/sub x/ emissions with gaseous and distillate fuels while maintaining high combustion efficiency. For stationary gas turbines, catalytic combustion may be the only emerging technology that can cost effectively meet recent federal regulations for NO/sub x/ emissions. Under EPA sponsorship, a small-scale, catalytic gas turbine combustor was developed to evaluate transient and steady state combustor performance. 15 refs.

Anderson, S.J.; Friedman, M.A.; Krill, W.V.; Kesselring, J.P.

1982-01-01

166

Small-Scale Retailers in an Island Town  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the competition faced by small-scale general store and textile retailing in an island town in Malaysia. The study was carried out in Labuan Town in Labuan Island of East Malaysia. A qualitative research design was utilized, involving primarily interview data which were collected from 12 in-depth interviews with 6 sundry and general store retailers and 6 textile retailers. Content analysis was executed to analyse the narrative data. The findings reveal that large store reta...

Sivapalan Selvadurai; Er, A. C.; Lyndon, N.; Buang, A.; Mohd Fuad, M. J.; Habibah, A.; Hamzah, J.; Azima, A. M.; Junaidi, A. B.; Mohd Yusof Hussein

2013-01-01

167

Small-scale heterogeneity in sediments : experimental and modelling investigations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis consists of several studies relating to small-scale heterogeneity in sediments. The principal aim was to further our understanding of processes occurring at microniches. The individual studies consist of: 1) a critical review of previous studies of microniches that used probes with high spatial resolution and modelling approaches; 2) an experimental study of analysis of oxyanions in sediment at high resolution that applied a newly developed preparation method for a combined AgI/Fe...

2008-01-01

168

Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

Zhou, Caizhi

2010-12-15

169

Engineering development for a small-scale recirculator experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is evaluating the physics and technology of recirculating induction accelerators for heavy ion inertial fusion drivers. As part of this evaluation we are building a small-scale recirculator to demonstrate the concept and to use as a test bed for the development of recirculator technologies. System designs have been completed and components are presently being designed and developed for the small-scale recirculator. The hardware being developed includes both mechanical and electrical components of the beam line. Our present development efforts are focused on two areas: (1) the design of the modular beam line component called a ''half-lattice module'' which must satisfy challenging space and vacuum requirements and (2) the development of an advanced solid state modulator which will generate precisely tailored electrical pulses at repetition rates exceeding 100 kHz for acceleration. This paper will discuss results of the design and development activities that are presently being conducted to implement the small-scale recirculator experiments. An overview of the system design will be presented along with a discussion of the implications of this design on the mechanical and electrical hardware. The paper will focus primarily on discussions of the development and design of the half-lattice period hardware and the advanced solid state modulator. (orig.)

1996-11-01

170

Application of improved management and nutrition technologies for small-holder dairy production and their adoption by farmers in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The objectives of this presentation are to consider some of the factors concerned in the application of technical change to small-scale dairying and the adoption of change by farmers. The presentation will consider (1) the motives of the small-scale dairy farmer, (2) the small-scale dairy farmer's own perceptions of his problems and needs, (3) how farmers deal with the two fundamental technologies implicit in dairy farming, feeding their animals and getting their cows in calf, and (4) dissemination routes most favoured by small scale dairy farmers. The geographical focus of the presentation is East Africa, a region associated with considerable progress and success in small-scale dairying (Kenya) as well as dairying projects in their early development (Tanzania). The concerns of small-scale farmers have been characterised; thus the farmers have multiple objectives, their households have low capacity to bear risk, their livestock enterprises are often integrated with cropping activities, and their livestock are often expected to be multi-functional. Some of the expected implications for small-scale dairy farmers are that: (1) inputs (including feed) are low and therefore milk yields are expected to be low; (2) inputs are often matched to output so that a reduction in milk price results in a reduction in concentrate allowance for the cows; (3) the use of time and cash are optimised, implying that priority will not be given to cattle if other farm enterprises seem financially more attractive. Perhaps not surprisingly, attitudes and systems vary within the farming community, allowing sub-groups of small-scale dairy farmers to be identified and defined. Thus some farmers emerge as more specialist or entrepreneurial than others, prepared to make greater investment in return for higher outputs. Attitudes and activities also differ according to location. Small-scale farmers close to urban centres may well have off-farm employment, diverting their attention from their cows. The problems faced by small-scale dairy farmers are diverse but some common threads emerge from a number of different studies. As well as the usual farmer concerns about the low prices received for their product and the high price of inputs, the availability of working capital appears to be a general anxiety. Poor feeding practices, partly consequent on weather but also a result of cash shortages, are widely recognised. Animal disease is also a general source of concern. It is clear from farmer consultations that farmers do respond to these problems with technical innovations appropriate to their resources. Often these innovations represent adaptations to the limited inputs available or affordable. Thus long inter calving intervals, probably a function of chronic under feeding as well as difficulties associated with bull availability, are countered by exploiting the long flat lactation curve associated with the failure of the cow to peak in early lactation as a result of the inadequate feeding. Cows are milked for many months, often with no intervening dry period between lactations. Although this maintains milk production, the production of replacement heifer calves is jeopardised by the long calving intervals, threatening the sustainability of small-scale dairying at both the household and national level. It follows from the above that small-scale dairy farmers have limited capacity for technical change. However, in some areas, the very adoption of small-scale dairying over the past few years is sufficiently novel to illustrate that its practitioners are prepared to adopt change if the proposals are considered feasible within the recognised constraints. Sometimes innovations fail to get to farmers because of inadequate extension services, although increasing access to the internet may signal rapid change in some regions. However, it is also clear that scepticism remains widespread. Recent studies indicate that, in some areas, extension services have limited success at disseminating innovation. Farmers' preferred sources of information are their chur

2000-08-21

171

Rethinking the Risk Management Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale, Traditionally Based Agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proponents of genetically engineered (GE crops often assume that the risk management used in the industrial world is appropriate for small-scale, traditionally based agriculture in the Third World. Opponents of GE crops often assume that risk management is inappropriate for the Third World, because it is inherently biased in favor of the industrial world. We examine both of these assumptions, by rethinking risk management for GE crops and transgenes, using the example of maize transgene flow from the U.S. to Mexico. Risk management for the Third World is a necessary first step of a broader benefit–cost analysis of GE crops, which would include comparisons with existing varieties and with alternative varieties such as transgenic farmer varieties and organic varieties. Our goal is to use existing information on GE crops and on the social and biological characteristics of Third World agriculture to identify key processes that need to be considered in risk management, and the additional research required to adequately understand them. The four main steps in risk management are hazard identification, risk analysis (exposure x harm, risk evaluation, and risk treatment. We use informal event trees to identify possible exposure to GE crops and transgenes, and resulting biological and social harm; give examples of farmers' ability to evaluate social harm; and discuss the possibilities for risk treatment. We conclude that risk management is relevant for Third World agriculture, but needs to be based on the unique biological and social characteristics of small-scale, traditionally based agriculture, including the knowledge and values of Third World farmers and consumers.

Daniela Soleri

2005-06-01

172

Putting farmers first: reshaping agricultural research in West Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

How agricultural research is funded, organised, controlled and practised can have a huge impact on small-scale producers in the global South. In many countries, such research is driven by external funds, priorities and technological fixes, such as hybrid seeds, which can erode crop diversity. But food producers across the world are beginning to raise their voices to ensure that agricultural research better meets their needs and priorities. A series of farmer assessments and citizens' juries in West Africa has helped farmers assess existing approaches and articulate recommendations for policy and practice to achieve their own vision of agricultural research. In 2012, a high-level policy dialogue between farmers and the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa hopes to take this discussion to the next level and develop a shared agenda that can serve development and the public good.

Pimbert, Michel

2012-01-15

173

Coming to Grips with Farmers' variety Selection- the Case of New Improved Rice Varieties under Irrigation in South East Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In collaboration with farmers, rice varieties were evaluated under small-scale irrigation in two villages of south east Tanzania for two consecutive cropping seasons (1999/2000 –2000/2001. The objectives were to give farmers access to new improved rice varieties; to identify the selection criteria farmers consider important in irrigated rice production; and to come to grips with their arguments. Farmers were provided with eleven improved varieties, which they compared with their own ones. Farmers' preferred varieties with short to medium maturity period, which produce many tillers and mature uniformly; and with long translucent aromatic grains for their own use and marketing. This study identified qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria which farmers are using for selecting rice varieties. The implication for further research on rice in south east Tanzania is that the breeding programme should incorporate these attributes to address farmers' preferences, rather than to go for absolute maximum yield levels.

Kafiriti, EM.

2003-01-01

174

Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Plants Using Biofuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this time period where energy supply and climate change are of special concern, biomass-based fuels have attracted much interest due to their plentiful supply and favorable environmental characteristics (if properly managed). The effective capture and continued sustainability of this renewable resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants with high fuel energy conversion. At the same time, deregulation of the electricity market offers new opportunities for small-scale power plants in a decentralized scheme. These two important factors have opened up possibilities for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. The objective of this pre-study is to assess the possibilities and technical limitations for increased efficiency and energy utilization of biofuels in small size plants (approximately 10 MWe or lower). Various energy conversion technologies are considered and proven concepts for large-scale fossil fuel plants are an especially important area. An analysis has been made to identify the problems, technical limitations and different possibilities as recognized in the literature. Beyond published results, a qualitative survey was conducted to gain first-hand, current knowledge from experts in the field. At best, the survey results together with the results of personal interviews and a workshop on the role of small-scale plants in distributed generation will serve a guideline for future project directions and ideas. Conventional and novel technologies are included in the survey such as Stirling engines, combustion engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, steam motors, fuel cells and other novel technologies/cycles for biofuels. State-of-the-art heat and power plants will be identified to clarify of the advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles for their implementation.

Salomon-Popa, Marianne [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

2002-11-01

175

Examples of backreaction of small-scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

Science.gov (United States)

In previous work, we introduced a new framework to treat large-scale backreaction effects due to small-scale inhomogeneities in general relativity. We considered one-parameter families of spacetimes for which such backreaction effects can occur, and we proved that, provided the weak energy condition on matter is satisfied, the leading effect of small-scale inhomogeneities on large-scale dynamics is to produce a traceless effective stress-energy tensor that itself satisfies the weak energy condition. In this work, we illustrate the nature of our framework by providing two explicit examples of one-parameter families with backreaction. The first, based on previous work of Berger, is a family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus, which satisfies all of the assumptions of our framework. As the parameter approaches its limiting value, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth background metric, but spacetime derivatives of the deviation of the metric from the background metric do not converge uniformly to zero. The limiting metric has nontrivial backreaction from the small-scale inhomogeneities, with an effective stress energy that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition, in accord with our theorems. Our second one-parameter family consists of metrics which have a uniform Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker limit. This family satisfies all of our assumptions with the exception of the weak energy condition for matter. In this case, the limiting metric has an effective stress-energy tensor which is not traceless. We emphasize the importance of imposing energy conditions on matter in studies of backreaction.

Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

2013-06-01

176

Economic comparison between small-scale AFBC and PFBC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When a utility, independent power producer, or commercial firm contemplates a new small-scale power, cogeneration, or steam plant, a choice must be made among the various available technologies. Many considerations are part of this decision, including technological, regulatory, operational, environmental, and economic criteria. Each technology has its own strengths and weaknesses. For example, relative to conventional pulverized-coal plants, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBC) are more efficient and are capable of burning lower-grade and waste materials, but may be less proven commercially, particularly in the case of PFBC. However, in the final analysis, perhaps the most significant influence in the choice among technologies may be economic criteria. In this case, of those technologies which are acceptable from a regulatory and environmental standpoint, which technology does the job at the least cost? To make such a cost assessment, the plant builder will naturally search for information on the relative costs of various technologies. The focus of this research paper is to compare on an economic basis small-scale (in general, less than 100 MW) AFBC and PFBC power plants. Small-scale AFBC plants are fully commercialized, and recently the more-modern PFBC technology has been successfully demonstrated by a 70 MW power plant at Brilliant, Ohio. Limited economic information on PFBC technology has been compiled into a data base (see Fuller and Scherr, 1995). The literature search for the current research effort consisted of reviewing three separate databases: (1) Compendex, (2) Department of Energy, and (3) Fuller and Scherr (1995). A different literature search strategy was used in reviewing the data for PFBC and for AFBC. The dates reviewed for the PFBC data were January 1990 to June 1996. The dates reviewed for the AFBC data were 1980 to September 1996.

Fuller, J.A. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Boyd-Powell, T. [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Smith, D.H. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1996-12-31

177

The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1 on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1 of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P, Limousine(L, Kianina(C, Sharole(Sh and Markixhana(M on meat production increasing on small scale farms. To carried out this objective, two study methods were used: (i The survey - 284 small scale farms was observed in the Albanian coastal field and (ii Comparative essay of fattening calves (F1 in semi intensive small scale farm condition - 32 calves, F1 crosses of Holstein cows with above mentioned meat breeds were put in fattening in semi intensive small scale farm condition. 6 Holstein breed (H calves of 3-4 months age was used as control group. The feeding of animals was based on forages produced in farm: corn silage 30 % D.M, fresh alpha-alpha and its hay. 35 % of dry matter requirements were supplied by bought concentrate feedstuffs with 15 % crude protein on dry matter bases. The fattening period lasted 8 months . The average daily body weight increasing for each crosses and control group were respectively 889g (PxH, 998g (LxH, 850g (KxH, 1010g( ChxH, 953g (MxH and 702g (HxH. Multivariate analyses according to a linear model with constant factors ( genotype, sex, genotype x sex and covariance “live body weight in the beginning of experiment” showed that: (i The effect of crossbreds on average daily gain is evident under the small-scale farms conditions, also, (ii The average daily gain increases with 23 -38 % , depending on the type of crosses, (iii The crosses of dairy cattle with Limousine and Sharole result as most effective. The differences between F1 crosses of Markigiana, Kianine and Piemonteze are not statistically significant, (iv In semi intensive small scale farms the calf fattening can start from second month of life, (v The farmers even though small scale farm condition can produce more meat though the crossing of dairy cattle with meat breeds in comparison with pure dairy breed calves.

L. Papa

2010-01-01

178

Overview of the Testing of a Small-Scale Proprotor  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an overview of results from the wind tunnel test of a 1/4-scale V-22 proprotor in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW) in The Netherlands. The small-scale proprotor was tested on the isolated rotor configuration of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The test was conducted by a joint team from NASA Ames, NASA Langley, U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, and The Boeing Company. The objective of the test was to acquire a benchmark database for validating aeroacoustic analyses. Representative examples of airloads, acoustics, structural loads, and performance data are provided and discussed.

Young, Larry A.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Botha, Gavin; Dawson, Seth

1999-01-01

179

Dimensional analysis of small-scale steam explosion experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dimensional analysis applied to Nelson's small-scale steam explosion experiments to determine the qualitative effect of each relevant parameter for triggering a steam explosion. According to experimental results, the liquid entrapment model seems to be a consistent explanation for the steam explosion triggering mechanism. The three-dimensional oscillatory wave motion of the vapor/liquid interface is analyzed to determine the necessary conditions for local condensation and production of a coolant microjet to be entrapped in fuel. It is proposed that different contact modes between fuel and coolant may involve different initiation mechanisms of steam explosions

1986-01-01

180

Classification of wetlands vegetation using small scale color infrared imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These programs were tested for their value in classifying natural vegetation, using digitized data from small scale aerial photography. Existing imagery and the vegetation map of Farm Creek Marsh were used to determine the optimal number of classes, and to aid in determining if the computer maps were a believable product.

Williamson, F. S. L.

1975-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Probing small-scale intermittency with a fluctuation theorem  

CERN Document Server

We characterize statistical properties of the flow field in developed turbulence using concepts from stochastic thermodynamics. On the basis of data from a free air-jet experiment, we demonstrate how the dynamic fluctuations induced by small-scale intermittency generate analogs of entropy-consuming trajectories with sufficient weight to make fluctuation theorems observable at the macroscopic scale. We propose an integral fluctuation theorem for the entropy production associated with the energy transfer along the eddy-hierarchy and demonstrate its extreme sensitivity to the accurate description of the tails of the velocity distributions.

Nickelsen, D

2014-01-01

182

Monitoring Results of a Small Scale CHCP System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A small scale trigeneration system for combined heat, cold and power production was developed and installed at the Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, I.P. campus in Lisbon, Portugal. This system is one of the twelve experimental trigeneration systems being developed and tested across Europe within the PolySMART project. The CHCP system main constituents are a purpose made CHP prototype with an estimated 27kW maximum heat capacity and 9,6kW maximum electrical capacity and a TDC pr...

Mendes, J. Farinha; Cardoso, Joa?o P.; Coelho, Ricardo; Costa, Joa?o P.; Ferna?ndez, David; Silva, Anto?nio R.; Morgado, Miguel; Ada?o, Pedro

2010-01-01

183

Advances in small-scale gas turbine engines for cogeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Specific difficulties in the field of cogeneration with small-scale gas turbines (up to 2-3 MW) are considered which are usually not encountered in medium or large size cogeneration plants. They are, e.g.: higher investment cost per kW than the usual ratio, users are small and medium industries with the need of external financing, coping with environmental rules is more stringent. Present application fields and development trends are discussed, and the 2.6 MW Eurodyn gas turbine is briefly described. (R.P.)

Ravigne, P. [Turbomeca Land and Marine Turbines Div. (France)

1997-09-01

184

Nonlinear small-scale dynamos at low magnetic Prandtl numbers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saturated small-scale dynamo solutions driven by isotropic non-helical turbulence are presented at low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm down to 0.01. For Pm < 0.1, most of the energy is dissipated via Joule heat and, in agreement with earlier results for helical large-scale dynamos, kinetic energy dissipation is shown to diminish proportional to Pm^{1/2} down to values of 0.1. In agreement with earlier work, there is, in addition to a short Golitsyn k^{-11/3} spectrum near the re...

Brandenburg, Axel

2011-01-01

185

Working Capital Management of Small Scale Industries in Rajasthan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small scale industry (SSI) plays an important role in the economy of the state Rajasthan of India. In spite of all the odds, the SSI sector has emerged as India’s engine of growth in the new millennium. The SSI sector in India contribute almost 40% of the gross industrial value added, the study is undertaken by taking 5 years data from secondary source. From this study, it has been found the working capital management is to decide the pattern of financing of the current assets, which is one...

Bashar Matarneh

2012-01-01

186

Small-scale changes in wealth and attitudes towards risk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on an experiment designed to examine the effects of small-scale changes in wealth on risk attitudes. We find that the money given prior to risky choices does not induce a change of subjects' risk preferences. This result supports a key assumption in a recent literature over calibration critique of decision theories. Furthermore, as the money given to subjects in our experiment is administered in between risky tasks and framed as a reward rather than a windfall gain, our res...

Sousa, Sergio

2010-01-01

187

Algebraic reconstruction of a small-scale wave front.  

Science.gov (United States)

We show that a small-scale wave front can be reconstructed by an algebraic procedure from its intensity distribution in the focal plane, except for the ambiguities of the piston phase and the point-symmetrical solution of the complex conjugate. Details of the reconstruction procedure for a 3 x 3 wave front are presented, and the effectiveness of this procedure for a contaminated case is shown by computer simulation. A method for overcoming the ambiguity problem resulting from the point-symmetrical solution is also suggested. PMID:18286025

Takahashi, T; Dainty, J C; Takajo, H

1998-08-10

188

Optimal Tracking Controller Design for a Small Scale Helicopter  

CERN Multimedia

A model helicopter is more difficult to control than its full scale counterparts. This is due to its greater sensitivity to control inputs and disturbances as well as higher bandwidth of dynamics. This works is focused on designing practical tracking controller for a small scale helicopter following predefined trajectories. A tracking controller based on optimal control theory is synthesized as part of the development of an autonomous helicopter. Some issues in regards to control constraints are addressed. The weighting between state tracking performance and control power expenditure is analyzed. Overall performance of the control design is evaluated based on its time domain histories of trajectories as well as control inputs.

Budiyono, Agus

2008-01-01

189

Bringing farmers together  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farmer Field Schools (FFSs) have been used in many countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa as a way to deal with constraints such as crop pests, soil fertility depletion, health issues like HIV/AIDS and the communal management of natural resources. They often work in partnership with local NGOs or Government institutions to develop solutions to complex problems facing farmers. In Lukwanga parish, Wakiso District, FFSs have encouraged the creation of new institutions and led to the develop...

Zake, J.; Walaga, C.; Jager, A.

2005-01-01

190

Integrated biogas technology in the tropics I. Performance of small-scale digesters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were conducted with pilot small-scale biogas digesters designed for the family level in developing countries. Four 3.5 cubic m ferrocement digesters equipped with manually operated mixers were fed a mixture of nightsoil, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and rice straw and operated semi-continuously at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 30, 50 and 70 days, corresponding to organic loadings of 1.2, 0.75, and 0.53 kg m/day of total volatile solids (TVS), respectively. Although more biogas was produced at a HRT of 30 days with respect to the unit weight of TVs, the rates of biogas and methane production within these loading rates were similar and approximately 0.283 and 0.186 cubic m (kg TVS)/day, respectively. A major operational problem was excessive scum accumulation in the digester due to the low specific gravity of the plant matter substrates. A parallel batch experiment using 20-liter aspirator glass bottles yielded biogas production rates of 0.400 and 0.406 cubic m (kg TVS) at the end of 30 and 50 days, respectively. Manually operated biogas plants using heterogenous substrates in which plant matter is a major component may have little potential for poor farmers in developing countries. 25 references.

Polpraset, C.; Edwards, P.; Rajput, V.S.; Pacharaprakiti, C.

1986-01-01

191

Profitability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Elmina, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species caught and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Interviews were conducted among 60 fishermen between February and March 2010. Economic assessment of small-scale fishing activities were done using questionnaires based on direct market pricing and contingent valuation methods. The results indicate that highly profitable fish species include Epinephelus aeneus, Sparus caeruleostictus, Dentex angolensis and Lutjanus goreensis valued at US$2.97, US$2.87, US$2.85 and US$2.63 per kilogram respectively. The less profitable species include Dasyatis margarita, Caranx crysos and Sardinella aurita valued at US$0.34, US$0.66 and US$ 0.85 per kilogram respectively. Although Sardinella aurita was among the less valuable fish species, it was the main species driving profits for the fishermen due to its high share volume among the fish catches. Findings from this study suggest high rates of exploitation, in that stocks generally cannot provide for increased economic return in the face of increased investment. This is a clear indicator that the open-access nature of Ghanaian fisheries is not sustainable, and management reform is well overdue.

Isaac Okyere

2012-10-01

192

MODELING THE VERY SMALL SCALE CLUSTERING OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We model the small-scale clustering of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Specifically, we use the halo occupation distribution formalism to model the projected two-point correlation function of LRGs on scales well within the sizes of their host halos (0.016 h -1 Mpc ? r ? 0.42 h -1 Mpc). We start by varying P(N|M), the probability distribution that a dark matter halo of mass M contains N LRGs, and assuming that the radial distribution of satellite LRGs within halos traces the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter density profile. We find that varying P(N|M) alone is not sufficient to match the small-scale data. We next allow the concentration of satellite LRG galaxies to differ from that of dark matter and find that this is also not sufficient. Finally, we relax the assumption of an NFW profile and allow the inner slope of the density profile to vary. We find that this model provides a good fit to the data and the resulting value of the slope is -2.17 ± 0.12. The radial density profile of satellite LRGs within halos is thus not compatible with that of the underlying dark matter, but rather is closer to an isothermal distribution.

2010-01-20

193

Small-scale AFBC hot air gas turbine power cycle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW{sub e} plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1,450 F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

Ashworth, R.A. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center; Hall, A.W. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1995-12-31

194

Small-scale tunnel test for blast performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The data reported here provide a validation of a small-scale tunnel test as a tool to guide the optimization of new explosives for blast performance in tunnels. The small-scale arrangement consisted of a 2-g booster and 10-g sample mounted at the closed end of a 127mm diameter by 4.6-m long steel tube with pressure transducers along its length. The three performance characteristics considered were peak pressure, initial energy release, and impulse. The relative performance from five explosives was compared to that from a 1.16-m diameter by 30-m long tunnel that used 2.27-kg samples. The peak pressure values didn't correlate between the tunnels. Partial impulse for the explosives did rank similarly. The initial energy release was determined from a one-dimensional point-source analysis, which nearly tracked with impulse suggesting additional energy released further down the tunnel for some explosives. This test is a viable tool for optimizing compositional variations for blast performance in target scenarios of similar geometry.

Felts, J. E.; Lee, R. J.

2014-05-01

195

Scaling and Small Scale Structure in Cosmic String Networks  

CERN Multimedia

We examine the scaling properties of an evolving network of strings in Minkowski spacetime and study the evolution of length scales in terms of a 3-scale model proposed by Austin, Copeland and Kibble (ACK). We find good qualitative and some quantitative agreement between the model and our simulations. We also investigate small-scale structure by altering the minimum allowed size for loop production E_c. Certain quantities depend significantly on this parameter: for example the scaling density can vary by a factor of two or more with increasing E_c. Small-scale structure as defined by ACK disappears if no restrictions are placed on loop production, and the fractal dimension of the string changes smoothly from 2 to 1 as the resolution scale is decreased. Loops are nearly all produced at the lattice cut-off. We suggest that the lattice cut-off should be interpreted as corresponding to the string width, and that in a real network loops are actually produced with this size. This leads to a radically different stri...

Vincent, G R; Sakellariadou, M; Vincent, Graham R.; Hindmarsh, Mark; Sakellariadou, Mairi

1997-01-01

196

Atmospheric dispersion modelling over complex terrain at small scale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous study concerned of qualitative modelling neutrally stratified flow over open-cut coal mine and important surrounding topography at meso-scale (1:9000 revealed an important area for quantitative modelling of atmospheric dispersion at small-scale (1:3300. The selected area includes a necessary part of the coal mine topography with respect to its future expansion and surrounding populated areas. At this small-scale simultaneous measurement of velocity components and concentrations in specified points of vertical and horizontal planes were performed by two-dimensional Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA and Fast-Response Flame Ionization Detector (FFID, respectively. The impact of the complex terrain on passive pollutant dispersion with respect to the prevailing wind direction was observed and the prediction of the air quality at populated areas is discussed. The measured data will be used for comparison with another model taking into account the future coal mine transformation. Thus, the impact of coal mine transformation on pollutant dispersion can be observed.

Nosek S.

2014-03-01

197

The Small-Scale Dynamo at Low Magnetic Prandtl Numbers  

CERN Multimedia

The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(l) \\propto l^{theta}, where v(l) is the eddy velocity at a scale l. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with theta = 1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with theta = 1/2. In this work we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the...

Schober, Jennifer; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

2012-01-01

198

NONLINEAR SMALL-SCALE DYNAMOS AT LOW MAGNETIC PRANDTL NUMBERS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saturated small-scale dynamo solutions driven by isotropic non-helical turbulence are presented at low magnetic Prandtl numbers PrM down to 0.01. For PrM 1/2M down to values of 0.1. In agreement with earlier work, there is, in addition to a short Golitsyn k –11/3 spectrum near the resistive scale, also some evidence for a short k –1 spectrum on larger scales. The rms magnetic field strength of the small-scale dynamo is found to depend only weakly on the value of PrM and decreases by about a factor of two as PrM is decreased from 1 to 0.01. The possibility of dynamo action at PrM = 0.1 in the nonlinear regime is argued to be a consequence of a suppression of the bottleneck seen in the kinetic energy spectrum in the absence of a dynamo and, more generally, a suppression of kinetic energy near the dissipation wavenumber.

2011-11-10

199

Evaluation of tensile properties by small-scale specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To establish the basis for small specimen tensile testing technique to apply the method to irradiated materials, thickness to grain size effects on tensile properties of the SA 508 cl. 3 steel were investigated and, based on the result on size effects, tensile properties changes due to neutron and proton irradiation on the SA 508 cl.3 and the 12Cr-1MoV steel were investigated by the small-scale specimen test technique. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and total elongation were decreased as specimen thickness to grain size ratio decreased. The critical thickness to grain size ratio was appeared to be about 8 for the SA 508 cl. 3 steel. The sensitivity to neutron irradiation appeared to be higher for the 12Cr-1MoV steel than the SA 508 cl. 3 steel. Results showed that studies on irradiation damage mechanism, in addition to a sufficient database, are necessary for successful application of the small-scale tensile testing technique to the irradiated materials

1994-05-27

200

Evaluation of tensile properties by small-scale specimens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To establish the basis for small specimen tensile testing technique to apply the method to irradiated materials, thickness to grain size effects on tensile properties of the SA 508 cl. 3 steel were investigated and, based on the result on size effects, tensile properties changes due to neutron and proton irradiation on the SA 508 cl.3 and the 12Cr-1MoV steel were investigated by the small-scale specimen test technique. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and total elongation were decreased as specimen thickness to grain size ratio decreased. The critical thickness to grain size ratio was appeared to be about 8 for the SA 508 cl. 3 steel. The sensitivity to neutron irradiation appeared to be higher for the 12Cr-1MoV steel than the SA 508 cl. 3 steel. Results showed that studies on irradiation damage mechanism, in addition to a sufficient database, are necessary for successful application of the small-scale tensile testing technique to the irradiated materials.

Chi, Se Hwan; Hong, Jun Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Sup [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1994-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver  

Science.gov (United States)

Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source–target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose–effect relationships in the liver.

Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

2014-07-01

202

A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and (125)I, (90)Y, (211)At, (99m)Tc, (111)In, (177)Lu, (131)I and (18)F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons ((125)I) or high-LET alpha particles ((211)At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver. PMID:24874832

Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

2014-07-01

203

Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2013-09-12

204

Design and Develop a Honeypot for Small Scale Organization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computer Network and Internet is growing every day. Computer networks allow communicating faster than any other facilities. These networks allow the user to access local and remote databases. It is impossible to protect every system on the network. In industries, the network and its security are important issues, as a breach in the system can cause major problems. Intrusion detection system (IDS is used for monitoring the processes on a system or a network for examining the threats and alerts the administrator about attack. And IDS provide a solution only for the large scale industries, but there is no solution for the small scale industries so model is proposed for honeypot to solve the problem of small scale industries which is the hybrid structure of Snort, Nmap, Xprobe2, P0f. This model captures the activities of attackers and maintains a log for all these activities. Virtualization is performed with the help of virtual machine. The focus of this paper is primarily on preventing the attacks from external and internal attackers and maintaining the log file using honeypot with virtual machine.

Sakshi Sharma,

2013-02-01

205

Small Scale Gasification: Gas Engine CHP for Biofuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a joint project, Linnaeus Univ. in Vaexjoe (LNU) and the Faculty of Engineering at Lund Univ. (LTH) were commissioned by the Swedish Energy Agency to make an inventory of the techniques and systems for small scale gasifier-gas engine combined heat and power (CHP) production and to evaluate the technology. Small scale is defined here as plants up to 10 MW{sub th}, and the fuel used in the gasifier is some kind of biofuel, usually woody biofuel in the form of chips, pellets, or sawdust. The study is presented in this report. The report has been compiled by searching the literature, participating in seminars, visiting plants, interviewing contact people, and following up contacts by e-mail and phone. The first, descriptive part of the report, examines the state-of-the-art technology for gasification, gas cleaning, and gas engines. The second part presents case studies of the selected plants: - Meva Innovation's VIPP-VORTEX CHP plant - DTU's VIKING CHP plant - Guessing bio-power station - Harbooere CHP plant -Skive CHP plant The case studies examine the features of the plants and the included unit operations, the kinds of fuels used and the net electricity and overall efficiencies obtained. The investment and operating costs are presented when available as are figures on plant availability. In addition we survey the international situation, mainly covering developing countries. Generally, the technology is sufficiently mature for commercialization, though some unit operations, for example catalytic tar reforming, still needs further development. Further development and optimization will probably streamline the performance of the various plants so that their biofuel-to-electricity efficiency reaches 30-40 % and overall performance efficiency in the range of 90 %. The Harbooere, Skive, and Guessing plant types are considered appropriate for municipal CHP systems, while the Viking and VIPP-VORTEX plants are smaller and considered appropriate for replacing hot water plants in district heating network. The Danish Technical Univ. (DTU) Biomass Gasification Group and Meva International have identified a potentially large market in the developing countries of Asia. Areas for suggested further research and development include: - Gas cleaning/upgrading - Utilization of produced heat - System integration/optimization - Small scale oxygen production - Gas engine developments

Brandin, Jan (Linnaeus Univ., Vaexjoe. Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering (Sweden)); Tuner, Martin; Odenbrand, Ingemar (The Faculty of Engineering at Lund Univ. (LTH) (Sweden))

2011-07-01

206

Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems to productive smallholder irrigation: soil nutrient depletion, salinization, disease and pest resulting from inefficient irrigation practices, infrastructure problems leading to a reduction of the size of the command area and decrease in reservoir volume. The major causes have been poor irrigation infrastructure, poor on-farm soil and water management, prevalence of various crop pests and diseases, lack of inputs and reservoir siltation. On-farm participatory research focusing on soil, crop and water management issues, including technical, institutional and managerial aspects, to identify best performing innovations while taking care of the environment was recommended. Currently, a range of interlinked activities are implemented a multiple scales, combining participatory and scientific approaches towards innovation development and up-scaling of promising technologies and institutional and managerial approaches from local to regional scales. ____________________________ Key words: Irrigation scheme, productivity, innovation, participatory method, Gumselassa, Ethiopia

Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

2014-05-01

207

Harvesting next to poverty. An analysis of the cotton industry´s impact on small scale farmers in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Et ofte stillet spørgsmål i udviklingssammenhænge er: hvordan fjerner vi fattigdom i verden? Der har i den forbindelse været en intensiv diskussion om sammenhængen mellem den handelsrelaterede økonomiske vækst og fattigdom (Dollar 2002, Rodrik 2007, Stiglitz 2006). Hvordan påvirker den økonomiske vækst i én sektor uligheden og fattigdomsniveauet i samfundet? Ud af denne diskussion er det kommet frem, at vækst i forskellige sektorer påvirker fattigdomsniveauet forskelligt (Bigsten...

Pedersen, Cecilie Toudal

2009-01-01

208

Savings patterns of small-scale farmers in a peri-urban area (Moretele District: North West Province)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study uses the conventional economic approaches to savings behaviour as a point of departure. In the past, agricultural programmes and policies overlooked the importance of savings mobilization in favour of credit extension programmes. This line of economic development approach arose from the assumption that poor rural people cannot save and will not respond to opportunities to save. The latest research results clearly demonstrate that rural people do mobilise significant voluntary saving...

2006-01-01

209

Linking agribusiness and small-scale farmers in developing countries: is there a new role for contract farming?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines a new role for contract farming in developing countries in the light of the industrialisation of agriculture and the globalisation of world markets. A theoretical rationale for contracting in developing countries is developed on the basis of adopting new institutional economic theory for the purpose of matching governance forms to market failure problems and transaction characteristics. The history of contract farming is reviewed together with the advantages and disadvan...

2002-01-01

210

Antimicrobial Resistance in Commensal Flora of Pig Farmers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We assessed the quantitative contribution of pig farming to antimicrobial resistance in the commensal flora of pig farmers by comparing 113 healthy pig farmers from the major French porcine production areas to 113 nonfarmers, each matched for sex, age, and county of residence. All reported that they had not taken antiimicrobial agents within the previous month. Throat, nasal, and fecal swabs were screened for resistant microorganisms on agar containing selected antimicrobial agents. Nasophary...

Aubry-damon, He?le?ne; Grenet, Karine; Sall-ndiaye, Penda; Che, Didier; Cordeiro, Eugenio; Bougnoux, Marie-elisabeth; Rigaud, Emma; Le Strat, Yann; Lemanissier, Ve?ronique; Armand-lefe?vre, Laurence; Delzescaux, Didier; Desenclos, Jean-claude; Lie?nard, Michel; Andremont, Antoine

2004-01-01

211

Small Scale Field Emergence and Its Impact on Photospheric Granulation  

CERN Multimedia

We used photospheric intensity images and magnetic field measurements from the New Solar Telescope in Big Bear and Helioseismic Magnetic Imager on board Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to study the the effect that the new small-scale emerging flux induces on solar granulation. We report that emerging flux appears to leave different types of footprint on solar granulation: i) diffuse irregular patches of increased brightness, ii) well defined filament-like structures and accompanied bright points, and iii) bright point-like features that appear inside granules. We suggest that the type of the footprint depends on the intensity of emerging fields. Stronger fields, emerging as a part of large magnetic structure, create on the solar surface a well defined filamentary pattern with bright points at the ends of the filaments, while weak turbulent fields are associated with bright patches inside the host granule.

Yurchyshyn, V; Abramenko, V; Goode, P; Cao, W

2012-01-01

212

Interpretation of small scale geological features on seismic reflection data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) for Mining Technology and Equipment (CMTE) has recently completed an Australian Coal Association Program project to investigate the use of computer interpretation techniques, including seismic trace attribute analyses, to confidently map localised geological features such as seam rolls, changes to roof conditions, and small scale faults and shears, and also to investigate the ability of the seismic method to similarly resolve such features within a multiple coal seam environment. The potential of computer interpretation techniques was explained using the program SeisWin. 2D and 3D seismic surveys can now be undertaken relatively cheaply and give better results than previously. Their use is expected to grow. CMTE has successfully assisted Australian coal mines to analyse seven 3D seismic data sets from Appin, Tower, Goonyella, Burton and Newlands mines. 4 figs.

Zhou, B.; Hatherly, P. [Cooperative Research Centre for Mining Technology and Equipment, Qld. (Australia)

2000-03-01

213

Small-Scale Performance Testing for Studying New Explosives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of new high-explosive (HE) formulations involves characterizing their safety and performance. Small-scale experiments requiring only a small amount of explosives are of interest because they can facilitate development while minimizing hazards and reducing cost. A detonation-spreading, dent test, called the Floret test, was designed to obtain performance data for new explosives. It utilizes the detonation of about a 1.0 g sample of HE, initiated by an accelerated aluminum flyer. Upon impact, the HE sample detonates and a copper witness plate absorbs the ensuing shock wave. The dent of the plate is then measured and correlated to the energetic output of the HE. Additionally, the dent measurement can be used to compare the performance of different explosives. The Floret test is beneficial because it quickly returns important performance information, while requiring only a small explosive sample. This work will explain the Floret test and discuss some exemplary results.

Gagliardi, F J; Chambers, R D; Tran, T D

2005-04-29

214

Microbial inoculants for small scale composting of putrescible kitchen wastes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research looked at the need for ligno-cellulolytic inoculants (EM bacteria and Trichoderma sp.) in small to medium scale composting of household wastes. A mixture of household organic waste comprised of kitchen waste, paper, grass clippings and composted material was subjected to various durations of thermo composting followed by vermicomposting with and without microbial inoculants for a total of 28days. The results revealed that ligno-celluloytic inoculants are not essential to speed up the process of composting for onsite small scale household organic waste treatment as no significant difference was observed between the control and those inoculated with Trichoderma and EM in terms of C:N ratio of the final product. However, it was observed that EM inoculation enhanced reproductive rate of earthworms, and so probably created the best environment for vermicomposting, in all treatment groups. PMID:20207530

Nair, J; Okamitsu, K

2010-06-01

215

A multi scale model for small scale plasticity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text.A framework for investigating size-dependent small-scale plasticity phenomena and related material instabilities at various length scales ranging from the nano-microscale to the mesoscale is presented. The model is based on fundamental physical laws that govern dislocation motion and their interaction with various defects and interfaces. Particularly, a multi-scale model is developed merging two scales, the nano-microscale where plasticity is determined by explicit three-dimensional dislocation dynamics analysis providing the material length-scale, and the continuum scale where energy transport is based on basic continuum mechanics laws. The result is a hybrid simulation model coupling discrete dislocation dynamics with finite element analyses. With this hybrid approach, one can address complex size-dependent problems, including dislocation boundaries, dislocations in heterogeneous structures, dislocation interaction with interfaces and associated shape changes and lattice rotations, as well as deformation in nano-structured materials, localized deformation and shear band

2002-05-16

216

Small scale gap test in water. [Impact sensitivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Impact sensitivity of some explosives were studied by applying small scale gap test in water. In this test method, polyethylene plate of various thickness was inserted as gap between No. 0 detonator and test sample. Series of tests were conducted for checking whether the sample was exploded or not. Samples used for the experiments were TNT and PETN, diluted water. Experiments were conducted by increasing the thickness of polyethylene plate until explosion was stopped by the gap. In case of PETN, explosion did not occur beyond 18 mm gap for pure PETN, 4 mm for 10% diluted with water, and 2 mm for 20% diluted, no explosion for 30% diluted. In case of pure TNT, 5 mm thickness stopped explosion. From the result, this method was considered as reliable and safe for measuring impact sensitivity. (3 figs)

Matsunaga, Takehiro; Wada, Yuji; Ryo, Ron Hai; Kaneko, Yoshiaki; Hosoya, Fumio; Yoshida, Tadao

1988-05-11

217

Exact example of backreaction of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology  

Science.gov (United States)

We construct a one-parameter family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus. In the limit as the parameter N goes to infinity, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth ``background metric.'' However, spacetime derivatives of the metric do not approach a limit. As a result, we find that the background metric itself is not a solution of the vacuum Einstein equation. Rather, it is a solution of the Einstein equation with an ``effective stress-energy tensor,'' which is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition. This is an explicit example of backreaction due to small scale inhomogeneities. We comment on the non-vacuum case, where we have proven in previous work that, provided the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition, no additional backreaction is possible.

Green, Stephen; Wald, Robert

2013-04-01

218

Suprathermal electrons in small-scale field-aligned currents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data obtained from the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 Satellite have shown that during strong magnetic storms a halo of suprathermal electrons with number density equal to 0,1 % of the ionospheric plasma density with effective transverse temperature of the order of several eV appeared in the region of the intense small-scale (1 km) field-aligned currents. These electrons are believed to be the main carriers of narrow field-aligned currents. The observed approach to isotropy of the electron flux is interpreted in terms of Coulomb scattering, although it is hard to explain the electric fields necessary for the electron acceleration without the presence of anomalous resistance

1986-01-01

219

MeV Dark Matter and Small Scale Structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

WIMPs with electroweak scale masses (neutralinos, etc.) remain in kinetic equilibrium with other particle species until temperatures approximately in the range of 10 MeV to 1 GeV, leading to the formation of dark matter substructure with masses as small as 10-4 M#circle_dot# to 10-12 M#circle_dot#. However, if dark matter consists of particles with MeV scale masses, as motivated by the observation of 511 keV emission from the Galactic Bulge, such particles are naturally expected to remain in kinetic equilibrium with the cosmic neutrino background until considerably later times. This would lead to a strong suppression of small scale structure with masses below about 107M#circle_dot# to 104 M#circle_dot#. This cutoff scale has important implications for present and future searches for faint Local Group satellite galaxies and for the missing satellites problem

2007-01-01

220

MeV dark matter and small scale structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Weakly interacting massive particles with electroweak scale masses (neutralinos, etc.) remain in kinetic equilibrium with other particle species until temperatures approximately in the range of 10 MeV to 1 GeV, leading to the formation of dark matter substructure with masses as small as 10-4M· to 10-12M·. However, if dark matter consists of particles with MeV scale masses, as motivated by the observation of 511 keV emission from the galactic bulge, such particles are naturally expected to remain in kinetic equilibrium with the cosmic neutrino background until considerably later times. This would lead to a strong suppression of small scale structure with masses below about 107M· to 104M·. This cutoff scale has important implications for present and future searches for faint local group satellite galaxies and for the missing satellites problem. We also summarize current constraints on the MeV dark matter scenario

2007-11-15

 
 
 
 
221

Sizing aspects of a small scale grid connected PV system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photovoltaics can be used in grid connected mode in two ways: as array installed at the end use site, such as on rooftops, or as utility-scale generating stations. The present paper describes a small-scale grid connected Photovoltaic system. The paper starts with the structure and characterization of the system. The principal technical parameter data are also presented. The used monitoring parameters indicate the principal meteorological data, air temperature and solar radiation data for the location sited at Agigea, at the Black Sea and the produced energy by the PV modules. The present application is made by 1 subsystem with 1200 Wp power and with the panel inclination possibility, using different type of PV modules. The paper presents a simulation model for this system realized with commercial software packages and with a one self made Matlab model that evaluates the energy balance of the PV system. All the simulation and measurements data are presented. (orig.)

Bartha, S.; Teodoreanu, D.I.; Teodoreanu, M.; Negreanu, C. [I.C.P.E.-New Energy Sources Laboratory (NESL), Bucharest (Romania); Farkas, I.; Seres, I. [Szent Istvan University, Goedoelloe (Hungary). Department of Physics and Process Control

2008-07-01

222

Economic feasibility of small scale button mushroom production in pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abstract:- Mushroom is widely cultivated as a proteineous vegetable in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Its cultivation requires less space, care, equipment and cost compared to many other crops and livestock. The present study was conducted in 2010 to estimate the profitability of small scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross return of mushroom was estimated at 155.6 kg ha and Rs.77,800 ha , respectively. The results indicated the fact that mushroom production is very much remunerative to its producers as it can give maximum net return by reducing their cost of production as its cultivation is dependent on the agricultural raw material which is cheaply available. (author)

2013-01-01

223

Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

2010-07-01

224

Complexity in small-scale dwarf spheroidal galaxies  

CERN Multimedia

Our knowledge about the dynamics, the chemical abundances and the evolutionary histories of the more luminous dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies is constantly growing. However, very little is known about the enrichment of the ultra-faint systems recently discovered in large numbers in large sky surveys. Current low-resolution spectroscopy and photometric data indicate that these galaxies are highly dark matter dominated and predominantly metal poor. On the other hand, recent high-resolution abundance analyses indicate that some dwarf galaxies experienced highly inhomogenous chemical enrichment, where star formation proceeds locally on small scales. In this article, I will review the kinematic and chemical abundance information of the Milky Way satellite dSphs that is presently available from low- and high resolution spectroscopy. Moreover, some of the most peculiar element and inhomogeneous enrichment patterns will be discussed and related to the question of to what extent the faintest dSph candidates could hav...

Koch, Andreas

2009-01-01

225

Mark III small scale chugging tests: Test Series 5013  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of flow visualization tests was performed in order to qualitatively investigate chugging phenomena for the Mark III pressure suppression containment system. The tests were conducted in a small scale test apparatus consisting of a steam generator, steam conditioning valve, vent system, and condensation tank serving as a suppression pool. The two vent systems used represented 1/10 linear scale models of the Mark III full size and the Mark III 1/?3 scale Pressure Suppression Test Facility (PSTF) vent systems. Tests were run with two vent length-to-diameter ratios, two vent spacings, and two vent diameters for three different values of vent steam flux and bulk pool temperature. High-speed films were taken to determine the fluid interface motion in the annulus section and the horizontal vents, and the steam bubble formation and collapse location during vent chugging

1977-01-01

226

Transition from large-scale to small-scale dynamo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamo equations are solved numerically with a helical forcing corresponding to the Roberts flow. In the fully turbulent regime the flow behaves as a Roberts flow on long time scales, plus turbulent fluctuations at short time scales. The dynamo onset is controlled by the long time scales of the flow, in agreement with the former Karlsruhe experimental results. The dynamo mechanism is governed by a generalized ? effect, which includes both the usual ? effect and turbulent diffusion, plus all higher order effects. Beyond the onset we find that this generalized ? effect scales as O(Rm(-1)), suggesting the takeover of small-scale dynamo action. This is confirmed by simulations in which dynamo occurs even if the large-scale field is artificially suppressed. PMID:21568564

Ponty, Y; Plunian, F

2011-04-15

227

Transition from Large-Scale to Small-Scale Dynamo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamo equations are solved numerically with a helical forcing corresponding to the Roberts flow. In the fully turbulent regime the flow behaves as a Roberts flow on long time scales, plus turbulent fluctuations at short time scales. The dynamo onset is controlled by the long time scales of the flow, in agreement with the former Karlsruhe experimental results. The is governed by a generalized ? effect, which includes both the usual ? effect and turbulent diffusion, plus all higher order effects. Beyond the onset we find that this generalized ? effect scales as O(Rm-1), suggesting the takeover of small-scale dynamo action. This is confirmed by simulations in which dynamo occurs even if the large-scale field is artificially suppressed.

2011-04-15

228

Small-scale resistance spot welding of austenitic stainless steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) was carried out for austenitic stainless steels. A weld lobe that shows the process window for making sound joints was obtained for type 304 stainless steel thin sheets, and the effects of welding current, force and weld time on joint strength and nugget size were investigated. The cooling rate that was estimated from the solidification cell size was approximately 2.4 x 105 K/s which is almost similar to that produced by laser beam welding. The microstructures of weld zones were almost fully austenitic due to the rapid solidification rate. Despite the fully austenitic microstructure, no hot cracking was found in types 302, 304, 316L, 310S and 347 austenitic stainless steels by SSRSW. Rapid cooling rate in SSRSW made it difficult to predict the microstructures from the conventional Schaeffler diagram

2008-09-25

229

LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. This testing is typically done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ``ERL Type 12 Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Apparatus``, or ``Drop Hammer Machine``, and the methods used to determine the impact sensitivity of energetic materials, Also discussed are changes made to both the machine and methods since the inception of impact sensitivity testing at LLNL in 1956. The accumulated data for the materials tested in not listed here, the exception being the discussion of those specific materials (primary calibrants: PETN, RDX, Comp-B3,and TNT; secondary calibrants: K-6, RX-26-AF, and TATB) used to calibrate the machine.

Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

1995-01-01

230

Manufacture of a Biodegradable Detergent on Small Scale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with an aggregate planning for a small scale production unit using a network flow model for full utilization of its capacity to meet the changing forecasted demand .The formulation of the problem is done by using the given inventory capacity with backorders by making a trade-off among inventory costs , backlog costs, production and subcontracting costs. The total cost function and the constraint inequalities were developed assuming the cost functions to be linear. The parameters of objective function and the constraints were estimated from the economics of the plant. The values of the work force, overtime, backlog, amount subcontracted were determined for a planning horizon of six months using an LP computer package. This method of production scheduling took care of the fluctuating demand utilizing the full capacity of the plant.

Abdulla A. Aziz A. Majeed

2010-12-01

231

Numerical Simulation and Optimazation of Small Scale LNG Plant  

Science.gov (United States)

The LNG20 is a small-scale natural gas liquefier. Its capacity is 20 cube meters LNG per day. This liquefier could be used for the pipeline gas, coalbed gas, oil field gas liquefaction and peakshaving plant for town gas gate station and natural gas power plant. Two processing cycles are applied to LNG20, nitrogen expander cycle and mixed refrigerant cycle. In this report, two feed gases are the target sources; one is the pipeline gas in ``West-to-east pipeline gas'' in a gate station in Zhejiang province and coalbed gas in Northeast China. The numerical simulation and optimization for the LNG20 were carried out to obtain the design parameters.

Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Fan, Q. H.; Yin, Q. S.

2006-04-01

232

Small Scale Industries and Economic Development: Special Reference to India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The small scale industries sector contributes significantly to the manufacturing output, employment and exports of the country. It is estimated that in terms of value, the sector accounts for about 45 per cent of the manufacturing output and 40 per cent of the total exports of the country. The sector is estimated to employ about 59 million persons in over 26 million units throughout the country. The production of SSI unit in India was Rs 84,413 crore in 1992-93, which increased and reached up to Rs. 9,82919 crore in 2009-10. The production of SSI units shows continually raising trend during the study period. During 1992-93 SSI units shows 4.71 growth rate in production which gone up to 11.59 percent in 2009-10.

Dr. S. N. Babar

2012-04-01

233

Numerical simulation of small scale soft impact tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the small scale soft missile impact tests. The purpose of the test program is to provide data for the calibration of the numerical simulation models for impact simulation. In the experiments, both dry and fluid filled missiles are used. The tests with fluid filled missiles investigate the release speed and the droplet size of the fluid release. This data is important in quantifying the fire hazard of flammable liquid after the release. The spray release velocity and droplet size are also input data for analytical and numerical simulation of the liquid spread in the impact. The behaviour of the impact target is the second investigative goal of the test program. The response of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete walls is studied with the aid of displacement and strain monitoring. (authors)

2008-09-21

234

Burn-rate Measurement on Small-scale Rocket Motors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small-scale rocket motors are widely used by propulsion industries to carry out burn rate measurement for a variety of needs. Several automated data-reduction procedures have been implemented to derive burn rate from pressure-time profiles resulting from experimentation. Even if these are easy and fast to use, these procedures are not completely reliable in that these measure only the average behaviour of a motor. A new model has recently been proposed to overcome this problem. However, it was soon noticed that the results depend on the propellant grain production and forming processes even if the motor hardware is the same. A series of propellant grains has been produced to be sampled to map the local ballistic behaviour and changes introduced by the manufacturing process. In this study, sampling and testing procedures are reported and the results of an almost complete grain mapping are discussed.

F. Maggi

2006-07-01

235

Remote plunger removal device for small-scale incremental pressing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small-scale pressing of high explosives (HE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and elsewhere is routinely performed using pneumatic presses. Blast shields provide protection to the operator during the pressing procedure, but safety of the operator is a concern during removal of the plunger, which is currently performed manually. To minimize this risk, very high tolerances between the plunger and the die are required. These tolerances are often very costly, especially in the case of long, relatively narrow dies. The safety issue is an even greater concern with incremental pressing in which cleaning the die between increments is difficult or impossible. To better protect press operators, a device has been designed and constructed to allow remote plunger removal in a standard HE press. In this report the authors describe this modified press that allows remote removal of the plunger.

Burnside, N.J.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.

1997-09-01

236

Small-scale fuel cells for residential applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The market and technical requirements for small-scale fuel cells in residential applications are investigated, focusing on the 1 to 10 kW range. In particular, the peculiar features of the New Zealand situation are explored, with its specific energy resources and demands. It is shown that various technologies could be applied, with PEM, SOFC, PAFC and AFC competing on almost equal terms, with cost targets of 500 to 700 EUR/kW. The attributes and disadvantages are discussed, with a number of technology gaps being identified, and some solutions proposed. Two new developments in the PEM and SOFC systems are compared in relation to their use in domestic applications. The obvious premium application of fuel cells in New Zealand exists where grid connection is expensive. Other priority markets are also studied.

Sammes, N. M.; Boersma, R.

237

First Principle Approach to Modeling of Small Scale Helicopter  

CERN Multimedia

The establishment of global helicopter linear model is very precious and useful for the design of the linear control laws, since it is never afforded in the published literatures. In the first principle approach, the mathematical model was developed using basic helicopter theory accounting for particular characteristic of the miniature helicopter. No formal system identification procedures are required for the proposed model structure. The relevant published literatures however did not present the linear models required for the design of linear control laws. The paper presents a step by step development of linear model for small scale helicopter based on first-principle approach. Beyond the previous work in literatures, the calculation of the stability derivatives is presented in detail. A computer program is used to solve the equilibrium conditions and then calculate the change in aerodynamics forces and moments due to the change in each degree of freedom and control input. The detail derivation allows the c...

Budiyono, A; Lesmana, H

2008-01-01

238

The interaction effect of farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizer on the yield of wheat on small scale farms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A trial to investigate the possibility of using farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizer in small-scale farms was conducted at two sites in Njoro and Lare Divisions of Nakuru district. The manure levels were 6 tons /ha, 3 tons, 2 t/ha 3 tons /ha + 65kg DAP/ha while DAP at 130 kg/ha and DAP at 130 kg/ha + 40 kg N/ha were compared. Results showed that manure at 2 tons /ha had the lowest yield. The highest yield was obtained from application of 6 tons FYM/ha which did not differ significantly from that obtained from application 130 kg DAP/ha or 130 kg DAP/ha + 40 kg N/ha. This means that farmers in these areas can use FYM and get a reasonable yield. (author)

2001-01-01

239

On the small scale structure of simple shear flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of the small scale velocity field is studied in an approximately homogeneous shear flow (constant mean shear) over the Reynolds number range 156?R??390. The shear was generated in a wind tunnel using screens of various solidity and a series of straightening channels in the manner of Tavoularis and Corrsin [J. Fluid Mech. 104, 311 (1981)]. We show there is significant skewness (of order 1) of the derivative of the longitudinal velocity in the direction of the mean gradient, and thus that for these Reynolds numbers the flow is anisotropic at the small scales. The skewness slowly decreases with R? and is described by the empirical fit: S?u/?y=15.4R?-0.6. Thus, even if this downward trend continues, our results imply that anisotropy at the third moment continues to very high R?. We also show that, over the R? range investigated, the kurtosis of ?u/?y decreases (due to the diminishing effect of the structures that cause the skewness), implying that there will be a transition in this quantity, since it must increase as intermittency becomes more pronounced at higher R?. Transverse (as well as longitudinal) structure functions of the longitudinal velocity are studied up to the fifth moment. It is shown that the third order transverse structure function has a scaling range. Thus, the anisotropy exists at inertial as well as dissipation scales. The results are compared and contrasted with those of a passive scalar (for which it is known that persistent anisotropy exists at the third moment and above). copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

1998-03-01

240

Growth rate of small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we discuss two key issues related to a small-scale dynamo instability at low magnetic Prandtl numbers and large magnetic Reynolds numbers, namely: (i) the scaling for the growth rate of small-scale dynamo instability in the vicinity of the dynamo threshold; (ii) the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in small-scale dynamos. There are two different asymptotics for the small-scale dynamo growth rate: in the vicinity of the threshold of th...

Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Fanny Farmer Cookbook  

Science.gov (United States)

On February 22, Bartleby.com (last mentioned in the January 28, 2000 Scout Report) announced its latest release: the 1918 edition of the Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, later known as the Fanny Farmer Cookbook. Written by the director of the Boston Cooking School, Fannie Farmer (1857-1915), this landmark, no-nonsense cookbook aimed at the ordinary person has sold over 4 million copies internationally. Bartleby selected the 1918 edition because it was the last edition authored completely by Farmer. The online version includes over 1,800 recipes and is browseable by chapter or subject index, or searchable by keyword. This classic work is not only interesting as a piece of culinary history, but it offers techniques and recipes that stand the test of time.

242

Small-scale production of straight vegetable oil from rapeseed and its use as biofuel in the Spanish territory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biofuels nowadays are an important topic of study. The most significant point is the availability of bioethanol or biodiesel and their production from different raw materials. It is already known that large-scale production of first-generation biodiesel cannot be seen as an alternative to fossil fuels due to land requirements, competition with food, increase in fertilizer requirements and pressure on tropical forests among others. This fact does not necessarily apply to second-generation biofuels or small-scale niche productions. Straight vegetable oil (SVO) can be used directly in diesel engines with minor modifications. Our proposal is a small-scale SVO production system for self-supply in agricultural machinery. In this paper a model to provide SVO to local farmers in a specific area in Catalonia (Spain) is presented. We also present a discussion about the regulations to be changed in order to make possible the incorporation of SVO as engine fuel in diesel vehicles and a comparative analysis between the emissions of tractors fed with SVO and petrodiesel. Moreover, a quantitative economic analysis of modifying diesel engines and long-term operability costs are shown and a first-run economic analysis comparing the actual crop rotation with the proposed one and some alternatives is studied.

2010-01-01

243

Small-scale production of straight vegetable oil from rapeseed and its use as biofuel in the Spanish territory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biofuels nowadays are an important topic of study. The most significant point is the availability of bioethanol or biodiesel and their production from different raw materials. It is already known that large-scale production of first-generation biodiesel cannot be seen as an alternative to fossil fuels due to land requirements, competition with food, increase in fertilizer requirements and pressure on tropical forests among others. This fact does not necessarily apply to second-generation biofuels or small-scale niche productions. Straight vegetable oil (SVO) can be used directly in diesel engines with minor modifications. Our proposal is a small-scale SVO production system for self-supply in agricultural machinery. In this paper a model to provide SVO to local farmers in a specific area in Catalonia (Spain) is presented. We also present a discussion about the regulations to be changed in order to make possible the incorporation of SVO as engine fuel in diesel vehicles and a comparative analysis between the emissions of tractors fed with SVO and petrodiesel. Moreover, a quantitative economic analysis of modifying diesel engines and long-term operability costs are shown and a first-run economic analysis comparing the actual crop rotation with the proposed one and some alternatives is studied. (author)

Grau, Baquero; Bernat, Esteban; Antoni, Rius; Jordi-Roger, Riba; Rita, Puig [Escola Universitaria d' Igualada (EUETII-Escola d' Adoberia), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Placa del Rei 15, 08700 Igualada, Catalunya (Spain)

2010-01-15

244

Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long-lived fission products could result in an irradiation effective half-life of a few years with a three order magnitude increase in the on-target neutron flux accomplishable through a combination of technological enhancements to the source and system design optimization; (3) the transmutation of long-lived fission products requires a thermal-slow energy spectrum to prevent the generation of activation products with half-lives even longer than the original radionuclide; (4) there is no benefit in trying to transmute short-lived fission products due to the ineffectiveness of the transmutation process and the generation of a multiplicity of counterproductive activation products; (5) for actinides, irradiation effective half-lives of < 1 year can be achieved with a four orders magnitude increase in the on-target flux; (6) the ideal neutron energy spectra for transmuting actinides is highly dependent on the particular radionuclide and its fission-to-capture ratio as they determine the generationrate of other actinides; and (7) the methodology developed in this dissertation provides a mechanism that can be used for studying the feasibility of transmuting other radionuclides, and its application can be extended to studying the production of radionuclides of interest in a transmutation process. Although large-scale transmutation technology is presently being researched world-wide for spent fuel management applications, such technology will not be viable for a couple of decades. This dissertation investigated the concept of a small-scale transmutation device using present technology. The results of this research show that with reasonable enhancements, transmutation of specific radionuclides can be practical in the near term.

Sit, Roger Carson

245

Negotiating Uncertainty: Jamaican Small Farmers’ Adaptation and Coping Strategies, Before and After Hurricanes—A Case Study of Hurricane Dean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, Jamaica has been seriously affected by a number of extreme meteorological events. The one discussed here, Hurricane Dean, passed along the south coast of the island in August 2007, damaging crops and disrupting livelihood activities for many small-scale farmers. This study is based on detailed ethnographic research in the southern coastal region of St. Elizabeth parish during the passage of Hurricane Dean, and explores the ways in which small farmers negotiate the stressors a...

2009-01-01

246

Productivity, Efficiency, and Competitiveness of Small-Scale Organic Cotton Production in Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cotton is known as the â??white goldâ? of Africa since it is the only export crop in which the continentâ??s share in the world market has increased over the past decades. Total cotton production as well as productivity grew particularly in Western and Central Africa. In contrast, cotton production grew much less in Eastern and Southern Africa and the increase in production was mainly a result of expansion of land under cultivation and the number of producers, rather than of improved productivity (e.g. Poulton et al., 2004; Delpeuch and Vandeplas, 2011). Organic production methods could be an attractive option for cotton farmers in Eastern Africa, because in this region, the use of chemical inputs is anyway virtually absent, the labor cost is low, and organic cotton has a higher sales price than conventional cotton. In order to scrutinize this option, we use microeconomic production theory and stochastic frontier models to thoroughly analyze organic cotton production in Tanzania. Our study is based on a unique data set of 180 small-scale organic cotton farmers in the Meatu region in Tanzania. This data set does not only provide information on input and output quantities, prices of traded inputs and output, as well as socio-economic and agronomic factors, but also on the shadow prices of all sparsely traded inputs, i.e. land, labor, and organic fertilizer. Hence, we can not only analyze productivity, technical efficiency, and scale efficiency, but also allocative efficiency, profitability, and competitiveness. Traditionally, the measurement of allocative efficiency assumed that all inputs can be freely traded at a given price on a perfectly functioning market. This assumption was relaxed by Tauer (1993) who suggested an approach that can additionally account for quasi-fixed input quantities, which cannot be adjusted in the short run. However, land, labor, and organic fertilizer can neither be traded on a perfect market nor are their quantities completely fixed for cotton production, but these input quantities can be adjusted by adjusting their use for other activities of the household. Hence, these inputs face non-constant shadow prices, which are determined by their opportunity costs. In order to account for the endogeneity of these shadow prices when calculating allocative efficiencies, we use the approach for modeling imperfect markets developed by Henning and Henningsen (2007). Based on our results, we can evaluate the current situation of organic cotton production as well as the potential and the directions for improving its profitability and competitiveness. Unfortunately, we did not finish the empirical analysis before the submission deadline. However, we will definitely include the results in our presentation at the conference.

Mgeni, Dotto; Henningsen, Arne

247

Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. Results To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. Conclusion We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs.

Sohoni Sujata

2012-01-01

248

AFBC-HAGT, an efficient small scale power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A team comprised of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Will-Burt Company, and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) designed installed and tested a pilot scale atmospheric fluidized (bubbling) bed combustion (AFBC) system to heat hot water. Following testing, a commercial prototype unit was installed at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The unit was started up in January, 1995, and is currently in operation. It provides hot water for greenhouse heating, requiring about two hours per day of operator attention. The development was funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the team members. Based on the success of the prototype operation a commercial size unit was recently designed for hot water heating use. This small scale AFBC system can be designed not only to produce hot water or steam but also to efficiently generate electricity (60 kWe to 3.5 MWe size range). Most small scale fluidized bed systems use in-bed heat transfer tubes to generate saturated steam which can then be superheated and fed to a steam turbine for electrical power generation. This AFBC has no internal heat transfer surfaces. It can be combined with an air heater that is integrated with a recuperated Hot Air Gas Turbine (HAGT), to yield a more efficient power plant than that possible with small steam plants of comparable size that have optimal gross efficiencies of about 12% (29,060 Btu/kWhr). Depending on ambient air temperature, this AFBC-HAGT power cycle can reach efficiencies of 28% without auxiliary diesel fuel oil firing. The system is ideally suited for rural communities that are not tied into an electric power grid. It is low tech, easy to operate, provides approximately double the efficiency of small steam cycle power plants, and can be used in areas where water is scarce. When firing local coal and/or bio-mass it can be very cost effective compared to diesel power generation.

Ashworth, R.A. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Webner, R.L. [Will-Burt Company, Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center

1997-12-31

249

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

2013-08-01

250

Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. RESULTS: To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and comparedits performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs.

Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudan

2012-01-01

251

Mapping small-scale mantle heterogeneities using seismic arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years array seismology has been used extensively to detect and locate the small scale (~10 km) structure of the Earth. In the mantle, small scale structure likely represents chemical heterogeneity and is essential in our understanding of mechanical mixing processes within mantle convection. As subducted crust is chemically distinct from the background mantle, imaging the remains of the crust provides a tracer for convectional flow. Evidence for heterogeneities has been found in the lower mantle in previous seismology studies but the arrivals associated with such heterogeneities are difficult to detect in the seismic data as they are typically low amplitude and are often masked by a multitude of larger amplitude arrivals. In this study we find global and regional seismic heterogeneities in the mantle by processing teleseismic earthquake data through array seismology methods. We find global patterns of heterogeneity using a stacking approach. To locate regional heterogeneities, we target the "quiet" window prior to the PP arrival for earthquakes with epicentral distances of 90-110°. Within this time window, we enhance the weak coherent energy that arrives off great circle path by calculating the observed directivity (slowness and backazimuth) and using a semblance weighted beampower measure. We use the directivity and travel times of suitable precursors to back-trace the energy to the origin of P-to-P reflections, using a 1D raytracer. Most of the P-to-P reflections that we observe have reflection origins in the upper/mid mantle. Beneath the western Pacific subduction zones, such reflections show a good correlation with subduction zone contours that are derived from subduction zone seismicity, and correlate well with tomography gradients of 0.01-0.5% per degree, interpreted as the edge of the slab. Deep mantle reflections (>600 km) are also observed to depths of ~1900 km. The locations of these heterogeneities are combined with previous seismological observations and with historical trench locations to discuss subduction and mantle flow scenarios as proposed from earlier geodynamical and numerical modelling of mantle convection.

Bentham, H. L.; Rost, S.

2012-12-01

252

Development of Small-Scale Submersible PIV System  

Science.gov (United States)

A low-cost, small-scale submersible Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) device has been developed to characterize unsteady flow in natural environments. PIV systems provide high accuracy, non intrusive, planar flow measurements of velocity and vorticity. Since this device is intended for the field, it is designed to be portable. This is accomplished using a powerful handheld laser, beam chopper, microprocessor, and the proper lenses, in conjunction with a one mega pixel CCD video camera. The system consists of two connected waterproof cases; one housing the camera and the other the laser/chopper system. The apparatus is fully self-contained and can be operated using a laptop computer on shore or on a floating platform. The system is also unique in that it was developed for under 8000 USD. The PIV device was tested in a small creek in Michigan. Eddy diameter, circulation, orientation, and convective velocity were characterized. The design of a submersible PIV system like this one will lead to a better characterization of naturally occurring flows and a greater understanding of what conditions aquatic life find acceptable. This knowledge will prove most useful in river and shoreline restoration, as well as in the design of new coastal management plans to alleviate human impact on coastal regions.

Clarke, Jenna; Cotel, Aline; Tritico, Hans

2006-11-01

253

Latent hardening size effect in small-scale plasticity  

Science.gov (United States)

We aim at understanding the multislip behaviour of metals subject to irreversible deformations at small-scales. By focusing on the simple shear of a constrained single-crystal strip, we show that discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations predict a strong latent hardening size effect, with smaller being stronger in the range [1.5 µm, 6 µm] for the strip height. We attempt to represent the DD pseudo-experimental results by developing a flow theory of Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity (SGCP), involving both energetic and dissipative higher-order terms and, as a main novelty, a strain gradient extension of the conventional latent hardening. In order to discuss the capability of the SGCP theory proposed, we implement it into a Finite Element (FE) code and set its material parameters on the basis of the DD results. The SGCP FE code is specifically developed for the boundary value problem under study so that we can implement a fully implicit (Backward Euler) consistent algorithm. Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the role of the material length scales involved in the SGCP model, from both the mechanical and numerical points of view.

Bardella, Lorenzo; Segurado, Javier; Panteghini, Andrea; Llorca, Javier

2013-07-01

254

Jet Collimation by Small-Scale Magnetic Fields  

CERN Document Server

A popular model for jet collimation is associated with the presence of a large-scale and predominantly toroidal magnetic field originating from the central engine (a star, a black hole, or an accretion disk). Besides the problem of how such a large-scale magnetic field is generated, in this model the jet suffers from the fatal long-wave mode kink magnetohydrodynamic instability. In this paper we explore an alternative model: jet collimation by small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields are assumed to be local, chaotic, tangled, but are dominated by toroidal components. Just as in the case of a large-scale toroidal magnetic field, we show that the ``hoop stress'' of the tangled toroidal magnetic fields exerts an inward force which confines and collimates the jet. The magnetic ``hoop stress'' is balanced either by the gas pressure of the jet, or by the centrifugal force if the jet is spinning. Since the length-scale of the magnetic field is small (< the cross-sectional radius of the jet << the ...

Li, L X

2002-01-01

255

Mapping small-scale vegetation changes in Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

This research attempts to map small-scale vegetation changes in Mexico. Forty-eight weeks of coarse resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a digitized climax vegetation map, land cover samples from space shuttle photographs and actual vegetation samples were used as inputs. Principal components analyses and a clustering algorithm were applied to the NDVI data to generate a single layer that was stratified by the climax vegetation zones map. The purpose is to create a new layer that differentiates climax vegetation (hypothesized potential vegetation) from non-climax vegetation land covers. One of the keys to developing a present-day vegetation map was differentiating intrazone land covers based on the stratification; as great as 75% of the sampled land cover types differed from the climax vegetation. The present-day vegetation map achieved 80% classification accuracy when calculated from available ground reference data. About 55% of the temperate zones and 37% of the tropical zones were found to contain original climax vegetation. Most changes coincide with areas of major agricultural activity.

Turcotte, Kevin M.; Lulla, Kemlesh; Venugopal, Gopalan

1993-01-01

256

Multifractal models of small-scale solar magnetic fields  

Science.gov (United States)

We generate, both analytically and numerically, artifical, two-dimensional images composed of a known self-similar, and thus multifractal measured with added Gaussian white noise. These are used to interpret observed, line-of-sight, solar magnetic field distributions noisy multifractals. The range of self-similar scaling of observed, distributions is extended beyond that of previous work. Our interpretation of the data is then used to confront theoretical models for the generation of small-scale solar magnetic fields. We investigate the multifractial structure of the field generated by two-dimensional, random cell dynamos and find that self-similarity is relatively enhanced for more intermittent distributions and strong correlations between cells. An optimum value of the intercellular diffusion coefficient maximizes the degree of intermittency. The simulated field from a linear, kinematic, fast dynamo with two-dimensional, chaotic, 'ABC' flow displays scaling properties resembling those of observed solar fields. We suggest that the chaotic element of this model is the crucial ingredient for the long-range correlations that lead to multifractal scaling.

Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Ruzmaikin, A. A.; Kayleng-Knight, A.

1994-07-01

257

A Small-Scale Safety Test for Initiation Components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have developed a small-scale safety test for initiation train components. A low-cost test was needed to assess the response of initiation components to an abnormal shock environment and to detect changes in the sensitivity of initiation components as they age. The test uses a disk of Detasheet to transmit a shock through a PMMA barrier into a the test article. A schematic drawing of the fixture is shown. The 10-cm-diameter disk of 3-mm-thick Detasheet, initiated at its center by a RISI, RP detonator, produces a shock wave that is attenuated by a variable-thickness PMMA spacer (gap). Layers of metal and plastic above the test article and the material surrounding the test article may be chosen to mock up the environment of the test article at its location in a warhead. A metal plate at the bottom serves as a witness plate to record whether or not the test article detonated. For articles containing a small amount of explosive, it can be difficult to determine whether or not a detonation has occurred. In such cases, one can use a pressure transducer or laser velocimeter to detect the shock wave from the detonation of the article. The assembly is contained in a 10-cm-ID section of PVC pipe and fired in a containment vessel rated at 100 g. Test results are given for a hemispherical, exploding-bridgewire (EBW) detonator.

Cutting, J; Chow, C; Chau, H; Hodgin, R; Lee, R

2002-04-22

258

Small scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge  

CERN Document Server

High-resolution broad-band filtergrams of active region NOAA 11271 in Ca ii H and G-band were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode to identify the physical driver responsible for the dynamic and small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge. We identified the jets in the Ca images using a semi-automatic routine. The chromospheric jets consist of a bright, triangular-shaped blob that lies on the light bridge, while the apex of this blob extends into a spike-like structure which is bright against the dark umbral background. The majority of the jets have apparent lengths of less than 1000 km and about 30% of them have lengths between 1000-1600 km. They are oriented within +/-35 deg. to the normal of the light bridge axis. A majority of them are clustered near the central part within a 2 arcsec wide area. The jets are seen to move rapidly along the light bridge and a majority of them cannot be identified in successive images taken with a 2 min cadence. The jets are primarily loc...

Louis, Rohan E; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

259

Latent hardening size effect in small-scale plasticity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We aim at understanding the multislip behaviour of metals subject to irreversible deformations at small-scales. By focusing on the simple shear of a constrained single-crystal strip, we show that discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations predict a strong latent hardening size effect, with smaller being stronger in the range [1.5 µm, 6 µm] for the strip height. We attempt to represent the DD pseudo-experimental results by developing a flow theory of Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity (SGCP), involving both energetic and dissipative higher-order terms and, as a main novelty, a strain gradient extension of the conventional latent hardening. In order to discuss the capability of the SGCP theory proposed, we implement it into a Finite Element (FE) code and set its material parameters on the basis of the DD results. The SGCP FE code is specifically developed for the boundary value problem under study so that we can implement a fully implicit (Backward Euler) consistent algorithm. Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the role of the material length scales involved in the SGCP model, from both the mechanical and numerical points of view. (paper)

2013-07-01

260

Development of a small-scale computer cluster  

Science.gov (United States)

An increase in demand for computing power in academia has necessitated the need for high performance machines. Computing power of a single processor has been steadily increasing, but lags behind the demand for fast simulations. Since a single processor has hard limits to its performance, a cluster of computers can have the ability to multiply the performance of a single computer with the proper software. Cluster computing has therefore become a much sought after technology. Typical desktop computers could be used for cluster computing, but are not intended for constant full speed operation and take up more space than rack mount servers. Specialty computers that are designed to be used in clusters meet high availability and space requirements, but can be costly. A market segment exists where custom built desktop computers can be arranged in a rack mount situation, gaining the space saving of traditional rack mount computers while remaining cost effective. To explore these possibilities, an experiment was performed to develop a computing cluster using desktop components for the purpose of decreasing computation time of advanced simulations. This study indicates that small-scale cluster can be built from off-the-shelf components which multiplies the performance of a single desktop machine, while minimizing occupied space and still remaining cost effective.

Wilhelm, Jay; Smith, Justin T.; Smith, James E.

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Small-scale cogeneration marketing strategies: A case history  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The success of any small-scale cogeneration project depends on a number of straightforward principles. They are: (1) consume the energy generated on site; (2) do not attempt to dissipate energy through the indiscriminate use of blow off radiators or other heat dissipating devices; (3) do not sell energy back to the utility; (4) know how displaced energy is priced, i.e., a kilowatt generated will displace a kilowatt of purchased power, but will not eliminate 100% of the demand charge; (5) knowing the pricing structure for natural gas and how the various rates apply the cogeneration projects; (6) most importantly, do not oversize the cogenerator. Err on the side of conservatism, otherwise a Pandora's box of regulatory ills will swamp you and cause financial hardship. This paper illustrates these principles using the example of a facility actually fitted with a cogeneration system. Tables show the data gathered to analyze the needs of the client, the data given to the client after evaluation, and the predicted hours of operation versus the actual and a return on investment after a year of operation of the system.

Kolanowski, B.F. (Kolanowski and Associates, Carlsbad, CA (United States))

262

Small-scale penetration leak test in ALPHA program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small scale penetration leak test has been performed as a part of ALPHA program at JAERI since 1990. Two series of experiments were performed in the test using test sections which simulate important parts of an electrical penetration assembly (EPA) in a Japanese pressurized water reactor. One of the test sections simulates an alumina module and the other includes silicone resin portion of the EPA. The test section was installed in a leak test vessel in which one region simulated inside of the containment and the other region simulated outside of the containment. Four experiments were performed using the alumina module test section. The test section was heated up to 720 K at maximum 1.8 MPa. No leakage was detected in the experiments. Two experiments were performed using the silicone resin test section at near atmospheric pressure. Initial leak path formation was detected at about 420 K. It was found that heat conduction along metal portion had strong influence on melt progression of the resin. It was also found from the strain measurement that the thermal loads were predominant over the pressure loads. From the results of the experiments, it is considered that the alumina module will keep integrity in severe accident conditions, although the silicone resin is estimated to melt at high temperature. Therefore, the EPA as a whole is estimated to maintain leak-tightness during the severe accident

1992-07-01

263

Configuration scheme for small scale Multi-FPGA systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multi-FPGA systems have tremendous potential, providing a high-performance computing substrate for many different applications. These systems harness multiple FPGAs, connected in a fixed pattern, to implement complex logic structures.  In order to use such a system effectively, it is a key for constructing a good performance hardware platform. The configuration scheme is an important part in hardware design. This paper aims at small scale Multi-FPGA systems composed of SRAM-based FPGAs developed by Xilinx Corporation,  proposes a novel configuration technique by using Platform Flash PROM XCF32P. Using this scheme, only adopting one XCF32P and one Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD we can configure four FPGAs with monolithic configuration data smaller than 8Mbit. When the number of FPGA is more than four, Design revisioning allows the user to cascade more XCF32P PROMs to realize. Since Xilinx Platform PROM and Xilinx FPGA/CPLD are used to get a single-vender solution, the design for hardware and software is simplified.

Dangui Yan

2011-08-01

264

Small Scale Microwave Bursts in Long-duration Solar Flares  

CERN Document Server

Solar small scale microwave bursts (SMBs), including microwave dot, spike, and narrow band type III bursts, are characterized with very short timescales, narrow frequency bandwidth, and very high brightness temperatures. Based on observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou with superhigh cadence and frequency resolution, this work presents an intensive investigation of SMBs in several flares occurred in active region NOAA 10720 during 2005 Jan 14-21. Especially long-duration flares, SMBs occurred not only in early rising and impulsive phase, but also in the flare decay phase, and even in time of after the flare ending. These SMBs are strong bursts with inferred brightness temperature at least 8.18*10^11 - 1.92*10^13 K, very short lifetime of 5-18 ms, relative frequency bandwidths of 0.7-3.5%, and superhigh frequency drifting rates. Together with their obviously different polarizations from the background emission (the quiet Sun, and the underlying flaring broadband continuum), su...

Tan, Baolin

2013-01-01

265

Small Scale Turbopump Manufacturing Technology and Material Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of an internal research and development project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a high specific impulse 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine testbed with the capability to throttle 10:1. A Fuel Turbopump (FTP) with the ability to operate across a speed range of 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm was developed and analyzed. This small size and flight-like Fuel Turbopump has completed the design and analysis phase and is currently in the manufacturing phase. This paper highlights the manufacturing and processes efforts to fabricate an approximately 20-lb turbopump with small flow passages, intricately bladed components and approximately 3-in diameter impellers. As a result of the small scale and tight tolerances of the hardware on this turbopump, several unique manufacturing and material challenges were encountered. Some of the technologies highlighted in this paper include the use of powder metallurgy technology to manufacture small impellers, electron beam welding of a turbine blisk shroud, and casting challenges. The use of risk reduction efforts such as non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE), fractography, material testing, and component spin testing are also discussed in this paper.

Alvarez, Erika; Morgan, Kristin; Wells, Doug; Zimmerman, Frank

2011-01-01

266

Pesticides use by smallholder farmers in vegetable production in Northern Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small-scale farmers in Northern Tanzania grow vegetables that include tomatoes, cabbages and onions and use many types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these crops. Based on the use of questionnaires and interviews that were conducted in Arumeru, Monduli, Karatu, and Moshi rural districts, this study investigates farmers' practices on vegetable pest management using pesticides and related cost and health effects. The types of pesticides used by the farmers in the study areas were insecticides (59%), fungicides (29%) and herbicides (10%) with the remaining 2% being rodenticides. About a third of the farmers applied pesticides in mixtures. Up to 90% had a maximum of 3 pesticides in a mixture. In all cases there were no specific instructions either from the labels or extension workers regarding these tank mixtures. Fifty three percent of the farmers reported that the trend of pesticide use was increasing, while 33% was constant and 14% was decreasing. More than 50 percent of the respondents applied pesticides up to 5 times or more per cropping season depending on the crop. Insecticides and fungicides were routinely applied by 77% and 7%, respectively by these farmers. Sixty eight percent of farmers reported having felt sick after routine application of pesticides. Pesticide-related health symptoms that were associated with pesticides use included skin problems and neurological system disturbances (dizziness, headache). Sixty one percent of farmers reported spending no money on health due to pesticides. These results can be used to develop a tool to quantify the cost of pesticide use in pest management by small-scale vegetable farmers in Northern Tanzania and contribute to the reformation of pesticide policy for safe and effective use of pesticides. PMID:18528532

Ngowi, A V F; Mbise, T J; Ijani, A S M; London, L; Ajayi, O C

2007-11-01

267

[Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

2012-05-01

268

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

2012-09-01

269

Universality of the Small-Scale Dynamo Mechanism  

Science.gov (United States)

We quantify possible differences between turbulent dynamo action in the Sun and the dynamo action studied in idealized simulation. For this purpose we compare Fourier-space shell-to-shell energy transfer rates of three incrementally more complex dynamo simulations: an incompressible, periodic simulation driven by random flow, a simulation of Boussinesq convection, and a simulation of fully compressible convection that includes physics relevant to the near-surface layers of the Sun. For each of the simulations studied, we find that energy is transferred from the turbulent flow to the magnetic field from length-scales in the inertial range of the energy spectrum. The addition of physical effects relevant to the solar near-surface layers, including stratification, compressibility, partial ionization, and radiative energy transport, does not appear to affect the nature of the dynamo mechanism. The role of inertial-range shear stresses in magnetic field amplification is independent from outer-scale circumstances, including forcing and stratification. Although shell-to-shell energy transfer functions have similar properties in each simulation studied, the saturated states of these simulations are not universal; the flow at the driving scales is a significant source of energy for the magnetic field. The mechanism of energy-transfer in kinematic small-scale dynamo simulations exhibits universal properties. This work has been supported by the Max-Planck Society in the framework of the Interinstitutional Research Initiative Turbulent transport and ion heating, reconnection and electron acceleration in solar and fusion plasmas of the MPI for Solar System Research, Katlenburg-Lindau, and the Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (project MIF-IF-A-AERO8047).

Pietarila Graham, Jonathan; Moll, R.; Pratt, J.; Cameron, R.; Mueller, W.; Schuessler, M.

2011-05-01

270

THE EXTREME SMALL SCALES: DO SATELLITE GALAXIES TRACE DARK MATTER?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the radial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by modeling their small-scale clustering. Specifically, we model the Jiang et al. measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function down to very small projected separations (10 h–1 kpc ? r ? 400 h–1 kpc), in a wide range of luminosity threshold samples (absolute r-band magnitudes of –18 up to –23). We use a halo occupation distribution framework with free parameters that specify both the number and spatial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos. We assume one galaxy resides in the halo center and additional galaxies are considered satellites that follow a radial density profile similar to the dark matter Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, except that the concentration and inner slope are allowed to vary. We find that in low luminosity samples (Mr r 1/10, which is the fraction of satellite galaxies (or mass) that are enclosed within one-tenth of the virial radius of a halo. We find that M1/10 for low-luminosity satellite galaxies agrees with NFW, whereas for luminous galaxies it is 2.5-4 times higher, demonstrating that these galaxies are substantially more centrally concentrated within their dark matter halos than the dark matter itself. Our results therefore suggest that the processes that govern the spatial distribution of galaxies, once they have merged into larger halos, must be luminosity dependent, such that luminous galaxies become poor tracers of the underlying dark matter.

2012-04-10

271

ARCADE small-scale docking mechanism for micro-satellites  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of on-orbit autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARD) capabilities represents a key point for a number of appealing mission scenarios that include activities of on-orbit servicing, automated assembly of modular structures and active debris removal. As of today, especially in the field of micro-satellites ARD, many fundamental technologies are still missing or require further developments and micro-gravity testing. In this framework, the University of Padova, Centre of Studies and Activities for Space (CISAS), developed the Autonomous Rendezvous Control and Docking Experiment (ARCADE), a technology demonstrator intended to fly aboard a BEXUS stratospheric balloon. The goal was to design, build and test, in critical environment conditions, a proximity relative navigation system, a custom-made reaction wheel and a small-size docking mechanism. The ARCADE docking mechanism was designed against a comprehensive set of requirements and it can be classified as small-scale, central, gender mating and unpressurized. The large use of commercial components makes it low-cost and simple to be manufactured. Last, it features a good tolerance to off-nominal docking conditions and a by-design soft docking capability. The final design was extensively verified to be compliant with its requirements by means of numerical simulations and physical testing. In detail, the dynamic behaviour of the mechanism in both nominal and off-nominal conditions was assessed with the multibody dynamics analysis software MD ADAMS 2010 and functional tests were carried out within the fully integrated ARCADE experiment to ensure the docking system efficacy and to highlight possible issues. The most relevant results of the study will be presented and discussed in conclusion to this paper.

Boesso, A.; Francesconi, A.

2013-05-01

272

Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

Whitehead, J.

1995-09-12

273

Thermalhydraulic analysis of small-scale tube rupture experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Guillotine failure of a rupturing pressure tube is an accident situation currently being investigated in the safety analysis of CANDU reactors. One of the reasons for initiating the investigation was to determine the major factors controlling the onset of guillotine failure. As part of this program, small-scale rupture tests using fuel sheaths have been performed and numerically simulated. The fluid dynamic aspects of rupturing fuel sheaths simulated with a multi-dimensional prototype of the two-fluid thermalhydraulic code CATHENA are described in this paper. The results of the numerical simulations were examined by observing the behaviour of pressure transients of the fluid inside the tube during the rupture. A parametric study was first performed to determine optimum model conditions for two-dimensional simulations. Results from CATHENA simulations using these conditions were then compared with experimental data. Calculations were also extended to a three-dimensional thermalhydraulic analysis. This paper describes the results of the parametric and comparative studies. The effect of varying the simulation conditions on calculated pressure transients is also described. Although agreement between simulated results and experimental data was found to be good, some discrepancies were noted and are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of the three-dimensional study are also presented. This investigation has been successful in demonstrating a method that can be used to enhance the understanding of the behaviour of pressure-tube rupture under accident conditions. Areas in which the numerical analysis could be advanced to further the understanding of rupturing pressure tubes are provided. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

1993-06-02

274

Adoption of Improved Agroforestry Technologies among Contact Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the adoption of improved agroforestry technologies among farmers in Imo State. To achieve the study objectives, structured questionnaire were designed and administered to ninety farmers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC. Findings shows that the farmers were mainly small scale middle aged married men with secondary education and no access to credit. The average house hold size, farming experience and annual income of the farmers were 6 person, 15.5 years and N 148, 255.6 respectively with two contacts with extension agents on monthly basis. The results indicated that the farmers were largely aware of Gnetum Africana and have adopted plantain/banana technology. The mean adoption rate of agroforestry technologies was 33.81%. The main determinants of the adoption were farmers’ age, educational level, farm size, income, access to credit and extension contact as this variables were all significant. Apart from age of the farmers which was negatively related to adoption of agroforestry technologies all other variables mentioned affected the adoption rate of agroforestry technologies positively. Based on the findings, it was strongly recommended that farmers be provided with loans at concessionary interest rates to solve their financial problem of adopting innovations.

Agomuo Florence Ozioma

2012-03-01

275

Farmer's Lung Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farmer's lung disease (FLD) is a hypersensitivity pneumonitis secondary to the inhalation of moldy hay spores. Its prevalence is likely underestimated despite the fact it may result in significant acute and chronic respiratory disability. The immunologic mechanisms are best explained as Gell and Coombs Type III & IV reactions. FLD is usually recognized by history and appropriate laboratory confirmation. Therapy requires removal of the patient from the offending antigens, although corticostero...

Dales, Robert E.; Munt, Peter W.

1982-01-01

276

Beyond the field : Impact of Farmer Field Schools on food security and poverty alleviation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we estimate the impact of a farmer field school intervention among small scale farmers in Northers Tanzania. Unlike previous farmer field school evaluations, we go beyond the immediate agricultural impact and estimate the impact of farmer field school participation in the pre-specified development objects, namely poverty alleviation and food security among participating households. We wxploit the implementation design of a gradual project roll-out to establish a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference setup, which can account for potential selection info the project, both at village and household level, despite the lack of baseline data. we find strong positive effects on measures of food security, but we find no effect on the poverty indicators. We investigate possible mechanisms for this and conclude that both reallocation of labor ressources and improved production smoothing among participation households may, in part, lead to this finding.

Lilleør, Helene Bie; Larsen, Anna Folke

2013-01-01

277

Financing Small Scale Business Enterprises in Nigeria: A Review of the Problems and the Way Forward  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reviewed the problems of financing small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and the way forward. It has identified the sources of finance, types of finance available for small business enterprises and problems inhibiting small scale business enterprises in Nigeria in securing funds for their smooth operations. The study concluded that adequate finance is indispensable for the successful operations of small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and recommended among others that government should increase loanable funds granted to small scale businesses, while micro finance banks should also live up to expectation in granting loanable funds to small scale businesses in Nigeria and a host of others for the effective operations of small scale business enterprises.

Oboro, O. G.

2011-12-01

278

Small-Scale Industries in Jordan in the Globalization Era Performance and Prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research probes the implications of globalization and domestic economic liberalization for small-scale industries and analysis its growth performance. The research concludes with policy recommendations to ensure the sustenance and competitive growth of small-scale industries in Jordan. Results of the study show that the growth of small scale industries in Jordan in terms of units, employment, output and exports has come up due to globalization, domestic liberalization and dilution of sector specific measures. The government should involve the private sector in the development of infrastructure, to enable efficient monitoring and good facilities to the small scale industries. There is a need to create fund at the government level for disbursement as margin money through district industries centers to small scale industries units to encourage them to undertake technological innovations. A technological vibrant, internationally competitive small scale industries sector should be encouraged to emerge, to make a sustainable contribution to national income, employment and exports.

Basem M. Lozi

2008-01-01

279

Experiments for comparison of small scale rainfall simulators  

Science.gov (United States)

Small scale portable rainfall simulators are an essential tool in research of recent process dynamics of soil erosion. Such rainfall simulators differ in design, rainfall intensities, rain spectra etc., impeding comparison of the results. Due to different research questions a standardisation of rainfall simulation is not in sight. Nevertheless, the data become progressively important for soil erosion modelling and therefore the basis for decision-makers in application-oriented erosion protection. The project aims at providing a criteria catalogue for estimation of the different simulators as well as the comparability of the results and a uniform calibration procedure for generated rainfall. Within the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" many rainfall simulators used by European research groups were compared. The artificially generated rainfall of the rainfall simulators at the Universities Basel, La Rioja, Malaga, Trier, Tübingen, Valencia, Wageningen, Zaragoza and at different Spanish CSIC-institutes (Almeria, Cordoba, Granada, Murcia, Zaragoza) were measured with the same methods (Laser Precipitation Monitor for drop spectra and rain collectors for spatial distribution). The data are very beneficial for improvements of simulators and comparison of simulators and results. Furthermore, they can be used for comparative studies with natural rainfall spectra. A broad range of rainfall data was measured (e.g. intensity: 30 - 149 mmh-1, Christiansen Coefficient for spatial rainfall distribution 61 - 98 %, mean drop diameter 0.375 - 5.0 mm, mean kinetic energy expenditure 25 - 1322 J m-2 h-1, mean kinetic energy per unit area and unit depth of rainfall 4 - 14 J m-2 mm-1). Similarities among the simulators could be found e.g. concerning drop size distributions (maximum drop numbers are reached within the two smallest drop classes Trier, Valencia, Zaragoza, Basel and Wageningen were compared on a prepared bare fallow field during the Rainfall Simulator Workshop in Trier (Germany). The results show a clear and consistent relationship in runoff, erosion and infiltration behaviour of the different used rainfall simulators. With all the devices total soil loss was measurable, but different plot sizes, intensities and kinetic energies of the simulated rainfall caused differences in soil loss and runoff quantities per unit of area. Regarding course characteristics over runs, similarities could be observed especially in runoff behaviour.

Iserloh, T.; Ries, J. B.

2012-04-01

280

Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification of woody biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small-scale stratified down draft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The CO content of the product gas (23-26 % vol.) is higher than in similar gasifiers and the H{sub 2} content has been found to vary between 14 and 16 % vol. The tar content in the product gas (Ca. 3 g/Nm{sup 3}) is rather high compared with similar gasifiers. The temperature profile, together with other relevant parameters like the air-excess ratio, the air to fuel ratio and gas to fuel ratio have been calculated. The experiments show that the air excess ratio is rather constant, varying between 0,25 and 0,3. Experiments have been conducted with a gas engine using mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as a fuel. NO{sub x} and CO emissions are analysed. The char gasification process has been studied in detail by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis. The study comprises the chemical kinetics of the gasification reactions of wood char in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, including the inhibition effect of CO and H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics has been found which relates the mass loss rate to the temperature, gas composition and degree of conversion for each reaction. The ratio CO/CO{sub 2} has been found to be a relevant parameter for reactivity. The gasification experiments in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O give reasons to believe that the rate of desorption for the complex C(O) varies depending on the gas mixture surrounding the char. It has been found that if the experimental data are obtained from separate H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} experiments, the reactivity of the char in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O can be fairly predicted. (author)

Barrio, Maria

2002-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

282

Experimental investigations of the vertically loaded small scale bored piles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At present, while evaluating bored piles load capacity in clay soils by CPT data, the depth of active area below the end face plane, within which the averaging of CPT values takes place, is taken as different in different Codes. Thus, for instance, in native Codes and Recommendations the depth of active area is taken from 2 to 4 pile diameters. In foreign Codes such as Belorussian, the depth of active area is taken up to 4 pile diameters and in European Codes - within 0,8-4 pile diameters. In order to specify the regularities of active area forming at different stages of loading, in-situ experimental investigations of large scale models have been carried out. At the test site, two small scale bored piles with the diameter of 130 mm were penetrated into the soil to the depth of 1100 m. The investigations were carried out in two stages: the first - pile static test with measuring of soil vertical displacements with the help of deep marks; the second - digging out soil around the pile and soil sampling at different depths. According to the results of the investigations carried out, the depth of the active area while reaching the limit state was determined to be about two pile diameters. With significant pile settlements (more than 0,58 d, the dimensions of this area do not exceed three pile diameters below the end face plane, and two diameters to the side from the pile axis. Within the lateral surface the significant variation of soil physical characteristics appears to be at the distance not less than 0,4 pile diameter from the lateral surface. Due to investigations’ results, it can be noted that in case of bored pile load less than the limit one, the depth of the active area is about two pile diameters. When the pile reaches its limit state, that provokes significant settlements, zone of compaction does not exceed three diameters to the depth and two diameters to the side from the pile axis.

Glazachev Anton Olegovich

2014-04-01

283

An Investigation of Innovation in Small Scale Industries Located in Science Parks of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent decades with increasing of global economic competition, small scale industries have known as an
economic growth engine and a tool for employment so they have important role in growth and development of
countries. The importance small scale industries of is its need more investment for their survival and competition
capability than big firms to new products and processes. Therefore, small scale industries are a potential resource
for achiev...

Alireza Fazlzadeh; Mostafa Moshiri

2010-01-01

284

A Discussion on the Crisis Management of Small Scale Thermal Power Plant Basing on Sustainable Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The strategy of sustainable development is one of the two important strategies for Chinese economic development. The present small scale thermal power plants cause much pollution, and consume too much energy, so they are being confronted with the crises of existence and management. Accordingly, it is urgent for small scale thermal power plants to carry out study on the crisis management about their own existence and development. Starting with the deficiencies of small scale thermal power plan...

Shijun Yang; Dongxiao Niu; Yongli Wang

2009-01-01

285

Strategies for Small Scale Vendors in India to Approach Lower Mainland Companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The top IT companies in India are interested in high value projects from Canada, while several small companies in India would be interested in accepting small-scale projects from Canada. This project develops strategies through which small-scale vendors in India may approach Lower Mainland companies for their smaller projects. Through a survey on Lower Mainland companies, the project recommends that small-scale Indian vendors should differentiate themselves through economies of scope, not nec...

2008-01-01

286

A Discussion on the Crisis Management of Small Scale Thermal Power Plant Basing on Sustainable Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strategy of sustainable development is one of the two important strategies for Chinese economic development. The present small scale thermal power plants cause much pollution, and consume too much energy, so they are being confronted with the crises of existence and management. Accordingly, it is urgent for small scale thermal power plants to carry out study on the crisis management about their own existence and development. Starting with the deficiencies of small scale thermal power plants, this paper found out the reasons for the difficulties in small scale thermal power plant management and put forward corresponding countermeasures.

Shijun Yang

2009-02-01

287

Growth rate of small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, we discuss two key issues relating to a small-scale dynamo instability at low magnetic Prandtl numbers and large magnetic Reynolds numbers, namely: (i) the scaling for the growth rate of a small-scale dynamo instability in the vicinity of the dynamo threshold; (ii) the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in small-scale dynamos. There are two different asymptotics for the small-scale dynamo's growth rate: in the vicinity of the threshold of the excitation of the small-scale dynamo instability, ??ln(Rm/Rmcr), and when the magnetic Reynolds number is much larger than the threshold of the excitation of the small-scale dynamo instability, ??Rm1/2, where Rmcr is the small-scale dynamo instability threshold in the magnetic Reynolds number Rm. We demonstrate that the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations requires a finite correlation time of the random velocity field. On the other hand, the influence of the Golitsyn spectrum on the small-scale dynamo instability is minor. This is the reason why it is so difficult to observe this spectrum in direct numerical simulations for the small-scale dynamo with low magnetic Prandtl numbers. (comment)

2012-07-01

288

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2013-05-29

289

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2012-11-01

290

Marketing strategy for retailing small-scale wind energy turbines in Indian markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study analyzes the small-scale wind energy markets in Mumbai, focusing on questions: How feasible is the wind energy for SME businesses in Mumbai, and what are the main challenges and opportunities of small-scale wind energy in Mumbai?

Harjula, Nina

2009-01-01

291

Farmer’s union and the economic sustainability of cocoa farmers in Cameroon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research on the activities and rule of cocoa farmers unions and organizations in Cameroon and the impact on cocoa farming, I will be looking at cocoa farmers unions in Cameroon and what they do to improve on the quality of cocoa farming while looking at how they have helped to make cocoa farming more economically profitable for farmers. The worry is that cocoa farmers in Cameroon take the activity as professional but are not able to produce on a mega scale and therefore cannot or find i...

Ambrose Kwankam, Njila

2013-01-01

292

Continual learning for agroforestry system design : university, NGO and farmer partnership in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article discusses a long-term participatory process used to develop agroforestry systems in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This area has various characteristics considered appropriate for establishing such systems, which, if well managed, contribute to sustainable land use. In 1993, university researchers, NGO staff and small-scale farmers started to develop agroforestry systems using a participatory process, involving various steps and fine-tuning. In 1994/1995, 39 small experi...

Cardoso, I. M.; Guijt, I.; Franco, F. S.; Caruaiho, A. F.; Ferreira Neto, P. S.

2001-01-01

293

Changes in farmers' knowledge of maize diversity in highland Guatemala, 1927/37-2004  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Small-scale studies on long-term change in agricultural knowledge might uncover insights with broader, regional implications. This article evaluates change in farmer knowledge about crop genetic resources in highland Guatemala between 1927/37 and 2004. It concentrates on maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) in one Guatemalan township, Jacaltenango, an area with much ecological and maize diversity. It relies on a particular type of baseline information: lists of f...

van Etten Jacob

2006-01-01

294

The role of statutory and local rules in allocating water between large- and small-scale irrigators in an African river catchment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper presents a case study of large- and small-scale irrigators negotiating for access to water from Nduruma River in the Pangani River Basin, Tanzania. The paper shows that despite the existence of a formal statutory water permit system, all users need to conform to the existing local rules i [...] n order to secure access to water. The spatial geography of Nduruma is such that smallholder farmers are located upstream and downstream, while large-scale irrigators are in the midstream part of the sub-catchment. There is not enough water in the river to satisfy all demands. The majority of the smallholder farmers currently access water under local arrangements, but large-scale irrigators have obtained state-issued water use permits. To access water the estates adopt a variety of strategies: they try to claim water access by adhering to state water law; they engage with the downstream smallholder farmers and negotiate rotational allocation; and/or they band with downstream farmers to secure more water from upstream farmers. Estates that were successful in securing their water access were those that engaged with the local system and negotiated a fair rotational water-sharing arrangement. By adopting this strategy, the estates not only avoid conflict with the poor downstream farmers but also gain social reputation, increasing chances of cooperative behaviours from the farmers towards their hydraulic infrastructure investments. Cooperative behaviours by the estates may also be due to their dependence on local labour. We further find diverging perspectives on the implementation of the state water use permits - not only between the local and state forms of water governance, but also between the differing administrative levels of government. The local governments are more likely to spend their limited resources on 'keeping the peace'; rather than on enforcing the water law. At the larger catchment scale, however, the anonymity between users makes it more difficult to initiate and maintain cooperative arrangements.

Komakech, Hans C; Condon, Madison; van der Zaag, Pieter.

295

Farmers and family planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

13 African nations have family planning policies, but the family planning efforts in rural or poorer communities have consistently been less effective. This article gives African farmers' views and concerns on birth control. Many of the rural mothers express concerns that they need to have many children because: they know they will lose some children to illness, they need the children's help cultivating the fields, it is prestigious to have many children, they want to be sure that there is someone to care for them in their old age. Examples of family case histories are provided along with the specific views of family planning by these parents. The family planning programs in Niger, Kenya, and Zimbabwe are described along with the pertinent statistics on population growth rates. PMID:12282757

Anza, S; Amakoye, S; Morna, C L; Pradervand, P

1989-12-01

296

Estimating Growth in Investment of Micro and Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzed the growth in investment of Micro and Small Scale Enterprises Intermediated by the informal credit market in Nigeria. Primary data for this study were collected from 10 (ten Local Government Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria using a multi-stage sampling technique. The result indicates that size of lending, experience in lending business have positive and significant impact on growth in investment of micro and small scale enterprises. Policy aimed at making fund increasingly available to small scale enterprises is recommend to boost growth in small and micro enterprises.

Ojenike

2013-01-01

297

Binary Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Evidence for Excess Clustering on Small Scales  

CERN Document Server

We present a sample of 218 new quasar pairs with proper transverse separations R_prop 3 Mpc/h quasar correlation function, extrapolated down as a power law to the separations probed by our binaries. The excess grows to ~ 30 at R_prop ~ 10 kpc/h, and provides compelling evidence that the quasar autocorrelation function gets progressively steeper on sub-Mpc scales. This small scale excess can likely be attributed to dissipative interaction events which trigger quasar activity in rich environments. Recent small scale measurements of galaxy clustering and quasar-galaxy clustering are reviewed and discussed in relation to our measurement of small scale quasar clustering.

Hennawi, J F; Oguri, M; Inada, N; Richards, G T; Pindor, B; Schneider, D P; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Hall, P B; Johnston, D E; Fan, X; Burles, S; Schlegel, D J; Gunn, J E; Lupton, R; Bahcall, Neta A; Brunner, R J; Brinkmann, J; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Strauss, Michael A.; Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa; Richards, Gordon T.; Pindor, Bartosz; Schneider, Donald P.; Becker, Robert H.; Gregg, Michael D.; Hall, Patrick B.; Johnston, David E.; Fan, Xiaohui; Burles, Scott; Schlegel, David J.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brunner, Robert J.; Brinkman, Jon

2006-01-01

298

Emergence of the Kennicutt-Schmidt Relation from the Small-Scale SFR-Density Relation  

CERN Document Server

We use simulations of isolated galaxies with a few parsec resolution to explore the connection between the small-scale star formation rate - gas density relation and the induced large-scale correlation between the star formation rate surface density and the surface density of the molecular gas (the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation). We find that, in the simulations, a power-law small-scale "star formation law" directly translates into an identical power-law Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. If this conclusion holds in the reality as well, it implies that the observed approximately linear Kennicutt-Schmidt relation must reflect the approximately linear small-scale "star formation law".

Gnedin, Nickolay Y; Fujimoto, Yusuke

2014-01-01

299

Analysis of Labour Supply & Use in Small Scale Farming In Ikwuano/Umuahia L.G.A. of Abia State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the supply and utilisation of labour resources among farmers in Ikwuano-Umuahia Local Government Area of Abia State. A total of 175 small scale farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with the use of structured questionnaires in five out of the nine autonomous communities that make up the local government area. The data collected were analysed and the results showed that average family labour force of 200 man days was not enough to cultivate the average farm size of 2.158 hectares. Labour shortage exists. Farmers are making up for this shortage by using communal and hired labour. Each farmer uses on the average 48.0 mandays of communal labour and 222.24 mandays of hired labour in order to cultivate the average farm size. Shortage of farm labour was found to be due to increasing rate of migration of rural labour force to the urban centres, non-farm employment, non-availability of saving technologies e.g. fertilizers etc.. A labour demand function was estimated against the following independent variables: Wage rate, farm size ,cost of capital, cost of other inputs, family labour in mandays, communal labour and hired labour in mandays. The result showed that farm size, family labour, communal labour and hired labour were all significant while the other independent variables though not significant, have signs which agree with economic theory. Based on the findings of the analysis, some recommendations were made namely reducing drastically the rate of migration of rural labour force by embarking on rural development projects, provision of labour saving technologies.

Jonah, Ikoku John

2014-04-01

300

Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale  

Science.gov (United States)

EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

Aburjania, G.

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Small-scale production and use of wood fuels. Annual report 2007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'Small-scale production and use of wood fuels' technology research programme is targeting to develop solutions which are economically competitive, reliable and acceptable in terms of emissions as regards small-scale (usually under 1 MW) wood fuel production, storage, processing, distribution and heat production. The programme aims to: 1. Develop technologies for the export market in the field of small-scale wood fuel production and use. 2. Strengthen the expertise of SMEs both in R and D and business operations. 3. Facilitate the networking of companies. 4. Improve international connections with similar companies and research institutes in order to exchange and boost specialist skills and knowledge.5. Enhance regional expertise through cooperation between the National Technology Agency and other operators. The programme supports the National Climate Strategy objective of developing competitive technological solutions to increase the small-scale use of wood by 45% by 2010

2007-01-01

302

Geologically recent small-scale surface features in Meridiani Planum, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Leveed fissures and gutters, small scale (magnesium sulphate minerals in the bedrock, which could release liquid water to the surface. Whatever their explanation, these features hint at previously unrecognized, young (perhaps even contemporary) martian surface processes.

Horne, David

2013-04-01

303

Women's occupational health working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In developing economies women’s contributions are in agriculture. Trends indicate that women’s participation in small-scale agriculture is increasing. On the Makhatini Flats in northern KwaZulu-Natal intensive small-scale farming takes place with > 4 000 women involved. A cross-sectional study on the Irrigation Scheme and Drylands areas of the Makhatini Flats described and compared occupational activities, crop production, pesticide use and adverse health outcomes among women working in s...

Naidoo, S.

2011-01-01

304

The use of small scale aerial photography in a regional agricultural survey  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of performing inventories of agricultural resources using very small scale aerial or space photography has been investigated. Results to date are encouraging on two counts: (1) the questions posed initially are being answered, and (2) it would seem that a fully operational agricultural inventory using very small scale photography is not beyond the scope of present technology. The biggest problems to be faced in establishing a functional inventory system are those concerning logistics and data handling.

Draeger, W. C.

1971-01-01

305

Micro and Small-scale Industry Development in Cabo Delgado Province in Mozambique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report sets out the background, analyses, conclusions and recommendations from a review of a project on Micro and Small–scale Industry Development in Cabo Delgado Province in Mozambique (UNIDO Project number TF/MOZ/01/001). The objective of the Project is to “improve institutional capacities for small-scale industry development in Cabo Delgado Province at the Provincial and District Authorities, and in the private sector” Under an agreement signed in early 2002 the Project will be ...

2005-01-01

306

On Spatial Resolution in Habitat Models: Can Small-scale Forest Structure Explain Capercaillie Numbers?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the effects of spatial resolution on the performance and applicability of habitat models in wildlife management and conservation. A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) in the Bavarian Alps, Germany, is presented. The model was exclusively built on non-spatial, small-scale variables of forest structure and without any consideration of landscape patterns. The main goal was to assess whether a HSI model developed from small-scale habi...

Ilse Storch

2002-01-01

307

The potential of energy efficiency measures in micro and small scale businesses in Kumasi-Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In industry, energy efficiency reduces operating cost and emissions to the environment whiles enhancing energy security. In order to ensure the sustainability of micro and small scale businesses in a developing country such as Ghana, measures that can ensure energy efficiency are therefore essential for these businesses to have a productive and economical operation that will ensure their sustainability. In this study, the potential of energy efficiency measures for micro and small scale busin...

Kuranchie, Francis Atta

2011-01-01

308

Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its’ product’s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating it...

Mihaiu, Marian; Lapusan, Alexandra; Mihaiu, Romolica; Dan, Sorin D.; Jecan, Carmen

2012-01-01

309

Experiments on optimization and standardising of turbines for small-scale hydro-power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance of small scale hydropower plants in the field of power generation increases worldwide. For an economic power generation a standard program for small scale turbines has been developed. Exhaustive test results were the basis for optimizing those turbines hydraulically. Simple, mature and well proven designs ensure troublefree and maintenancefree operation. The advantages of standardization in connection with available hydraulic test results and experience in design make the use of small and even smallest hydropower plants economically efficient.

Strohmer, F.

1983-01-01

310

An Investigation of Innovation in Small Scale Industries Located in Science Parks of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent decades with increasing of global economic competition, small scale industries have known as aneconomic growth engine and a tool for employment so they have important role in growth and development ofcountries. The importance small scale industries of is its need more investment for their survival and competitioncapability than big firms to new products and processes. Therefore, small scale industries are a potential resourcefor achieving new ideas and innovation. Previous studies on science and technology parks' performance in themost of countries demonstrate the effective and positive roles of these institutions in entrepreneurship,technology and economical development, increasing technological innovation and employment. This paperinvestigates the innovation in small scale industries which is settled in science parks of Iran. The primary datacollected from questionnaire and has been analyzed through using SPSS version 16 software. The results of thisstudy indicate that there are some factors that accelerate innovation within firms. Beside small scale industrieshas a positive and significant effect on innovation and the range of innovation in small scale industries is morethan other firms.

Alireza Fazlzadeh

2010-09-01

311

Farmer Suicide and Community Policing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agriculture has always been celebrated as the primary and predominant sector in the Indian economy. True to this, close to 70 percent of the people still depend on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood. The major portion of Indian farming is dependent on natural rain fall. The rainfall in India is unpredictable. Failure of rains results failure of crops, as a result the farming community falls in the debt trap and the farmers who fail to overcome these problems may take an extreme step of ending their life. In the present paper an effort is made to discuss the role of community police in the prevention of suicides among farmers. In the community policing there is involvement of citizens in crime prevention process. Various suggestions like educating the farmers on the values of life, about the facilities available to them, designing a model program for prevention of farmer's suicides etc have been discussed in the present paper.

Purnanand. N. Sangalad

2012-08-01

312

The role of farmers' markets in two low income, urban communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

To collect consumer demographics, utilization, satisfaction, and eating and physical activity behavior information from customers using two newly established farmers' markets in low income urban communities in East and South Los Angeles. From April 1, 2007 through June 3, 2009, farmers' market customers completed a short, anonymous survey. The data analysis included a descriptive analysis of key variables and examined the number of new and repeat customers over time to track the rate of farmers' market use over time. Setting: The East Los Angeles Farmers' Market and the Watts Healthy Farmers' Market. Subjects: 415 farmers' market customers from East Los Angeles and 1,374 from South Los Angeles. The demographic profile of farmers' market consumers were primarily Latina women earning less than $22,000 per year with less than 12 years of education who reported some level of food insecurity. Most customers lived within 4 miles of the markets with repeat customers shopping twice a month or more. Overall, customers reported high satisfaction with the farmers' markets in each community and the majority reported positive changes in physical activity and eating behaviors since using the market. Many consumers reported they wanted to see additional items sold at the market, including prepared foods, non-food items and other products not allowed to be sold at certified farmers' markets. PMID:21922162

Ruelas, Valerie; Iverson, Ellen; Kiekel, Preston; Peters, Anne

2012-06-01

313

Auto Farmer Using Renewable Energy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AUTO FARMER is one of the mean machine project. In the world of increasing population the demand for increase in growth of the food increases, this demands greater productivity with greater quality. The aim of AUTO FARMER USING RENEWABLE ENERGY is to provide automation and create a imprint in the field of agriculture. Today the farming underwent many difficulties like depending on rain, the restless manual work and the efforts .

2013-01-01

314

Auto Farmer Using Renewable Energy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AUTO FARMER is one of the mean machine project. In the world of increasing population the demand for increase in growth of the food increases, this demands greater productivity with greater quality. The aim of AUTO FARMER USING RENEWABLE ENERGY is to provide automation and create a imprint in the field of agriculture. Today the farming underwent many difficulties like depending on rain, the restless manual work and the efforts .

TANAY CHOWDHURY

2013-02-01

315

The combined effect of plate motions and small-scale convection on mantle stirring efficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

The Earth's mantle convection generates large scale, vigorous motions often thought to be the primary mechanism of mantle mixing. However, additional thermal instabilities may progressively develop below the lithospheric plates, leading to smaller scale convective motions. While there is a growing body of evidence supporting the presence of small-scale convective motions in the Earth's mantle, little is known about its contribution to the stirring of mantle heterogeneities. We therefore investigated the influence of small-scale convection on mantle stirring efficiency using numerical models of infinite Prandtl number convection with imposed surface ridge motion. We measured stirring efficiency using Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents, and we systematically varied the aspect ratio of the convective domain, and the plate Péclet number, Pe, which expresses the ridge half-spreading rate. For moderate Pe numbers, small-scale convection is well developed. However, at larger Pe numbers the development of small-scale convection is gradually inhibited. Mantle motion is closely related to its stirring efficiency. The coupled contribution of small scale convection and plate-driven flow to the efficiency of stirring leads to a non-monotone relationship between ridge spreading rates and mantle stirring efficiency, a more complex relationship than previously considered. Stirring efficiency first decreases with increasing ridge spreading rate until small-scale convection ceases completely. Beyond this point, a further increase in ridge spreading rate progressively enhances stirring efficiency via pure plate-driven flow. Our results indicate that: (i) both small scale convection and large scale flow contribute significantly to mantle stirring efficiency, (ii) mantle stirring efficiency may spatially vary significantly due to the local magnitude of plate velocity and plate age, (iii) the relationship between mantle stirring efficiency and large scale convective motions may be more complex than previously thought. These experiments provide an alternative to the interpretation of MORB isotopic variability, and may reconcile the apparent discrepancy of slow spreading ridges associated with small isotopic variability, as observed, for example, along the South West Indian Ridge.

samuel, H.; King, S. D.

2013-12-01

316

Coronal hole boundaries at small scales: IV. SOT view Magnetic field properties of small-scale transient brightenings in coronal holes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the magnetic properties of small-scale transients in coronal hole. We found all brightening events are associated with bipolar regions and caused by magnetic flux emergence followed by cancellation with the pre-existing and newly emerging magnetic flux. In the coronal hole, 19 of 22 events have a single stable polarity which does not change its position in time. In eleven cases this is the dominant polarity. The dominant flux of the coronal hole form the largest con...

Huang, Z.; Madjarska, M. S.; Doyle, J. G.; Lamb, D. A.

2012-01-01

317

Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in Iringa district, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the prevalence, distribution and intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy cattle farms in Iringa district, Southern highlands of Tanzania. Coprological examination of cohorts for GI nematode eggs in faeces, tracer worm counts and pasture larval counts were performed monthly for 1 year. Results indicated that the type of management, especially the grazing habit has a significant influence on the prevalence and intensity of GI nematodes. The predominant nematodes were Cooperia spp. (51.6%), Oesophagostomum radiatum (35.7%) and Haemonchus placei (10.2%). The worm burden in tracers was mainly composed of Cooperia spp. (83%) in large-scale dairy farms, while O. radiatum was dominant (60.8%) in traditional farms. Faecal egg counts (FEC) and tracer worm counts were generally low and FEC peaked only in calves and weaners/yearlings. Adults and all age groups in small-scale dairy farms had very low FEC throughout the year. Pasture larval counts, FEC and tracer worm counts peaked towards the end of the rainy season. Based on conditions of the study area, farmers could save substantial amount of money through strategic treatments as opposed to the previous routine of treating the whole herd at least four times a year. Strategic treatments are recommended in calves and weaners only in traditional and large-scale dairy farms. Strategic treatment of adults and small-scale dairy cattle might be not necessary. Strategic treatments at the end of the rainy/early dry season (May/June) and at the end of the dry/early rainy season (November/December) are recommended in the district. An additional treatment against GI nematodes in calves during the mid rainy season (February/March) might be important. PMID:15710529

Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Monrad, J; Kassuku, A A

2005-02-28

318

Modelling the influence of small-scale effects upon the larger scale: an oceanographic challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of resolving or parameterising small-scale processes in oceanographic models and the extent to which small-scale effects influence the large scale are briefly discussed and illustrated for a number of cases. For tides and surges in near-shore regions, the advantages of using a graded mesh to resolve coastal and estuarine small-scale features are demonstrated in terms of a west coast of Britain unstructured mesh model. The effect of mesh resolution upon the accuracy of the overall solution is illustrated in terms of a finite element model of the Irish Sea and Mersey estuary. For baroclinic motion at high Froude number, the effect of resolving small-scale topography within a non-hydrostatic model is illustrated in terms of tidally induced mixing at a single sill, or two closely spaced sills. The question of how to parameterise small-scale non-linear interaction processes that lead to significant mixing, in a form suitable for coarser grid hydrostatic models, is briefly considered. In addition, the importance of topographically induced mixing that occurs in the oceanic lateral boundary layer, namely, the shelf edge upon the large-scale ocean circulation is discussed together with the implications for coarse grid oceanic climate models. The use of unstructured grids in these models to enhance resolution in shelf-edge regions in a similar manner to that used in storm surge models to enhance near coastal resolution is suggested as a suitable “way forward” in large-scale ocean circulation modelling.

Davies, Alan M.; Jones, John Eric; Xing, Jiuxing

2010-08-01

319

THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF OSMANABAD DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small Scale Industry is one of the major components of our economic development which provides more employment opportunities particularly to the rural people, export potentials and acts as ancillary units for the large scale industry. Small Scale Industry is the blood stream of the Indian economy. They feed the large industries and they cannot survive without small units, which are the major source of innovation in Indian Industry. But these units are facing certain problems such as finance, marketing, non-availability of raw material, low productivity etc. In this study we have analyzed the growth and trend in production, working capital and employment in small scale industries during the year 1998-99 to 2007-08. Thus this paper highlighted the performance of the Small Scale Industries in the Osmanabad district. It is concluded that the performance of the Small Scale Industries in the Osmanabad district is a good. If they got the effective services and facilities from the Government and Institutions, they can perform very well in future. They may increase in production, employment and income.

AJIT ASHTE

2013-01-01

320

Glyphosate Exposure in a Farmer’s Family  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We tested the presence of glyphosate in the urines of a farmer who sprayed a glyphosate based herbicide on his land, and in his family, as his children were born with birth defects that could be due to or promoted by pesticides. Glyphosate residues were measured in urines a day before, during, and two days after spraying, by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Glyphosate reached a peak of 9.5 µg/L in the farmer after spraying, and 2 µg/L were found in him and in one of ...

Robin Mesnage; Christian Moesch; Rozenn Le Grand Grand; Guillaume Lauthier; Joël Spiroux de Vendômois; Steeve Gress; Gilles-Eric Séralini

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Responding to the challenge of artisanal and small-scale mining. How can knowledge networks help?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews what is known about the problems and structural challenges facing the 20-30 million artisanal and small-scale miners and their communities worldwide. Better understanding of these structural challenges is needed to improve policies and policy implementation to further sustainable development opportunities for the sector. The paper explores the current gaps in knowledge to achieve policy change from researchers, practitioners and artisanal and small-scale miners themselves. It explores how a 'knowledge intermediary', which acts to link knowledge with policy, could address these gaps and includes case studies of IIED’s work on knowledge networks and programmes. The paper concludes by proposing a way forward for designing a knowledge programme to meet the particular needs of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector, and by inviting ASM sector stakeholders to share their views on the options outlined.

Buxton, Abbi

2013-02-15

322

Small Scale Effect on Thermal Vibration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Nonlocal Boundary Condition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, a single beam model has been developed to analyze the thermal vibration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT. The nonlocal elasticity takes into account the effect of small size into the formulation and the boundary condition. With exact solution of the dynamic governing equations, the thermal-vibrational characteristics of a cantilever SWCNT are obtained. Influence of nonlocal small scale effects, temperature change and vibration modes of the CNT on the frequency are investigated. The present study shows that the additional boundary conditions from small scale do not change natural frequencies at different temperature change. Thus for simplicity, one can apply the local boundary condition to replace the small scale boundary condition.

Li Ming

2013-03-01

323

Small-scale field-aligned currents observed by the AKEBONO (EXOS-D) satellite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EXOS-D fluxgate magnetometer data obtained at 3,000-10,000 km altitude have shown that small-scale field-aligned currents always exist in large-scale region 1, region 2, cusp and polar cap current systems. Assuming that these small-scale field-aligned currents have current sheet structure, the width of current sheet is estimated to be 5-20 km at ionospheric altitude. By comparing the magnetometer data with charged particle and high frequency plasma wave data simultaneously obtained from EXOS-D, it is found that small-scale currents have one-to-one correspondence with localized electron precipitation events characterized by flux enhancement over a wide energy range from 10 eV to several keV and broadband electrostatic bursts occasionally extending above local plasma frequencies or electron cyclotron frequencies

1991-01-01

324

Comparison of SLAR images and small-scale, low-sun aerial photographs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison of side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) images and black and white aerial photos of similar scale and illumination of an area in the Mojave Desert of California shows that aerial photos yield far more information about geology than do SLAR images because of greater resolution, tonal range, and geometric fidelity, and easier use in stereo. Nevertheless, radar can differentiate some materials or surfaces that aerial photos cannot; thus, they should be considered as complementary, rather than competing tools in geologic investigations. The most significant advantage of SLAR, however, is its freedom from the stringent conditions of weather, date, and time that are required by small-scale aerial photos taken with a specified direction and angle of illumination. Indeed, in low latitudes, SLAR is the only way to obtain small-scale images with low illumination from certain directions; moreover, in areas of nearly continuous cloudiness, radar may be the only practical source of small-scale images.

Clark, M. M.

1971-01-01

325

Small-Scale Magnetics Structures in the Sun's Corona Observed by HI-C  

Science.gov (United States)

Some small-scale magnetic structures are indirectly observed via flows in the Sun's Corona. The scales involved require high resolution imaging techniques in order to observe the fine flow structure. Using the observations from NASA's High-resolution Coronal Imager (HI-C) sounding rocket experiment (the highest resolution extreme-ultraviolet imager to date), we are now able to analyze these flows to asses their association with the small-scale coronal magnetic field in an active region. HI-C was launched by NASA on 2012 July 11 to observe fine coronal features at a pixel size of nearly 0.1 arcsec/pixel and has proven to be one of NASA's most successful sounding rocket programs thus far. We used observations from HI-C's central 100x100 arcsec field of view to track small-scale plasma flows.

Douglas, J.; Winebarger, A. R.

2013-12-01

326

Quality manual for small-scale wood incineration and wood gasification; Kwaliteitshandboek kleinschalige houtverbranding en houtvergassing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The title handbook is part of an analysis of EWAB-projects in the field of small-scale thermal biomass conversion and pre-treatment of biomass of which the results can be used for an accelerated market development of those techniques for Dutch businesses. The analysis is restricted to projects with respect to small-scale combustion and gasification installation for clean waste wood for the production of heat, steam or combined heat and power with a maximum capacity of circa 5.0 MW{sub th}. The contents of the handbook are drafted in consultation with Dutch actors and the concept was discussed at a meeting at 12 December 1997. A quality model is defined to outline an overall operational structure to assist project managers in the set-up of small-scale wood combustion and gasification installations

Van Halen, Cees; Arninkhof, Michel; Rommens, Peter; Karsch, Peter [PI Management Consultancy Pi!MC, The Hague (Netherlands)

1998-02-23

327

IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the impact of socio-economic characteristics on the performance of small-scale enterprises in the study area. It also identified the salient impacts of socio-economic traits on the development and expansion of small-scale enterprises in the country; established the productive prospects of progressive small-scale enterprises in the study area. The study was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria where copies of structured questionnaire were purposively administered on selected respondents. Evidence from the study shows that socio-economic characteristics of small scale entrepreneurs tend to influence the performance and productivity of Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria.Further analysis shows that gender, age and educational qualification had significant influence on the performance of the selected small-scale enterprises in the study area . The paper suggests integrated approach to the development of individual entrepreneurial capacity and promotion of sustainable small-scale enterprises.

Abdul-azeez ibraheem adegoke

2010-03-01

328

Collective backscattering of gyrotron radiation by small-scale plasma density fluctuations in large helical device.  

Science.gov (United States)

A version of the collective backscattering diagnostic using gyrotron radiation for small-scale turbulence is described. The diagnostic is used to measure small-scale (k(s) approximately 34 cm(-1)) plasma density fluctuations in large helical device experiments on the electron cyclotron heating of plasma with the use of 200 kW 82.7 GHz heating gyrotron. A good signal to noise ratio during plasma production phase was obtained, while contamination of stray light increased during plasma build-up phase. The effect of the stray radiation was investigated. The available quasioptical system of the heating system was utilized for this purpose. PMID:19044538

Kharchev, Nikolay; Tanaka, Kenji; Kubo, Shin; Igami, Hiroe; Batanov, German; Petrov, Alexandr; Sarksyan, Karen; Skvortsova, Nina; Azuma, Yoshifumi; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji

2008-10-01

329

Analysis on the detection performance of BOTDR in small-scale precision engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

In this thesis, the authors discuss the detection performance of the small-scale precision engineering with the Brillouin scattering light on the base of experiments. The authors made the measurements using the traditional Strain Distribution Gauge and optical fiber scattering light shift equipment AQ8603 and obtained two results. The authors compared and analyzed the data and made the conclusion that the BOTDR technology is not suitable for the small-scale Precision Engineering. The wiring methods and their effects to detection performance are also been discussed in this thesis.

Wang, Shuai; Luan, Lijun

2013-12-01

330

Small-scale fluctuations in the microwave background radiation and multiple gravitational lensing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that multiple gravitational lensing of the microwave background radiation (MBR) by static compact objects significantly attenuates small-scale fluctuations in the MBR. Gravitational lensing, by altering trajectories of MBR photons reaching an observer, leads to (phase) mixing of photons from regions with different initial fluctuations. As a result of this diffusion process the original fluctuations are damped on scales up to several arcmin. An equation that describes this process and its general solution are given. It is concluded that the present upper limits on the amplitude of the MBR fluctuations on small scales cannot constrain theories of galaxy formation. 25 references

1988-01-01

331

Influence of small scale magnetic energy and helicity on the growth of large scale magnetic field  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of initially given small scale magnetic energy($E_M(0)$) and helicity($H_M(0)$) on the magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) dynamo was investigated. Equations for $E_M$(t), $H_M$(t), and electromotive force($\\langle {\\bf v}\\times {\\bf b}\\rangle$, $EMF$) were derived and solved. The solutions indicate small scale magnetic field(${\\bf b}_i$) caused by $E_M$(0) modifies $EMF$ and generates additional terms of which effect depends on magnetic diffusivity $\\eta$, position of i...

Park, Kiwan

2014-01-01

332

The costs of small-scale hydro power production: Impact on the development of existing potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A major barrier to starting small scale hydro power projects is an understanding of how much the scheme will cost. Empirical formulae to estimate the cost of electro-mechanical equipment and the costs of different types of turbines were developed through statistical analysis of cost data obtained from a range of turbine manufacturers. The approach differentiates between different turbine designs and presents formulae for all major small scale devices. The derived results were compared to the results obtained from using other methodologies and were found to provide more realistic cost estimates. (author)

Aggidis, G.A.; Luchinskaya, E. [Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Rothschild, R. [Lancaster University Management School, Lancaster, LA1 4YX (United Kingdom); Howard, D.C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, LA1 4YP (United Kingdom)

2010-12-15

333

Small-scale field-aligned currents in the winter cusp region under quiet geomagnetic conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transverse small-scale magnetic disturbances (TSSMDs) measured by the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite can not be associated with MHD waves, although being sometimes of a quasi-periodical character. These disturbances are examined as small-scale field-aligned cuirrents (SSFACs). The satellite was launched into a nearly circular polar orbit with 81.9o inclination and perigee (apogee) of 826 (904) km on August 7, 1981. Variations of the electric and magnetic fields, thermal plasma density and the electron and proton precipitation have been measured. All measurements have been carried out in the winter cusp during quiet geomagnetic conditions. 2 figs., 13 refs

1990-01-01

334

Generation of small-scale structures in well-developed turbulence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are considered in the limit of infinite Reynolds number. Flow instability is supposed to give rise to steady large-scale structures. The onset and development of small-scale turbulence is analyzed. It is shown that the developing small-scale fluctuations are characterized by intermittency. The highest intensity of vorticity fluctuations is attained in vortex filaments. The solution obtained is used to calculate the velocity pair correlation function in the limit of r ? 0. The result agrees with the Kolmogorov law K(r) ? r2/3

2007-08-01

335

Adoption of Coccidiosis Vaccines by Poultry Farmers in Ijebu Area of Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper focused on adoption of coccidiosis vaccines by poultry farmers in Ijebu-Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Specifically, the poultry farmers selected personal characteristics such as age, sex, religion, marital status, educational attainment, farm income and sources of credit were identified Their level of awareness and adoption of the coccidiosis vaccines were also determined. The relationship between adoption and the selected personal characteristics was established. The relationship between adoption and constraints to adoption was also established. Eighty eight (88 poultry farmers were selected through a stratified sampling method from six (06 local government councils using a pre-tested Questionnaire. Examination of the poultry farmer's personal characteristics revealed that 80.7 percent were male and is between age-range of thirty-one and fifty years. Sixty seven (67 percent were Christians while 98.9 percent had formal education. Almost forty one percent (40.9% reared between 500 and 1000 birds while 29.5 percent reared above 1000 birds with farm income ranging from 25,000 to above N50, 000 per month. 88.6% are aware of coccidiosis vaccines, 83 percent had adopted and immuncox® is the most commonly used (66.2%. The study revealed that age and sex were significantly related to adoption amongst other personal characteristics tested. The study also revealed that there is no significant relationship between adoption and constraints to adoption. Coccidiosis vaccines were found to have gained widespread acceptance among poultry farmers in Ijebu area of Ogun State, Nigeria. It was recommended that Unified Extension Agents in the area should facilitate the transfer of the technology and dissemination of information on coccidiosis vaccines to both small and medium poultry farmers in the study areas. There should also be effective extension services to small-scale commercial poultry farmers will enhance their productivity and eventually elevate them to large-scale level of production.

M.A. Oladoja

2007-01-01

336

Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun  

Science.gov (United States)

There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

Klimchuk, James

2010-01-01

337

Trading by groups. The benefits for small-scale energy consumers of the energy trade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The power trade is currently still reserved for traders, producers and customers. It will be a few years yet before all customers are free to choose their own supplier. To be able to allow these small-scale users to benefit from the power market as well, they have to be grouped according to certain consumer profiles

2000-04-01

338

Small scale hybrid concentrated solar power - biomass system. Development, time dependent modelling and validation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Proceeding from the sustainable development principle and the current energy issues, in the present work a small-scale fully renewable power plant was designed, modelled in a time-dependent environment and validated. The plant is design in order to produce both thermal and electric power either in on- or off-grid configuration.

Tortora, Eileen

2011-01-01

339

Technology Demonstration for Reducing Mercury Emissions from Small-Scale Gold Refining Facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a sig...

D. P. Peterson J. L. Bailey L. E. Fernandez L. J. Habegger M. Engle M. M. MacDonnell

2008-01-01

340

Fuel From Farms: A Guide to Small-Scale Ethanol Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol and blends of ethanol and gasoline (such as gasohol) offer a near-term fuel alternative to oil. The focus of this handbook is upon the small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as the source of raw materials. Provided are chapters on ethanol production procedures, feedstocks, plant design, and financial planning. Also presented…

Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO.

 
 
 
 
341

Analysis of Stability, Response and LQR Controller Design of a Small Scale Helicopter Dynamics  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents how to use feedback controller with helicopter dynamics state space model. A simplified analysis is presented for controller design using LQR of small scale helicopters for axial and forward flights. Our approach is simple and gives the basic understanding about how to develop controller for solving the stability of linear helicopter flight dynamics.

Dharmayanda, Hardian Reza; Lee, Young Jae; Sung, Sangkyung

2008-01-01

342

Small scale combined heat and power systems. Pt. 2. The demonstration project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief description is given of the existing heating and electrical services in a London hospital prior to the installation of a small scale combined heat and power (CHP) system. Details of the CHP system are given and pre-installation performance and post-installation performance compared. A cost analysis shows an annual saving of nearly Pound 7000.

Rufford, G.

1986-01-01

343

Fostering sustainable small-scale investments: lessons from experience and ideas for intervention and innovation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents lessons from experience pertinent to implementing small-scale natural resource and related investment projects in developing countries. It outlines ideas for intervention and innovation to foster such investments. Particular emphasis is placed on private-sector participation in these investments. Following a brief presentation of the economic development and other arguments that support intervention and innovation in support of such small-scale natural resource investments, the article discusses many of the lessons learned from experience. These lessons reinforce those touched upon in the investment-specific discussions in the previous articles. The experience and associated lessons that are examined include experiences in both developing and developed countries and encompass nor just lessons from natural resource investments, but also small-scale investments in other sectors. Financing and other innovations which facilitate meeting the challenges are drawn from relevant experience where barriers to investment have been surmounted. Options for programme and project interventions to increase market penetration of small-scale investments and achieve the associated development linkages and synergies are suggested. These suggestions are aimed especially at governments and bilateral and multilateral development finance and development assistance entities. It is those players who might support such interventions in collaboration with local financial institutions and other market players. (author)

2000-11-01

344

Small scale ethanol production from corn - technology, energy efficiency and economics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper compares several options for small scale ethanol production systems (up to 800,000 1/year) in terms of technology, energy efficiency, and economics. Small scale plants in general are also compared with large scale plants. The options discussed for small scale plants are: batch distillation versus continuous feed distillation; packed distillation column versus perforated-plate column; by-product solids separation prior to distillation versus pumping solids into distillation column; vacuum distillation versus atmospheric distillation; and direct-fired reboiler and mash cooking tank versus separate boiler used to generate steam for heating them. These options are compared in the context of three types of systems which have been used or proposed for small scale ethanol production: batch-type reflux distillation system with the same vessel used as cooker, fermenter, and for distillation; continuous-feed, perforated-plate reflux distillation system, without solids separation, using a separate boiler for heat supply for distillation; continuous feed, packed, reflux distillation column, with a direct-fired reboiler and solids separation before distillation.

Bengtson, H.H.

1983-01-01

345

Small-scale ethanol production from corn: technology, energy efficiency, and economics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several options are compared for small scale ethanol production systems (up to 800,000 1/year) in terms of technology, energy efficiency, and economics. Small scale plants, in general, are also compared with large scale plants. The options discussed for small scale plants are: batch distillation versus continuous feed distillation; packed distillation column versus perforated-plate column; by-product solids separation prior to distillation versus pumping solids into distillation column versus perforated-plate column; by-product solids separation prior to distillation versus pumping solids into distillation column; vacuum distillation versus atmospheric distillation; and direct-fired reboiler and a mash cooking tank versus separate boiler used to generate steam for heating them. These options are compared in the context of three types of systems which have been used or proposed for small scale ethanol production: batch-type reflux distillation system with the same vessel used as cooker, fermenter, and for distillation; continuous-feed, perforated-plate reflux distillation system, without solids separation, using a separate boiler for heat supply for distillation; continuous feed, packed, reflux distillation column, with a direct-fired reboiler and solids separation before distillation. 13 references, 6 figures, 7 tables.

Bengston, H.H.

1983-11-01

346

Air pollution and economics: Alternate use of fuels in small scale industries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In developing countries the problem of air pollution was recognized earlier, however, it has acquired a greater dimension due to the conventional use of low grade fuels like coal, baggase, rice husk, etc. having high sulphur and ash content. The industrial sources contribute about 30--40% of the total emissions. In India, the small scale industries (low investment group) contribute about 60--80% of the total industrial emissions. These industries are characterized with various environmental pollution problems due to cluster of small scale industries located in sensitive area; use of low grade fuel, primitive processing techniques without emission abatement facilities etc., thus leading to enormous pollution in an confined region. Acute need was felt to reduce the pollution problem associated with small scale industries by use of cleaner fuel so as to reduce the localized problem. The paper presents the emissions associated with use of coal/coke, natural gas, LPG, and propane along with the fuel cost for small scale industrial sector of Agra, Firozabad and Mathura region. The studies carried out would find applicability to meet the air pollution standards based on shift in fuel and associated cost

1999-06-20

347

Small scale CHP: a look at the increasing use of these systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Topics discussed in this European Power News include the role of combined heat and power (CHP) systems in the domestic market, the installation of a Nedalo CHP unit at a UK leisure centre, the interest of the health sector in CHP schemes, the UK Department of Energy`s grant programme for promotion of small-scale industrial CHP units, and use of Stirling engines for cost effective small scale (<30 kWe) CHP systems. Use of heat from a gas fired CHP system and export of power to the grid in the maltings and brewery industry, installation of 14 800kW CHP units at the Land Rover production site in Solihull, the market for small scale (30-150 kWe) systems, the slow take up of small scale CHP possibly due to lack of awareness and reluctance to commit investment, and finally the refurbishment of a boiler house at a hotel at Heathrow Airport with a packaged CHP unit are discussed. (UK)

Anon.

1997-09-01

348

Small-Scale Solar Simulator for Indoor Testing of Collector Modules and Materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

A small-scale solar simulator has been constructed for the indoor testing of collector modules and materials at LASL. The simulator design follows general construction guidelines suggested in the work of Yass and Curtis of NASA-Lewis, but modifications we...

D. P. Grimmer L. Bronisz

1979-01-01

349

Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its? product?s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products? samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product ?telemea?. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers? products and their reliability for the consumers.

Carmen JECAN

2012-05-01

350

Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text books and factory publications. The target population was over 700,000 small-scale coffee producers in Kenya out of which the accessible population of 10,000 producers drawn from Githunguri District in Kiambu County was selected which a sample size of 120 respondents was sampled. Stratified sampling technique was employed to compare views among coffee producers from the various coffee societies in the area. Data analysis was both qualitative and quantitative using descriptive statistics. Data presentation was in form of tables to help interpret findings and generate conclusions that aided solutions to identified problems. The research established that marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources greatly affected coffee production. The study recommended that the government should encourage coffee production by formulating favorable marketing factors and other policies and provide finances to small scale coffee producers. Producers on the other hand should strive to provide conducive working environment to their workers so as to sustain them in their farms. This will help to improve coffee yields and quality.

Margaret Njeri Gathura

2013-09-01

351

Air pollution and economics: Alternate use of fuels in small scale industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In developing countries the problem of air pollution was recognized earlier, however, it has acquired a greater dimension due to the conventional use of low grade fuels like coal, baggase, rice husk, etc. having high sulphur and ash content. The industrial sources contribute about 30--40% of the total emissions. In India, the small scale industries (low investment group) contribute about 60--80% of the total industrial emissions. These industries are characterized with various environmental pollution problems due to cluster of small scale industries located in sensitive area; use of low grade fuel, primitive processing techniques without emission abatement facilities etc., thus leading to enormous pollution in an confined region. Acute need was felt to reduce the pollution problem associated with small scale industries by use of cleaner fuel so as to reduce the localized problem. The paper presents the emissions associated with use of coal/coke, natural gas, LPG, and propane along with the fuel cost for small scale industrial sector of Agra, Firozabad and Mathura region. The studies carried out would find applicability to meet the air pollution standards based on shift in fuel and associated cost.

Rao, B.P.S.; Pandit, V.I.

1999-07-01

352

Comparison between full- and small-scale sensory assessments of air quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Thirty-nine untrained subjects made small- and full-scale evaluations of the acceptability of the quality of air at 22 deg.C and 40% RH, polluted by either carpet, felt floor covering, painted gypsum board, linoleum or chipboard. Small-scale evaluations were made on the air extracted from 200-L glass chambers ventilated at an airflow of 0.9 L/s. Full-scale assessments were made immediately upon entering offices ventilated at an outdoor air supply rate of 1.9 h-1. The ratio of ventilation rate to surface area of a building material was identical in the chambers and in the offices. Full-scale sensory ratings of acceptability of air polluted by carpet and by linoleum were systematically better than small-scale assessments, but not for the other three materials. Calculated sensory emission rates from carpet and linoleum were significantly lower in full scale than in small scale. When modelling the perceived air quality in spaces, sensory emission rates estimated in small scale may require a correction, probably depending on the nature of the chemicals emitted by a building material.

Wargocki, Pawel; Lagercrantz, Love Per

2002-01-01

353

Atomistic Simulations of Small-scale Materials Tests of Nuclear Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Degradation of materials properties under neutron irradiation is one of the key issues affecting the lifetime of nuclear reactors. Evaluating the property changes of materials due to irradiations and understanding the role of microstructural changes on mechanical properties are required for ensuring reliable and safe operation of a nuclear reactor. However, high dose of neuron irradiation capabilities are rather limited and it is difficult to discriminate various factors affecting the property changes of materials. Ion beam irradiation can be used to investigate radiation damage to materials in a controlled way, but has the main limitation of small penetration depth in the length scale of micro meters. Over the past decade, the interest in the investigations of size-dependent mechanical properties has promoted the development of various small-scale materials tests, e.g. nanoindentation and micro/nano-pillar compression tests. Small-scale materials tests can address the issue of the limitation of small penetration depth of ion irradiation. In this paper, we present small-scale materials tests (experiments and simulation) which are applied to study the size and irradiation effects on mechanical properties. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation and nanopillar compression tests. These atomistic simulations are expected to significantly contribute to the investigation of the fundamental deformation mechanism of small scale irradiated materials

Shin, Chan Sun; Jin, Hyung Ha; Kwon, Jun Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-15

354

[MWRP RPS 133 Small scale treatment of waste by pyrolysis or gasification - Sep 2012.pdf  

…regulatory position statement will then be withdrawn. Background A number of very small scale non-incineration thermal treatment units for wastes are coming on to the market. Such processes employ abatement to render emissions harmless and therefore are not suitable for low risk positions or exemptions…

355

Finite difference simulations of particle velocity records from small scale explosive tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spherically symmetric finite difference calculations are presented which successfully simulate the particle velocity measurements from small-scale explosive experiments performed at SRI International both in spheres of 2C4 rock-matching grout and high porosity, low density LD2C4 grout, and in cylinders of saturated tuffs from the Nevada Test Site

1983-08-02

356

Entrepreneurship of Dutch dairy farmers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords: Dairy farming, farm size, Theory of Planned Behaviour, goals, attitudes, entrepreneur entrepreneurship, competencies, psychological characteristics, agriculture, entrepreneur, dairy farms, entrepreneurial success, job satisfaction, training programme.Several developments in theNetherlandsas well as in the other countries within the EU are forcing dairy farmers to reconsider their in...

Bergevoet, R. H. M.

2005-01-01

357

Efficiency of resource use in small-scale white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) production in Lamongan Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia Wydajno?? wykorzystania zasobów w produkcji bia?ej krewetki (Penaeus vannamei) na ma?? skal? w regencji Lamongan, prowincji Wschodnia Jawa w Indonezji  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study carried out to determine the efficiency of recourses used in white shrimp (Pe-naeus Vannamei) production in Lamongan Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia. The simple random sampling technique used to select 125 small-scale white shrimp farmers from six-study areas in Lamongan Regency. The white shrimp production function was es-timated using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique. The results indicated that Double Log production function had the best fit in explaining the relation...

Lestariadi, Riski A.; Sutonya Thongrak; Ratya Anindita

2012-01-01

358

Resolving the problem of galaxy clustering on small scales: any new physics needed?  

Science.gov (United States)

Galaxy clustering sets strong constraints on the physics governing galaxy formation and evolution. However, most current models fail to reproduce the clustering of low-mass galaxies on small scales (r Munich versions, Guo et al. and De Lucia & Blaizot. The Guo11 model well reproduces the galaxy stellar mass function, but overpredicts the clustering of low-mass galaxies on small scales. The DLB07 model provides a better fit to the clustering on small scales, but overpredicts the stellar mass function. These seem to be puzzling. The clustering on small scales is dominated by galaxies in the same dark matter halo, and there is slightly more fraction of satellite galaxies residing in massive haloes in the Guo11 model, which is the dominant contribution to the clustering discrepancy between the two models. However, both models still overpredict the clustering at 0.1 < r < 10 Mpc h-1 for low-mass galaxies. This is because both models overpredict the number of satellites by 30 per cent in massive haloes than the data. We show that the Guo11 model could be slightly modified to simultaneously fit the stellar mass function and clusterings, but that cannot be easily achieved in the DLB07 model. The better agreement of DLB07 model with the data actually comes as a coincidence as it predicts too many low-mass central galaxies which are less clustered and thus brings down the total clustering. Finally, we show the predictions from the semi-analytical models of Kang et al. We find that this model can simultaneously fit the stellar mass function and galaxy clustering if the supernova feedback in satellite galaxies is stronger. We conclude that semi-analytical models are now able to solve the small-scales clustering problem, without invoking of any other new physics or changing the dark matter properties, such as the recent favoured warm dark matter.

Kang, X.

2014-02-01

359

Lung function and bronchial reactivity in farmers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and type of lung function disorders in Danish farmers. Three samples of farmers were drawn from a group of unselected farmers who had participated in an epidemiological study. Group I (47 persons) was a sample of the 8% of all farmers who had reported that they had asthma; group II (63 persons) was a sample of the 28% of farmers who had had wheezing, shortness of breath, or cough without phlegm; and group III (34 persons) a sample of th...

Iversen, M.; Dahl, R.; Jensen, E. J.; Korsgaard, J.; Hallas, T.

1989-01-01

360

Impacts of fair trade certification on coffee farmers, cooperatives, and laborers in Nicaragua  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the possibilities and challenges of Fair Trade certification as a movement seeking to improve the well-being of small-scale coffee growers and coffee laborers in the global South. Six months of fieldwork was conducted in 2005–2006 to study the roles of a wide range of farmers, laborers, cooperative administrators, and export companies in Fair Trade coffee production and trade in Nicaragua. The results of our evaluation of the ability of Fair Trade to meet its objectives ...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Negotiating Uncertainty: Jamaican Small Farmers’ Adaptation and Coping Strategies, Before and After Hurricanes—A Case Study of Hurricane Dean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, Jamaica has been seriously affected by a number of extreme meteorological events. The one discussed here, Hurricane Dean, passed along the south coast of the island in August 2007, damaging crops and disrupting livelihood activities for many small-scale farmers. This study is based on detailed ethnographic research in the southern coastal region of St. Elizabeth parish during the passage of Hurricane Dean, and explores the ways in which small farmers negotiate the stressors associated with hurricane events. The study employed a mix methods approach based on a survey of 282 farming households. The paper documents coping strategies employed by farmers in the immediate period of Hurricane Dean to reduce damage to their farming systems, and highlights the positive correlation between farmers’ perceptions of hurricanes and degree of damage to local farming systems. In addition, through an analysis of socio-economic and environmental data, the paper provides an understanding of the determinants of adaptive capacity and strategy among farmers in the area. The study indicated that despite high levels of vulnerability, farmers have achieved successful coping and adaptation at the farm level.

Donovan Campbell

2009-12-01

362

Transient downflows associated with the intensification of small-scale magnetic features and bright point formation  

CERN Multimedia

Small-scale magnetic features are present everywhere in the solar photosphere. Theoretical models, numerical calculations, and simulations describing the formation of these features have existed for a few decades, but there are only a few observational studies in direct support of the simulations. In this study we present the evolution of small-scale magnetic features with a spatial resolution close to 0.15 arcsecond and compare these observations with those predicted by numerical simulations and also with previous observational work of a similar nature. We analyze a 40 min time sequence of full Stokes spectropolarimetric 630.25 nm data from a plage region near the Sun center. We use line-of-sight velocities and magnetic field measurements obtained using Milne-Eddington inversion techniques with and without stray-light compensation along with measured continuum and line minimum intensities. We discuss the results in relation to earlier observations and simulations. We present eight cases involving strong down...

Narayan, G

2011-01-01

363

Small-scale convection signatures associated with strong plage solar magnetic field  

CERN Document Server

In this work, we study and quantify properties of strong-field small-scale convection and compare observed properties with those predicted by numerical simulations. We analyze spectropolarimetric 630.25 nm data from a unipolar ephemeral region near sun center. We use line-of-sight velocities and magnetic field measurements obtained with Milne-Eddington inversion techniques along with measured continuum intensities and Stokes V amplitude asymmetry at a spatial resolution of 0.15 arcseconds to establish statistical relations between the measured quantities. We also study these properties for different types of distinct magnetic features, such as micropores, bright points, ribbons, flowers and strings. We present the first direct observations of a small-scale granular magneto-convection pattern within extended regions of strong (more than 600 G average) magnetic field. Along the boundaries of the flux concentrations we see mostly downflows and asymmetric Stokes V profiles, consistent with synthetic line profiles...

Narayan, G

2010-01-01

364

Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

None,

1980-05-01

365

Models for Small-Scale Structure on Cosmic Strings: I. Mathematical Formalism  

CERN Document Server

We describe the formalism of a quantitative analytic model for the evolution of realistic wiggly (as opposed to Goto-Nambu) cosmic strings. The model is particularly suited for describing the evolution of small-scale structure on string networks. We discuss model solutions in the extreme limit where the wiggles make up a high fraction of the total energy of the string network (which physically corresponds to the tensionless limit) and also provide a brief discussion of the opposite (linear) limit where wiggles are a small fraction of the total energy. A companion paper will discuss the detailed modelling and scaling behavior of the small-scale wiggles in the general model, together with a basic comparison with numerical simulations.

Martins, C J A P; Vieira, J P P

2014-01-01

366

Small-scale patterning methods for digital image correlation under scanning electron microscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digital image correlation (DIC) is a powerful, length-scale-independent methodology for examining full-field surface deformations. Recently, it has become possible to combine DIC with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), enabling the investigation of small-scale deformation mechanisms such as the strains accommodated within grains in polycrystalline metals, or around micro-scale constituents in composite materials. However, there exist significant challenges that need to be surmounted before the combination of DIC and SEM (here termed SEM-DIC) can be fully exploited. One of the primary challenges is the ability to pattern specimens at microstructural length scales with a random, isotropic and high contrast pattern needed for DIC. This paper provides a thorough survey of small-scale patterning methods for SEM-DIC and discusses their advantages and disadvantages for different applications

2011-12-01

367

Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

Brown, E.; Mann, M.

2008-01-01

368

Field investigation of preferential fissure flow paths with hydrochemical analysis of small-scale sprinkling experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

The unsaturated zone largely controls groundwater recharge by buffering precipitation while at the same time providing preferential flow paths for infiltration. The importance of preferential flow on landslide hydrology is recognised in the literature; however, its monitoring and quantification remain difficult. This paper presents a combined hydrological and hydrochemical analysis of small-scale sprinkling experiments. It aims at showing the potential of such experiments for studying the spatial differences in dominant hydrological processes within a landslide. This methodology was tested in the highly heterogeneous black marls of the Super-Sauze landslide. The tests were performed in three areas characterised by different displacement rates, surface morphology and local hydrological conditions. Special attention was paid to testing the potential of small-scale sprinkling experiments for identifying and characterising preferential flow patterns and dominant hydrological processes.

Krzeminska, D. M.; Bogaard, T. A.; Debieche, T.-H.; Cervi, F.; Marc, V.; Malet, J.-P.

2014-03-01

369

Small-scale piezoelectric energy harvesting devices using low-energy-density sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last decade, small-scale energy harvesting devices that can power household electronic systems have experienced rapid development in both the research and the industrial fields. However, the large majority of work done in this domain still focuses on high-energy-density sources, which are not always available in the vicinity of the device. In that case, it is, therefore, important to use other sources, which, nevertheless, present lower energy densities. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate such harvesting methods, highlighting their differences with classical techniques that rely on high-density energy resources. Additionally, the present study also aims at reviewing existing techniques for small-scale energy harvesting using piezoelectric devices, as well as presenting new designs when dealing with low energy density sources, with a particular focus on wind and rain.

2010-10-01

370

Designing small-scale tests: A simulation study of parameter recovery with the 1-PL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This simulation study investigated the recovery of item and person parameters of the one-parameter logistic model for short tests administered to small samples. A potential problem with such small scale testing is the mismatch between item and person location parameter distributions. In our study, we manipulated the match of these distributions as well as test length, sample size, and item discrimination. Results showed the degree of mismatch likely to occur in practice has a relatively modest effect on parameter recovery. As expected, accuracy in parameter estimation decreased as sample size and test length decreased. Nevertheless, researchers investigating small scale tests are likely to view parameter recovery as acceptable if a study has at least 100 subjects and 8 items.

Dubravka Svetina

2013-12-01

371

The Small-Scale Dynamo and Non-Ideal MHD in Primordial Star Formation  

CERN Document Server

We study the amplification of magnetic fields during the formation of primordial halos. The turbulence generated by gravitational infall motions during the formation of the first stars and galaxies can amplify magnetic fields very efficiently and on short timescales up to dynamically significant values. Using the Kazantsev theory, which describes the so-called small-scale dynamo - a magnetohydrodynamical process converting kinetic energy from turbulence into magnetic energy - we can then calculate the growth rate of the small-scale magnetic field. Our calculations are based on a detailed chemical network and we include non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical effects such as ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation. We follow the evolution of the magnetic field up to larger scales until saturation occurs on the Jeans scale. Assuming a weak magnetic seed field generated by the Biermann battery process, both Burgers and Kolmogorov turbulence lead to saturation within a rather small density range. Such fields are likely...

Schober, Jennifer; Federrath, Christoph; Glover, Simon; Klessen, Ralf; Banerjee, Robi

2012-01-01

372

Mesogranulation and small-scale dynamo action in the quiet Sun  

CERN Document Server

Regions of quiet Sun generally exhibit a complex distribution of small-scale magnetic field structures, which interact with the near-surface turbulent convective motions. Furthermore, it is probable that some of these magnetic fields are generated locally by a convective dynamo mechanism. In addition to the well-known granular and supergranular convective scales, various observations have indicated that there is an intermediate scale of convection, known as mesogranulation, with vertical magnetic flux concentrations accumulating preferentially at mesogranular boundaries. Our aim is to investigate the small-scale dynamo properties of a convective flow that exhibits both granulation and mesogranulation, comparing our findings with solar observations. Adopting an idealised model for a localised region of quiet Sun, we use numerical simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamics, in a 3D Cartesian domain, to investigate the parametric dependence of this system (focusing particularly upon the effects of varying ...

Bushby, Paul J

2014-01-01

373

Numerical simulation of the interaction between solar granules and small-scale magnetic fields  

CERN Document Server

We have carried out numerical simulation based on the equations of radiation magnetohydrodynamics to study the interaction of solar granules and small-scale magnetic fields in photospheric regions with various magnetic fluxes. Four sequences of 2D time-dependent models were calculated for photospheric regions with average vertical magnetic fluxes of 0, 10, 20, and 30 mT. The models exhibit no substantial variations in their temperature structure with varying average field strength, while the density and gas pressure profiles display gross changes. The solar granulation brightness field also varies substantially with magnetic flux. The contribution of the small-scale component to the intensity power spectrum increases with average field strength, whereas the large-scale component (of about a granule size) contributes less, the total rms intensity fluctuations being approximately the same. Thus the observed decrease in rms intensity fluctuations with growing average magnetic flux can be interpreted as smoothing...

Atroshchenko, I N

2010-01-01

374

Electrical protection in small-scale hydro electrical power stations; Elektriske vern i smaa vannkraftverk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small-scale hydro electrical power stations often have insufficient electrical protection and control systems. A group of Bachelor students together with their senior lecturer from The College of Soer-Troendelag's electrical power engineering program have completed a project with focus on protection and control systems in smaller power stations. They have also improved the existing control system at Frisjoen Micro Power Station at Loekken Verk in the municipality of Meldal, Norway. A description of the project is briefly presented.

Glimen, Paal et al.

2006-07-01

375

Sustainability of tropical small-scale fisheries: Integrated assessment in French Guiana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Like many tropical small-scale fisheries, the French Guiana coastal fishery is characterized by the high fish biodiversity of its ecosystem, the weak selectivity of the fleets exploiting the resources, and the heterogeneity of the vessels in terms of size and fishing techniques. The Rapfish method is used to assess sustainability within 11 fishery systems by means of 27 attributes relating to ecological, economic, social, and technological fields. Overall results indicate an average performan...

2014-01-01

376

Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Bucket Foundations in Dense Sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monopod bucket foundations promise to become a reliable and cost-effective concept for offshore wind turbine. Physical models are essential to understand the behavior of soil-structure systems. When conducting small-scale experiments on soil, scale effects can considerably affect the tests outcome. In a bid for overcoming this issue, a novel testing system based on the application of suction between the soil surface and a membrane is employed. The comparison between the tests conducted at str...

2011-01-01

377

Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

NONE

1996-03-01

378

Small scale variations in the microbenthic loop of Posidonia oceanica meadows: an experimental interpolation design.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the sediment compartment of Posidonia oceanica meadows, there is a severe lack of information on small scale variations. In an attempt to understand spatial variations of the microbenthic loop (bacteria, organic matter, microphytobenthos and meiofauna), an experiment based on interpolation methods was led in Calvi Bay (Corsica, France), in March 2008, at 10 m depth. Twelve points were sampled randomly in a 125 x 125 cm square, divided into twenty-five 25 x 25 cm squares, to assess and desc...

Pete, Dorothe?e; Lenartz, Fabian; Velimirov, Branko; Bouquegneau, Jean-marie; Gobert, Sylvie

2008-01-01

379

Spatial heterogeneity at small scale in the microbenthic loop of Posidonia oceanica meadows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Mediterranean coastal zone, one the most important ecosystem is the Posidonia oceanica meadow. This seagrass is endemic of the Mediterranean Sea and plays many important ecological roles like oxygen production, nursery for numerous commercial species of fishes and protection of coastal zones by reducing the impact of waves. However, there is a severe lack of informations on small scale variations in its sediment compartment.

Pete, Dorothe?e; Lenartz, Fabian; Velimirov, Branko; Bouquegneau, Jean-marie; Gobert, Sylvie

2008-01-01

380

Design of Saving Circuit with Fuzzy Logic Control for Residences and Small Scale Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most effective methods of achieving savings in electrically-operated systems and increasing the efficiency is reactive power compensation. With the presently enforced regulation, compensation is mandatory for industrial consumers and it is done at certain power intervals, there is no regulation for residences and small scale enterprises on this subject. In this study, measurement of the reactive power in single-phase systems has been developed, as well as calculation for directi...

Basciftci, F.; Hatay, O. F.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Social Learning as a Basis for Cooperative Small-Scale Forest Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses the governance characteristics of an innovative policy instrument for sustainable forest management in Flanders, namely a mechanism based on social learning and collaborative planning within joint forest management organizations. These organizations have been successful in involving non-industrial private forest owners in managing the transition towards sustainable management in small-scale forestry. Why was this innovative scheme successful? And what are its shortcomings ...

Dedeurwaerdere, Tom

2009-01-01

382

Indicators and Determinants of Small-Scale Bamboo Commercialization in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bamboo is an abundant resource in Ethiopia and has a great potential for commercialization, which can drive rural development. In view of these realities, this study analyzed the state and determinants of small-scale bamboo commercialization in Ethiopia. Data were collected from three major bamboo-growing districts (Awi, Sidama, and Sheka) and four urban centers (Masha, Hawassa, Bahir Dar, and Addis Ababa) via semi-structured interviews, group discussions, and questionnaire surveys with key a...

2013-01-01

383

The Rural Landscapes and Small-Scale Agricultural Practices in the Transylvanian Plain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is focused on the relationships between small-scale agricultural practices and cultural landscape of Transylvanian Plain. The geographical position of Transylvanian Plain in central part of Romania shows with relevance its favourability for sustainable agriculture and developing assumptions. Despite of this, the region was kept outside of the major infrastructural and economic trends. We could, also, include the Transylvanian Plain into a typical rural “central isolation space”...

2010-01-01

384

Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

Smith, G.L.

1996-03-01

385

Checklist Model to Improve Work Practices in Small-Scale Demolition Operations with Silica Dust Exposures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A systematic approach was developed to review, revise and adapt existing exposure control guidance used in developed countries for use in developing countries. One-page employee and multiple-page supervisor guidance sheets were adapted from existing documents using a logic framework and workers were trained to use the information to improve work practices. Interactive, hands-on training was delivered to 26 workers at five small-scale demolition projects in Maputo City, Mozambique, and evaluat...

2012-01-01

386

Observational signatures of numerically simulated MHD waves in small-scale fluxtubes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present some results obtained from the synthesis of Stokes profiles in small-scale flux tubes with propagating MHD waves. To that aim, realistic flux tubes showing internal structure have been excited with 5 min period drivers, allowing non-linear waves to propagate inside the magnetic structure. The observational signatures of these waves in Stokes profiles of several spectral lines that are commonly used in spectropolarimetric measurements are discussed.

Khomenko, E.; Collados, M.; Felipe, T.

2008-01-01

387

Small-scale inland fisheries in Africa: How to collect data for poverty assessment?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accurate poverty assessments in developing countries require efforts to collect detailed household level data. Especially in Africa, such procedures are time consuming, expensive and can be subject to numerous constraints. In this paper we discuss the procedure of the collection of data on consumption, income and assets from poor households involved in small-scale inland fisheries as well as agricultural activities. A sampling scheme has been developed that captures the heterogeneity in ecolo...

Witt, Rudolf; Pemsl, Diemuth E.; Waibel, Hermann

2008-01-01

388

Diffuse interstellar bands as probes of small-scale interstellar structure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present observations which probe the small-scale structure of the interstellar medium using diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). Towards HD 168075/6 in the Eagle Nebula, significant differences in DIB absorption are found between the two lines of sight, which are separated by 0.25 pc, and {\\lambda}5797 exhibits a velocity shift. Similar data are presented for four stars in the {\\mu} Sgr system. We also present a search for variations in DIB absorption towards {\\kappa} Vel, ...

Smith, Keith T.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Sarre, Peter J.

2013-01-01

389

The Challenges Facing Small-Scale Women Entrepreneurs: A Case of Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study sought to identify the challenges facing small scale women entrepreneurs in Kenya and initiatives put in place to counter the challenges. The study employed desktop research. MSEs Baseline survey, recorded that 612,848 women in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya, accounting for 47.4 per cent of all those in MSEs. The study showed that women tended to operate enterprises associated with traditional women’s roles, such as hairstyling. The small and micro enterprises (SMEs) ...

Fridah Muriungi Mwobobia

2012-01-01

390

Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix

1996-01-01

391

Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix

1996-01-01

392

Phenomenological modeling of the triggering phase of small-scale steam explosion experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past few years, over 300 small-scale experiments have been performed by Nelson at Sandia National Laboratories, investigating the triggering of steam explosions between water and molten light water reactor (LWR) materials over a variety of initial conditions. The primary purpose of this paper is to present the results of phenomenological modeling and analyses that may explain the experimental observations. Three major conclusions are suggested by the analysis. 24 refs

1981-01-01

393

La recherche scientifique face à la pêche artisanale = Research and small-scale fisheries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of the research on "environment and fisheries" is particularly difficult when unstable coastal pelagic resources are exploited by small-scale fisheries which are extremely adaptive and diversified. The use of catch level predictions for short, mean and long-term time scales as a management tool is discussed. Comparisons are made between scientific knowledge and fishermen's know-how. Lastly, various approaches to the management of unstable resources are presented. (Résumé d'a...

1991-01-01

394

Development of a simulation model for a small scale renewable energy system / Martinus Gerhardus de Klerk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this dissertation I present my approach and findings regarding the development of a simulation model for a small scale renewable energy system. A brief introduction provides the reader with the background as to why there is a need for such a simulation package. The project objectives, research methodology and the research contributions originating from the project is also described. A literature study was done on all the relevant technologies constituting the renewable en...

Klerk, Martinus Gerhardus

2012-01-01

395

Feasibility of small-scale gas engine-based residential cogeneration in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays all countries are developing their own policies to promote cogeneration in the small-scale residential sector. In this paper the feasibility of small-scale gas engine-based residential cogeneration plants under the current Spanish regulation is studied. A unitary thermal load profile is obtained to characterised the thermal demand of residential applications in Spain. This unitary profile is used to analyse the potential of cogeneration in the small-scale range of powers (100-1000 kW). A complete characterisation of the gas fuelled engines in the market is performed and subsequently used to evaluate the economic feasibility within the selected range by means of a self-tailored simulation model. It is underlined how the thermal storage is a crucial element that should be suitably included in a residential cogeneration plant and the distortions that the actual pricing system adds to the profitability of residential plants of different sizes. Finally a sensibility study is carried out in order to evaluate how the Spanish regulation is able to deal with future variations in the energy prices. It is shown that a rise in the price of the natural gas increases the current feasibility of a plant while a decrease descends the profitability. - Highlights: ? Profitability is obtained within the whole small-scale range of powers. ? The stepped structure of prices strongly affect the feasibility of the projects. ? The inclusion of thermal storage notably affects the profitability of the plant. ? Big chance for increase the feasibility exists in retrofitting old installations. ? The system of tariff updating balances the future variations in the price of fuels.

2011-06-01

396

Small-scale convection in the mantle wedge around the Japanese islands (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Arc-volcanism is one of the most notable features in the Earth Science. Despite this, however, we still do not have its common understanding. In this presentation, we present a model of small-scale convection in the mantle wedge to understand the temporal and spatial distribution of volcanos around Japanese islands, that is, NE Hoshu and Izu-Bonin subduction zones. For this purpose, we have performed the numerical simulations with cases; (1) the direction of subduction is normal to the plate boundary, (2) the direction of subduction is oblique to the plate boundary and (3) the dip angles are different. The results show that; (1) the pattern of small-scale convection in the mantle wedge is a finger-like, (2) it flips sometimes and the pattern change starts from the back-arc side, (3) the finger is perpendicular to the plate boundary even in oblique case, and (3) if the subduction dip becomes deep, the small-scale convection disappears. These results suggest that (1) the temporal and spatial pattern of volcano distribution in NE Honshu and the alignment of inactive seamount chain in Izu-Bonin may be explained by the occurrence of small-scale convection in the mantle wedge, (2) the presently oblique alignment of seamount chains in Izu-Bonin may be produced by the left-lateral movement after their formation and (3) the cessation of volcanic activity of the seamount chains may be caused by the deepening of dip angle of subducting Pacific plate beneath the Philippine Sea plate there.

Honda, S.

2013-12-01

397

Morphobathymetry of Small-Scale Mud Reliefs on the Adriatic Shelf  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Morpho-bathymetric and stratigraphic data reveal small-scale mud reliefs in the toe region of the late-Holocene mud wedge on the Adriatic shelf. The reliefs are elongate features with acoustically-transparent cores. They are present in two geologic settings: seaward of shore-parallel undulations within a thick mud wedge and seaward of basement highs where the mud wedge is thin. In both settings, the reliefs define clusters sub-perpendicular to the regional contours, possibly indicati...

2003-01-01

398

Numerical methods with controlled dissipation for small-scale dependent shocks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We provide a 'user guide' to the literature of the past twenty years concerning the modeling and approximation of discontinuous solutions to nonlinear hyperbolic systems that admit small-scale dependent shock waves. We cover several classes of problems and solutions: nonclassical undercompressive shocks, hyperbolic systems in nonconservative form, boundary layer problems. We review the relevant models arising in continuum physics and describe the numerical methods that have been proposed to c...

2013-01-01

399

Small scale combined heat and power systems. Pt. 1. Technical aspects and governing regulations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technical factors that led to the installation of a small scale CHP system at a London hospital are briefly considered. These include the types of engines used and their performance, the choice of fuels and electric generators, the heat recovery system, acoustic enclosures and the controls. The major regulations of the Electricity and Gas Boards affecting the installation, commissioning and use of micro-CHP units are also briefly outlined. (UK).

Rufford, G.

1986-01-01

400

Policy of Onsite and Small-Scale Wastewater Treatment Options in Finland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis was done to explain the current Finnish policy on onsite and small-scale sanitation in depth. The most relevant legislation on national and European level was included as well as financing options for upgrades and new installments. In 2011 the latest legislation concerning rural wastewater treatment in Finland came into force. Private households are required to clean their wastewater from organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen, before releasing it to nature. The most used on...

Klammer, Ines

2013-01-01