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Sample records for small-scale farmers healthy

  1. Thai indigenous cattle production provided a sustainable alternative for the benefit of small-scale farmers, healthy food and the environment

    In Thailand, there were 5.66 million indigenous cattle and 1.76 million of their crosses. Farmers raised these cattle integrated with crop and fish in livestock-crop-fish integrated farming systems. These farming systems are in small scales for efficient utilization of available resources and for maximisation of production of diversified products per unit area to increase the income of the farmers and enhance food production. Thai indigenous cattle meat have more specific nutrient that are beneficial for consumers, such as omega 3, omega 6, and CLA. Furthermore, farmers use cattle manures as fertilizer for crop production, production of plankton for the fish and biogas/electric power used in the household. Additionally, Thai indigenous cattle are used for draught power. Consequently, Thai indigenous cattle increased food production and there was minimal cattle waste on farms thus, we could keep the environment clean and green. Performance data, meat quality, compost production, biogas production, and draught animal and reference were collected from 103 smallholder farmers in the northern part of Thailand, northeastern, central and southern parts of Thailand during October 2005 to September 2007. Growth and reproductive performance: Thai indigenous cattle had various skin and hair colour such as red, light brown, black, piebald, and only Kow-Lamphun cattle in northern part of Thailand, orange-pink skin and white hair colour. Their navels were not slackened but attached to the belly. Their dewlaps were also not slacken. The average birth weight was 19.6 kg and the weaning weight at 200 d of age was 137.96 kg. They had good characteristics of heat tolerance, disease resistance, and high fertility traits. They were the main red-meat source for consumers. Thai indigenous cattle were main source of red meat for consumption in Thailand. They produced high Omega 3 and Omega 6 in red meat, so their meat was the main source of protein and healthy food.Other utility of Thai indigenous cattle integrated farming system: Farmer raised on average 31.95 heads of Thai indigenous cattle on each farm integrated with crops (rice, corn, pineapple, sugar cane) and fish (striped catfish, catfish, tilapia, crucian carp). Cattle were fed on natural grass, rice straw as the main feed and other by-product from crops. Farmers used cattle manure to replaced chemical fertilizer and produced compost, which was used as fertilizer for crop production. Farmers also used manure to produce plankton for fish. They harvested 85.19 ton of crop production by using compost from manure and produced 0.25 ton per rai, which was less than the average country production (0.40 ton/rai). Average fish production was 100.00 kg per farm per year (147.06 kg/rai), which was similar to fish feeding with manure and concentrate (142.67 kg/rai). By integrating production in livestock-crop-fish, farming systems on small-scale, farmers produced safety food and gain their income. In addition, they could prevent air pollution, and global warming, leading to clean environment. (author)

  2. A Success Story of Organizing Small Scale Farmers in Kenya

    Buch-Hansen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    through this have a chance to contribute to national development, but to also enhance their own livelihood. The big problem of relying on small scale farmers is an organization model that ensures endurance and reliability. The Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA) has through almost 50 years been successful...... in integrating 600.000 smallholders in the tea production making tea number one income earner in Kenya and enhancing the livelihoods of the involved contract growers. The article argues that lessons should be learned from the success of KTDA in possibly replicating the organizational model to other...

  3. Effect of a Food Crop Development Project on Livelihood of Small-Scale Maize Farmers, Ghana

    Julio César Vinay-Vadillo; José Alfredo Villagómez-Cortés; María Rebeca Acosta-Rodríguez; Clément Rocher

    2012-01-01

    The Food Crop Development Project (FCDP) was introduced with the aim of improving farm incomes, household food security, nutrition and reducing poverty among small-scale farmers. This study sought to find answers to the questions of whether the project improved farmers’ access to credit, improved maize output or whether small-scale maize farmers adopted the improved maize production practices and how it impacted on maize production. Descriptive survey was conducted and using multi-stage rando...

  4. An assessment of health practises among small-scale farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Jones A. Akangbe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study examines the personal health practices of small scale farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods. Primary data were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire which was distributed to 120 small scale farmers. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency count, percentages were used, as well as Pearson Product Moment correlation and analysis for empirical analysis. Results. Results revealed that more than half (55% smoke cigarettes, about 48% drink alcohol to a very great extent, while the majority (64.5% indicated they have not been screened to know their HIV status. On a positive note, the results further show that the majority 70%, 53.3%, 80% and 73.3% indicated that they eat a balance diet, engage in physical activity, practice safer sex, and regularly visit a health care centre, respectively. It also revealed that 77% have not attended any training on healthy living. The results of PPMC showed that the health knowledge of respondents had significant (p<0.01 influence on practices like cigarette smoking, eating a balance diet and regular visits to a health care centre. Conclusion. It was concluded that health threatening practices such as cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol among the majority of the respondents, coupled with their lack of health knowledge from health professionals, contributes to the poor health status of respondents which eventually negatively influences the labour efficiency of farmers. It is recommended that farmers should endeavour to make use of health literacy programmes introduced to them at local government level, and that the government should provide more of these health literacy programmes.

  5. Adaptation to climate change and other stressors among commercial and small-scale South African farmers

    Wilk, Julie; Andersson, Lotta ,; Warburton, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Commercial and small-scale farmers in South Africa are exposed to many challenges. Interviews with 44 farmers in the upper Thukela basin, KwaZulu-Natal, were conducted to identify common and specific challenges for the two groups and adaptive strategies for dealing with the effects of climate and other stressors. This work was conducted as part of a larger participatory project with local stakeholders to develop a local adaptation plan for coping with climate variability and change. Although ...

  6. Tanzania’s Small-Scale Sunflower Farmers: Upgrading the Value Chain

    Enock S. Ugulumu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire using a psychometric scale investigated how small-scale sunflower farmers perceive the role of building relationships based on demand-driven upgrades, such as knowledge, skills, technology, and support services within the value chain. The study focused on small-scale sunflower farmers in the Singida region of Tanzania. The survey was conducted in twelve Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives (AMCOs with 229 respondents. The respondents had positive opinions about creating core competencies, concluding that adopting new capabilities, especially with tangible assets such as extension officers, financing, warehouses, and technology, can lead to improved productivity and quality. The information flow from sunflower buyers and consumers is crucial for creating a positive image and hence creating value for farmers. Farmers require negotiating skills that could be attained through improved associations or cooperatives. Respondents also indicated positive benefits if the sector¾and its risks and income¾further diversifies. However, farmers showed weaknesses and failures to: Provide inputs to the sector’s upgrading processes; Form strong, capable, and cohesive associations or cooperatives that can enhance bargaining power for small-scale farmers; Improve infrastructure such as roads and warehouses.

  7. Genetically modified crops and small-scale farmers: main opportunities and challenges.

    Azadi, Hossein; Samiee, Atry; Mahmoudi, Hossein; Jouzi, Zeynab; Rafiaani Khachak, Parisa; De Maeyer, Philippe; Witlox, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Although some important features of genetically modified (GM) crops such as insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, and drought tolerance might seem to be beneficial for small-scale farmers, the adoption of GM technology by smallholders is still slight. Identifying pros and cons of using this technology is important to understand the impacts of GM crops on these farmers. This article reviews the main opportunities and challenges of GM crops for small-scale farmers in developing countries. The most significant advantages of GM crops include being independent to farm size, environment protection, improvement of occupational health issues, and the potential of bio-fortified crops to reduce malnutrition. Challenges faced by small-scale farmers for adoption of GM crops comprise availability and accessibility of GM crop seeds, seed dissemination and price, and the lack of adequate information. In addition, R&D and production costs in using GM crops make it difficult for these farmers to adopt the use of these crops. Moreover, intellectual property right regulations may deprive resource poor farmers from the advantages of GM technology. Finally, concerns on socio-economic and environment safety issues are also addressed in this paper. PMID:25566797

  8. Ulcer Type of Disease in the Fishes of Small-Scale Farmer`s Pond in Bangladesh

    Chowdhury, M.B.R.; Muniruzzaman, M.; U.A. Zahura; K.Z.A. Habib; M.D. Khatun

    2003-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate ulcer type of disease in the small-scale rural poor fish farmer?s pond and to suggest a low-cost treatment measure. In total 20 ponds of 10 different sites were selected in the district of Mymensingh for treatment and control ones. Fishes were sampled on monthly basis starting from September 2000 and continued until April 2001 to examine their disease condition. Ulcer type of disease with expression of lesions was detected by spot observation followed by ...

  9. Analysis of livelihood strategies of small-scale farmers in North Sumatra

    Fajfrlíková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Despite many agricultural and socio-economical studies conducted in other parts of Indonesia, no research has recently focused on small scale farmers in North Sumatra. The present thesis applies the Sustainable livelihoods framework established in the 1990’s by the Department for International Development (DFID). It determines the state of livelihood assets (financial, human, social, natural and political), local vulnerabilities and people’s responses to them. The main objective of the projec...

  10. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to...... assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  11. Portable canvas tanks for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by small-scale farmers in Malaysia

    Yaakob, W.A.A.; Ali, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the trials made with a simple portable canvas-tarpaulin tank system developed at the University Sains Malaysia for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by Malaysia small scale farmers.

  12. Perception of Farmers Towards Small Scale Feed Mill in Terms of Socio-economic Factors in Sindenreng Rappang Regency

    Rohani, St; Irmasusanti; A.R Siregar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze farmers??? perception towards small scale feed mill in terms of socio-economic factors. The study was conducted with purposive sampling. Data were analyzed descriptively and likert scale analysis. The results showed that the perception of farmer laying on the socio-economic factors of the small scale feed mill is quite good and positive to support the sustainability of small and medium scale enterprise.

  13. Indigenous knowledge and approaches of soil fertility management among small scale farmers in Semi-Arid areas of South Africa

    Materechera, Simeon Albert

    2008-01-01

    As is the case with many other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, crop production among small scale farmers, especially those in semi-arid regions of South Africa, is hampered by predominance of extreme climate (low, irregular & erratic rainfall), low inherent soil fertility and low use of mineral fertilizers. However, the small scale farmers have developed a range of indigenous knowledge and practices which have played a pivotal role in the management of soil fertility for sustaini...

  14. A Comparative Study of Marketing Problems Faced by Small-scale Crop Farmers in Botswana and Kenya. Is There a Way out?

    P.T. Mburu; S.K. Massimo

    2005-01-01

    Most governments in third world countries including sub Saharan Africa, tend to either neglect or fail to the avail the necessary resources to small-scale farmers to enable such farmers attain any meaningful development. The small-scale farmers contribute the biggest percentage of the national food requirement compared to large-scale farmers who produce largely for international markets. Besides, small-scale farmers contribute to the creation of employment, development of agro-based industrie...

  15. Export horticulture – empowering female small-scale farmers in Kenya?

    Velte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Export horticulture is one of Kenya’s most dynamic sectors, with the Mount Kenya Region playing a crucial role as a result of its professional large- and small-scale production and marketing structures. The sector is consequently referred to as a “success story of African regional development” (Dolan and Sutherland 2002: 1. A qualitative case study was carried out to understand the impacts on gender inequality of the integration of horticultural smallholdings into the fresh fruit and vegetable (FFV supply chain to the European market. It will be outlined how export horticulture affects female small-scale farmers with reference to local distribution channels, the organisation of the farm as a group or an individual player, and the specific organisation of labour on the farm. The focus here is on the traditional division of labour, ownership and mobility patterns, as well as knowledge and income. The study shows that the influence of the integration in the FFV chain on gender inequality is conditioned by both the type of relations to the buyers and the internal and institutional organisation of the smallholding. Surprisingly, in some areas of the primarily male-dominated rural society, an integration in the form of outgrower schemes that resembles Gereffi et al.’s model of a captive value chain, with women farmers exclusively responsible for export production, can enhance gender equality, as women gradually gain more decision-making power and greater independence.

  16. Supporting small-scale dairy farmers in increasing milk production: evidence from Morocco.

    Sraïri, Mohamed Taher; El Jaouhari, Meryem; Saydi, Abdessalam; Kuper, Marcel; Le Gal, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of technical support provided to five small-scale cattle farms in the Tadla irrigation scheme (Morocco) on their milk yield. The first stage consisted of assessing the initial management of dairy herds, especially feeding strategies, and their effects on milk output. This diagnosis revealed major gaps between the existing and the potential milk yield, due to insufficient and imbalanced dietary rations. Based on this diagnosis, technical support was adapted to the reality of each farm by regularly adjusting the dietary rations to the production potential of lactating cows using available feed resources. The production potential of either pure Holstein or crossbred cows was based on the herd's physiological status and its genetic merit. Results showed that milk production could be rapidly improved by balanced dietary rations that enabled the average milk yield of lactating cows to be reached, while optimising feed costs and reducing the cost of milk production. Providing technical support to dairy farms should have a significant impact on overall milk production at different scales (irrigation scheme, plant supply area, national production) while alleviating the poverty of small-scale farmers. It would require the involvement of farmers' organisations such as milk collection co-operatives to replace services provided by the State, which is currently withdrawing from extension activities. PMID:20625930

  17. Extension Strategy Development and Training Needs for Small Scale Commercial Poultry Farmers in Nigeria

    Charles Olawale Farayola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study ascertained Small Scale Commercial poultry farmers’ needs on improved production techniques in Osogbo Local Government Area of Osun State. A purposive sampling technique was used to select sixty (60 poultry farmers. Findings revealed that the percentages of poultry farmers that need training on various poultry production techniques are as follows: housing system (83.3%, feeds and feeding strategies (87%, disease/parasites prevention and control (80%; handling skills (80% and marketing strategies (88.3%. Findings also showed that (13.3% of the poultry farmers hired labour for the business, (53.3% are making use of family/relatives for the business while (28.3% of the respondents employed both labour and family together. Marital status, level of education and awareness of improved poultry production techniques were significant (X2 = 6.136, P<0.05 and X2 =19.679, P<0.05. Also there was no significant relationship between farmers’ awareness of poultry production techniques and training needs (X2 =1.016, P<0.05. It is recommended that seminar/workshops should be regularly organized for the poultry farmers’ on the best practices that will save the cost of feeds and reduce mortality in their poultry production techniques.

  18. Ulcer Type of Disease in the Fishes of Small-Scale Farmer`s Pond in Bangladesh

    M.B.R. Chowdhury

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to investigate ulcer type of disease in the small-scale rural poor fish farmer?s pond and to suggest a low-cost treatment measure. In total 20 ponds of 10 different sites were selected in the district of Mymensingh for treatment and control ones. Fishes were sampled on monthly basis starting from September 2000 and continued until April 2001 to examine their disease condition. Ulcer type of disease with expression of lesions was detected by spot observation followed by laboratory examination. A number of suspective bacterial pathogens were recovered from the lesions and kidney of diseased fishes, viz., Cirrhinus cirrhosus, Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Barbodes gonionotus, Pangasius hypophthalamus. Fungal isolates especially Aphanomyces sp., Saprolegnia sp. and Achlya sp. were recovered from the lesions and affected muscles of the sampled fishes. A number of recovered bacterial isolates were detected as pathogenic among which Aeromonas hydrophila, Ah-11 and A. veronii biover sobria were recognized as high virulent isolates. In the case of fungal isolates Aphanomyces sp. and Saprolegnia sp. were detected as pathogenic. Prevalence of disease outbreak was found to be very low where preventive treatment measures were taken with salt and lime (1:1, 1 kg/decimal. In the winter months (January and February, the disease outbreaks were found to be very high in the non-treated (control ponds, whereas in the treated ponds prevalence of infection were significantly low. In laboratory based treatment trial, antibiotic renamycin was found to be effective against bacterial invasion at a dose of 50mg/kg body wt/day applying for five days. In the case of fungal infection, the diseased fishes were found to be cured within five days by one hour bath in 0.5% salt and lime suspension at a ratio of 1:1 applying for 3 days.

  19. Skills based constraints and complexities affecting small-scale-entrepreneurship: A case of communal cattle farmers in Vhembe District

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates constraints and complexities affecting entrepreneurial and Agri-business small-scale farming success and sustainability in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The respondent entrepreneur farmers were purposively selected (n=55) amongst 183 other farmers in the district for primary data collection through a semi-structured cross-language (Tshivenda) questionnaire. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) also formed part of d...

  20. Skills-based constraints and complexities affecting small-scale communal cattle farmer entrepreneurs in Vhembe District

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates constraints and complexities affecting entrepreneurial and Agri-business small-scale communal cattle farming success and sustainability in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The respondent entrepreneur farmers were randomly selected (n=55) amongst 183 other farmers for primary data collection. A semi-structured cross-language (English-Tshivenda) questionnaire was employed to gather the data. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and Focus Group Discussion...

  1. Food at All Costs? : Investigating attitudes towards genetically modified crops among small-scale farmers in western Kenya

    Ahrsjö, Ulrika; Malmholt, Tove

    2014-01-01

    The international debate on genetically modified crops as a means of ending world hunger is characterised by the polemic between environmental organisations and the biotechnology industry. In African developing countries, the much-needed increase in agricultural productivity could potentially be reached through commercialisation of GMOs, but the findings of this study show that consumer acceptance among small-scale farmers in western Kenya is low. The farmers are not shown to have been influe...

  2. Assessment of Land Management Practices in Food Crops Production among Small Scale Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Abdulazeez, Muhammad-Lawal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out an assessment of agricultural land management practices in food crops production among small scale farmers in Kwara Sate, Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the socio economic characteristics of crop farmers in Kwara State; ascertained the cropping patterns common among them; highlighted the soil conservation methods adopted by the farmers; examined the relationship between selected socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and their adoption of major agricultural land management practices; and investigated the constraints to adoption of sustainable agricultural practices among crop farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria A three stage random sampling technique was used in selecting a total of one hundred and forty four small scale food crops farmers. Descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression model and four point Likert-type scale were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that food crops production in Kwara State is dominated by middle aged men who are poorly educated and have poor access to agricultural extension services. Half of the respondents (48.60% adopted cereal-based cropping systems. 48.6% of the farmers adopted a minimum of three management practices. Crop rotation was mostly adopted by all the farmers while irrigation was the least adopted by only 29.3% of the respondents. Furthermore, the study revealed that farm size, age, education status, number of contacts with extension agents, household size and number of farm plots of the respondents were the significant factors affecting their adoption of land management practices. The study also revealed that the major constraints to the use of sustainable crop management practices among the farmers included inadequate supply of fertilizer, inadequacy of labour and credit, poor knowledge of improved agricultural practices, poor transportation, low produce prices and high cost of production. The study recommended the need for training programme on the use of appropriate sustainable practices that will take into account the cropping systems adopted by the farmers.

  3. Socio Cultural Determinants of the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers in Ndhiwa Division, Kenya

    Isaiah K. Okuthe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the influence of socio cultural factors on the adoption of integrated natural resource management technologies by small scale farmers in Ndhiwa division, Kenya. Soil fertility depletion and the corresponding declining agricultural productivity in Kenya’s Ndhiwa division have led to many attempts to develop and popularize Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external input agriculture and extreme forms of traditional low external input agriculture. The main components of INRM in Ndhiwa division are chemical fertilizer, animal manure, green manure, stover lines and agro forestry. However the adoption of these technologies appears to be low resulting to probably the low production. It is not understood well why farmers who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, either do not adopt or adopt the technologies and then abandon them. However it is acknowledged that soil depletion is a serious and slow process hence the determinants of the adoption of INRM technologies are critical. An ex-post-facto survey design which utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used in the study. For quantitative data collection, a sample of 220 small scale farmers selected using systematic random sampling from the small scale farmers in the Division were engaged. For qualitative data, 40 small scale farmers and 37 Key Informants selected using purposive sampling from the division were used. Results of the study indicated that households’ education status, gender, cosmopoliteness, leadership status, cultural beliefs and social norms were important variables which had positively and significantly influenced adoption of INRM technologies. The overall finding of the study underlined the high importance in strengthening social groups to enhance adoption of INRM technologies. The study will be significant to planners, policy makers, researchers, extension and farmers to build the case for interventions on INRM within the development sector for improved and sustainable agriculture and rural development.

  4. The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya

    Muthoni Thuo, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow sugarcane…

  5. Socio Cultural Determinants of the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers in Ndhiwa Division, Kenya

    Isaiah K. Okuthe; Felix Kioli; Paul Abuom

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the influence of socio cultural factors on the adoption of integrated natural resource management technologies by small scale farmers in Ndhiwa division, Kenya. Soil fertility depletion and the corresponding declining agricultural productivity in Kenya’s Ndhiwa division have led to many attempts to develop and popularize Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external i...

  6. Socio Economic Determinants of the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers: Evidence from Western Kenya

    Isaiah K. Okuthe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to examine the influence of socio economic factors on the adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external input agriculture and extreme forms of traditional low external input agriculture. The main components of INRM in Ndhiwa division are chemical fertilizer, animal manure, green manure, stover lines and agro forestry. However the adoption of these technologies appears to be low resulting to probably the low production. It is not understood well why farmers who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, either do not adopt or adopt the technologies and then abandon. An ex-post-facto survey design which utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used in the study. For quantitative data collection, a sample of 220 small scale farmers selected using systematic random sampling from the small scale farmers in the Division were engaged. For qualitative data, 40 small scale farmers and 37 Key Informants selected using purposive sampling from the division were used. Results of the study indicated that households education status, gender, access to credit and membership in social groups were important variables which had positively and significantly influenced adoption of INRM technologies. The overall finding of the study underlined the high importance of institutional support in the areas of extension, strengthening social groups and improving market and credit condition to enhance adoption of INRM technologies. The study will be significant to planners, policy makers, researchers, extension and farmers to build the case for interventions on INRM within the development sector for improved and sustainable agriculture and rural development.

  7. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam.

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70 ± 0.84 Escherichia coli (log10) cfu/ml on average in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems. PMID:24140681

  8. Efficiency indices and indicators of poor performance among emerging small-scale pig farmers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Mokoele, Japhta M; Spencer, B Tom; van Leengoed, Leo A M G; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2014-01-01

    Limpopo is a very important area for pig production in terms of animal populations and contributions to transboundary animal disease spread. Emerging small-scale pig farmers (ESSPF) are being encouraged to establish operations and spread in South Africa; however, for these farmers to perform optimally, they need to understand the basics of animal agriculture and contribute to enhancing biosecurity and efficient production systems. In the present study, the limitations to efficient production amongst ESSPF were evaluated and some improvements were suggested. It was found that the ESSPF are dominated by males and include a large percentage of older persons. A total of 26.54% of these farmers have post-matriculation qualifications. Undefined and indigenous breeds still dominate their animal genetics. The animal health technicians are the preferred channels by which farmers report diseases to the authorities (52.47%) and only one out of five (20.37%) will preferably report a disease situation direct to a veterinarian. These farmers do not vaccinate their stock, and knowledge of biosecurity is poor. Antimicrobials, especially tetracyclines, are abused. Animals that are slaughtered within the community or sold at local sale points, pension pay stations and auction markets are likely candidates for disease spread. It is recommended that the younger generations are retained and incentivised in animal agriculture. Improved training on management, health, biosecurity and better market access must be provided for the ESSPF, whilst efforts should made to consolidate these farmers into small cooperatives. The current government agricultural support system will need to be reworked to benefit the resource-poor farmers. Collaborative efforts in disease reporting and management among veterinarians, animal health technicians and extension officers will become necessary. Finally, the creation of a progressive quality grading system for ESSPF should be planned by the industry and this should be attached to a reward system that will encourage these farmers to target good farming practice. PMID:25685963

  9. Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results

    Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Böller, Marianne; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2014-05-01

    Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. However, at the current price for a ton of carbon, the potential to earn significant carbon credits is limited. Therefore carbon storage should not be seen as a goal in itself. Potential for earning carbon credits and generating further benefits lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrub land and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. Therefore, soil management has to be addressed from a holistic understanding of the livelihoods of small-scale farmers. This includes a detailed understanding of the constraints in farming, as well as the motivation behind farming. The aim of this study is the identification of intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of soil quality, farm management and the constraints and motivations regarding farming. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity of land while at the same time building up landscape carbon stocks. They furthermore show the importance of carefully choosing the way new farming techniques are introduced, as many farmers are afraid of trying something new.

  10. EFFECT OF MICRO FINANCE ON POVERTY REDUCTION OF SMALL SCALE FARMERS OF PAKISTAN

    Zaheer Ahmad SAEED; Rashid SAEED; Rab Nawaz LODHI

    2013-01-01

    This study revealed the impact of micro finance with regard to poverty alleviation, employment generation opportunities, upraise in the standards of living of the small farmers of Pakistan along with the access of such finances and their financial cost. Small farmers often rely on the loans and finance from the formal and informal sources of finance. There is low rate of sustainability in the micro finance sector. These schemes remain for a small time period. Another challenge is that there i...

  11. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Thomsen, Jane F; Sekimpi, Deogratias K; Maziina, James; Racheal, Apio; Jørs, Erik

    2014-01-01

    using a standardized questionnaire. Some 317 small-scale farmers in two districts in Uganda were interviewed about pesticide use, knowledge and attitude, symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene. The risk of reporting symptoms was analysed using logistic regression...... analysis. RESULTS: The most frequently used pesticides belonged to WHO class II. The farmers had poor knowledge about pesticide toxicity, and the majority did not use appropriate PPE nor good hygiene when handling pesticides. There was no significant association between the number of times of spraying with...... pesticides and self-reported symptoms of pesticide poisoning. The only significant association was between blowing and sucking the nozzle of the knapsack sprayer and self-reported symptoms of pesticide intoxication (OR: 2.13. 95% CI: 1.09 - 4.18). CONCLUSION: Unlike the practice in several other developing...

  12. Skills-based constraints and complexities affecting small-scale communal cattle farmer entrepreneurs in Vhembe District

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates constraints and complexities affecting entrepreneurial and Agri-business small-scale communal cattle farming success and sustainability in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The respondent entrepreneur farmers were randomly selected (n=55 amongst 183 other farmers for primary data collection. A semi-structured cross-language (English-Tshivenda questionnaire was employed to gather the data. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs were also employed. The results of this paper revealed that the entrepreneur farmers’ formal school educational levels and basic literacy skills in addition; subtraction; multiplication and division were reasonably higher while technological skills in farm risk management and production, and managerial competence in business financial skills; budgeting and marketing were low amongst the farmers. Government extension service could be employed to improve some of these deficient skills through skills training programmes for the farmers. Institutions of higher learning such as the University of Venda and Madzivhandila Agricultural College could be utilized for the trainings.

  13. Skills based constraints and complexities affecting small-scale-entrepreneurship: A case of communal cattle farmers in Vhembe District

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates constraints and complexities affecting entrepreneurial and Agri-business small-scale farming success and sustainability in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The respondent entrepreneur farmers were purposively selected (n=55 amongst 183 other farmers in the district for primary data collection through a semi-structured cross-language (Tshivenda questionnaire. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs also formed part of data collection instruments. The results of this paper revealed that the entrepreneur farmers’ formal school educational levels and basic literacy skills in addition; subtraction; multiplication and division were reasonably higher while technological skills in farm risk management and production, and managerial competence in business financial skills; budgeting and marketing were low. Government sponsored extension service could be employed to improve some of these deficient skills through skills training amongst the entrepreneur farmers. Since the study area is in the proximity of the University of Venda and Madzivhandila Agricultural Colleges, these institutions could be enlisted to provide skills training to the entrepreneur farmers.

  14. Export horticulture – empowering female small-scale farmers in Kenya?

    Velte, Maria; Dannenberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Export horticulture is one of Kenya’s most dynamic sectors, with the Mount Kenya Region playing a crucial role as a result of its professional large- and small-scale production and marketing structures. The sector is consequently referred to as a “success story of African regional development” (Dolan and Sutherland 2002: 1). A qualitative case study was carried out to understand the impacts on gender inequality of the integration of horticultural smallholdings into the fresh fruit and vegetab...

  15. Resource Use Efficiency of Turkish Small Scale Dairy Farmers Supported Through Cooperatives in Cukurova Region, Turkey

    Hilal Yilmaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical efficiencies of cooperative member dairy farmers in Cukurova region were estimated with a stochastic frontier model. Effects of several factors on technical efficiency were analyzed. Farms were grouped based on their efficiency scores. Unit milk costs and gross margins per head cow were calculated for each farm group to give a sense what efficiency means in terms of some farm economic criteria. Concentrate feed and capital costs were found to have statistically significant contributions to milk production. Farm location, herd size, farming experience, on-farm feed growing, milking by equipment and grazing had effects on efficiency. However, only positive effect of farming experience and negative effect of grazing were statistically significant. Results show that 75% of the variation in milk production can be attributed to inefficiency. Mean efficiency score of the sample farms was estimated to be 68% implying there is plenty of scope to increase production under existing technology without incurring higher costs. Lower unit costs of milk and higher gross returns of efficient farmers show that technical efficiency is an important component of competitiveness. It was concluded that farmers should be encouraged and supported to increase use of concentrate feed and decrease share of grazing for obtaining higher milk yields. However, in the long run structural enhancements are required to transform small subsistence farms into more market oriented units. Economic analyses show that many farmers cannot cover full economic costs but they can still generate farm income since family labor does not incur cash costs.

  16. Integrating Small Scale Farmers into Bread Wheat Marketing Chain through Contract Farming in Ethiopia

    Getaneh, Wubalem; Bekabil, Fufa

    2008-01-01

    The treatment effect censored regression model results of this study showed that educational level, value of agricultural equipment and number of oxen owned affected the participation decisions of the farmers in bread wheat contract farming significantly. The most important factors that determine gross margin obtained from bread wheat production were contract farming experience, the number of oxen owned and participation in contract farming. However, technical efficiency differences and manag...

  17. Resource Use Efficiency of Turkish Small Scale Dairy Farmers Supported Through Cooperatives in Cukurova Region, Turkey

    Hilal Yilmaz; Tuna Alemdar

    2011-01-01

    Technical efficiencies of cooperative member dairy farmers in Cukurova region were estimated with a stochastic frontier model. Effects of several factors on technical efficiency were analyzed. Farms were grouped based on their efficiency scores. Unit milk costs and gross margins per head cow were calculated for each farm group to give a sense what efficiency means in terms of some farm economic criteria. Concentrate feed and capital costs were found to have statistically significant contribut...

  18. EFFECT OF MICRO FINANCE ON POVERTY REDUCTION OF SMALL SCALE FARMERS OF PAKISTAN

    Zaheer Ahmad SAEED

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study revealed the impact of micro finance with regard to poverty alleviation, employment generation opportunities, upraise in the standards of living of the small farmers of Pakistan along with the access of such finances and their financial cost. Small farmers often rely on the loans and finance from the formal and informal sources of finance. There is low rate of sustainability in the micro finance sector. These schemes remain for a small time period. Another challenge is that there is a need of replicable and scalable model. There is also a requirement of formalization of informal credit source which count for higher. There is high need of reducing the ambiguities in obtaining the credit from these sources. With respect to agriculture, the proportion of finance should be increase with the proportion to its contribution to the economy. The data for this study has been collected through a selfstructured questionnaire and respondents are small farmers who are availing the micro finance facility for any source; informal, formal or semi – informal. The data collected form 150 respondent from Sahiwal and Multan Region. The data has been analyzed through regression and correlation method with the use of SPSS for checking the relationship and impact of micro finance on the living of poor and employment generation. This paper also concluded that the financial cost of such finances is having significant role on the success of such schemes. The research is a contribution to the financial sector to set their focus according to the quality and quantity of micro credit to the agriculture sector.

  19. ANALYSIS OF PIG PROFILES ON SMALL-SCALE PIG FARMERS IN MANOKWARI-WEST PAPUA

    D. A. Iyai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the profiles of pig farming systems. Participatory situation analysis was employed to gain data relating to pig profiles in the urban and rural areas of Manokwari. Due to the interests of combining many correlated data, multivariate analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA was performed. Cluster Analysis using Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering was applied for analysis of merge samples based on similarity in components’ composition across sites. There were various twelve classes of pig profiles in Manokwari. In principal component of the first axis correlation of several components shows strong positive relation e.g. in piglets, sows, and total herd size. Status of region in the first axis of PCA (P1 through which pigs were raised had negative correlation, including grower, household member and pig production. In the second axis (P2, negative correlations were shown in piglets, grower, boars, total herd size and the Pig Production Potential (PPP. Status of region has underpinned profiles of pigs. Several farmers were able to manage their farm continuity in a steady composition. Selling pigs was the main aim and few farmers play a role as pure breeder.

  20. Small-Scale Farmer Initiatives for Irrigating the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya

    A survey was undertaken in Machakos , Kitui, Makueni, Mwingi and Baringo districts to Identify the major systems currently being employed with a view to assessing there performance. In Machakos, Kitui, Makueni and Mwingi districts, the main sources of water were small earth dams (micro dams), with water harnessed from run off and nearby uncultivated or grazing lands. In Baringo district, the main source of water was adam constructed across a seasonal river called Wesegess. All micro dams were excavated by their owners using mainly manual labour and skills acquired from neighbours, supplemented by owner's initiates. In the areas in Eastern province, only horticultural crops are irrigated. In Baringo district, grain and horticultural crops than in grain crops underscoring their higher water demand and importance in the household cas flow. The main irrigation system employed in the Eastern province was spot, whereas furrows was widely used in Baringo district. Availability of water within the farm freed labour from fetching water long distances and shortened walking distances for livestock. It also facilitated cultivation of high value crops to improve farmers' household cash economy

  1. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given landscape under several existing and new carbon offset methodologies. In this presentation, we will discuss our initial encouraging results on the basis of which our wider team now seeks to identify and recommend policies that the local governments to be able to scale up climate smart agriculture to larger jurisdictional levels.

  2. Survey of the Current Status of Weed Control and Herbicide Usage by the Small-Scale Commercial Vegetable Farmers in Kenya

    Vegetable production in Kenya is a market that has grown very rapidly in the decade due to increased demand in the local and international markets. This has led to an increase in hectarerage planted to vegetable thus leading in labour shortage due urban migration of potential casual labourers especially the youth. This has resulted to inadequate labour for weed control especially at the critical period. The objectives of this study were to find out the problems encountered by farmers in their bid to control weeds and whether they considered weeds as their major problem. The survey was conducted in Kikuyu, Lari and Kinango divisions where intensive vegetable farming is done by small-scale farmers for commercial purposes. The farmers were randomly selected and interviews conducted in their farms, based on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method. The results obtained showed that the farmers who previously relied on manual labour for weed control were increasingly using herbicides for weed control. The adoption of herbicide technology by these small scale farmers was out of their own initiative, either due to labour shortage or because one had a special weed problem that had defied other methods of control.From the information obtained it was clear that locally generated data information on herbicide use by small-scale farmers is seriously lacking for most if not all vegetable crops

  3. Ixodid ticks on indigenous goats owned by small-scale farmers in four communal grazing areas in South Africa

    N.R. Bryson

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous goats belonging to small-scale farmers in 4 communal grazing areas in South Africa were sampled for ixodid ticks during the period September 1991 to May 1993. Three of these areas were in the North West Province (Rietgat, Madinyane and Bethany, and one in Mpumalanga Province (Geluk. No tick control was practised unless requested by the owners. Seven ixodid tick species, of which the majority were immature ticks, were collected from the goats in North West Province. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous of these, followed by Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Substantially more ticks were collected from goats at Rietgat than at the Madinyane and Bethany grazing areas. Five tick species were collected at Geluk and R. evertsi evertsi comprised more than 95 % of the total population. At Rietgat and Geluk A. hebraeum nymphs were present on goats throughout the year, while most R appendiculatus nymphs were collected during September and October 1991 and most adults during January and February 1992. At both Rietgat and Geluk most immature R. evertsi evertsi were collected from spring to late summer, while adults were present throughout the year.

  4. Allocative efficiency constraints in snail (Archachatina marginata production by small scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Ignatius B. Adinya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined constraints militating against the profitability potentials of snail (Archachatina marginata production by small-scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 120 respondents in the study area by means of structured and semi-structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of three (Ogoja, Ikom and Odukpani local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State, Nigeria. This was followed by random selection of three villages (Igoli in Ogoja Local Government Area, Alesi in Ikom Local Government Area and Adiabo in Odukpani Local Government Area in Cross River State. The respondents were randomly selected from each of the villages, 40 respondents were selected each from three villages, making a total number of 120 respondents. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and costs returns analysis. The results indicated that Cobb-Douglas production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of snail and inputs used, the coefficient of multiple determinant (R2=0.60 indicates that sixty percent of the variability in output of snail is explained by the independent variables. Results from the analysis revealed that the marginal value products of farm size, labour, farm management practices and operating costs were N1080, N20.6, N972.8, N14.84 respectively, there existed allocative inefficiency, there is a high potential for snail farmers to increase their yields and income. Further analysis of results revealed that net returns on snail is N2,935,000.00 with return on every naira invested of N0.14 is also positive indicating a profit from the business, with attractive net return on investment. This study shows that snail farmers are faced with several problems in their production activities. These problems or constraints affect the efficiency of snail production in the study area. Notable among them are high cost of feed supplement, lack of capital, inaccessibility of formal credit source because lack of collaterals, lack of extension agents, lack of medication/vaccines, poor production infrastructures and lack of good farm management practices occupied 15%, 14.17%,11.67%,10%,9.17%,9.17% and 8.33% respectively. The constraints associated with the business as highlighted in this paper if tackled could pave a way to increase profit and this will alleviate poverty in Cross River State. Hence, forefficient production of snail in the study area, these constraints must be drastically reduced to the barest minimum. This can be done through efficient policy formulation and implementation, proper supervision of snail production programme, effective extension services and proper agricultural financing. Snail farmers in the study area should be train by extension agents on how to control some of constraints that militate against the profitability potential of snail production. Beside that snail farmers should form cooperative group (s in order to obtain loans from bank (s to increase their capital base for higher output.

  5. The Influence of Institutional Factors on the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers in South Western Kenya

    Isaiah K. Okuthe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the influence of institutional factors on the adoption of integrated natural resource management technologies by small scale farmers in Ndhiwa division, Kenya. Soil fertility depletion and the corresponding declining agricultural productivity in Kenya’s Ndhiwa division have led to many attempts to develop and popularize Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external input agriculture and extreme forms of traditional low external input agriculture. The main components of INRM in Ndhiwa division are chemical fertilizer, animal manure, green manure, stover lines and agro forestry. However the adoption of these technologies appears to be low resulting to probably the low production. It is not understood well why farmers who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, either do not adopt or adopt the technologies and then abandon them. However it is acknowledged that soil depletion is a serious and slow process hence the determinants of the adoption of INRM technologies are critical. An ex-post-facto survey design which utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used in the study. For quantitative data collection, a sample of 220 small scale farmers selected using systematic random sampling from the small scale farmers in the Division were engaged. For qualitative data, 40 small scale farmers and 37 Key Informants selected using purposive sampling from the division were used. Results of the study indicated that land tenure, access to credit, access to inputs, access to market, mass media exposure and contact with extension were important variables which had positively and significantly influenced adoption of INRM technologies. The overall finding of the study underlined the high importance in strengthening social groups to enhance adoption of INRM technologies. The study will be significant to planners, policy makers, researchers, extension and farmers to build the case for interventions on INRM within the development sector for improved and sustainable agriculture and rural development.

  6. Ixodid ticks on cattle belonging to small-scale farmers at 4 communal grazing areas in South Africa

    N.R. Bryson

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Ixodid ticks were collected during the period September 1991 to August 1993 from cattle belonging to small-scale farmers utilising 4 communal grazing areas. Three of these were in North West Province and 1 in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Ten tick species were collected in North West Province and 7 in Mpumalanga. The adults of Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were most numerous in North West Province, while in Mpumalanga Boophilus decoloratus comprised more than 75% of the total population. Amblyomma hebraeum was present on all grazing areas, and heavy infestations of adults occurred during the period October to May on 1 of these. Few B. decoloratus were collected in North West Province, chiefly because the sampling method was inadequate, and most of these were present during early summer (October to December and late summer and autumn (March to May. The initially low population of B. decoloratus in Mpumalanga increased substantially towards the conclusion of the survey, probably because of the cessation of dipping. Boophilus microplus was present in small numbers on 2 grazing areas in the North West Province. Adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes reached peak numbers from December to February and Hyalomma truncatum from February to April in the North West Province. Only H. marginatum rufipes was collected in Mpumalanga. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was present on all the grazing areas, with most adults present from December to April. Most adult Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were collected from September to April and Rhipicephalus simus was present during the period October-April.

  7. The Influence of Institutional Factors on the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers in South Western Kenya

    Isaiah K. Okuthe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the influence of institutional factors on the adoption of integrated natural resource management technologies by small scale farmers in Ndhiwa division, Kenya. Soil fertility depletion and the corresponding declining agricultural productivity in Kenya’s Ndhiwa division have led to many attempts to develop and popularize Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external in...

  8. A method for evaluating climate change adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers using survey, experimental and modeled data

    Claessens, L.F.G.; Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Valdivia, R.O.; Thornton, P. K.; Herrero, M

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is predicted to experience considerable negative impacts of climate change. The IPCC Fourth Assessment emphasizes that adaptation strategies are essential. Addressing adaptation in thecontext of small-scale, semi-subsistence agriculture raises special challenges. High data demands includingsite-specific bio-physical and economic data are an important constraint. This paper applies a newapproach to impact assessment, the Tradeoff Analysis model for Multi-Dimensional Im...

  9. Knowledge of Bovine Tuberculosis, Cattle Husbandry and Dairy Practices amongst Pastoralists and Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Cameroon

    Kelly, Robert F.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Nkongho, Egbe F.; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent; Andu, Walters N.; Sander, Melissa; Ndip, Lucy; Handel, Ian G.; Mazeri, Stella; Muwonge, Adrian; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB) has relied upon surveillance and slaughter of infected cattle, milk pasteurisation and public health education. In Cameroon, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, there is limited understanding of current cattle husbandry or milk processing practices or livestock keepers awareness of bTB. This paper describes husbandry and milk processing practices within different Cameroonian cattle keeping communities and bTB awareness in comparison to other infectious diseases. Study design A population based cross-sectional sample of herdsmen and a questionnaire were used to gather data from pastoralists and dairy farmers in the North West Region and Vina Division of Cameroon. Results Pastoralists were predominately male Fulanis who had kept cattle for over a decade. Dairy farmers were non-Fulani and nearly half were female. Pastoralists went on transhumance with their cattle and came into contact with other herds and potential wildlife reservoirs of bTB. Dairy farmers housed their cattle and had little contact with other herds or wildlife. Pastoralists were aware of bTB and other infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and fasciolosis. These pastoralists were also able to identify clinical signs of these diseases. A similar proportion of dairy farmers were aware of bTB but fewer were aware of foot-and-mouth and fasciolosis. In general, dairy farmers were unable to identify any clinical signs for any of these diseases. Importantly most pastoralists and dairy farmers were unaware that bTB could be transmitted to people by consuming milk. Conclusions Current cattle husbandry practices make the control of bTB in cattle challenging especially in mobile pastoralist herds. Routine test and slaughter control in dairy herds would be tractable but would have profound impact on dairy farmer livelihoods. Prevention of transmission in milk offers the best approach for human risk mitigation in Cameroon but requires strategies that improved risk awareness amongst producers and consumers. PMID:26745871

  10. Determinants of Small-Scale Farmer inclusion in Emerging Moder Agrifood Markets: A Study of the Dairy Industry in India

    Vijay Paul Sharma; Kalpesh Kumar; Raj Vir Singh

    2010-01-01

    In response to structural transformations taking place in the Indian dairy sector mainly in processing segment this paper examines determinants of market channel choices of milk producers based on a survey of 390 farm households in 2007. It also attempts to investigate what impacts these market channel choices may have on farmers' income and technology adoption. A two-stage multinomial logit model is employed to investigate determinants and effects of market channel choices of milk producers....

  11. Helping small-scale farmers in the semi-arid tropics: Linking participatory research, traditional research and simulation modelling

    The aim was to link necessary research skills to increase the range of options available to resource-poor farmers in the study area. The research consisted of on-station research to evaluate and understand cropping-system options resulting from insertion of a legume crop into the sorghum and castor system, on-farm research whereby farmers evaluate cropping-system options that are of interest to them, use of 15N as a label to help understand the nitrogen (N) balance of the various options, and cropping-systems simulation to examine long-term climatic risks from possible options. Particular attention was placed on the option of sorghum/pigeon pea intercrops, and on quantifying the inputs of N from animal manure and by the pigeon-pea component. We were also interested in the process of linking on-station to on-farm research, and simulation modelling to the cropping system research. One important outcome was that different groups identified different problems and posed different questions. The problems identified and questions raised were examined by use of scenario analyses run for ten to thirty years which contrasted the existing practice with a range of alternative practices. The simulations were useful in guiding the design of on-farm experiments. Other likely outcomes are the setting of low-rate fertilizer recommendations specifically for the semi-arid tropics, the marketing of small packs of fertilizers, and increased use of manure resources for crop production. (author)

  12. Fishing Farmers or Farming Fishers? Fishing Typology of Inland Small-Scale Fishing Households and Fisheries Management in Singkarak Lake, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood sources. The nature of their livelihood strategies is discussed for each identified group. This helps to understand the complexity and diversity of small-scale fishers, particularly in the study area which is still poorly known. This paper concludes with policy implication and possible management initiatives for environmentally prudent policy aiming at improvement of fishers' livelihood.

  13. Fishing farmers or farming fishers? Fishing typology of inland small-scale fishing households and fisheries management in singkarak lake, west sumatra, indonesia.

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood sources. The nature of their livelihood strategies is discussed for each identified group. This helps to understand the complexity and diversity of small-scale fishers, particularly in the study area which is still poorly known. This paper concludes with policy implication and possible management initiatives for environmentally prudent policy aiming at improvement of fishers' livelihood. PMID:23665756

  14. Certification as an upgrading strategy for small-scale farmers and their cooperatives : a value chain analysis for Nicaraguan coffee

    Kiemen, Anna; Beuchelt, Tina

    2010-01-01

    For many small producers in developing countries coffee is a major income source. However, the coffee market is characterized by high price volatility and increased power concentration among buyers in consuming countries. Due to the very low international coffee prices during the recent coffee crisis and an increased demand among consumers for healthy and ethical products as well as for high quality, interest in standards and certification has increased substantially in coffee producing and c...

  15. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  16. Perceptions of Brazilian small-scale farmers about genetically modified crops / As percepções de pequenos agricultores brasileiros sobre os cultivos geneticamente modificados

    Carla, Almeida; Luisa, Massarani; Ildeu de Castro, Moreira.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é investigar as percepções de pequenos agricultores brasileiros acerca dos cultivos geneticamente modificados com base em 15 grupos focais, envolvendo 111 indivíduos. A análise do corpus revela percepções heterogêneas em relação a essas culturas, moldadas por diversos fatores [...] , incluindo as perspectivas econômicas e preocupações com o impacto sobre a saúde e o meio ambiente. Há muitas dúvidas sobre esses efeitos entre os agricultores, que estão interessados ??em receber informação neutra sobre o tema. Essas incertezas os afeta mais como consumidores, visto que preferem comer alimentos não transgênicos, do que como produtores, quando privilegiam outros aspectos, especialmente econômicos, ao decidir o que cultivar. Embora a maioria acredite que deva ter voz em tomadas de decisão referentes a questões agrícolas, poucos têm feito esforços nesse sentido. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este artículo es investigar las percepciones de pequeños agricultores brasileños acerca de los cultivos transgénicos, con base en 15 grupos focales, involucrando a 111 individuos. El análisis del corpus revela percepciones heterogéneas con respecto a estos cultivos, debido a muchos fa [...] ctores, incluyendo las perspectivas económicas y preocupaciones con el impacto sobre la salud y el medio ambiente. Los agricultores expresan deseo de recibir información imparcial sobre el tema, sobre el cual tienen muchas dudas. Las incertidumbres los afecta más como consumidores, visto que afirman preferir comer alimentos no transgénicos, que como productores, momento en que privilegian otros aspectos, especialmente económicos, al decidir lo que cultivar. Aunque la mayoría acredite que deba tener voz en las tomadas de decisión referentes a temas agrícolas, pocos han hecho esfuerzos en esta dirección. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to investigate the perceptions of small-scale farmers in Brazil towards genetically modified (GM) crops based on a sample of 15 focus groups involving 111 individuals. The analysis of the corpus shows heterogeneous perceptions regarding these crops, shaped by diverse factors [...] , including economic prospects and concerns with the impact on health and the environment. There are many misgivings about these effects among the farmers, who are keen to receive unbiased information on the topic. These uncertainties affect them more as consumers, as most would prefer eating GM-free food, than as producers, as they consider other aspects, especially economic feasibility, when deciding what to grow. Although most farmers believe they should have a voice in decision-making on agricultural issues, few have made concerted efforts to be heard.

  17. Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Stefan Schmidt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed, irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5–8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were <1,000 MPN per 100 mL irrigation water and <1,000 MPN per g of compost. The vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of <200/g set by the South African Department of Health at the time of sampling. E. coli MPN values for irrigation water and vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains.

  18. Small-scale farmers, certification schemes and private standards: is there a business case? : costs and benefits of certification and verification systems for small-scale producers in cocoa, coffee, cotton, fruit and vegetable sectors

    Kuit, M.; Waarts, Y.R.

    2014-01-01

    Certification of agricultural products is an increasingly common tool that is expected to contribute to agricultural improvement, farmer well-being, poverty alleviation, reduced environmental impact and food safety. In an increasingly competitive market, processors, manufacturers and retailers use certification to demonstrate their green and sustainable credentials and differentiate their products. In some commodity sectors, such as coffee and cocoa, products certified as sustainable are on t...

  19. Comparing the use of risk-influencing production inputs and experimentally measured risk attitude: Do decisions of Indonesian small-scale rubber farmers match?

    Moser, Stefan; Mußhoff, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This article compares the use of risk-increasing and risk-reducing production inputs with the experimentally measured risk attitudes of farmers. For this purpose, the Just-Pope production function indicates production inputs' influence on output risk and a Holt-Laury lottery is used to measure the producer´s risk attitude. We test whether more risk averse farmers use more risk-reducing and less risk-increasing production inputs. Therefore, we apply a unique data set which includes 185 small-s...

  20. Healthy sand : a farmers initiative on soil protection and ecosystem service management

    Smit, Annemieke; Verzandvoort, Simone; Kuikman, Peter; Stuka, Jason; Morari, Francesco; Rienks, Willem; Stokkers, Jan; Hesselink, Bertus; Lever, Henk

    2015-04-01

    In a small region in the Netherlands a group of dairy farmers (cooperated in a foundation HOE Duurzaam) cooperates with the drinking water company and together aim for a more healthy soil. They farm a sandy soil, which is in most of the parcels low in organic matter. The local farmers perceive loss of soil fertility and blame loss of soil organic matter for that. All farmers expect that increasing the soil organic matter content will retain more nitrates in the soil, leading to a reduction in nitrate leaching and a higher nutrient availability for the crops, forage and grass and probably low urgency for grassland renewal. The drinking water company in the area also has high expectations that a higher SOM content does relate to higher quality of the (drinking) water and lower costs to clean and filter the water to meet drinking water quality requirements. Most farmers in the area face suboptimal moisture conditions and thrive for increasing the soil organic matter content and improving the soil structure as key factors to relieve, soil moisture problems both in dry (drought) and wet (flooding) periods. A better water holding capacity of the soil provides benefits for the regional water board as this reduces leaching and run-off. The case study, which is part of the Recare-project, at first glance deals with soil management and technology to improve soil quality. However, the casus in fact deals with social innovation. The real challenge to this group of neighbours, farmers within a small region, and to science is how to combine knowledge and experience on soil management for increasing the content of soil organic matter and how to recognize the ecosystem services that are provided by the adapted and more 'healthy' soils. And also how to formalize relations between costs and benefits of measures taken in the field and how these could be financially rewarded from an agreed and acceptable financial awarding scheme based on payments for securing soil carbon stocks and increasing carbon fluxes to soils. In the presentation we want to discuss • what choices in optimal farming practices and strategy for Dutch farmers help to increase soil organic matter content in the soil in the next 5-10 years? • What role can the foundation play in organising the practices and the payment for extra activities, collecting results and present them to benefitting stakeholders? • What valuation of ecosystem service and which payment scheme would satisfy the needs of both farmers as recipient and water board and regional government as beneficiaries and financing body for ecosystem service provided for.

  1. Evaluation of factors affecting cucumber- and- tomato greenhouse farmers\\\\\\' attitudes toward healthy crops production in Isfahan Township

    A. Sandoghi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting the attitude of cucumber and tomato greenhouse farmers toward production of healthy crops in Isfahan County. Data were collected on a sample of 110 farmers through face-to-face interviews based on a comprehensive structured questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire was initially evaluated on a pre-test study respectively by using Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO criteria and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Factors influencing farmers' attitudes were assessed by using linear regression model and ordinary least squares (OLS estimation. Results indicated that most greenhouse farmers (85% had moderate and positive attitudes about production of healthy crops and only 15% had negative attitudes. In addition, economic and technical supports by the government, awareness of the related organizations, marketing and media have a positive effect on the farmers' attitudes toward production of healthy crops and there is a less positive attitude with increasing the age of farmers.

  2. Small scale optics

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  3. Small scale and microdosimetry

    This lecture, after explaining the limitations of the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) method, describes the small scale dosimetry for electrons and photons as well as the basis for the microdosimetry. The techniques for doses calculations are outlined

  4. Small scale windmill

    Myers, Robert; Vickers, Mike; Kim, Hyeoungwoo; Priya, Shashank

    2007-01-01

    In this letter the authors report experimental results on an optimized small scale piezoelectric windmill, which can solve the problems associated with autonomous sensor networks in outdoor, remote or inaccessible locations. The whole structure of the windmill is made of plastic, and it utilizes 18 piezoelectric bimorphs which makes this design extremely cost effective. The windmill was tested at average wind speed of 10miles/h and it provided 5mW continuous power. The threshold wind speed for the windmill was found to be of the order of 5.4miles/h. Further, the authors present analysis on two other windmill structures which illustrate the design parameters required for small scale windmill.

  5. Rolling at small scales

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well...... plasticity. Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence...

  6. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    N. Patience Manzana; Cheryl M.E. McCrindle; P. Julius Sebei; Leon Prozesky

    2014-01-01

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespectiv...

  7. Small-scale farms in the western Brazilian Amazon: can they benefit from carbon trade?

    Carpentier, Chantal Line; Vosti, Steve; Witcover, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Recently scientists have started to examine how land-uses and land-use technologies can help mitigate carbon emissions. The half million small-scale farmers inhabiting the Amazon frontier sequester large stocks of carbon in their forests and other land uses that they might be persuaded to maintain or even increase through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. On average, small-scale farmers in the Pedro Peixoto settlement project of Acre (Western Brazilian Amazon), had ...

  8. Small-scale-field Dynamo

    Gruzinov, A.; Cowley, S.; Sudan, R.

    1996-01-01

    Generation of magnetic field energy, without mean field generation, is studied. Isotropic mirror-symmetric turbulence of a conducting fluid amplifies the energy of small-scale magnetic perturbations if the magnetic Reynolds number is high, and the dimensionality of space d satisfies 2.103 < d

  9. Thai indigenous cattle production provide a sustainable alternative for the benefit of smallscale farmers, healthy food, and the environment

    In Thailand, there are 5.66 million Thai indigenous cattle and their crossbred derivatives (1.76 million cows). The Department of Livestock Development (DLD) has a policy to conserve and use Thai indigenous cattle as the genetic base for establishing and developing new breeds of beef cattle. The objectives of this study were to study the production performance, carcass quality, healthy food production, economic potential, and environmental impacts of four breeds of Thai indigenous cattle (Kow-Lamphun, Kho-Esarn, Kho-Lan, and Kho-Chon cattle). Data were collected from two studies: i) 1 220 cattle from an experimental trial in DLD part, and ii) 390 cattle kept by smallholders in Northern, Northeastern, Central, and Southern parts of Thailand between October 2004 and September 2008. Data were adjusted by group, location, month, and year to analyse for the above parameters. Kho-Lan and Kho-Esarn cattle had the highest weaning weight and preweaning daily weight gains while Kow-Lamphun cattle had the highest Omega 3 (8.98%) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) levels in their meat (0.02%), and produced the highest net incomes (306 915.80 Baht/y). Through the conservation and use policies of the DLD, Thai indigenous cattle provided various advantages for farmers, consumers, and environment. (author)

  10. Sustainable Small-Scale Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments

    Scott Ingram

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For at least the past 8000 years, small-scale farmers in semi-arid environments have had to mitigate shortfalls in crop production due to variation in precipitation and stream flow. To reduce their vulnerability to a shortfall in their food supply, small-scale farmers developed short-term strategies, including storage and community-scale sharing, to mitigate inter-annual variation in crop production, and long-term strategies, such as migration, to mitigate the effects of sustained droughts. We use the archaeological and paleoclimatic records from A.D. 900-1600 in two regions of the American Southwest to explore the nature of variation in the availability of water for crops, and the strategies that enhanced the resilience of prehistoric agricultural production to climatic variation. Drawing on information concerning contemporary small-scale farming in semi-arid environments, we then suggest that the risk coping and mitigation strategies that have endured for millennia are relevant to enhancing the resilience of contemporary farmers' livelihoods to environmental and economic perturbations.

  11. Small-scale classification schemes

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements...... classification inherited a lot of its structure from the existing system and rendered requirements that transcended the framework laid out by the existing system almost invisible. As a result, the requirements classification became a defining element of the requirements-engineering process, though its main...... effects remained largely implicit. The requirements classification contributed to constraining the requirements-engineering process by supporting the software engineers in maintaining some level of control over the process. This way, the requirements classification provided the software engineers with an...

  12. Small scale firing energy production

    The burning of solid or liquid fuels generates two kinds of emissions/by-products: ashes, flue gases. While the emissions of flue gases can be reduced more or less to any desired value, the amount of ash produced remains rather constant, depending on the fuel used. The location where the ash is produced and the composition of the ash depend on the type of fuel, the type of firing installation and the dust removal equipment. In general it is desirable to reduce the fly ash concentration of the flue gas as much as possible, since the environmental pollution effects of the ash increase with decreasing ash particle size. The smaller the particle size the higher the contamination with heavy metals and PCDD/Fs. In general solid fuels (coal and any kind of biomass) generate much more ashes than liquid or gaseous fuels and have higher concentrations of pollutants like heavy metals, PAHs and PCDD/Fs. The combustion of coal in small scale firing installation is not treated in this chapter due to the decreasing importance of coal in these installations. (author)

  13. Are Small-Scale Irrigators Water Use Efficient? Evidence from Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya

    Njiraini, Georgina W.; Guthiga, Paul M.

    2013-11-01

    With increasing water scarcity and competing uses and users, water use efficiency is becoming increasingly important in many parts of developing countries. The lake Naivasha basin has an array of different water users and uses ranging from large scale export market agriculture, urban domestic water users to small holder farmers. The small scale farmers are located in the upper catchment areas and form the bulk of the users in terms of area and population. This study used farm household data to explore the overall technical efficiency, irrigation water use efficiency and establish the factors influencing water use efficiency among small scale farmers in the Lake Naivasha basin in Kenya. Data envelopment analysis, general algebraic and modeling system, and Tobit regression methods were used in analyzing cross sectional data from a sample of 201 small scale irrigation farmers in the lake Naivasha basin. The results showed that on average, the farmers achieved only 63 % technical efficiency and 31 % water use efficiency. This revealed that substantial inefficiencies occurred in farming operations among the sampled farmers. To improve water use efficiency, the study recommends that more emphasis be put on orienting farmers toward appropriate choice of irrigation technologies, appropriate choice of crop combinations in their farms, and the attainment of desirable levels of farm fragmentation.

  14. FarmLime :low-cost lime for small-scale farming

    Mitchell, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    FarmLime (Low-cost lime for small-scale farming) is a multidisciplinary research project that aims to increase the food security of small-scale farmers by improving their access to agricultural lime which neutralises soil acidity and adds nutrients. This project focused on farming districts in northern Zambia that have highly acidic soils with poor crop yields. The aim was to locate suitable carbonate rocks in these farming districts and produce agricultural lime using a low cost method, elim...

  15. Climate change impacts and adaptations on small-scale livestock production

    Taruvinga, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimated the impacts of climate change and adaptations on small-scale livestock production. The study is based on a survey of 1484 small-scale livestock rural farmers across the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Regression estimates finds that with warming, the probability of choosing the following species increases; goats, dual purpose chicken (DPC, layers, donkeys and ducks. High precipitation increases the probability of choosing the following animals; beef, goats, DPC and donkeys. Further, socio-economic estimates indicate that livestock selection choices are also conditioned by gender, age, marital status, education and household size. The paper therefore concluded that as climate changes, rural farmers switch their livestock combinations as a coping strategy. Unfortunately, rural farmers face a limited preferred livestock selection pool that is combatable to harsh climate which might translate to a bleak future for rural livestock farmers.

  16. Quality management in small-scale production

    The quality control for the planning before small-scale production and the process control during the production are conducted according the related standards and the documents in quality management system of NPIC.This paper briefly introduces the quality control for the small-scale production of several products, and proposes some issues interested and recommendations. (author)

  17. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    Albrecht, Andreas

    1989-01-01

    The current understanding of cosmic string evolution is discussed, and the focus placed on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. A physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms is presented. In this picture it can be seen how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. It is also argued that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small scale structure, which argued in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in the present understanding of cosmic string evolution.

  18. Contract farming and its impact on income and livelihoods for small-scale farmers: Case study in Vietnam Kontraktacja i jej wpływ na dochód i utrzymanie rolników produkujących na małą skalę

    Nham Phong Tuan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Contract farming has been expected as one of the measures to facilitate participation of farmers in the production of agriculture commercially, adding more values to agricultural produces. Mixed evidence in Vietnam however, has been shown on the well-known ad-vantage of the contract farming to small farmers such as reduce the cost to access to market, accessing credit, obtaining information on market opportunities or new technologies, pur-chasing certain inputs and accessing product markets and reducing price fluctuations. The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of contract farming to farmers and to deter-mine policies to facilitate farmer entry into beneficial contractual relationships. In addition to the literature review, one intensive case study of contract farming practices with commodity was conducted. The results from the study have direct relevance to work of agencies and organizations working to promote the welfare of small holding farmers, either through prac-tical field support or through policy advocacy.

  19. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Salvesen, F.; Joergensen, P.F. [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  20. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs

  1. Small scale structure on cosmic strings

    Albrecht, A.

    1989-10-30

    I discuss our current understanding of cosmic string evolution, and focus on the question of small scale structure on strings, where most of the disagreements lie. I present a physical picture designed to put the role of the small scale structure into more intuitive terms. In this picture one can see how the small scale structure can feed back in a major way on the overall scaling solution. I also argue that it is easy for small scale numerical errors to feed back in just such a way. The intuitive discussion presented here may form the basis for an analytic treatment of the small structure, which I argue in any case would be extremely valuable in filling the gaps in our resent understanding of cosmic string evolution. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Appendix - A small scale research review

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    A small scale research review This appendix provides an analysis of a small scale search for empirical studies regarding the efficacy of adult teacher training. The appendix is a part of a paper delivered at the ASEM conference, June 2009, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany. The paper tries to shed light...... over two questions asked in the abstract concerning workshop C - Effects of teacher training in lifelong learning - at the current ASEM conference. At first it is asked what do we already know about teacher training effects in relation to adult learners? This will be identified by a search for...... systematic reviews in the international This will be identified by a search for systematic reviews in the international clearinghouses and afterwards by a small scale mapping done in the pedagogic databaseERIC. The second question sounds: which methods can be used to measure the effects of teacher training...

  3. Technology adoption in small-scale agriculture

    Yengoh, Genesis Tambang; Armah, Frederick Ato; Svensson, Mats G. E.

    2010-01-01

    This study sets out to explore one of the most important questions for alleviating poverty in sub-Saharan Africa namely: why are advancements in agricultural technology not taking root in this region? Using data from deep interviews of 42 smallscale farmers in Ghana and Cameroon, a conceptual analysis of drivers and factors of agricultural technology adoption in this region is made and represented as causal loop diagrams. Interviews also provide a basis for weighting factors that farmers cons...

  4. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  5. The adoption of IPM practices by small scale producers: the case of greenhouse tomato growers in Turkey

    Aubert, Magali; Codron, Jean Marie; Sylvain ROUSSET; Yercan, Murat

    2013-01-01

    In most competitive fresh fruit and vegetables chains, growers are faced with the need to comply with the requirements of increasingly safety demanding customers. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices have become a true solution for small scale growers that could not afford the cost of a GAP certificate. While literature on farmer adoption of IPM practices focuses on farmer and farm characteristics, only a few authors underline the importance of technology, marketing and pesticides safet...

  6. Management of broadleaved weeds in small-scale in an on-farm perspective

    An on-farm trial was conducted at eight different sites in Rongai and Njoro areas of Nakuru district and only six of the sites were finally harvested. The study was mainly to evaluate different weed control methods to offer a variety of recommendations for small scale wheat farmers. Of the treatments tested Buctril Mc out performed all the treatments except for Ariane. Cultural methods of control seemed to be inferior to almost all the chemical control. (author)

  7. Development and Experimental Studies of a Small-scaled Solar-powered Sago Plant Dehydrator

    A. Pendita; Lim, P.Y.; H. V. H. Junis

    2014-01-01

    Sago is an important agricultural commodity of the largest state in Malaysia, Sarawak. This paper presents a small-scaled solar-powered sago dehydrator with temperature sensing and monitoring unit. The main focus is to provide a feasible solution for sago farmers or producers who live in isolated remote areas. The dehydrator system is controlled by a microcontroller PIC16F877A. The electrical circuit of the dehydrator allows the user to programmed desired time setting and the controller will ...

  8. Economy of small-scale power plants

    The basic requirement for profitable generation of power and heat is sufficient and even heat load. The investment required by a plant based on cogeneration is always higher than that of a plant producing only heat, and hence the full time operation of the plant should be ensured since the beginning of the plant operational age. The second requirement for profitable operation of a small-scale power plant is the homogenous heat and power consumption profiles. Because the plants always cause remarkable capital costs and other fixed costs it is important to make an economic survey of the costs before the decision making in the preliminary planning phase. The presentation gives a review of the factors effecting on the economy of small-scale power plant, the distribution of the costs, and the methods used for investigation of the economy are reviewed

  9. Monitoring of small scale piping systems

    Current recommendations for small-scale piping systems require less degradation assessment in design and manufacture, and the scope of monitoring is also less than with systems of higher safety relevance. This means that there can occur very different degradation mechanisms in operation - as operational experience shows. The integrity of small-scale piping systems can be guaranteed if, on the one hand, the scope of knowledge on the system concerned is comprehensive and, on the other hand, the quality of the system has been optimized on the basis of this knowledge. This is how the damage mechanisms should be limited. Comprehensive monitoring of the causes and consequences of possible degradation mechanisms is also one of the measures which are absolutely necessary for guaranteeing component integrity. (orig.)

  10. Symmetry breaking and synchronization at small scales

    Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the theoretical description of two experimentally observed phenomena which occur at small scales. We first address the synchronization of swimming microorganisms. Motile microorganisms swim in a fluid regime where inertia is unimportant and viscous stresses dominate. In this limit the flow field due to a swimmer affects the motility of nearby cells, a fact which is biologically important as microorganisms such as spermatozoa are often found in high-density suspension...

  11. Viable Small Scale Farming in Norway

    Heie, Knut

    2003-01-01

    Norway, on Europe's northern fringe, is characterised by small-scale farming. The choice of crops and their yields are limited by the Nordic climate. Farm policies promote decentralisation and a varied farm structure in order to secure rural settlement, food security, food safety, environmental quality and sustainability. Agriculture receives substantial public support, and domestic production is largely protected from foreign competition. The author has a smallholding of 5 ha farmland and 15...

  12. Small-scale hydro power in Finland

    At present there are around 150 operating small-scale hydro power plants in Finland, the power generating capacity of which varies between 50 and 1000 kW. The annual output in terms of produced energy is about 270 GWh which accounts for only 0.5 % of the total consumption of electricity. The plants are mainly owned by electricity distributing companies and industry. There are numerous old dams and abandoned small hydro power stations, once used as power source for flour mills and saw mills. The role of overall energy economics is reviewed in this article, as well as the increase potential for small-scale hydro power and the international cooperation in this field. The potential for small-scale hydro power in Finland has been estimated to be 370 MW in 1580 falls, of which 45 MW is used at 150 stations. Easily exploitable sites, usually with abandoned station or dam were calculated to be around 80 MW, corresponding to an annual energy output at 350 GWh

  13. Small-scale rural bakery; Maaseudun pienleipomo

    Alkula, R.; Malin, A.; Reisbacka, A.; Rytkoenen, A.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the study was to clarify how running a small-scale bakery can provide a farming enterprise with its primary or secondary source of livelihood. A questionnaire and interviews were conducted to clarify the current situation concerning small-scale rural bakeries. The experimental part of the study looked into different manners of production, devices used in preparing and processing of doughs, and baking of different kinds of pastries in different types of ovens in laboratory conditions. Based on the results obtained, solutions serving as examples were formulated for small-scale bakeries run with various modes and methods of production. Additionally, market reviews were conducted concerning appropriate equipment for small-scale bakeries. Baking for commercial purposes on the farm is still something new as ca. 80 % of the enterprises covered by the study had operated for no more than five years. Many entrepreneurs (ca. 70 %) expressed a need for supplementary knowledge from some field related to baking. Rural bakeries are small-scale operations with one-person enterprises amounting to 69 % and two-person enterprises to 29 %. Women are primarily responsible for baking. On average, the enterprises baked seven different products, but the amounts baked were usually small. In the experimental part of the study, loaves of rye bread were baked using five different types and sizes of oven accommodating 5-22 loaves of rye bread at the one time. The oven type was found not to affect bread structure. The energy consumption for one ovenful varied between 2.4 and 7.0 kWh, i.e. 0.25-0.43 kWh per kilo. When baking rolls (30-140 rolls at a time), the power consumption varied between 1.2 and 3.5 kWh, i.e. 0.32-0.53 kWh per kilo. The other devices included in the comparative study were an upright deep-freezer, a multi-temperature cabinet and a fermenting cabinet. Furthermore, making rolls by hand was compared to using a machine for the same job, and likewise manual flattening of Danish pastry dough was compared to doing using a machine. In addition to these, partial delayed baking and the method employing deep-freezing of raw products were compared to direct baking (of 21 loaves of rye bread, 140 small buns and 60 Danish pastries). Depending on the method, the time consumed varied between 4 h and 4 h 40 min. The advantage of delayed baking and deep-freezing of raw products may be seen in that the time consumed in making small buns and Danish pastries (ca. 1 h 20 min) can be spent at a less busy point in time and thereby concentrate on baking when the demand for bakery products is at its peak. Based on the results of the study, three functional spatial solutions were formulated for small-scale bakeries of different sizes and types. The functioning of the premises, machines, equipment, the usage of worker time, ergonomics, economic factors, quality of production, and microbiological safety were taken into consideration in the planning. (orig.) 29 refs.

  14. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  15. Revisiting measurements of small scale temperature fluctuations

    Gebauer, Christian; Bahri, Carla; Arwatz, Gilad; Fan, Yuyang; Hultmark, Marcus

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that high frequency temperature measurements are attenuated due to a non-flat frequency response. Based on the temperature correction model proposed by Arwatz et al. (under review), new experimental data is compared with existing measurements. Focus is laid on structure functions, probability density functions, and the behavior of small scale temperature fluctuations. Additionally, a new temperature sensor developed at Princeton University is utilized for further improvement of temperature measurements. The effect of temporal resolution on the temperature spectrum is investigated by comparing uncorrected data to corrected data and data acquired with the new fast response temperature sensor.

  16. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  17. Adopting small-scale production of electricity

    Tengvard, Maria; Palm, Jenny (Linkoeping Univ., Dept. of Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping (Sweden)). e-mail: maria.tengvard@liu.se

    2009-07-01

    In Sweden in 2008, a 'new' concept for small-scale electricity production attracted massive media attention. This was mainly due to the efforts of Swedish company Egen El, which is marketing small-scale photovoltaics (PVs) and wind turbines to households, both homeowners and tenants. Their main selling point is simplicity: their products are so easy to install that everyone can do it. Autumn 2008 also saw IKEA announce that within three years it would market solar panels. How, then, do households perceive these products? Why would households choose to buy them? How do households think about producing their own electricity? Analysis of material based on in-depth interviews with members of 20 households reveals that environmental concerns supply the main motive for adopting PVs or micro wind power generation. In some cases, the adopting households have an extensively ecological lifestyle and such adoption represents a way to take action in the energy area. For some, this investment is symbolic: a way of displaying environmental consciousness or setting an example to others. For still others, the adoption is a protest against 'the system' with its large dominant actors or is a way to become self-sufficient. These microgeneration installations are rejected mainly on economic grounds; other motives are respect for neighbours and difficulties finding a place to install a wind turbine.

  18. Profitability of small-scale power plants

    Several small-scale power plants have been constructed in Finland during the last few years. Fuel oil and natural gas has been used as a fuel in diesel plants, natural gas in gas-turbine plants, and peat and industrial waste wood in solid fuel fired plants. Larger towns have already acquired combined power and heat generation either in their own power plants or in cooperation with industry. A usual mean of cooperation has been buying of district heat from industrial back-pressure power plants. Numerous small district heat loads still rely on separate heat production. The cheap price of electric power, caused by the good water and nuclear power conditions and long-term delivery contracts, has rendered the construction of small-scale power plants. The fuel prices have been stable for the last few years. The most significant changes have been caused by changing of exchange rate of the Finnish mark and the fuel taxation. Two power plant are reviewed in detail: 6/17 MW peat fired steam power plant and 6/6 MW oil fueled diesel power plant. The electricity prices of these two have been compared with coal condensing power and the electricity tariffs. The price comparisons have been made using the present price level. Energia-Ekono has compiled a new simulation program ELMO, operating in PC-WINDOWS environment, for simulation of cogeneration

  19. Small scale structure formation in chameleon cosmology

    Chameleon fields are scalar fields whose mass depends on the ambient matter density. We investigate the effects of these fields on the growth of density perturbations on sub-galactic scales and the formation of the first dark matter halos. Density perturbations on comoving scales R<1 pc go non-linear and collapse to form structure much earlier than in standard ?CDM cosmology. The resulting mini-halos are hence more dense and resilient to disruption. We therefore expect (provided that the density perturbations on these scales have not been erased by damping processes) that the dark matter distribution on small scales would be more clumpy in chameleon cosmology than in the ?CDM model

  20. Small-scale fisheries in Greenlandic planning

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses an ongoing planning process in Greenlandic fisheries governance aiming to reform the coastal Greenland halibut fishery. It examines the way certain truths about this fishery and the need for reform are produced up to and in the final policy document ‘regulation concerning the...... coastal fishery for Greenland halibut’. Findings highlight the way the small-scale Greenland halibut fishery system becomes a particular governance problem with respect to particular contextual meanings of sustainability and long-term planning. The article then examines whether this governance problem...... could also be understood as primarily a problem to a certain ‘governmentality’ mode of governance. Whereas some fishery studies document how governmentality modes of governance in fisheries succeeds in transforming subjectivities, this study offers a view into the process that might go before successful...

  1. Small-Scale Features in Pulsating Aurora

    Jones, Sarah; Jaynes, Allison N.; Knudsen, David J.; Trondsen, Trond; Lessard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the offphase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

  2. Universal Nonlinear Small-Scale Dynamo

    Beresnyak, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    We consider astrophysically relevant nonlinear MHD dynamo at large Reynolds numbers (Re). We argue that it is universal in a sense that magnetic energy grows at a rate which is a constant fraction C_E of the total turbulent dissipation rate. On the basis of locality bounds we claim that this "efficiency of small-scale dynamo", C_E, is a true constant for large Re and is determined only by strongly nonlinear dynamics at the equipartition scale. We measured C_E in numerical simulations and observed a value around 0.05 in highest resolution simulations. We address the issue of C_E being small, unlike Kolmogorov constant which is of order unity.

  3. Small-scale clumps of dark matter

    Small-scale clumps of dark matter are gravitationally bounded structures that have masses comparable to or lower than stellar masses and consist of noninteracting or weakly interacting dark matter particles. In this paper, the current knowledge about the formation and evolution of such structures is reviewed, various types of spectra of primordial cosmological perturbations are considered, and various dark matter models are discussed. Depending on the particular spectrum type, dark matter clumps may differ considerably in their formation processes and ultimate characteristics. The role of clumps in experiments on indirect detection of dark matter particles via their annihilation products is discussed. A number of astrophysical problems and phenomena that are related to dark matter clumps are examined. (reviews of topical problems)

  4. New markets for small-scale hydro

    The market for small and medium sized hydro-electric power plant is more attractive than ever. The boom in Europe has increasingly spread to the emerging countries, and here too small hydro plays an important ecological role. In addition to new plant rehabilitation of 'historical' plant is now a major factor. The last few years have seen a market shift from single machine components to complete plant and systems, requiring a strategy re-think on the part of larger companies. Following the influx of private capital into the power industry, business conditions have also undergone a thorough transformation. In place of 'fast money', hydro power offers the prospect of earning longer-term, sustainable money'. The term small-scale hydro-electric power (or simply 'small hydro') is used slightly differently depending on the country and market. Here, it is used to denote plant with turbines up to 10 MW. (Author)

  5. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    than that of carbon dioxide, this compromises the environmental advantages of digesters. Calculations performed in this paper indicate that the break-even point at which the released methane has as great an impact on global warming as the fuel that has been replaced occurs when between 3% and 51% of......, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater...... the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of...

  6. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years. PMID:25646464

  7. Impact of improved technologies on small-scale soybean production: empirical evidence from benue state, nigeria

    The study examined the impact of improved technologies on the lives of small-scale soybean farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. A total of 160 respondents were selected using simple random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Tobit model and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Findings revealed that 35.6% of the respondents were between 31 and 40 years old, 40.6% had household size of between 6 and 10 members. Majority of the respondents were male, married, and had secondary school education. Tobit analysis revealed that farmers socioeconomic characteristics which include gender, educational status and farming experience; and farmers knowledge on soybean innovations were significant factors determining the adoption of improved soybean production technologies. These factors were statistically significant at p=0.05. The adoption of improved soybean technologies has had a clear positive impact on farmers belief on soybean innovations. The major problems facing farmers in the adoption of improved soybean production technologies according to Kruskal-Wallis ranking were high cost of inputs, problem of labour availability and lack of credit/loan. The results of this study provide a strong case for the promotion of soybean as a solution for malnutrition and a means of poverty alleviation for poor people. (author)

  8. Small Scale Abundance Variations in TMC-1

    Dickens, J. E.; Langer, W. D.; Velusamy, T.

    2000-12-01

    The preprotostellar core TMC-1 is carbon-rich and exhibits large chemical abundance gradients. Various scenarios have been invoked to explain the gradients, such as differences in density, C/O ratio, or chemical evolutionary state. We present results of our study of complex hydrocarbons and prebiotic molecules in TMC-1, including new abundances and evidence for small scale abundance variations, using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-meter antenna. We use TMC-1's low temperature environment (≈ 10 K) to observe species via their lowest energy rotational transitions, which occur at centimeter wavelengths for heavy molecules. But without a mechanism for replenishment, gas phase species would be quickly frozen onto grains. Recently, Markwick et al. (2000) constructed a dynamical-chemical model, involving grain mantle removal induced by Alfven wave propagation, which reproduces the large scale abundance gradients along the TMC-1 ridge. Mechanisms for grain mantle removal and production of rich organic species make TMC-1 an ideal target for complex molecule searches. We report abundances for carbon chains, such as C7H (upper limit) versus C8H, and upper limits for the linear chain H2C5, its related cyclic species c-C5H2, and the important prebiotic molecules pyrrole (c-C4H5N) and glycine (NH2CH2COOH). We also present evidence for small scale variations within TMC-1 from the spatial and velocity structure of dense gas tracers. We determined that emission from multiple CCS clumps (Peng et al. 1998) are present within our 50 arcsec beam. The CCS and HC7N spectra show evidence for at least 3 velocity components. Assuming the velocity components represent emission from distinct clumps, we calculate large abundance variations ([HC7N]/[CCS]=0.5--6.3) at 3 velocities within our beam. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The work was performed while J.E.D. held a National Research Council-JPL Research Associateship.

  9. Small-scale clad-effects study

    The Small-Scale Clad Effects Study of the HSST Program was initiated to study the interaction of stainless cladding with flaws initiated in and propagating in base metal. From the designer's viewpoint stainless cladding is primarily viewed as a corrosion- and crud-prevention measure in light-water reactor vessel design, and except for its effect upon fatigue in thermal transients, its effect upon structural integrity has heretofore been largely disregarded. With the more recent focus of safety studies upon LOCA scenarios that emphasize the behavior of small flaws, it has become evident that stainless cladding may have a key role in the propagation and/or arrest of propagating flaws. A complicating factor in understanding the role of stainless cladding in this setting is its fracture toughness as a function of radiation dose and as a function of fabrication process for which meager data exist. The initial phase of this study has attempted to address this question by testing stainless-clad specimens that had been subjected to heat treatments to simulate beginning-of-life and end-of-life toughness conditions to fast-running cracks

  10. Small-scale mechanical behavior of zirconia

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The surface stability of yttria-doped tetragonal polycrystalline zirconia is critical for load-bearing biomedical applications. In this work, the small-scale mechanical behavior of this material is probed by employing the in situ micro-cantilever bending technique to near-surface regions. Micro-cantilevers are milled by the focused ion beam technique in the as-sintered condition as well as after hydrothermal degradation by water vapor and tested in order to investigate the effect of degradation on the local flexural response. Results demonstrate that the technique is reliable for assessing the mechanical properties of thin superficial layers and their dependence on orientation. In the non-degraded material, the flexural strength is surprisingly higher than in standard-size specimens and transformation-induced plasticity takes place during testing, inducing defects that become critical at the failure stress. The strength and stiffness of cantilevers obtained from the degraded surface are indeed much lower, and the magnitude of the effect clearly depends on their orientation with respect to the surface. These results are discussed in terms of the presence and spatial distribution of microcracks nucleated during hydrothermal degradation

  11. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  12. Galaxy alignment on large and small scales

    Kang, X; Wang, Y O; Dutton, A; Macciò, A

    2014-01-01

    Galaxies are not randomly distributed across the universe but showing different kinds of alignment on different scales. On small scales satellite galaxies have a tendency to distribute along the major axis of the central galaxy, with dependence on galaxy properties that both red satellites and centrals have stronger alignment than their blue counterparts. On large scales, it is found that the major axes of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) have correlation up to 30Mpc/h. Using hydro-dynamical simulation with star formation, we investigate the origin of galaxy alignment on different scales. It is found that most red satellite galaxies stay in the inner region of dark matter halo inside which the shape of central galaxy is well aligned with the dark matter distribution. Red centrals have stronger alignment than blue ones as they live in massive haloes and the central galaxy-halo alignment increases with halo mass. On large scales, the alignment of LRGs is also from the galaxy-halo shape correlation, but with some ex...

  13. Small Scale Variations in Carbon Oxygen Ratio

    The aim of the research reported here is the development of a methodology for the measurement of small scale variations in chemical elements concentrations, in particular of carbon - oxygen ratio. Knowledge of the C/O ratio is of importance to many problems in various fields. Here we single out the application in obtaining important information about the oil fields. The most fundamental reservoir parameters - oil, gas and water content - are critical factors in determining how each oil field should be developed. It is well established that carbon to oxygen ratio log yields accurate and repeatable data that can be used to identify and monitor reserves depletion. Recent improvements in neutron generator and gamma detector technologies resulted in small devices which allowed through-tubing measurements. Although the ratio of carbon and oxygen yields is a measure of the amount of oil around the tool it should be realized that a carbon signal can originate from several sources including the borehole, the cement behind the casing, the formation rock and the formation fluid. In order to evaluate these contributions individually we are proposing the modification of the neutron generator by insertion of segmented associated alpha particle detector. From the measurement of time of flight spectra (alpha particle detector - start signal; gamma ray detector - stop signal) it would be possible to determine the location of gamma ray producing voxel and in such a way to determine radial variations in several chemical elements concentrations, in particular of carbon to oxygen ratio. (authors)

  14. Small-scale irradiated fuel electrorefining

    In support of the metallic fuel cycle development for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), a small scale electrorefiner was built and operated in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West. The initial purpose of this apparatus was to test the single segment dissolution of irradiated metallic fuel via either direct dissolution in cadmium or anodic dissolution. These tests showed that 99.95% of the uranium and 99.99% of the plutonium was dissolved and separated from the fuel cladding material. The fate of various fission products was also measured. After the dissolution experiments, the apparatus was upgraded to stady fission product behavior during uranium electrotransport. Preliminary decontamination factors were estimated for different fission products under different processing conditions. Later modifications have added the following capabilities: Dissolution of multiple fuel segments simultaneously, electrotransport to a solid cathode or liquid cathode and actinide recovery with a chemical reduction crucible. These capabilities have been tested with unirradiated uranium-zirconium fuel and will support the Fuel Cycle Demonstration program

  15. Water power small scale hydro. Elan Valley

    The Elan Valley small-scale hydro project, which is owned and operated by Hyder Industrial Ltd, is located on the Elan Valley estate in the Cambrian Mountains in mid-Wales. Five reservoirs and four impounding dams were built in the Elan and Claerwen river valleys during the first half of the 20th century to supply water to Birmingham. Following the award of a contract under the Government's third non-Fossil Fuel Obligation Order (NFFO-3) to supply 4.2 MW of electricity to the National Grid during the 1990s, Hyder refurbished the original turbines at one location and built new units at four others. The existing water infrastructure was utilised. The total cost of the scheme, which generated some 35,700 MWh of electricity between May 1997 and March 1999, was 5.2 million pounds sterling. Details of the power generation units at the five hydro power stations, the power output, power transmission, planning requirements, measures taken by Hyder to minimise the scheme's environmental impact and the scheme's benefits are given

  16. Methods of biodiesel production for small scale

    Franca Belo, L. de; Viana Canabrava, D.; Serpa da Cruz, R.; Aevivanio Lins Miranda, A.; Sa Parente, E.J. Jr. de; Nascimento, R.A. (Tecbio - Tecnologias Bioenergeticas (Brazil))

    2007-07-01

    The global production arrangement of biodiesel provides employments and profits. It might promote the country people social inclusion, moreover using castor plant and familiar agriculture. This culture demands use of an intensive labor and a good potential of value aggregation in their products. In front of the Biodiesel potentialities in each region, the decentralized production model shows up as an important alternative. The Brazilian biodiesel production in small scale is not well established and there are some critic aspects that could make it inviable. Among these, we can mention: low operationality, energetic inefficiency and small potentially of sub products utilities. However, this research shows an availability study of castor biodiesel production with agriculture familiar participation and aggregate value to sub products of productive process. This project minimizes investments and also the costs of operation, achieve, in this way, the economic availability of decentralized production model of biodiesel. Beyond that, the final objective of project is the execution of two models plants of biodiesel production and their utilization to labor capacity and models to others future initiative. The plant will integrate transesterification with biodigestion. The anaerobic process could be tried in each steps of the biodiesel production by technically and economically evaluation. (orig.)

  17. Local soil fertility management on small-scale farming systems for sustainable agriculture

    Namriah, Kilowasid, Laode Muhammad Harjoni

    2015-09-01

    The sustainability of small-scale farming systems on marginal lands is still being a topic of debate in scientific and institutional communities. To address this, a study was conducted to find a method of sustaining the productivity of marginal lands for food crop production. Agricultural practices (fallow and traditional cultivation) used by the local small-scale farmers in managing soil fertility to meet the natural biological processes above and below the ground were studied in Muna Island Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Participatory approach was used to gather data and information on soil and land as well as to collect soil macrofauna. The results showed that the practices of local small-scale farmers are based on local soil and land suitability. Organic materials are the source of nutrient inputs to sustain the productivity of their lands by fallowing, burning natural vegetation, putting back the crop residues, doing minimum tillage and mix- and inter-crops. In conclusion, the sustainability of local small-scale farming systems will be established by knowing and understanding local soil and land classification systems and preferred crops being planted. Following the nature of fallow and monitoring soil macrofauna diversity and abundance, all preferred crops should be planted during rainy season with different time of harvest until the next rainy season. Therefore, soils are still covered with crops during dry season. It was suggested that planting time should be done in the rainy season. Doing more researches in other locations with different socio-cultural, economical, and ecological conditions is suggested to validate and refine the method.

  18. Quality management in the Pangasius export supply chain in Vietnam : the case of small-scale Pangasius farming in the Mekong River Delta

    Khoi, Le Nguyen Doan,

    2011-01-01

    The thesis focuses on three areas: quality control at farm level, quality assurance at chain level, and the business relationships at farm level. The objective of this thesis is to explore the major challenges for the present quality management system to assure safety and quality standards in the export supply chain of small-scale fish farming in Vietnam. The findings show that problems of small-scale farmers involved in export supply chain can be dealt with through developing business re...

  19. Improving Agricultural Water Management through Low-Cost Small-Scale Irrigation Technologies in Kenya

    Agriculture is the second largest contributor to Kenya's gross domestic product and accounts for about 24% of GDP and 50% of revenue from exports. About half of Kenya's total agricultural output is subsistence production and farming provides employment to about 70% of the population. Approximately 80% of Kenyan farmland is classified as arid and semi-arid, with low and erratic rainfall, and food production is low with frequent crop failures. In order to ensure food security and sustainable farmer livelihoods there is an urgent need to improve agricultural water management practices that ensure optimal water use efficiency. A promising option is the use of low-cost small-scale irrigation technologies that are affordable for resource poor farmers. Through an IAEA technical cooperation project, the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) has developed low-cost small-scale irrigation technologies to improve water- and nutrient use efficiencies of high-value crops, including cucumber, tomato, kale and lettuce. Yields of these crops were compared under rain-fed conditions, with irrigation using traditional hand-watering method and small-scale drip irrigation. Using the soil moisture neutron probe to determine the soil water content at any time during the growing season and the optimal timing and amount of water to be applied, KARI devised and employed small-scale low-cost drip irrigation technologies and compared yields under a variety of water management applications. Using these technologies, tomato yields of 9.7 t/ha were obtained under rain-fed conditions (with 221 mm of rainfall), 13.0 t/ha with traditional hand watering of 927 mm and 32 t/ha when applying 510 mm of water using small-scale drip irrigation, hence increasing the yield by 3.3 and 2.5 times, compared to rain-fed and hand watering, respectively. In the latter case, this yield increase was obtained despite a 45% reduction in the amount of water applied to the crop. Results also showed that a total of 580 t/ha of tomatoes can be obtained under the more optimal water and nutrient conditions provided in locally constructed greenhouses, where the 15N stable isotopic tracer was used to determine the fate of nitrogen (N) fertilisers in soils and tomato plants. Information obtained indicates that as much as 50% of the applied nitrogen can be saved when applied through drip irrigation while at the same time tomato yield could be maintained. A training manual for extension workers on the use of these drip irrigation systems has been developed, and training and dissemination of these technologies have been conducted through farmers' field days and discussion groups.

  20. Small scale imaging using ultrasonic tomography

    Ultrasound technology progressed through the 1960 from simple A-mode and B-mode scans to today M-mode and Doppler two dimensional (2-D) and even three dimensional (3-D) systems. Modern ultrasound imaging has its roots in sonar technology after it was first described by Lord John Rayleigh over 100 years ago on the interaction of acoustic waves with media. Tomography technique was developed as a diagnostic tool in the medical area since the early of 1970s. This research initially focused on how to retrieve a cross sectional images from living and non-living things. After a decade, the application of tomography systems span into the industrial area. However, the long exposure time of medical radiation-based method cannot tolerate the dynamic changes in industrial process two phase liquid/ gas flow system. An alternative system such as a process tomography systems, can give information on the nature of the flow regime characteristic. The overall aim of this paper is to investigate the use of a small scale ultrasonic tomography method based on ultrasonic transmission mode tomography for online monitoring of liquid/ gas flow in pipe/ vessel system through ultrasonic transceivers application. This non-invasive technique applied sixteen transceivers as the sensing elements to cover the pipe/ vessel cross section. The paper also details the transceivers selection criteria, hardware setup, the electronic measurement circuit and also the image reconstruction algorithm applied. The system was found capable of visualizing the internal characteristics and provides the concentration profile for the corresponding liquid and gas phases. (author)

  1. Small-scale models of multiring basins

    Allemand, Pascal; Thomas, Pierre

    1999-07-01

    Small-scale sand-silicone simulations of multiring impact structures have been undertaken in order to understand the effects of the rheology of the lithosphere on the variability of natural multiring structures. For low sand-silicone thickness ratio (1:3), brittle strain is accommodated by spiral strike-slip faults. For higher sand-silicone ratios (1:1 or 2:1), an inner concentric ring affected by strike-slip faults is relayed by an external ring affected by concentric normal faults. The diameter of the inner ring decreases with the increase of the sand-silicone thickness ratio. It is suggested that the flexure of the brittle layer due to the silicone flow is responsible for the brittle strain field which is enhanced by the channel flow of the lower crust. The characteristic geometry of the intersection of conjugated strike-slip faults can be observed around large multiring basins on silicate crust such as Orientale on the Moon and on icy crust, such as Valhalla on Callisto and Gilgamesh on Ganymede. The strain field around these large craters is discussed in terms of mechanical properties of the lithospheres. On the Moon, large craters without relaxation faults, such as Imbrium are located on thin crust regions. The crust was too thin to have a ductile lower layer at the time of impact. Gilgamesh on Ganymede is surrounded mainly by strike-slip faults. Asgard on Callisto has the same diameter as Gilgamesh but is surrounded by concentric normal faults. The brittle-ductile thickness ratio is thus higher on Callisto than on Ganymede.

  2. Simulation of efficiency impact of drainage water reuse: case of small-scale vegetable growers in North West Province, South Africa

    S. Speelman; D'Haese, M.F.C.; D'Haese, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the effect of drainage water reuse on the technical efficiency of small-scale vegetable growers in South Africa applying a data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the semi-arid North West Province of South Africa water scarcity and the soon to be implemented water charges have urged farmers in small-scale irrigation schemes to evaluate the efficiency of their water use. Data on 60 farmers were used to estimate the level of technical efficiency and the effect that ...

  3. Productivity, Efficiency, and Competitiveness of Small-Scale Organic Cotton Production in Tanzania

    Mgeni, Dotto; Henningsen, Arne

    attractive option for cotton farmers in Eastern Africa, because in this region, the use of chemical inputs is anyway virtually absent, the labor cost is low, and organic cotton has a higher sales price than conventional cotton. In order to scrutinize this option, we use microeconomic production theory and...... much less in Eastern and Southern Africa and the increase in production was mainly a result of expansion of land under cultivation and the number of producers, rather than of improved productivity (e.g. Poulton et al., 2004; Delpeuch and Vandeplas, 2011). Organic production methods could be an...... stochastic frontier models to thoroughly analyze organic cotton production in Tanzania. Our study is based on a unique data set of 180 small-scale organic cotton farmers in the Meatu region in Tanzania. This data set does not only provide information on input and output quantities, prices of traded inputs...

  4. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    N. Patience Manzana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1 A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2 An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3 A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  5. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive. PMID:25026955

  6. Small-Scale Fisheries Bycatch Jeopardizes Endangered Pacific Loggerhead Turtles

    Peckham, S. Hoyt; Diaz, David Maldonado; Walli, Andreas; Ruiz, Georgita; Crowder, Larry B.; Nichols, Wallace J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These...

  7. Characteristic of Small Scale Food Industry Cluster in West Sumatera

    Gunarif Taib; Santosa Santosa; Masrul Djalal; Helmi Helmi

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of small-scale food industries have different characteristics with industrial cluster in general. These characteristics need to know to develop a plan for cluster development. This study was conducted to determine charasteristics clusters of small-scale food industry, especially in West Sumatra. For the analysis of the components of industrial and technological components that affect the development of small-scale food industry cluster in West Sumatra. All variables influence the lev...

  8. Performance Assessment Of Local Biomass Powered Cereal Drier Used By Small-Scale Kenyan Farmers

    Madaraka F. Mwema

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have revealed that drying maize using biomass driers increase the quality of grains delays insect infestation mold and aflatoxin contamination in relation to direct sunlight drying. Most importantly biomass drying takes shorter time. It is therefore important to undertake performance of these driers to investigate the possibility of empirical control of such systems in remote areas. In this paper we present results of thermal performance of typical biomass-powered drier batch type. The results show that under natural convection temperature behavior within the drying chamber is unpredictable. However the use of exhaust fan forced convection gives predictable temperature distribution within the drying chamber. For burner shutter open at 50 and using maize cob as the fuel for forced convection the drying chamber attained a maximum temperature of 93amp730C after 28 minutes and minimum temperature of 69amp730C after 37 minutes in the lower tray tray 1. For burner shutter open at 100 the drying chamber attained a maximum temperature of 91amp730C after 41 minutes and minimum temperature of 67amp730C in tray 1. With burner 50 open tray 2 attained a maximum temperature of 62amp730C after 30 minutes and minimum temperature of 56amp730C after 40 minutes. With the burner 100 open tray 2 attained a maximum temperature of 61amp730C after 39 minutes and minimum temperature of 52amp730C after 52 minutes. From these results the optimal operating conditions of the burner operation were achieved when the shutter was open at 50. It took 76 minutes to dry 5kg of maize with about 0.8kg including dampness from rains moisture content in tray 1. It took 140 minutes to dry the same quantity and moisture content of maize in tray 2. These results show that it is possible to control empirically biomass cereal maize driers.

  9. Effect of Irrigation on Poverty among Small-Scale Farmers in Limpopo Province of South Africa

    Majory Ongie Meliko; Oni, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the strength and stability of South African economy, poverty and inequality remain a glaring and persistent issue in the country. About 40% of the population live in outright poverty or continuing vulnerability to being poor, with poverty being more persistent in rural areas. The Forster-Greer-Thorbecke index and a Logit econometric model were used to measure the dynamics of poverty among irrigation and non-irrigation individuals and households. The poverty incidence, depth and severi...

  10. AHP choice in cocoa post-harvest technology for small-scale farmers

    VERA MONTENEGRO, LENIN; Baviera Puig, Maria Amparo; García Alvarez-Coque, José María

    2014-01-01

    OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL: Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (by-nc) Spain 3.0 Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. AHP choice in cocoa post-harvest technology for small-scale farmers

    Lenin Vera-Montenegro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring that the post-harvest process yields good quality cocoa is a relevant research question. However, the literature currently lacks detailed studies of producers’ criteria for post-harvest technology selection. There is therefore a need for research that examines technology choice based on several criteria. This is the aim of our paper. We defined a cocoa post-harvest technology selection model to assist small producers in Ecuador. To do so, we employed the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to assess the following criteria: quality, processing cost and technology adoption capability. By considering only quality, we first performed a preliminary assessment of nine post-harvest technologies yielded by all possible combinations of fermentation and drying methods. Under the criterion “quality”, results show that no post-harvest technology is preferable to another. This implies that quality differences between producers do not derive from technology choice but rather from the rigour with which producers perform fermentation and drying processes. After adding the criteria “processing cost” and “technology adoption capability”, we performed the analysis again. This multi-criteria approach offered a better way to approximate small farmers’ real needs when selecting technology for cocoa post-harvest. Although quality was the highest-valued criterion, high scores attributed to some technologies in the other two criteria offset scores for quality. Thus, processing cost and technology adoption also emerged as relevant factors for small holders.

  12. Impacts of Maize Policy Changes on Small Scale Farmers' Vulnerability to Exploitation in Nyimba District, Zambia

    Njobvu, Idah

    2011-01-01

    Taking cognisance of the fact that SSFs the major producers of maize in Zambia were most affected by the 1991 agricultural policy reforms, from 2005 onward, the state became very active in the maize market and production systems in order to mitigate their problems. The main objective of this study is to investigate to what extent the maize policy changes have contributed to the SSFs’ vulnerability to exploitation. This information will be of use in the policy formulation process to ensure tha...

  13. Small scale farmers’ access to and participation in markets : The case of the P4P program in western Kenya

    Skjöldevald, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand how small scale farmers navigate the market to access and participate in the formal maize market to improve their revenue, utilising the case of the P4P program inKenya. The empirical material was collected during fieldwork in Kenya. Qualitative methods were found to be the most suitable for this thesis. The methods that was utilised were a case study strategy, semi structured interviews, focus groups, observations and analysis of secondary sources....

  14. Emerging Market Opportunities for Small-Scale Producers: Proceedings of a Special Session at the 2008 USDA Partners Meeting

    Diamond, Adam; Barham, James; Tropp, Debra

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes one of the panel discussions, “Emerging Market Opportunities for Small-scale Producers,” held as part of the August 2008 USDA Fifth Annual Partners Meeting, sponsored by the USDA Office of Outreach. The purpose of the annual event is to support a dialogue between USDA and community-based organizations that work with socially disadvantaged farmers. The panels and discussions provide information about USDA programs and marketing issues and serve as forums for attendees to...

  15. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers.

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael C; Volk, Julie; Lander, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers integrated pest management (IPM) in farmer field schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long-term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, whereas dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (n = 23) and their neighboring farmers (n = 47) were analyzed in a follow-up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis with a control group of farmers (n = 138) introduced in 2009. Variables were analyzed using χ(2) test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 to 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all variables, with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable where trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI: 10.56-13.38), and control farmers a mean score of 9.18 (95% CI: 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance of the neighboring farmers compared with the control farmers. Dissemination of knowledge can contribute to justify the cost and convince donors and governments in low-income countries to prioritize farmers training. PMID:26790134

  16. Electricity generating costs in small-scale dispersed energy sources

    Small-scale dispersed energy sources - small-scale-gas-fired cogeneration heat and power (CHP) plants, fuel cells, wind generators and others are playing bigger and bigger role in the world's electricity production. These sources will be not an alternative for the electricity supply system (including nuclear power plants), during the nearest two decades. (author)

  17. Tailor-made solutions : Small-scale biofuels and trade

    Pacini, Henrique; Khatiwada, Dilip; Lönnqvist, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    In current debates on biofuels trade, the focus tends to be on large-scale production. However, the production of small-scale biofuels is better suited for many smaller developing and least-developed countries. Small-scale biofuels can bring many social and environmental benefits at the local level and, cumulatively, their production and utilisation can bring significant trade benefits.

  18. Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions

    A. Ghaffar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality, nutrition (balanced feed reproduction (mineral supplementation, and general management (training of farmers were identified and implemented in a participatory approach at the selected dairy farms. The calf mortality was reduced from 35 to 13 percent up to the age of 3 months. Use of Alfa Deval post milking teat dips reduced the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis from 34 to 5% showing economical benefits of the interventions. Partial budget technique was used to analyze its impact in the registered herds. The farmers recorded monthly quantities of different feed ingredients and seasonal green fodder offered to the animals. From this data set total metabolizeable energy requirements and availability from feed were computed which revealed that animals were deficient in metabolizeable energy in all locations. This was also confirmed by seasonal variation in body condition scoring. At some selected farms the mineral mixture supplement was introduced which exhibited increased milk yield by 5 % in addition to shorten service period by 30 days. Three sessions of training were arranged to train the farmers to care new born calves, daily farm management and detect the animals in heat efficiently to enhance the over all income of the farmers. The overall income of the farm was increased by 40%.

  19. Changes in farmers' knowledge of maize diversity in highland Guatemala

    van Etten, J.

    2006-01-01

    Small-scale studies on long-term change in agricultural knowledge might uncover insights with broader, regional implications. This article evaluates change in farmer knowledge about crop genetic resources in highland Guatemala between 1927/37 and 2004. It concentrates on maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) in one Guatemalan township, Jacaltenango, an area with much ecological and maize diversity. It relies on a particular type of baseline information: lists of farmer-defined cultivars drawn up by e...

  20. A Guide to Bundling Small-scale CDM Projects

    Small-scale renewable energy and energy efficiency projects that fit the development needs of many developing countries, can potentially be supported via the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), one of the Kyoto Protocol's flexible mechanisms for tackling climate change. However, there is concern that due to high transaction costs, as well as many existing barriers, very few investments will be made in small-scale projects, which are often the most suitable development option in countries such as India. In view of this, the 'bundling' together of appropriate small-scale projects on a regional basis has been proposed as a way in which funding can be leveraged from international sources and transaction costs reduced. IT Power, IT Power India and the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) are carrying out a 2-year project to establish the capacity within India to enable individual small scale projects to be bundled as a single CDM project. Overall objectives are to develop the necessary institutional capabilities to formulate and implement small scale CDM projects in India; to provide a guide on how to bundle small scale projects under the CDM in developing countries; and to raise the awareness of the potential for investment in small scale energy projects which can gain funding through the CDM

  1. Module 5: innovative activity profile 4: providing farmers with direct access to innovation funds

    Triomphe, B.; Wongtschowski, M.; Lugg, D.; Veldhuizen, L. van

    2012-01-01

    Small-scale farmers, local farmer organizations, and other local entrepreneurs (such as traders and processors) benefit from advisory services with a business orientation. By helping these groups to access markets, financial and input supply services, as well as knowledge oriented to their particular value chains, local (agri)- business development services (LBDSs) support innovation and entrepreneurship.

  2. Financing small scale wind energy projects in the UK

    This paper shows how wind energy projects in the UK have obtained finance. It attempts to list the financing options open to small scale developments and to note any likely problems which may occur. (UK)

  3. A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph

    Gros, Natasa; Vrtacnik, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    The design and application of a small-scale portable gas chromatograph for learning of the basic concepts of chromatography is described. The apparatus consists of two basic separable units, which includes a chromatographic unit and an electronic unit.

  4. Hopewell Furnace NHS Small Scale Features (Linear Features)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile represents the linear small scale features found at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site based on the Cultural Landscape Report completed in...

  5. The potential for small scale hydropower development in the US

    In an earlier paper (), the potential for small scale hydropower to contribute to US renewable energy supplies, as well as reduce current carbon emissions, was investigated. It was discovered that thousands of viable sites capable of producing significant amounts of hydroelectric power were available throughout the United States. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the cost-effectiveness of developing these small scale hydropower sites. Just because a site has the necessary topographical features to allow small scale hydropower development, does not mean that it should be pursued from a cost-benefit perspective, even if it is a renewable energy resource with minimal effects on the environment. This analysis finds that while the average cost of developing small scale hydropower is relatively high, there still remain hundreds of sites on the low end of the cost scale that are cost-effective to develop right now.

  6. Computer-Based Indexing on a Small Scale: Bibliography.

    Douglas, Kimberly; Wismer, Don

    The 131 references on small scale computer-based indexing cited in this bibliography are subdivided as follows: general, general (computer), index structure, microforms, specific systems, KWIC KWAC KWOC, and thesauri. (RAA)

  7. Small-Scale Variations of HI Spectra from Interstellar Scintillatio

    Gwinn, C R

    2001-01-01

    I suggest that radio-wave scattering by the interstellar plasma, in combination with subsonic gradients in the Doppler velocity of interstellar HI, is responsible for the observed small-scale variation in HI absorption spectra of pulsars. Velocity gradients on the order of 0.05 to 0.3 km/s across 1 AU can produce the observed variations. I suggest observational tests to distinguish between this model and the traditional picture of small-scale opacity variations from cloudlets.

  8. Effects of small-scale turbulence on dinoflagellate ecophysiology

    Llaveria, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    Dinoflagellate proliferations seem to be often related to certain stability of the water column. Laboratory experiments have shown that small-scale turbulence can diminish the net growth rate and inhibit cell division, and simultaneously increase the cell size and the DNA and RNA content. The objective of this PhD Thesis was to explore direct effects of small-scale turbulence on physiological processes related to the cell and life cycles of dinoflagellates, and to investigate the underlying m...

  9. Development of small-scale fisheries in Yemen: An exploration

    Wagenaar, A; D'Haese, M.F.C.

    2007-01-01

    Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the world. The development of its fishery sector is increasingly being mentioned as a source of livelihood creation. The aims of this paper are to: (a) provide an overview of the institutional environment in which small-scale fishermen in Yemen operate; (b) investigate the constraints they face; and (c) discuss the potential role that co-operatives could play in such development. Small-scale fisheries in Yemen are increasingly important, yet they strug...

  10. Growing vegetables in developing countries for local urban populations and export markets: problems confronting small-scale producers.

    Dinham, Barbara

    2003-05-01

    Vegetables attract high applications of pesticides, and farmers in developing countries use many acutely toxic insecticides to control pests on these crops. With the liberalisation of agricultural markets in developing countries, the number of small-scale farmers growing vegetables for both domestic and export markets is increasing. Demand for supplies of year-round and exotic fruit and vegetables has grown in industrialised countries, but with rising quality standards and traceability requirements it is difficult for small-scale farmers to benefit from this lucrative non-traditional agricultural export trade. The demand is high for vegetables in the expanding cities in developing countries, and farmers in peri-urban areas, or rural areas with good access to the cities, are in a position to find a growing market for their produce. Poor storage facilities will often mean that farmers are forced to sell at peak times when prices are low. Farmers rarely have access to training in pesticide use, and have only limited or no access to advice on the complicated management of pesticides. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN is concerned about high levels of poor quality and adulterated pesticides on sale in developing countries. Surveys repeatedly show that without training, farmers are unable to make good crop decisions: recognition of pests and their predators is generally low, leading to decisions to spray to kill any insect; knowledge of product selection, application rates and timing is poor; different products are often combined in the belief that the effect will be greater; re-entry periods after spraying and essential harvest intervals are not known; and without knowledge of alternatives, farmers will often assume that the only solution to pest problems is to spray more frequently. From a consumer's point of view, few developing countries are able to monitor pesticide residues, particularly for produce grown for home consumption: most countries do not have laboratories for even simple residue testing. Changes in European Maximum Residue Limits means that export crops will be rejected if they contain residues at the Limit of Detection of pesticides not registered in Europe. Season-long field level training in Integrated Pest Management can help farmers to become better decision-makers, and to greatly reduce pesticide use while reducing risks to their own health and environment, producing safer products for consumers, maintaining yields, and increasing incomes. PMID:12741526

  11. Small-scale eruptive filaments on the quiet sun

    Hermans, Linda M.; Martin, Sara F.

    1986-01-01

    A study of a little known class of eruptive events on the quiet sun was conducted. All of 61 small-scale eruptive filamentary structures were identified in a systematic survey of 32 days of H alpha time-lapse films of the quiet sun acquired at Big Bear Solar Observatory. When fully developed, these structures have an average length of 15 arc seconds before eruption. They appear to be the small-scale analog of large-scale eruptive filaments observed against the disk. At the observed rate of 1.9 small-scale eruptive features per field of view per average 7.0 hour day, the rate of occurence of these events on the sun were estimated to be greater than 600 per 24 hour day.. The average duration of the eruptive phase was 26 minutes while the average lifetime from formation through eruption was 70 minutes. A majority of the small-scale filamentary sturctures were spatially related to cancelling magnetic features in line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms. Similar to large-scale filaments, the small-scale filamentary structures sometimes divided opposite polarity cancelling fragments but often had one or both ends terminating at a cancellation site. Their high numbers appear to reflect the much greater flux on the quiet sun. From their characteristics, evolution, and relationship to photospheric magnetic flux, it was concluded that the structures described are small-scale eruptive filaments and are a subset of all filaments.

  12. Small-scale eruptive filaments on the quiet sun

    A study of a little known class of eruptive events on the quiet sun was conducted. All of 61 small-scale eruptive filamentary structures were identified in a systematic survey of 32 days of H alpha time-lapse films of the quiet sun acquired at Big Bear Solar Observatory. When fully developed, these structures have an average length of 15 arc seconds before eruption. They appear to be the small-scale analog of large-scale eruptive filaments observed against the disk. At the observed rate of 1.9 small-scale eruptive features per field of view per average 7.0 hour day, the rate of occurence of these events on the sun were estimated to be greater than 600 per 24 hour day.. The average duration of the eruptive phase was 26 minutes while the average lifetime from formation through eruption was 70 minutes. A majority of the small-scale filamentary sturctures were spatially related to cancelling magnetic features in line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms. Similar to large-scale filaments, the small-scale filamentary structures sometimes divided opposite polarity cancelling fragments but often had one or both ends terminating at a cancellation site. Their high numbers appear to reflect the much greater flux on the quiet sun. From their characteristics, evolution, and relationship to photospheric magnetic flux, it was concluded that the structures described are small-scale eruptive filaments and are a subset of all filaments

  13. Development of small-scale peat production; Pienturvetuotannon kehittaeminen

    Erkkilae, A.; Kallio, E. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat production to such a level that the productivity is improved and competitivity maintained. The aim in 1996 was to survey the present status of small-scale peat production, and research and development needs and to prepare a development plan for small-scale peat production for a continued project in 1997 and for the longer term. A questionnaire was sent to producers by mail, and its results were completed by phone interviews. Response was obtained from 164 producers, i.e. from about 75 - 85 % of small-scale peat producers. The quantity of energy peat produced by these amounted to 3.3 TWh and that of other peat to 265 000 m{sup 3}. The total production of energy peat (large- scale producers Vapo Oy and Turveruukki Oy included) amounted to 25.0 TWh in 1996 in Finland, of which 91 % (22.8 TWh) was milled peat and 9 % (2.2 TWh) of sod peat. The total production of peat other than energy peat amounted to 1.4 million m{sup 3}. The proportion of small-scale peat production was 13 % of energy peat, 11 % of milled peat and 38 % of sod peat. The proportion of small-scale producers was 18 % of other peat production. The results deviate clearly from those obtained in a study of small-scale production in the 1980s. The amount of small-scale production is clearly larger than generally assessed. Small-scale production focuses more on milled peat than on sod peat. The work will be continued in 1997. Based on development needs appeared in the questionnaire, the aim is to reduce environmental impacts and runoff effluents from small- scale production, to increase the efficiency of peat deliveries and to reduce peat production costs by improving the service value of machines by increasing co-operative use. (orig.)

  14. Rainwater harvesting for small-scale irrigation of maize in the Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia

    Keesstra, Saskia; Hartog, Maaike; Muluneh, Alemayehu; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2013-04-01

    In the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, small scale farmers mostly rely on rainfall for crop production. The erratic nature of rainfall causes frequent crop failures and makes the region structurally dependent on food aid. Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) is a technique to collect and store runoff that could provide water for livestock, domestic use or small scale irrigation. Usually, such irrigation is promoted for high value crops, but in the light of regional food security it may become interesting to invest in irrigation of maize. In this research, two cemented RWH cisterns were investigated to determine their economic and social potential for supplemental irrigation of maize using drip irrigation. For this, data from test fields with irrigated maize and monitoring of water levels of the cisterns were used, as well as a survey under 30 farmers living close to the experimental site. The results show that catchment size and management should be in balance with the designed RWH system, to prevent too little runoff or flooding. An analysis with Cropwat 8.0 was used to investigate the possibility of irrigating maize with the observed amounts of water in the RWH cisterns. This would suffice for 0.3-0.8 ha of maize. For a RWH cistern with a drip irrigation system to be economically viable, the production on this acreage should become 3-4 ton/ha; 2.5 times higher than the current yield. But the biggest challenge would be to change the perception of respondents, who don't find it logical to spend precious water on a common crop like maize. Therefore, if the Ethiopian government considers the irrigation of maize to be important for regional food security, it is recommended to either subsidize the construction of RWH cisterns or provide credit on favourable terms.

  15. Small scale renewable energy resource assessment for Newfoundland

    This paper discussed the potential for small-scale hydro and wind power projects in Newfoundland. The province currently uses thermal generation for 20 per cent of its energy requirements, despite the fact that good wind and hydro resources are available. The province may soon construct a multi-billion dollar transmission line in order to import energy from Labrador to replace thermal generation on the island. The aim of the study was to determine if small-scale hydro and wind power could replace current thermal generation using a simplified island system simulation. The study showed that small-scale hydro potential represents approximately 1000 MW of energy that is technically feasible. The wind resource potential of the island is also very high, with a high wind penetration capability. Updates to transmission and control systems are required to enable small-scale hydro and wind development in the province. It was concluded that a combination of small-scale hydro and wind power can be used to replace the province's thermal energy requirements. 38 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  16. Financing Sustainable Small-Scale Forestry: Lessons from Developing National Forest Financing Strategies in Latin America

    Herman Savenije

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems that hamper the financing of sustainable forest management (SFM are manifold and complex. However, forestry is also facing unprecedented opportunities. The multiple functions and values of forests are increasingly recognized as part of the solution to pressing global issues (e.g., climate change, energy scarcity, poverty, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and raw material supply. Emerging initiatives to enhance forest carbon stocks and cut greenhouse gas emissions associated with forest clearing (known as REDD+, together with voluntary carbon markets, are offering additional funding options for SFM. Indigenous peoples, local communities and small scale farmers feature as key players in the discourse on implementing such initiatives. Based on the experience of countries developing national forest financing strategies and instruments, we suggest the following points be considered when financing such initiatives, particularly for small scale forestry: (1 Integrate financing of REDD+ and similar initiatives within broader national strategies for SFM financing; (2 Design REDD+ finance mechanisms that are ‘community ready’, i.e., tailored to local realities; (3 Consider existing livelihood strategies as the starting point; (4 Build on existing structures, but be mindful of their strengths and weaknesses; (5 Be strategic with your priority actions; and (6 Promote innovation, knowledge sharing and information exchange.

  17. Cost of windmill irrigation. Cost analysis of wind pumps and diesel pumps used for small scale irrigation

    Mueller, A. M.; Jansen, A. M.

    1984-06-01

    A cost analysis and a method to make a quick economic comparison between wind pumps (water-pumping windmills) and diesel pumps (diesel powered water pumps) intended for use in small-scale lift irrigation are described. The analysis compares CWD wind pumps, designed for production in developing countries, with commercially available, traditional multiblade wind pumps. The variables required for comparison are: static lift, daily water requirement, and average wind speed during the period of irrigation. The analysis shows that for farmers engaged in small-scale lift irrigation on areas of up to 1 ha (2.5 acres), CWD wind pumps are economically more attractive than diesel pumps for average wind speeds during the irrigation season of 3.5 m/sec (7.8 mph). Commercial wind pumps are more attractive than diesel pumps for an average wind speed of 4.5 m/sec (10.1 mph).

  18. Small-scale feature removal in propeller inspection

    Allen, David W.; Reiser, Jacob J.; Machin, James D.; Koehler, Michael K.; Madden, Craig J.

    2012-07-01

    Range scanner inspection of manufactured artifacts like propeller blades produces data used to determine conformity to design. Inspection data contain both large- and small-scale feature information. Because small-scale feature information is irrelevant to analysis of large-scale features, determination of large-scale shape conformance is easier if small-scale information is removed. We discuss the combination of registration and smoothing methods that have been implemented in software for analysis of large-scale shape conformance of manufactured marine propeller blades. We show that although inspection systems produce errors and noise, we are able to create surfaces that accurately represent actual artifact large-scale features. To our knowledge the implementation of these methods has not been accomplished previously in an industrial inspection environment.

  19. CO2-impacts of a small-scale consumers levy

    Because of a number of developments (altered budgets of Dutch ministries and implementation of environmental policy plans of energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) the 1993 analyses of the effects of a small-scale consumer levy on the emission of CO2 are updated. First, attention is paid to the conservation impetus as a result of an increase of the energy price for small-scale consumers. Next, the effects that can occur as a consequence of the presently suggested form of the levy (in particular, the exemption of renewable energy and waste heat) are discussed. Subsequently, the alterations of other policy tools, that are necessary in case a higher effectiveness of conservation measures is realized, are dealt with. The direct effect of a higher energy price on the saving behavior of the small-scale consumers is calculated by means of the CENECA-model. 4 tabs., 1 appendix, 8 refs

  20. Engineering development for a small-scale recirculator experiment

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is evaluating the physics and technology of recirculating induction accelerators for heavy-ion inertial-fusion drivers. As part of this evaluation, the authors are building a small-scale recirculator to demonstrate the concept and to use as a test bed for the development of recirculator technologies. System designs have been completed and components are presently being designed and developed for the small-scale recirculator. This paper discusses results of the design and development activities that are presently being conducted to implement the small-scale recirculator experiments. An, overview of the system design is presented along with a discussion of the implications of this design on the mechanical and electrical hardware. The paper focuses primarily on discussions of the development and design of the half-lattice period hardware and the advanced solid-state modulator

  1. Small-Scale Dynamo Action in Primordial Halos

    Schober, Jennifer; Klessen, Ralf S; Federrath, Christoph; Bovino, Stefano; Glover, Simon; Banerjee, Robi

    2012-01-01

    The first galaxies form due to gravitational collapse of primordial halos. During this collapse, weak magnetic seed fields get amplified exponentially by the small-scale dynamo - a process converting kinetic energy from turbulence into magnetic energy. We use the Kazantsev theory, which describes the small-scale dynamo analytically, to study magnetic field amplification for different turbulent velocity correlation functions. For incompressible turbulence (Kolmogorov turbulence), we find that the growth rate is proportional to the square root of the hydrodynamic Reynolds number, Re^(1/2). In the case of highly compressible turbulence (Burgers turbulence) the growth rate increases proportional to Re^(1/3). With a detailed chemical network we are able to follow the chemical evolution and determine the kinetic and magnetic viscosities (due to Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion) during the collapse of the halo. This way, we can calculate the growth rate of the small-scale dynamo quantitatively and predict the evolution...

  2. Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

    Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(ℓ)∝ℓ^{ϑ}, where v(ℓ) is the eddy velocity at a scale ℓ. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ϑ=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ϑ=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm^{(1-ϑ)/(1+ϑ)}. We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{crit}, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rm_{crit} is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rm_{crit} provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales. PMID:23368064

  3. Small scale wood combustion in Germany. Recent research and trends

    Maier, H.; Unterberger, S.; Hein, K.R.G. [Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    To reduce Europe`s greenhouse gas emission CO{sub 2} it is a challenging task utilising biomass fuels as there are wood or wood residues from the forest industry. The utilisation can be done either in commercially operated medium (> 50 kWth) or full scale (> 1 MWth) decentralised heat and power stations or in small scale (< 50 kWth) domestic heating systems. In small scale heating systems untreated wood logs, wood briquette or wood pellets and in few cases wood chips are used. The present market in Germany is focused on the use of wood logs. Presently, the use of wood pellets in small scale automatically operated boilers < 15 kW especially for low energy houses is discussed more and more. Since 1980 the installation of new wood fired small scale domestic heating systems reached a significant size due to the interest of the customers to have a alternative inhouse heating system and to increase the living comfort. In 1994 the amount of sold small scale heaters in Germany were in total about 133.258 units. The thermal power of in 1994 sold units is estimated of about 1350 MW which is a significant size in total with regard to domestic heating purposes. Since few years there is a clear market trend in Germany towards the installation of open fire stoves. Due to this trend in Germany and the design characteristic of open fire stoves using huge glass doors of glass windows it is very difficult to achieve a further reduction of emissions like CO and unburned volatile hydrocarbons (VOC). In the text the requirements for modern small scale wood fired stoves in Germany as well as the actual stage and trend of research and development (R and D) are discussed 4 refs.

  4. The outlook for small-scale CHP in the USA

    The outlook for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) in the USA is discussed. Improved technologies and environmental benefits suggest that the market will increase, but regulatory and other barriers are expected to limit applications in the short-term to niche markets. The environmental benefits of small-scale CHP, the market opportunities offered by the deregulation of electric power, environmental regulatory barriers, comparisons of nitrogen oxide emissions, promising emerging technologies (gas microturbines and fuel cells), emerging markets (small manufacturing plants and medium and small commercial/institutional CHP systems) and the need for policies to overcome barriers and spur future growth are considered

  5. Small-Scale Anisotropies of Cosmic Rays from Relative Diffusion

    Ahlers, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The arrival directions of multi-TeV cosmic rays show significant anisotropies at small angular scales. It has been argued that this small-scale structure can naturally arise from cosmic ray scattering in local turbulent magnetic fields that distort a global dipole anisotropy set by diffusion. We study this effect in terms of the power spectrum of cosmic ray arrival directions and show that the strength of small-scale anisotropies is related to properties of relative diffusion. We provide a formalism for how these power spectra can be inferred from simulations and motivate a simple analytic extension of the ensemble-averaged diffusion equation that can account for the effect.

  6. Development of large and small scale seismic crosshole techniques

    A system for seismic crosshole measurements has been designed, built and tested. The system can be used both for small scale (ie 10 - 200 m) and large scale (ie 200 - 1000 m) operations. A tomographic inversion theory has been developed, which proves that the method can give unique results if the measuring geometry is carefully planned. Efficient algorithms for computation of tomographic pictures have been developed and coded. Two field tests have been carried out successfully. The small scale test gave a detailed picture, whereas in the large scale test only large features could be seen

  7. Kinks and small-scale structure on cosmic strings

    Copeland, E J

    2009-01-01

    We discuss some hitherto puzzling features of the small-scale structure of cosmic strings. We argue that kinks play a key role, and that an important quantity to study is their sharpness distribution. In particular we suggest that for very small scales the two-point correlation function of the string tangent vector varies linearly with the separation and not as a fractional power, as proposed by Polchinski and Rocha [Phys. Rev. D 74, 083504 (2006)]. However, our results are consistent with theirs, because the range of scales to which this linearity applies shrinks as evolution proceeds.

  8. Kinks and small-scale structure on cosmic strings

    Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.

    2009-12-01

    We discuss some hitherto puzzling features of the small-scale structure of cosmic strings. We argue that kinks play a key role, and that an important quantity to study is their sharpness distribution. In particular we suggest that for very small scales the two-point correlation function of the string tangent vector varies linearly with the separation and not as a fractional power, as proposed by Polchinski and Rocha [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 74, 083504 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevD.74.083504]. However, our results are consistent with theirs, because the range of scales to which this linearity applies shrinks as evolution proceeds.

  9. Kinks and small-scale structure on cosmic strings

    Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss some hitherto puzzling features of the small-scale structure of cosmic strings. We argue that kinks play a key role, and that an important quantity to study is their sharpness distribution. In particular we suggest that for very small scales the two-point correlation function of the string tangent vector varies linearly with the separation and not as a fractional power, as proposed by Polchinski and Rocha [Phys. Rev. D 74, 083504 (2006)]. However, our results are consistent with th...

  10. Relative risk for human illness of biogas effluent use in horticulture at small-scale pig farms in northern Vietnam

    Kiilholma, Jenni; Stockmarr, Anders; Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    -quality fertilizer effluent, reduction of problems with mal odour and a potential also to treat human waste products. Often the hygiene and health aspects of handling and digesting these organic wastes are unknown and the promotion of biogas technologies does rarely consider hygienic aspects. The aim of the current...... study was therefore to establish simple hygiene models for Vietnamese small-scale farmers that could describe the relative health risks associated with management of manure and consumption of the fertilized crop when using; i) fresh manure, ii) stored manure or iii) manure processed in the biogas plants....... The hygiene models were developed based on information collected during interviews and observations of Vietnamese farmers operating biogas digesters as well as from the literature. Rather than calculating the specific risk for one person to become infected when handling a specific type of manure, we...

  11. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  12. Spatial nonlocality of the small-scale solar dynamo

    Lamb, D. A.; Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E., E-mail: derek@boulder.swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We explore the nature of the small-scale solar dynamo by tracking magnetic features. We investigate two previously explored categories of the small-scale solar dynamo: shallow and deep. Recent modeling work on the shallow dynamo has produced a number of scenarios for how a strong network concentration can influence the formation and polarity of nearby small-scale magnetic features. These scenarios have measurable signatures, for which we test using magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on board Hinode. We find no statistical tendency for newly formed magnetic features to cluster around or away from network concentrations, nor do we find any statistical relationship between their polarities. We conclude that there is no shallow or 'surface' dynamo on the spatial scales observable by Hinode/NFI. In light of these results, we offer a scenario in which the subsurface field in a deep solar dynamo is stretched and distorted via turbulence, allowing the small-scale field to emerge at random locations on the photosphere.

  13. Spatial nonlocality of the small-scale solar dynamo

    We explore the nature of the small-scale solar dynamo by tracking magnetic features. We investigate two previously explored categories of the small-scale solar dynamo: shallow and deep. Recent modeling work on the shallow dynamo has produced a number of scenarios for how a strong network concentration can influence the formation and polarity of nearby small-scale magnetic features. These scenarios have measurable signatures, for which we test using magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on board Hinode. We find no statistical tendency for newly formed magnetic features to cluster around or away from network concentrations, nor do we find any statistical relationship between their polarities. We conclude that there is no shallow or 'surface' dynamo on the spatial scales observable by Hinode/NFI. In light of these results, we offer a scenario in which the subsurface field in a deep solar dynamo is stretched and distorted via turbulence, allowing the small-scale field to emerge at random locations on the photosphere.

  14. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Energy Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    Bassan, Elizabeth Ann; Wood, Timothy S., Ed.

    This manual is the fourth volume in a series of publications that provide information for the planning of environmentally sound small-scale projects. Programs that aim to protect the renewable natural resources that supply most of the energy used in developing nations are suggested. Considerations are made for physical environmental factors as…

  15. Solar small-scale dynamo and polarity of sunspot groups

    Sokoloff, D; Abramenko, V

    2015-01-01

    In order to clarify a possible role of small-scale dynamo in formation of solar magnetic field, we suggest an observational test for small-scale dynamo action based on statistics of anti-Hale sunspot groups. As we have shown, according to theoretical expectations the small-scale dynamo action has to provide a population of sunspot groups which do not follow the Hale polarity law, and the density of such groups on the time-latitude diagram is expected to be independent on the phase of the solar cycle. Correspondingly, a percentage of the anti-Hale groups is expected to reach its maximum values during solar minima. For several solar cycles, we considered statistics of anti-Hale groups obtained by several scientific teams, including ours, to find that the percentage of anti-Hale groups becomes indeed maximal during a solar minimum. Our interpretation is that this fact may be explained by the small-scale dynamo action inside the solar convective zone.

  16. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Forestry Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    Ffolliott, Peter F.; Thames, John L.

    This manual, the third in a series of publications that address community development possibilities in developing nations, provides guidelines for small-scale forestry projects that are integrative and conservation-oriented. Chapters focus on: (1) users and uses (specifying targeted audience and general objectives); (2) planning process (including…

  17. Small Scale Beekeeping. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-17.

    Gentry, Curtis

    This manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in the development and implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives; intermediate technology beekeeping;…

  18. Small Scale Marine Fisheries: An Extension Training Manual. TR-30.

    Martinson, Steven; And Others

    This manual is designed for use in a preservice training program for prospective volunteers whose Peace Corps service will be spent working with small-scale artisanal fishing communities in developing nations. The program consists of 8 weeks of intensive training to develop competencies in marine fisheries technology and fisheries extension work…

  19. Simulating Small-Scale Object Stacking Using Stack Stability

    Kronborg Thomsen, Kasper; Kraus, Martin

    This paper presents an extension system to a closed-source, real-time physics engine for improving structured stacking behavior with small-scale objects such as wooden toy bricks. The proposed system was implemented and evaluated. The tests showed that the system is able to simulate several common...

  20. Solar small-scale dynamo and polarity of sunspot groups

    Sokoloff, D.; Khlystova, A.; Abramenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    In order to clarify a possible role of small-scale dynamo in formation of solar magnetic field, we suggest an observational test for small-scale dynamo action based on statistics of anti-Hale sunspot groups. As we have shown, according to theoretical expectations the small-scale dynamo action has to provide a population of sunspot groups which do not follow the Hale polarity law, and the density of such groups on the time-latitude diagram is expected to be independent on the phase of the solar cycle. Correspondingly, a percentage of the anti-Hale groups is expected to reach its maximum values during solar minima. For several solar cycles, we considered statistics of anti-Hale groups obtained by several scientific teams, including ours, to find that the percentage of anti-Hale groups becomes indeed maximal during a solar minimum. Our interpretation is that this fact may be explained by the small-scale dynamo action inside the solar convective zone.

  1. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  2. Farmers Insures Success

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  3. The small-scale structure of quantum spacetime

    Burton, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    Planck-scale quantum spacetime undergoes probabilistic local curvature fluctuations whose distributions cannot explicitly depend on position otherwise vacuum's small-scale quantum structure would fail to be statistically homogeneous. Since the collection of fluctuations is a many-body system, the natural explanation for their position-independent statistics is that they are in equilibrium with each other and distributed at maximum entropy. Consequently, their probability distributions obey the laws of statistical physics which enforces small-scale smoothness, prevents the homogeneity-violating diffusion found in any free quantum system, and maintains decoherence. Their entropy, calculated using the explicitly-constructed phase space of the Riemann whose statistics are derived using a background-independent graviton exchange ensemble, is proportional to the Einstein-Hilbert action evaluated on the macroscopic expected geometry and includes a small, positive cosmological constant. Entropy maximization yields qu...

  4. Cold Dark Matter's Small Scale Crisis Grows Up

    D'Onghia, E; Onghia, Elena D'; Lake, George

    2003-01-01

    The Cold Dark Matter (CDM) theory predicts a wealth of substructure within dark halos. These predictions match observations of galaxy clusters like the nearby Virgo cluster. However, CDM has a "small scale crisis" since galaxies define {\\it overmerging} wherein a single galaxy dominates the halo with little substructure while the model predicts that galaxies should be scaled versions of galaxy clusters with abundant rich substructure.Compared to CDM predictions the Milky Way and Andromeda are "missing" ~500 objects with velocity dispersions $\\sigma \\sim 10$ km$^{-1}$. The energy scale of these missing satellites is low enough that stellar winds and supernovae might remove gas and suppress the formation of their luminous stellar components. Here, we show that the small scale crisis persists in fossil groups that have masses of up to 40% of the nearby Virgo cluster of galaxies. Fossil groups are missing ~500 satellites with luminosities that occur at the predicted frequency in the Virgo cluster. Moreover, the "...

  5. Small-scale anisotropies of cosmic rays from relative diffusion

    Mertsch, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The arrival directions of multi-TeV cosmic rays show significant anisotropies at small angular scales. It has been argued that this small scale structure is reflecting the local, turbulent magnetic field in the presence of a global dipole anisotropy in cosmic rays as determined by diffusion. This effect is analogous to weak gravitational lensing of temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background. We show that the non-trivial power spectrum in this setup can be related to the properties of relative diffusion and we study the convergence of the angular power spectrum to a steady-state as a function of backtracking time. We also determine the steady-state solution in an analytical approach based on a modified BGK ansatz. A rigorous mathematical treatment of the generation of small scale anisotropies will help in unraveling the structure of the local magnetic field through cosmic ray anisotropies.

  6. Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudan; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2012-01-01

    to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on...... towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. RESULTS: To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation...

  7. Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies.

    Glowacki, Luke; von Rueden, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Observation of leadership in small-scale societies offers unique insights into the evolution of human collective action and the origins of sociopolitical complexity. Using behavioural data from the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and Nyangatom nomadic pastoralists of Ethiopia, we evaluate the traits of leaders and the contexts in which leadership becomes more institutional. We find that leaders tend to have more capital, in the form of age-related knowledge, body size or social connections. These attributes can reduce the costs leaders incur and increase the efficacy of leadership. Leadership becomes more institutional in domains of collective action, such as resolution of intragroup conflict, where collective action failure threatens group integrity. Together these data support the hypothesis that leadership is an important means by which collective action problems are overcome in small-scale societies. PMID:26503683

  8. Large- and small-scale dynamics of the polar cusp

    Two cases of a midday cusp auroral dynamics are studied in relation to changes in the solar wind. Attention is focused on the small-scale dynamics of individual auroral forms in the midday cusp as well as more large-scale behavior of the oval in the magnetic midday sector. One case illustrates the response of the optical aurora and the geomagnetic field in the cusp when a compression in the solar wind impinges on the earth's magnetosphere. The effect of the IMF B(Y) component on the geomagnetic signature at different stations close to the cusp aurora is shown. The response of the midday port of the oval to distinct southward and northward turnings of the magnetosheath magnetic field is described, and certain small-scale auroral dynamics are discussed as possible effects of impulsive plasma transport across the dayside magnetosphere. 37 references

  9. Biofuels in Africa: growing small-scale opportunities

    Sulle, Emmanuel [Tanzania Natural Resources Forum (Tanzania, United Republic of); Fauveaud, Swan [Renewable Energy Group, Environment and Solidarity (France); Vermeulen, Sonja

    2009-11-15

    Global demand for climate-friendly transport fuels is driving vast commercial biofuels projects in developing countries. At the opposite end of the spectrum is small-scale bioenergy production. This offers a way for the poor to meet their energy needs and diversify their livelihoods without compromising food security or environmental integrity. Governments hope that it will be possible to combine the advantages of both large- and small-scale production of biofuels to generate energy security and GDP at the national level, while opening up local opportunities. In Africa, most governments are keen to attract foreign direct investment, and see big business as a strategic means of scaling up rural development. But there is a middle way. By encouraging business models that bridge large and small enterprise, African governments could show that commercial competition can go hand in hand with a range of real local benefits.

  10. Diagnosis and the management constituency of small-scale fisheries

    Evans, L.; Andrew, N.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis and adaptive management can help improve the ability of small-scale fisheries (SSF) in the developing world to better cope with and adapt to both external drivers and internal sources of uncertainty. This paper presents a framework for diagnosis and adaptive management and discusses ways of implementing the first two phases of learning: diagnosis and mobilising an appropriate management constituency. The discussion addresses key issues and suggests suitable approaches and tools as w...

  11. Effectiveness of 3D Printing in Small Scale Production

    HUTTUNEN, Jani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to estimate the effectiveness of two 3D printing methods (fused deposition modeling and stereolithography) for prototyping and small-scale production at a 3D printing laboratory at Metropolia University of Applied Sciences. The 3D printing technology is currently developing, so not much literature is available yet. That is the reason why before actual production a thorough analysis is needed of the advantages and disadvantages and of the effectiveness of the...

  12. Evolution of Small Scale Magnetic Structures from Sunrise Data

    Anusha, L. S.; Feller, A.; Hirzberger, J.; Solanki, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    We present the results of an analysis of small scale magnetic features in the quiet Sun, observed with the Sunrise balloon borne telescope. Our aim is to understand the contribution of different physical processes that drive the evolution of magnetic features in quiet regions of the photosphere. To this end, we study the rearrangement, addition, and removal of magnetic flux through splitting, merging, cancellation, and emergence of magnetic fields.

  13. Cold Dark Matter's Small Scale Crisis Grows Up

    D'Onghia, Elena; Lake, George

    2003-01-01

    The Cold Dark Matter (CDM) theory predicts a wealth of substructure within dark halos. These predictions match observations of galaxy clusters like the nearby Virgo cluster. However, CDM has a "small scale crisis" since galaxies dominate the halo with little substructure while the model predicts that galaxies should be scaled versions of galaxy clusters with abundant substructure. Compared to CDM predictions, the Milky Way and Andromeda are "missing" objects with velocity dispersions $\\sigma ...

  14. The Small-Scale Dynamo at Low Magnetic Prandtl Numbers

    Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2012-01-01

    The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbul...

  15. Characterizing the Small Scale Structure in Clusters of Galaxies

    Forman, William R.

    1999-01-01

    We have applied a wavelet transform analysis to quantify the small-scale (less than a few arcminutes) X-ray structure of clusters of galaxies to several clusters. Three of these clusters show interesting structure. In addition to the small scale structure in surface brightness, we have searched for temperature structure using Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observations. For A754, we find a filamentary structure, similar to that previously detected in A85. For A119, we find small scale structure associated with both cool and hot regions with a hot filament extending to the northeast. For A1750, one of the first clusters to show substructure from Einstein, we have a rederived the substructure from the ROSAT observations. The ASCA observations show a hot region between the two small scale features - sub-clusters. The hot region shows that the two subclusters are merging and producing a shock wave at the leading edge of the interaction. This analysis had been applied to a sample of 17 clusters to determine the radial distribution of substructure in a sample. The number of detected substructures was rather small and it was decided to select a different cluster sample at larger redshift. This provided a larger radial range over which substructure could be detected. This new cluster sample also includes about 20 clusters and is being analyzed. Finally, we are considering how to compare the substructure parameters of nearby clusters with a more distant sample to see if one can extract cosmological information. Since substructure frequency should depend on the cosmological density parameter, it may be possible to derive new constraints by comparing nearby and distant clusters.

  16. Development of a small scale orange juice extractor

    Olaniyan, A.M

    2010-01-01

    A small scale motorized orange juice extractor was designed and fabricated, using locally-available construction materials. The essential components of the machine include feeding hopper, top cover, worm shaft, juice sieve, juice collector, waste outlet, transmission belt, main frame, pulleys and bearings. In operation, the worm shaft conveys, crushes, presses and squeezes the fruit to extract the juice. The juice extracted is filtered through the juice sieve into juice collector while the re...

  17. Small scale combined heat and power units using external combustion

    Johansen, Pål André

    2013-01-01

    Combined heat and power plants are of increasing interest due to the rising concern over global warming as they can lower emissions, by having very higher efficiencies than traditional power plants. Implemented on a small scale units and with external combustion they allow for great flexibility in implementation and fuel, and can allow for remote locations to serve their own heat and power needs. This thesis investigates in the first part the available technologies for such plants on a small ...

  18. Small scale wind energy harvesting with maximum power tracking

    Joaquim Azevedo; Fábio Mendonça

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that energy harvesting from wind can be used to power remote monitoring systems. There are several studies that use wind energy in small-scale systems, mainly with wind turbine vertical axis. However, there are very few studies with actual implementations of small wind turbines. This paper compares the performance of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines for energy harvesting on wireless sensor network applications. The problem with the use of wind energy is that most of...

  19. Methods for evaluation of small scale quality improvement projects

    Harvey, G; Wensing, M

    2003-01-01

    ?? Evaluation is an integral component of quality improvement and there is much to be learned from the evaluation of small scale quality improvement initiatives at a local level. This type of evaluation is useful for a number of different reasons including monitoring the impact of local projects, identifying and dealing with issues as they arise within a project, comparing local projects to draw lessons, and collecting more detailed information as part of a bigger evaluation project. Focused ...

  20. Optimal Combustion Conditions for a Small-scale Biomass Boiler

    Viktor Plaček; Cyril Oswald; Jan Hrdlička

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an attempt to achieve maximum efficiency and lowest possible emissions for a small-scale biomass boiler. This aim can be attained only by changing the control algorithm of the boiler, and in this way not raising the acquisition costs for the boiler. This paper describes the experimental facility, the problems that arose while establishing the facility, and how we have dealt with them. The focus is on discontinuities arising after periodic grate sweeping, and on finding t...

  1. Small-Scale Retailers in an Island Town

    Sivapalan Selvadurai; A. C. Er; N. Lyndon; A. Buang; M. J. Mohd Fuad; A. Habibah; Hamzah, J.; A. M. Azima; A. B. Junaidi; Mohd Yusof Hussein

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the competition faced by small-scale general store and textile retailing in an island town in Malaysia. The study was carried out in Labuan Town in Labuan Island of East Malaysia. A qualitative research design was utilized, involving primarily interview data which were collected from 12 in-depth interviews with 6 sundry and general store retailers and 6 textile retailers. Content analysis was executed to analyse the narrative data. The findings reveal that large store reta...

  2. Costs for renewable electricity. Small-scale hydroelectric power

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to provide an objective basis for the determination of the assumptions that are used for the calculation of the so-called uneconomic top of electricity production from renewable energy sources, carried out by ECN and KEMA. The results will be used for the determination of the subsidy tariffs for small-scale hydroelectric power plants and is part of the Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP, abbreviated in Dutch) policy

  3. Spatial Nonlocality of the Small-Scale Solar Dynamo

    Lamb, Derek A; DeForest, Craig E

    2014-01-01

    We explore the nature of the small-scale solar dynamo by tracking magnetic features. We investigate two previously-explored categories of the small-scale solar dynamo: shallow and deep. Recent modeling work on the shallow dynamo has produced a number of scenarios for how a strong network concentration can influence the formation and polarity of nearby small-scale magnetic features. These scenarios have measurable signatures, which we test for here using magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on Hinode. We find no statistical tendency for newly-formed magnetic features to cluster around or away from network concentrations, nor do we find any statistical relationship between their polarities. We conclude that there is no shallow or "surface" dynamo on the spatial scales observable by Hinode/NFI. In light of these results, we offer a scenario in which the sub-surface field in a deep solar dynamo is stretched and distorted via turbulence, allowing the field to emerge at random locations on the photo...

  4. Subcritical small-scale dynamos at low magnetic Prandtl numbers

    Brandenburg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Saturated small-scale dynamo solutions driven by isotropic non-helical turbulence are presented at low magnetic Prandtl numbers down to 0.02, and, with less certainty, down to 0.01. In that range, most of the energy is dissipated via Joule heat and, in agreement with earlier results for helical large-scale dynamos, kinetic energy dissipation is shown to diminish proportional to the square root of the magnetic Prandtl number. Nevertheless, the rms magnetic field strength of the small-scale dynamo is found to depend only weakly on the value of the magnetic Prandtl number and decreases by about a factor of 2 as its value is decreased from 1 to 0.01. Restarting a simulation with a down-scaled magnetic field leads to decay, giving evidence for a subcritical nature of small-scale dynamos at low magnetic Prandtl numbers. This is argued to be a consequence of a suppression of the bottleneck seen in the kinetic energy spectrum in the absence of a dynamo and, more generally, a suppression of kinetic energy near the dis...

  5. The legalization of small scale mining in Colombia

    Alexandra Urán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents conceptual and analytical elements that allow us to broaden the debate about the legalization of the mining in Colombia. Looking for items to be able to propose alternatives in order to consolidate a new mining process socially and environmentally sustainable, claiming the value of the ancestral practices and forms of the redistributive production. To this end, it is necessary to start with the discussion of the concepts of formalization and legality, so that we can generate a theoretical framework that will allow us to explore such delicate matter, we will continue to make the framework socio-political, in which it is based that strategy. Then there is a brief context of thereformulation of legal mining, focusing our attention particularly standards which involves or has effects on artisanal mining and/or small-scale mining. There we will find ourselves with a debate on the typology of the mining and the current difficulties to define schemasof legalization or formalization of small-scale mining in Colombia. To conclude with a proposal to formalize as a mechanism of transition to an administrative system - legislativethat will connect more effectively with the realities and skills of the ethnic communities that practice small-scale mining.

  6. A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence

    Bhat, Pallavi; Brandenburg, Axel

    2015-01-01

    We use high resolution direct numerical simulations to show that helical turbulence can generate large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale fields.During the kinematic stage, the unified large/small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shape-invariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large $k$. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small $k$ in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. The strength of such kinematic large-scale field $\\overline{B}$ relative to the total rms field $B_{rms}$ decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, $Re_{M}$. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic power spectrum in the saturated state shows peaks at both the forcing wavenumber $k=k_f$, and at the box scale, $k=1$. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, increas...

  7. Extraction of Extended Small-Scale Objects in Digital Images

    Volkov, V. Y.

    2015-05-01

    Detection and localization problem of extended small-scale objects with different shapes appears in radio observation systems which use SAR, infra-red, lidar and television camera. Intensive non-stationary background is the main difficulty for processing. Other challenge is low quality of images, blobs, blurred boundaries; in addition SAR images suffer from a serious intrinsic speckle noise. Statistics of background is not normal, it has evident skewness and heavy tails in probability density, so it is hard to identify it. The problem of extraction small-scale objects is solved here on the basis of directional filtering, adaptive thresholding and morthological analysis. New kind of masks is used which are open-ended at one side so it is possible to extract ends of line segments with unknown length. An advanced method of dynamical adaptive threshold setting is investigated which is based on isolated fragments extraction after thresholding. Hierarchy of isolated fragments on binary image is proposed for the analysis of segmentation results. It includes small-scale objects with different shape, size and orientation. The method uses extraction of isolated fragments in binary image and counting points in these fragments. Number of points in extracted fragments is normalized to the total number of points for given threshold and is used as effectiveness of extraction for these fragments. New method for adaptive threshold setting and control maximises effectiveness of extraction. It has optimality properties for objects extraction in normal noise field and shows effective results for real SAR images.

  8. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    Zhou, Caizhi

    2010-12-15

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  9. Characteristic of Small Scale Food Industry Cluster in West Sumatera

    Gunarif Taib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clusters of small-scale food industries have different characteristics with industrial cluster in general. These characteristics need to know to develop a plan for cluster development. This study was conducted to determine charasteristics clusters of small-scale food industry, especially in West Sumatra. For the analysis of the components of industrial and technological components that affect the development of small-scale food industry cluster in West Sumatra. All variables influence the level of industrial components and technology components were analyzed using the program "Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS". The survey results revealed that the industrial component is influenced by the core industry (level of difficulty in capital gain and raw materials, the buyer (customer satisfaction, related industry (quality and continuity of supply of packaging and institutional support (coaching on marketing and capitalization as well as guidance on the production of sanitary and food safety. Component technology is influenced by organoware (production management and marketing management and humanware (innovation and trust among the members.

  10. Impacts of Domestic Maize Price Changes on the Performance of Small-scale Broiler Farming in Indonesia

    S. J. K. Umboh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at analyzing the impact of maize price changes on the performance of small-scale broiler farming in Indonesia using a multimarket model analysis. The multimarket model analysis is partial equilibrium analysis that contains six blocks of equations: prices, supply, input demand, consumption, income and equilibrium. This model analysis was originally designed in General Algebric Modelling System (GAMS using the Path NLP solver. Employed data in this study were classified into 3 types, namely: (1 production and input, consumption, and household income; (2 inputs and outputs, and (3 elasticities. Decreased domestic maize price was responded by farmer through reducing maize planted area and fertilizers uses. It further had undesired impact on the maize production and maize farmer’s income. Whereas, this policy had positive impact on meat production and small-scale broiler farming income. The opposite impact will happen on those variables, if government increases domestic maize price. This policy caused the maize demand for feed industry decreased. As a result of this condition, it decreased the chicken meat production and small-scale broiler farming income.

  11. Rethinking the Risk Management Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale, Traditionally Based Agriculture

    Daniela Soleri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of genetically engineered (GE crops often assume that the risk management used in the industrial world is appropriate for small-scale, traditionally based agriculture in the Third World. Opponents of GE crops often assume that risk management is inappropriate for the Third World, because it is inherently biased in favor of the industrial world. We examine both of these assumptions, by rethinking risk management for GE crops and transgenes, using the example of maize transgene flow from the U.S. to Mexico. Risk management for the Third World is a necessary first step of a broader benefit–cost analysis of GE crops, which would include comparisons with existing varieties and with alternative varieties such as transgenic farmer varieties and organic varieties. Our goal is to use existing information on GE crops and on the social and biological characteristics of Third World agriculture to identify key processes that need to be considered in risk management, and the additional research required to adequately understand them. The four main steps in risk management are hazard identification, risk analysis (exposure x harm, risk evaluation, and risk treatment. We use informal event trees to identify possible exposure to GE crops and transgenes, and resulting biological and social harm; give examples of farmers' ability to evaluate social harm; and discuss the possibilities for risk treatment. We conclude that risk management is relevant for Third World agriculture, but needs to be based on the unique biological and social characteristics of small-scale, traditionally based agriculture, including the knowledge and values of Third World farmers and consumers.

  12. A small-scale land-sparing approach to conserving biological diversity in tropical agricultural landscapes.

    Chandler, Richard B; King, David I; Raudales, Raul; Trubey, Richard; Chandler, Carlin; Chávez, Víctor Julio Arce

    2013-08-01

    Two contrasting strategies have been proposed for conserving biological diversity while meeting the increasing demand for agricultural products: land sparing and land sharing production systems. Land sparing involves increasing yield to reduce the amount of land needed for agriculture, whereas land-sharing agricultural practices incorporate elements of native ecosystems into the production system itself. Although the conservation value of these systems has been extensively debated, empirical studies are lacking. We compared bird communities in shade coffee, a widely practiced land-sharing system in which shade trees are maintained within the coffee plantation, with bird communities in a novel, small-scale, land-sparing coffee-production system (integrated open canopy or IOC coffee) in which farmers obtain higher yields under little or no shade while conserving an area of forest equal to the area under cultivation. Species richness and diversity of forest-dependent birds were higher in the IOC coffee farms than in the shade coffee farms, and community composition was more similar between IOC coffee and primary forest than between shade coffee and primary forest. Our study represents the first empirical comparison of well-defined land sparing and land sharing production systems. Because IOC coffee farms can be established by allowing forest to regenerate on degraded land, widespread adoption of this system could lead to substantial increases in forest cover and carbon sequestration without compromising agricultural yield or threatening the livelihoods of traditional small farmers. However, we studied small farms (<5 ha); thus, our results may not generalize to large-scale land-sharing systems. Furthermore, rather than concluding that land sparing is generally superior to land sharing, we suggest that the optimal approach depends on the crop, local climate, and existing land-use patterns. PMID:23551570

  13. Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Plants Using Biofuels

    Salomon-Popa, Marianne [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-11-01

    In this time period where energy supply and climate change are of special concern, biomass-based fuels have attracted much interest due to their plentiful supply and favorable environmental characteristics (if properly managed). The effective capture and continued sustainability of this renewable resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants with high fuel energy conversion. At the same time, deregulation of the electricity market offers new opportunities for small-scale power plants in a decentralized scheme. These two important factors have opened up possibilities for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. The objective of this pre-study is to assess the possibilities and technical limitations for increased efficiency and energy utilization of biofuels in small size plants (approximately 10 MWe or lower). Various energy conversion technologies are considered and proven concepts for large-scale fossil fuel plants are an especially important area. An analysis has been made to identify the problems, technical limitations and different possibilities as recognized in the literature. Beyond published results, a qualitative survey was conducted to gain first-hand, current knowledge from experts in the field. At best, the survey results together with the results of personal interviews and a workshop on the role of small-scale plants in distributed generation will serve a guideline for future project directions and ideas. Conventional and novel technologies are included in the survey such as Stirling engines, combustion engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, steam motors, fuel cells and other novel technologies/cycles for biofuels. State-of-the-art heat and power plants will be identified to clarify of the advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles for their implementation.

  14. Small-scale power plant potential in Finland

    The presentation discusses the small-scale power plant potential in Finland. The study of the potential is limited to W-scale power plants producing both electric power and heat using solid fuels. The basic power plant dimensioning and electric power load determination is based on traditional boiler and gas turbine technology. The possible sites for power plants are communities using district heating, and industrialized sites needing process steam or heat. In 1990 70 % (17 TWh) of district heat was produced by gas turbines. Ten communities have an own back-pressure power plant, and 40 communities buy heat from industrial plants, owing back-pressure power generation. Additionally about 40 communes buy district heat from companies, owned by power companies and industry. Estimates of small-scale power plant potential has been made plant wise on the basis of district heat loads and industrial heat needs. The scale of the plants has been limited to scale 3 MWe or more. The choosing of the fuel depends on the local conditions. The cheapest indigenous fuels in many communes are industrial wood wastes, and both milled and sod peat. The potential of steam technology based small-scale power plants has been estimated to be about 50 plants in 1992/1993, the total power of which is 220-260 MW. The largest estimate is base situation, in which there would be energy cooperation between the communes and industry. The fuel used by the power plants would be about 5.4-6.6 TWh/a corresponding to 270-330 million FIM/a. The total investment costs of the plants would be about 2.0 billion FIM. The plants would employ about 250 persons, and the fuel supply (wood or peat) about 100 persons

  15. Small Scale Testing of Core Fast Reactor Materials

    The Fuel Cycle R and D (FCRD) initiative is investigating methods of burning minor actinides in a transmutation fuel. To achieve this goal, the fast reactor core materials (cladding and duct) must be able to withstand very high doses (>200 dpa design goal). While mechanical testing on large samples delivers direct engineering data these types of tests are only possible if enough sample material and required hot cell capabilities are available. Small scale materials testing methods in addition to large scale materials testing allows one to gain more insight on the same specimen and directly probe areas of interest which are not accessible otherwise (small welds, areas with different microstructure, etc.). However, in order to use small scale testing techniques and to probe materials microstructures using these methods, the relationship between the different scales needs to be investigated. In order to establish a research based relationship between small scale and large scale materials testing several different mechanical testing techniques were conducted on the same specimen irradiated in the Spallation Target Irradiation Program (STIP) at the Swiss spallation source (SINQ) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) up to a dose of 19 dpa. Tensile testing, micro hardness testing and micro compression testing on focused ion beam (FIB) manufactured pillars were performed on remaining parts of tensile test specimens tested and irradiated at PSI. It is shown that the yield strength increases measured by tensile testing, micro compression testing and micro hardness testing all show the same trend. In addition FIB based techniques also allow one to cut local electrode atom probe (LEAP) samples. In this procedure samples are cut of such a small size that no radioactivity on the prepared sample can be measured. In order to establish trust in these FIB based techniques estimations of residual activity on these samples is essential and presented here. (author)

  16. Dynamics of small-scale precipitation enhancement in mountainous terrain

    Mott, R.; Scipion, D.; Berne, A.; Dawes, N.; Lehning, M.

    2012-04-01

    In mountainous terrain precipitation patterns are strongly influenced by the topography. At larger scales the complex topography induces orographic cloud formation, while at smaller scales the local flow field leads to the preferred deposition of precipitation in leeward slopes. In this study, we focus on the small-scale precipitation enhancement close to the ridge controlled by the topographically induced local flow field. A mobile polarimetric X-band radar was deployed in the area of Davos (Switzerland) to determine the spatial variability of snow fall at a high spatial resolution of 75 m. In order to relate measured precipitation fields to flow dynamics, we modelled flow fields with the atmospheric prediction model Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS). Additionally, comparison of precipitation fields at a height of hundreds of meters above the surface with snow accumulation at the surface was facilitated by modelling/measuring snow accumulation fields with Alpine3D and Airborne Laser Scans respectively. Based on this dataset we investigated the small-scale precipitation dynamics for one heavy snow fall event in March 2011. The results showed a clear precipitation enhancement close to the ridge at the transition between the updraft and downdraft zone. The precipitation concentration increased in the presence of flow acceleration at windward slopes and decreased in the presence of flow deceleration at the leeward slopes. Measurements show that the temporal variation of the location of maximum concentration is strongly dependent on the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity. For situations with strong horizontal winds, the concentration maximum is shifted from the ridge crest towards the leeward slopes. Results further suggest that the small-scale precipitation enhancement at the ridge crest can be temporally and locally increased by the seeder-feeder mechanism. Although precipitation concentration at the height seen by the radar is different to the snow accumulation measured at the ground, these results strongly support the concept of preferential deposition of precipitation.

  17. Small Scale Enterprises (SMES) and Ethics: Yobe State Experience, Nigeria

    habu bah-yaye adamu; Goni Abba Kura; Ya’u Saidu; Maigana Amsami

    2014-01-01

    Authors in this study analyzed data from 180 small scale enterprises (SMEs) in Yobe State, Nigeria. The study was limited to only SMEs in the three geopolitical zone of the State. The constraint was depicted, that ethics are not practice and respected in the domain of SMEs in the state. The study confirms that greater percentage of SMEs did not practice nor respect the fact that ethic is necessary for business. In a developing economy like Nigeria, SMEs play tremendous role in reengineering t...

  18. Small scale studies of production of fissium aerosols

    A small scale study concerning the production and analysis of fission product aerosols formed at various temperatures as a function of the chemical composition of the fissium/corium mixture at the source is presented. CsOH, CsJ and Te are the main aerosol components to be expected. The thermodynamic characterization of occuring Te-iodides and other phases is of great importance for reactor core meltdown chemistry and for the evaluation of the aerosol transport tests. Elemental iodine seems not to be released in significant amounts in reducing atmosphere. Analysis data concerning elements, phases, themral analysis and gases are presented. (G.B.)

  19. Interactive economic analysis of small-scale heating plant

    This report contains the work that has been undertaken by LRZ Limited in pursuance of this agreement. The potential for small-scale biomass heating systems is identified, and surrounding issues relating to acceptance are discussed. Such systems are described, and the origins of capital and running costs examined. A full review of the calculation methods for boiler plant size and fuel consumption is made, and subsequently expounded in four varying case studies. The results of this work are discussed, and the final development of the computer models is reviewed, incorporating further refinements to the method. Finally, data not contained in the text is incorporated in comprehensive appendices. (author)

  20. Small-scale generator opportunities in the competitive supply market

    The last franchises for electricity supply held by Public Electricity Suppliers are due to expire early in 1998. As a consequence from then on, after a phased start-up, all electricity consumers will be free to choose their supplier, completing the process of introducing competition into the electricity market which started in 1990 with the privatisation of the Industry. Then the framework by which the industry operates will become very different. This paper will review the changes to the operation of the market and assess the opportunities for small scale embedded generators post 1998. (Author)

  1. Wavelet based model for small-scale turbulence

    Zimin, Valery; Hussain, Fazle

    1995-12-01

    Using a vector wavelet decomposition of the velocity field a simple model for locally isotropic turbulence has been derived from the Navier-Stokes equation (NSE). This model, which involves no empirical or ad hoc parameter, incorporates nonlocal interscale interactions, reveals backscatter and can be applied to represent small-scale turbulence in LES schemes. The model gives a stationary solution which corresponds to k-5/3 Kolmogorov spectrum. Moreover, the model equations produce k4 infrared spectrum from an initial energy peak at intermediate scales.

  2. Small-scale Testing of Bucket Foundations in Sand

    Knudsen, Bjørn S.; Østergaard, Martin Underlin; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    For offshore foundation structures, the loads are of varying nature both in magnitude and duration. For the bucket foundation the dissipation of the pore pressure is highly relevant since it greatly affects the strength of the structure. The build up of pore pressures with varying loading rate is...... skirt will provide valuable information of the quasi-static behaviour. For a number of small-scale tests performed in the laboratory at Aalborg University, a bucket foundation will be loaded with varying velocity to investigate the dissipation and general behaviour of bucket foundations used as offshore...

  3. Probing small-scale intermittency with a fluctuation theorem

    Nickelsen, D

    2014-01-01

    We characterize statistical properties of the flow field in developed turbulence using concepts from stochastic thermodynamics. On the basis of data from a free air-jet experiment, we demonstrate how the dynamic fluctuations induced by small-scale intermittency generate analogs of entropy-consuming trajectories with sufficient weight to make fluctuation theorems observable at the macroscopic scale. We propose an integral fluctuation theorem for the entropy production associated with the energy transfer along the eddy-hierarchy and demonstrate its extreme sensitivity to the accurate description of the tails of the velocity distributions.

  4. Mesoscopic Thermodynamics for the Dynamics of Small-Scale Systems

    J. Miguel Rubi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the mesoscopic dynamics of small-scale systems from the perspective of mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The theory obtains the Fokker–Planck equation as a diffusion equation for the probability density of the mesoscopic variables and the nonlinear relationships between activation rates and affinities proper of activated processes. The situations that can be studied with this formalism include, among others, barrier crossing dynamics and non-linear transport in a great variety of systems. We, in particular, consider the cases of single-molecule stretching and activated processes in small systems.

  5. Dimensional analysis of small-scale steam explosion experiments

    Dimensional analysis applied to Nelson's small-scale steam explosion experiments to determine the qualitative effect of each relevant parameter for triggering a steam explosion. According to experimental results, the liquid entrapment model seems to be a consistent explanation for the steam explosion triggering mechanism. The three-dimensional oscillatory wave motion of the vapor/liquid interface is analyzed to determine the necessary conditions for local condensation and production of a coolant microjet to be entrapped in fuel. It is proposed that different contact modes between fuel and coolant may involve different initiation mechanisms of steam explosions

  6. Development of small scale soft x-ray lasers

    At present rapid progress is being made in the application of soft x-ray lasers to fields such as microscopy and microlithography. A critical factor in the range of suitable applications is the scale and hence cost of the soft x-ray lasers. At Princeton, gain at 183 angstrom has been obtained with relatively low pump laser energies (as low as 6J) in a ''portable'' small-scale soft x-ray laser system. We will also discuss aspects of data interpretation and pitfalls to be avoided in measurements of gain in such systems. 14 refs., 7 figs

  7. Critical Magnetic Prandtl Number for Small-Scale Dynamo

    Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S C; Maron, J. L.; McWilliams, J C

    2003-01-01

    We report a series of numerical simulations showing that the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_c for the nonhelical small-scale dynamo depends on the Reynolds number Re. Namely, the dynamo is shut down if the magnetic Prandtl number Pr=Rm/Re is less than some critical value Pr_c=1. We argue that, in the limit of Re->infinity, a finite Pr_c may exist. The second possibility is that Pr_c->0 as Re->infinity, while Rm_c tends to a very large constant value inaccessible at current resolutions. ...

  8. Monitoring Results of a Small Scale CHCP System

    Mendes, J. Farinha; Cardoso, João P.; Coelho, Ricardo; Costa, João P.; Fernández, David; Silva, António R.; Morgado, Miguel; Adão, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    A small scale trigeneration system for combined heat, cold and power production was developed and installed at the Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, I.P. campus in Lisbon, Portugal. This system is one of the twelve experimental trigeneration systems being developed and tested across Europe within the PolySMART project. The CHCP system main constituents are a purpose made CHP prototype with an estimated 27kW maximum heat capacity and 9,6kW maximum electrical capacity and a TDC pro...

  9. Evolution of small-scale structure on cosmic strings

    Kibble, T.W.B. (Blackett Lab., Imperial Coll., London (UK)); Copeland, E. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (UK))

    1991-01-01

    An analytic approach to cosmic string evolution is developed to complement the computer simulations, with the aim of helping to resolve the apparent conflict between the simulations of various authors. Equations are derived governing the evolution of small-scale structure on cosmic strings. It is shown that the question of whether or not the loop distribution, as well as the long-string distribution, will approach scaling depends critically on the value of a parameter q which describes the relative kinkiness of a loop as compared to a section of long string of the same length. Several predictions are made that can readily be checked against the simulations. (orig.).

  10. Danish farmers and investors

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos; Bonnichsen, Ole

    model. The results indicate that the important factors for Danish farmers to extend overseas are price and availability of land, institutional governance, network and image with regard to farming. These findings generally support the literature regarding reasons for farmers to increase their cross...

  11. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  12. Profitability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Elmina, Ghana

    Isaac Okyere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species caught and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Interviews were conducted among 60 fishermen between February and March 2010. Economic assessment of small-scale fishing activities were done using questionnaires based on direct market pricing and contingent valuation methods. The results indicate that highly profitable fish species include Epinephelus aeneus, Sparus caeruleostictus, Dentex angolensis and Lutjanus goreensis valued at US$2.97, US$2.87, US$2.85 and US$2.63 per kilogram respectively. The less profitable species include Dasyatis margarita, Caranx crysos and Sardinella aurita valued at US$0.34, US$0.66 and US$ 0.85 per kilogram respectively. Although Sardinella aurita was among the less valuable fish species, it was the main species driving profits for the fishermen due to its high share volume among the fish catches. Findings from this study suggest high rates of exploitation, in that stocks generally cannot provide for increased economic return in the face of increased investment. This is a clear indicator that the open-access nature of Ghanaian fisheries is not sustainable, and management reform is well overdue.

  13. NONLINEAR SMALL-SCALE DYNAMOS AT LOW MAGNETIC PRANDTL NUMBERS

    Saturated small-scale dynamo solutions driven by isotropic non-helical turbulence are presented at low magnetic Prandtl numbers PrM down to 0.01. For PrM 1/2M down to values of 0.1. In agreement with earlier work, there is, in addition to a short Golitsyn k –11/3 spectrum near the resistive scale, also some evidence for a short k –1 spectrum on larger scales. The rms magnetic field strength of the small-scale dynamo is found to depend only weakly on the value of PrM and decreases by about a factor of two as PrM is decreased from 1 to 0.01. The possibility of dynamo action at PrM = 0.1 in the nonlinear regime is argued to be a consequence of a suppression of the bottleneck seen in the kinetic energy spectrum in the absence of a dynamo and, more generally, a suppression of kinetic energy near the dissipation wavenumber.

  14. Small-Scale Conformity of the Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Jeong, Hyunjin; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the small-scale conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in the Virgo cluster. Cluster member galaxies are spectroscopically determined using the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12). We find that the luminosity-weighted mean color of faint galaxies depends on the color of adjacent bright galaxy as well as on the cluster-scale environment (gravitational potential index). From this result for the entire area of the Virgo cluster, it is not distinguishable whether the small-scale conformity is genuine or is artificially produced due to cluster-scale variation of galaxy color. To disentangle this degeneracy, we divide the Virgo cluster area into three sub-areas so that the cluster-scale environmental dependence is minimized: A1 (central), A2 (intermediate) and A3 (outermost). We find conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions (color-color slope significance S ~ 2.73 sigma and cor...

  15. Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis

    Surface, Nicholas James

    The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.

  16. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

  17. Small Scale Mechanization of Thinning in Artificial Coniferous Plantation

    Serena Savelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, where conventional forests have a protective rather than productive purpose, some silvicultural operations as first and second thinning could be carried out in an economic way adopting systems based on small scale mechanization. Authors tested a system based on small scale mechanization for bunching and skidding operations, using an All Terrain Vehicle (ATV, a compact, agile and versatile vehicle that adapts well to dense and rather inaccessible forests, such as forests of artificial origin where no kind of intervention, particularly thinning, had ever been carried out. The vehicle was used for bunching, using an electric winch, and for skidding whole trees. The use of the ATV showed that it is a competitive vehicle with both traditional and cutting edge vehicles, performing a traction power average of 313 daN and PHS0 productivity variable from 1.20 to 3.05 td.m.h-1. Such figures confirm how in first thinning, on level ground but also on slopes (max 50%, over distances not exceeding 200 m, the ATV is a perfectly suitable vehicle. Furthermore, the impact of the vehicle on the ground and especially on the shallow soil horizons was negligible and had no effect on tree roots.

  18. 3D Tracking of small-scale convective upflows

    Lemmerer, Birgit; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Veronig, Astrid; Muthsam, Herbert; Piantschitsch, Isabell

    2015-08-01

    High resolution simulations and observations of the solar photosphere and convection zone show a new population of small granules with diameters less than 800 km. The mechanism of formation and dissipation is still unclear. We developed automated detection and tracking algorithms to study their evolution as well as their physical and statistical properties in 2D. We found that small granules may not result from the fragmentation of larger granules because they show a small variation in size from the point of appearance at the photosphere until their dissolution. In this study we present a newly developed 3D segmentation and tracking algorithm for the analysis of small-scale convective cells in high resolution simulations. We study the 3D topology and evolution of convective upflows and their interaction with strong vortex motions and magnetic flux tubes. We show that the evolution of small-scale convective upflows in the convection zone is mainly governed by strong vortex motions within downdrafts rather than by strong magnetic fields.

  19. The Small-Scale Dynamo at Low Magnetic Prandtl Numbers

    Schober, Jennifer; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

    2012-01-01

    The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(l) \\propto l^{theta}, where v(l) is the eddy velocity at a scale l. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with theta = 1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with theta = 1/2. In this work we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the...

  20. Scaling and small-scale structure in cosmic string networks

    We examine the scaling properties of an evolving network of strings in Minkowski spacetime and study the evolution of length scales in terms of a three-scale model proposed by Austin, Copeland, and Kibble (ACK). We find good qualitative and some quantitative agreement between the model and our simulations. We also investigate small-scale structure by altering the minimum allowed size for loop production Ec. Certain quantities depend significantly on this parameter: for example, the scaling density can vary by a factor of 2 or more with increasing Ec. Small-scale structure as defined by ACK disappears if no restrictions are placed on loop production, and the fractal dimension of the string changes smoothly from 2 to 1 as the resolution scale is decreased. Loops are nearly all produced at the lattice cutoff. We suggest that the lattice cutoff should be interpreted as corresponding to the string width, and that in a real network loops are actually produced with this size. This leads to a radically different string scenario, with particle production rather than gravitational radiation being the dominant mode of energy dissipation. At the very least, a better understanding of the discretization effects in all simulations of cosmic strings is called for. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Individual Factors Affecting Farmers’ Motivation to Participate in Date Growers’ Organizations in Khuzestan

    E. Alimirzaei; A. Asady

    2011-01-01

    Khuzestan Province has a great share in Iran’s date production in which many rural households are directly dependent to dates production. However, small holding system has led to a lot of challenges faced by small scale farmers whereas much potential of date production and marketing lost every year. Despite of strong felt need to social capital development and government’s recent activities in order to help farmers to organize themselves, there is not so much interest in this connection gener...

  2. Territorial Identity and Grassroots Economic Activism: The Politicization of Farmers’ Mobilizations in the French Basque Country

    Xabier Itçaina; Armelle Gomez

    2015-01-01

    The French Basque Country (FBC) represents an emblematic case of the politicization of local development through grassroots economic activism. These mobilizations are particularly obvious in the agricultural sector. Based on a qualitative research on small farmers’ organizations and short food circuits, this article shows that Basque farmers’ mobilizations constitute a case of a dual politicization of small-scale farming and territorial identity. This process has gone through two phases: the ...

  3. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1 on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    L. Papa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1 of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P, Limousine(L, Kianina(C, Sharole(Sh and Markixhana(M on meat production increasing on small scale farms. To carried out this objective, two study methods were used: (i The survey - 284 small scale farms was observed in the Albanian coastal field and (ii Comparative essay of fattening calves (F1 in semi intensive small scale farm condition - 32 calves, F1 crosses of Holstein cows with above mentioned meat breeds were put in fattening in semi intensive small scale farm condition. 6 Holstein breed (H calves of 3-4 months age was used as control group. The feeding of animals was based on forages produced in farm: corn silage 30 % D.M, fresh alpha-alpha and its hay. 35 % of dry matter requirements were supplied by bought concentrate feedstuffs with 15 % crude protein on dry matter bases. The fattening period lasted 8 months . The average daily body weight increasing for each crosses and control group were respectively 889g (PxH, 998g (LxH, 850g (KxH, 1010g( ChxH, 953g (MxH and 702g (HxH. Multivariate analyses according to a linear model with constant factors ( genotype, sex, genotype x sex and covariance “live body weight in the beginning of experiment” showed that: (i The effect of crossbreds on average daily gain is evident under the small-scale farms conditions, also, (ii The average daily gain increases with 23 -38 % , depending on the type of crosses, (iii The crosses of dairy cattle with Limousine and Sharole result as most effective. The differences between F1 crosses of Markigiana, Kianine and Piemonteze are not statistically significant, (iv In semi intensive small scale farms the calf fattening can start from second month of life, (v The farmers even though small scale farm condition can produce more meat though the crossing of dairy cattle with meat breeds in comparison with pure dairy breed calves.

  4. Performance of a Small-Scale, Variable Temperature Fixed Dome Digester in a Temperate Climate

    Juan M. Castano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale digesters, similar to popular Chinese designs, have the potential to address the energy needs of smaller dairy farmers in temperate U.S. climates. To assess this potential, a 1.14 m3 (300 gallon modified fixed-dome digester was installed and operated, at variable temperatures (5.3 to 27.9 °C typical of the Midwestern United States, from March 2010 to March 2011 (363 days. Temperature, gas production, and other variables were recorded. The system was fed with dilute dairy manure with 6% volatile solids (VS and an organic loading rate (OLR ranging from 0.83 to 2.43 kg volatile solids (VS/m3/day. The system was loaded with no interruption and exhibited no signs of inhibition from July 2010 to mid-November 2010 (129 days. During this period the digester temperature was over 20 °C with an average daily biogas production of 842 ± 69 L/day, a methane yield of 0.168 m3/kg VS added, and a Volatile Solids reduction of 36%. After the temperature dropped below 20 °C, the digester showed signs of inhibition and soured. These findings suggest that an ambient temperature, modified fixed dome digester could operate without temperature inhibition for approximately six months (169 days a year in a temperate climate when digester temperatures exceed 20 °C. However, during colder months the digester temperature must maintained above 20 °C for viable gas production year round.

  5. Extension of Small-Scale Postharvest Horticulture Technologies—A Model Training and Services Center

    Lisa Kitinoja

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A pilot Postharvest Training and Services Center (PTSC was launched in October 2012 in Arusha, Tanzania as part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID funded project. The five key components of the PTSC are (1 training of postharvest trainers, (2 postharvest training and demonstrations for local small-scale clientele, (3 adaptive research, (4 postharvest services, and (5 retail sales of postharvest tools and supplies. During the years of 2011–2012, a one year e-learning program was provided to 36 young horticultural professionals from seven Sub-Saharan African countries. These postharvest specialists went on to train more than 13,000 local farmers, extension workers, food processors, and marketers in their home countries in the year following completion of their course. Evaluators found that these specialists had trained an additional 9300 people by November 2014. When asked about adoption by their local trainees, 79% reported examples of their trainees using improved postharvest practices. From 2012–2013, the project supported 30 multi-day training programs, and the evaluation found that many of the improved practices being promoted were adopted by the trainees and led to increased earnings. Three PTSC components still require attention. Research activities initiated during the project are incomplete, and successful sales of postharvest goods and services will require commitment and improved partnering.

  6. Small-scale lunar graben: Distribution, dimensions, and formation processes

    French, Renee A.; Bina, Craig R.; Robinson, Mark S.; Watters, Thomas R.

    2015-05-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) is the first instrument to provide widespread coverage with a range of incidence angles at the resolution required to detect small-scale landforms. A sample (n = 238) of globally distributed, small-scale graben average 26 m wide and 179 m long. When dividing the population into those located within mare and highland regions, we observe that graben located within mare tend to be narrower, shorter, and more irregularly spaced than those in highland terrane. For graben associated with contractional landforms, those in mare are smaller in width and length than those in highlands; the same is true for graben independent of contractional landforms. Assuming a simple geometry, widths of mare graben associated with scarps or ridges are used to estimate the minimum depth range to a mechanical discontinuity (e.g., base of the regolith) resulting in values of ?4-48 m. These values are similar to the ranges estimated for regolith thickness from previous workers using Apollo 14 seismic data (3.9-8.5 m), crater counting techniques (8-33 m), crater morphology techniques (2.5-9 m), and crater blockiness (8-31 m). Widths of highland graben yield minimum depths of faulting of 209-296 m. While this range agrees well with models for regolith production (an older surface will have thicker regolith), this estimate likely does not represent the thickness of a mechanical unit due to the fragmented nature of the highland crust (it does not provide a defining boundary between bedrock and regolith). Spacing of mare graben not associated with contractional landforms is used to estimate maximum local mare unit thickness for two graben groups: 190 m for Posidonius and 296 m for Vitello. Maximum graben ages range from late Eratosthenian to early Copernican based on superposed and crosscut crater ages with a group of graben deforming ejecta from Copernicus crater. Data presented here provide further evidence of a globally distributed, young, small-scale graben population that has formed as a result of localized extension either from flexural bending or dilation due to contractional faulting or volcanic uplift, indicating a significant level of recent geologic activity.

  7. Numerical simulation of small scale soft impact tests

    Varpasuo, Pentti [Fortum Nuclear Services Ltd. P.O. Box 10, 00048 Fortum (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the small scale soft missile impact tests. The purpose of the test program is to provide data for the calibration of the numerical simulation models for impact simulation. In the experiments, both dry and fluid filled missiles are used. The tests with fluid filled missiles investigate the release speed and the droplet size of the fluid release. This data is important in quantifying the fire hazard of flammable liquid after the release. The spray release velocity and droplet size are also input data for analytical and numerical simulation of the liquid spread in the impact. The behaviour of the impact target is the second investigative goal of the test program. The response of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete walls is studied with the aid of displacement and strain monitoring. (authors)

  8. Numerical simulation of small scale soft impact tests

    This paper describes the small scale soft missile impact tests. The purpose of the test program is to provide data for the calibration of the numerical simulation models for impact simulation. In the experiments, both dry and fluid filled missiles are used. The tests with fluid filled missiles investigate the release speed and the droplet size of the fluid release. This data is important in quantifying the fire hazard of flammable liquid after the release. The spray release velocity and droplet size are also input data for analytical and numerical simulation of the liquid spread in the impact. The behaviour of the impact target is the second investigative goal of the test program. The response of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete walls is studied with the aid of displacement and strain monitoring. (authors)

  9. Concept for integrity assurance of small scale piping systems

    There may be safety and economic reasons which make it absolutely necessary that the integrity of small-scale piping systems be guaranteed. This might be problematic considering experience to date. Analysing the damages detected it has been possible to assign these to systems and operational modes. They are primarily due to the insufficient design, which in turn is connected to the low safety relevance assumed for these systems. Determination of the degradation mechanisms and the causes give sufficient information for preventing further damage of this kind. Non-allowable dynamic loads as well as quick crack growth caused by corrosion are to be avoided by taking the proper action. Even if the measures taken may be different from plant to plant or component to component, it is possible to state a generally applicable systematic approach to guarantee integrity. (orig.)

  10. Formation control for a network of small-scale robots.

    Kim, Yoonsoo

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a network of small-scale robots (typically centimeter-scale robots) equipped with artificial actuators such as electric motors is considered. The purpose of this network is to have the robots keep a certain formation shape (or change to another formation shape) during maneuvers. The network has a fixed communication topology in the sense that robots have a fixed group of neighbors to communicate during maneuvers. Assuming that each robot and its actuator can be modeled as a linear system, a decentralized control law (such that each robot activates its actuator based on the information from its neighbors only) is introduced to achieve the purpose of formation keeping or change. A linear matrix inequality (LMI) for deriving the upper bound on the actuator's time constant is also presented. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the merit of the introduced control law. PMID:25942833

  11. Small scale wind energy harvesting with maximum power tracking

    Joaquim Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that energy harvesting from wind can be used to power remote monitoring systems. There are several studies that use wind energy in small-scale systems, mainly with wind turbine vertical axis. However, there are very few studies with actual implementations of small wind turbines. This paper compares the performance of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines for energy harvesting on wireless sensor network applications. The problem with the use of wind energy is that most of the time the wind speed is very low, especially at urban areas. Therefore, this work includes a study on the wind speed distribution in an urban environment and proposes a controller to maximize the energy transfer to the storage systems. The generated power is evaluated by simulation and experimentally for different load and wind conditions. The results demonstrate the increase in efficiency of wind generators that use maximum power transfer tracking, even at low wind speeds.

  12. Biomass energy use in small-scale commercial operations

    Sachs, K.M. [Carbon Cycle Co., Woodland, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A coffee roasting system using sawdust has been developed by Carbon Cycle, a California Company. They have shown that biomass combustion can be a safe, low-cost alternative to the use of natural gas in a food processing operation. Two systems are in operation with a combined run time of over 80,000 hours. The system uses a patented furnace technology characterized by thermal control to clean combustion, which, when used with biomass, achieves an even, slow roast of raw coffee beans. This results in high-quality coffee flavor. The technology has potential for use in other medium-temperature applications in food processing, district heating, and small-scale energy production. (author)

  13. Small-Scale Pellet Boiler with Thermoelectric Generator

    Moser, Wilhelm; Friedl, Guenther; Haslinger, Walter [Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Wieselburg (Austria); Hofbauer, Hermann [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-15

    Pellet burners need auxiliary electrical power to provide CO{sub 2}-balanced heat in a comfortable and environment-friendly way. The idea is to produce this and some extra electricity within the furnace in order to save resources and to gain operation reliability and independency. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) allow the direct conversion of heat to electrical power to a certain extent. They have the advantages of a maintenance-free long life and soundless operation without moving parts or any working fluid. A novel kind of decentralised small-scale biomass-based combined heat and power generation will be developed. The basic system allows grid-independent operation of automatically running biomass furnaces including fuel delivery from storage and circulating the cooling respectively heating water or air. The advanced system also provides electricity for network supply or for other electrical devices and is an additional benefit.

  14. Technology Development of Fully-Passive Small-Scale Reactor

    The probability of unexpected Station Blackout after Fukushima is becoming the challenging issue to provide electric power for a long period of time to minimize the damages to the property and the person. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor have been studied by considering the passive safety, the system simplicity and the high reliability between 100kWt ? 20MWt. 1MWth movable nuclear reactor(MAGMA) among them is selected as a future R and D objective with regard to fuel cycle, power generation and high reliability. This study is in phase to develop the concept of small-scale reactor to provide emergent power. Therefore, further study should be conducted to specify the MAGMA with related to system design, analysis, component test and integral demonstration test

  15. First Principle Approach to Modeling of Small Scale Helicopter

    Budiyono, A; Lesmana, H

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of global helicopter linear model is very precious and useful for the design of the linear control laws, since it is never afforded in the published literatures. In the first principle approach, the mathematical model was developed using basic helicopter theory accounting for particular characteristic of the miniature helicopter. No formal system identification procedures are required for the proposed model structure. The relevant published literatures however did not present the linear models required for the design of linear control laws. The paper presents a step by step development of linear model for small scale helicopter based on first-principle approach. Beyond the previous work in literatures, the calculation of the stability derivatives is presented in detail. A computer program is used to solve the equilibrium conditions and then calculate the change in aerodynamics forces and moments due to the change in each degree of freedom and control input. The detail derivation allows the c...

  16. Cosmic Ray Small Scale Anisotropies and Local Turbulent Magnetic Fields

    López-Barquero, Vanessa; Xu, S; Desiati, P; Lazarian, A

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic ray anisotropy is observed in a wide energy range and at different angular scales by a variety of experiments. However, a comprehensive and satisfactory explanation has been elusive for over a decade now. The arrival distribution of cosmic rays on Earth is the convolution of the distribution of their sources and of the effects of geometry and properties of the magnetic field through which particles propagate. It is generally believed that the anisotropy topology at the largest angular scale is adiabatically shaped by diffusion in the structured interstellar magnetic field. On the contrary, the medium and small angular scale structure could be an effect of non diffusive propagation of cosmic rays in perturbed magnetic fields. In particular, a possible explanation of the observed small scale anisotropy observed at TeV energy scale, may come from the effect of particle scattering in turbulent magnetized plasmas. We perform numerical integration of test particle trajectories in low-$\\beta$ compressible mag...

  17. Economic feasibility of small scale button mushroom production in pakistan

    Abstract:- Mushroom is widely cultivated as a proteineous vegetable in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Its cultivation requires less space, care, equipment and cost compared to many other crops and livestock. The present study was conducted in 2010 to estimate the profitability of small scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross return of mushroom was estimated at 155.6 kg ha and Rs.77,800 ha , respectively. The results indicated the fact that mushroom production is very much remunerative to its producers as it can give maximum net return by reducing their cost of production as its cultivation is dependent on the agricultural raw material which is cheaply available. (author)

  18. Small-scale resistance spot welding of austenitic stainless steels

    Small-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) was carried out for austenitic stainless steels. A weld lobe that shows the process window for making sound joints was obtained for type 304 stainless steel thin sheets, and the effects of welding current, force and weld time on joint strength and nugget size were investigated. The cooling rate that was estimated from the solidification cell size was approximately 2.4 x 105 K/s which is almost similar to that produced by laser beam welding. The microstructures of weld zones were almost fully austenitic due to the rapid solidification rate. Despite the fully austenitic microstructure, no hot cracking was found in types 302, 304, 316L, 310S and 347 austenitic stainless steels by SSRSW. Rapid cooling rate in SSRSW made it difficult to predict the microstructures from the conventional Schaeffler diagram

  19. Manufacture of a Biodegradable Detergent on Small Scale

    Abdulla A. Aziz A. Majeed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an aggregate planning for a small scale production unit using a network flow model for full utilization of its capacity to meet the changing forecasted demand .The formulation of the problem is done by using the given inventory capacity with backorders by making a trade-off among inventory costs , backlog costs, production and subcontracting costs. The total cost function and the constraint inequalities were developed assuming the cost functions to be linear. The parameters of objective function and the constraints were estimated from the economics of the plant. The values of the work force, overtime, backlog, amount subcontracted were determined for a planning horizon of six months using an LP computer package. This method of production scheduling took care of the fluctuating demand utilizing the full capacity of the plant.

  20. Numerical Simulation and Optimazation of Small Scale LNG Plant

    Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Fan, Q. H.; Yin, Q. S.

    2006-04-01

    The LNG20 is a small-scale natural gas liquefier. Its capacity is 20 cube meters LNG per day. This liquefier could be used for the pipeline gas, coalbed gas, oil field gas liquefaction and peakshaving plant for town gas gate station and natural gas power plant. Two processing cycles are applied to LNG20, nitrogen expander cycle and mixed refrigerant cycle. In this report, two feed gases are the target sources; one is the pipeline gas in "West-to-east pipeline gas" in a gate station in Zhejiang province and coalbed gas in Northeast China. The numerical simulation and optimization for the LNG20 were carried out to obtain the design parameters.

  1. A multi scale model for small scale plasticity

    Full text.A framework for investigating size-dependent small-scale plasticity phenomena and related material instabilities at various length scales ranging from the nano-microscale to the mesoscale is presented. The model is based on fundamental physical laws that govern dislocation motion and their interaction with various defects and interfaces. Particularly, a multi-scale model is developed merging two scales, the nano-microscale where plasticity is determined by explicit three-dimensional dislocation dynamics analysis providing the material length-scale, and the continuum scale where energy transport is based on basic continuum mechanics laws. The result is a hybrid simulation model coupling discrete dislocation dynamics with finite element analyses. With this hybrid approach, one can address complex size-dependent problems, including dislocation boundaries, dislocations in heterogeneous structures, dislocation interaction with interfaces and associated shape changes and lattice rotations, as well as deformation in nano-structured materials, localized deformation and shear band

  2. Small-scale power/heat production based on biomass

    Conventional energy production from biomass is most often used to produce steam, hot water or air heating. According to this conference paper, the maximum electric output is obtained in processes based on gasification of biomass in combined gas turbine/steam turbine systems. The efficiency increases with increasing plant size. Production cost decreases with increasing plant size. However, large plants producing 20 MW electric also produce 30 MW heat energy which must be utilized if the total efficiency is to be large. There is a potential for small systems (3 - 5 kw electric) for decentralized power/heat production. The paper surveys in brief various technologies for small-scale power/heat plants based on biomass: steam turbine, steam engine, gas turbine, Stirling engine, diesel engine/gas engine. 9 refs., 5 figs

  3. Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration

    Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

  4. Large and small scale MHD mode studies at TEXTOR

    The 3D-reconstruction of large m = 2 modes and their evolution have been analysed, as well as their electron temperature profiles and heat transport properties with respect to the background plasma. The confinement is improved within the magnetic island, compared to the background plasma as evidenced by a secondary temperature maximum at the centre of the island. Using cross-correlation between different ECE channels, temperature fluctuations in the presence of magnetic islands are investigated. For m = 2 islands, they are larger in the vicinity of the X-point than in the O-point. Evidence of high m-number small-scale modes in the q = 2 vicinity is obtained. (authors)

  5. Small-scale upper mantle extension beneath a destroyed craton

    Zhao, L.; Zheng, T.; Chen, L.; Ai, Y.; He, Y.; Xu, X.

    2014-12-01

    The North China Craton (NCC), as an unusual craton with part of its thick lithosphere destructed, records the geodynamic processes associated with the convergence of Eurasia and the Pacific and Philippine plates lasting from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic. How the cratonic lithosphere deformed in response to the extensional tectonics caused by the oceanic plate subduction, however, remains debated. In order to investigate the mantle deformation of the NCC, we present new shear wave splitting measurements and updated tomographic models beneath a 900-km long profile across the north NCC. Compared to our other observations in the NCC, this profile is shorter but also crosses a region that experienced strong lithospheric destruction, therefore provides a good opportunity to improve our understanding of upper mantle deformation during the craton destruction. The upper mantle deformation is studied using SKS data from 60 broadband stations with average spacing of 15 km. For the data from events occurring at distances of 85º-115º, fast polarization directions and delay times (fδt) are retrieved by a routine method, while for the events at distances geological map and the tomography image for a depth range of 120-300 km. Comparison shows good consistency of the splitting pattern and structural features both at shallow and deep depths: NW-SE trending fast directions are observed at stations located within the basins or extensional zones like metamorphic core complexes, with the fast direction parallel to the extensional or stretching directions; the fast directions and the shear-wave velocity anomalies within the upper mantle also show changes with spatially coherency. This consistency in small-scale variations through the crust to the upper mantle implies coupled pattern of deformation at the lithospheric scale of the NCC, and possibly reflects the dominant effect of small-scale mantle flow during the cratonic reactivation in the north edge of the NCC.

  6. Emissions from small scale combustion of pelletized wood fuels

    Combustion of wood pellets in small scale heating systems with an effect below 20 kW has increased. During the winter season 1995/96 1500 small plants for heating houses are estimated to be in operation. Stack emissions from three pellet burners and two pellet stoves have been studied at laboratory. Different pellet qualities were tested. When the fraction of fines increased also the NOx emissions increased with about 10 %. As reference fuel 8 mm pellets was used. Tests with 6 mm pellets gave, in most cases, significant lower emissions of CO and THC. Eleven stoves, burners and boilers were studied in a field test. The results show that all the plants generally have higher emissions in the field than during conditions when the plants are adjusted with a stack gas monitoring instrument. A conclusion is that it is difficult for the operator to adjust the plant without a monitoring instrument. The emissions from the tested plants give an estimation of stack gas emissions from small scale pellet plants. The difference between the 'best' and 'worst' technologies is big. The span of emissions with the best technology to the worst is given below. The interval is concerning normal combustion . During abnormal conditions the emissions are on a significant higher level: * CO 80-1 000 mg/MJ; * Tar 0,3-19 mg/MJ; * THC (as methane equivalents) 2-100 mg/MJ; * NOx 50-70 mg/W;, and * Dust emissions 20-40 mg/MJ. Emissions from pellets heating are lower than from wood combustion and the best technology is close to the emission from oil burners. Wood and pellets have the same origin but the conditions to burn them in an environmental friendly way differ. Combustion of pellets could be improved through improved control of the air and fuel ratio that will create more stable conditions for the combustion

  7. Rural electrification in Malaysia via small scale biomass gasifier

    It is the government of Malaysia's vision to see that the rural community is not left behind in its endeavour to be an industrialised nation in the year 2020. The standard of living in the rural areas is very far different from that in the urban areas. To obtain equality the standard of living of the rural folks need to be ungraded. This is done largely by electrification. Electricity has been in the past the catalyst for development and raising the standard of living of the poor. Electricity supplied by the nation's electricity company might not reach all remote areas and therefore there must be a means to provide alternative electrical supply to these places. Present method employ the use of diesel generator sets to provide electricity. The availability of biomass source of supply in the rural areas could be effectively exploited to provide alternative source of energy via a gasification system to run a reciprocating engine coupled to a generator to generated electricity. A small-scale biomass gasification generator set in the range of 2-5 kW is suitable to provide electrical supply to a typical house in the rural area. The present use of biomass source of energy is in its utilisation to provide source of heat for cooking. Several tests have been conducted and the performance is very good. Alternatively another medium scale system generating about 50-20O kW would be suitable for a typical village having about 50 houses. A small-scale system has been developed in USM to provide 5 kW of electrical power. The system used a petrol engine and produces an overall efficiency of 7% with a specific consumption of about 3 kg/kWh. The biomass material used is wood. However for application in the rural areas the biomass material will depend on the type available. A further 50 kW system is being develop in USM. (Author)

  8. Putting farmers first: reshaping agricultural research in West Africa

    Pimbert, Michel

    2012-01-15

    How agricultural research is funded, organised, controlled and practised can have a huge impact on small-scale producers in the global South. In many countries, such research is driven by external funds, priorities and technological fixes, such as hybrid seeds, which can erode crop diversity. But food producers across the world are beginning to raise their voices to ensure that agricultural research better meets their needs and priorities. A series of farmer assessments and citizens' juries in West Africa has helped farmers assess existing approaches and articulate recommendations for policy and practice to achieve their own vision of agricultural research. In 2012, a high-level policy dialogue between farmers and the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa hopes to take this discussion to the next level and develop a shared agenda that can serve development and the public good.

  9. An Impact Analysis of Farmer Field School in China

    Jinyang Cai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of the Farmer Field School (FFS intervention among small-scale tomato farmers in Beijing. Using data collected by face-to face-interview from 358 households on 426 planting plots in 2009, we evaluate the yield effect and find evidence of positive impact. We then examine the determining factors of farmers’ FFS attendance using the zero-inflated Poisson model. We find evidence of the positive impact of the FFS program on male participants but no impact on female participants. We find that some factors, such as being the household head, wealth level and land size affect both FFS participation decisions and attendance decisions, whereas other factors may affect only one decision but not the other. The results suggest that FFS is a useful way to increase production of farmers in Beijing and that the approach is especially effective for male and wealthy producers with smaller farm sizes and higher literacy.

  10. Tracing Processes in Poverty Dynamics: A Tale of Peri-urban Small-scale Farmers in Mexico City

    Yadira Méndez-Lemus; Antonio Vieyra

    2014-01-01

    Many peri-urban areas in developing regions are associated with poverty. The poor peri-urban resident may have moved in and established in precarious conditions, or may have resided in the area before the urban encroachment and so have a rural background. Former poor rural residents living on the fringes of cities are considered to be very vulnerable since they are subjected to a livelihood transmutation while they try to escape from poverty. Drawing on longitudinal quantitative and qualitati...

  11. TROPICAL MAIZE SYNTHETICS BREEDING IN MOISTURE-STRESS TOLERANCE FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN BRAZILIAN SEMI ARID REGIONS

    ELTO EUGENIO GOMES E GAMA

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate 144 S2 progenies from each of two synthetic maize populations, Syndent and Synflint, from a breeding program for drought tolerance, to obtain synthetics with high yield potential and good agronomic performance in the semi-arid regions in Brazil. The 288 S2 progenies from the two synthetics were evaluated using a 12 x 12 lattice design with two replications in two conditions with water stress (WS and non water stress (NS in Janaúba, MG, Brazil, in 2000. The combining analysis of variance showed highly significant (P<0.01 effects in environments and progenies and their interaction for Synflint, and significant ones (P<0.05 in the interaction for Syndent. The estimates of the broad sense heritability of ear yield were: Synflint h2 = 0.382 and 0.752 for WS and NS, respectively; Syndent h2 = 0.607 and 0.635 for WS and NS, respectively. The genetic variance estimates were greater in NS than in WS environments. The error variance estimates were the greatest in WS x NS interaction for the two synthetics. The predicted responses to selection pointed out better gains for yield when selection is performed in NS rather than WS environments. Substantial variability exists in these two synthetics for drought tolerance and its characteristics, indicating that there is an opportunity for improving their tolerance via recurrent selection.

  12. A review of a public private extension partnership for small-scale sugarcane farmers in South Africa

    Eweg, Matin

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of APPRI Workshop was to analyse conditions for implementing alternative action-research practices in partnership for development, taking into account the difficulties of "official" research and of the rural world, faced with the major challenges of sustainable development in the South. One originality of APPRI was to compare experiences from rural zones of Africa, with those of the UNICAMPO Peasants' University set up 10 years ago in the Brazilian Nordeste, a semi-arid reg...

  13. Socio Economic Determinants of the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers: Evidence from Western Kenya

    Isaiah K. Okuthe; Felix Kioli; Paul Abuom

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to examine the influence of socio economic factors on the adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external input agriculture and extreme forms of traditional low external input agriculture. The main components of INRM in Ndhiwa division are chemical fertilizer, animal manure, green manure, stover lines and agro forestry. However the adoption of these technologies a...

  14. Farmers Markets With Benefits

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Summer farmers' market in Boston and surrounding areas that accept various forms of food assistance benefits. Subject to change in future seasons; information...

  15. Mozambique - Farmer Income Support

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — Trees For the epidemic zone, the evaluation estimated the impact of FISP on disease prevalence and estimated the consequent impact on coconut production and farmer...

  16. Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture

    Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

    2014-05-01

    Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems to productive smallholder irrigation: soil nutrient depletion, salinization, disease and pest resulting from inefficient irrigation practices, infrastructure problems leading to a reduction of the size of the command area and decrease in reservoir volume. The major causes have been poor irrigation infrastructure, poor on-farm soil and water management, prevalence of various crop pests and diseases, lack of inputs and reservoir siltation. On-farm participatory research focusing on soil, crop and water management issues, including technical, institutional and managerial aspects, to identify best performing innovations while taking care of the environment was recommended. Currently, a range of interlinked activities are implemented a multiple scales, combining participatory and scientific approaches towards innovation development and up-scaling of promising technologies and institutional and managerial approaches from local to regional scales. ____________________________ Key words: Irrigation scheme, productivity, innovation, participatory method, Gumselassa, Ethiopia

  17. The interaction effect of farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizer on the yield of wheat on small scale farms

    A trial to investigate the possibility of using farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizer in small-scale farms was conducted at two sites in Njoro and Lare Divisions of Nakuru district. The manure levels were 6 tons /ha, 3 tons, 2 t/ha 3 tons /ha + 65kg DAP/ha while DAP at 130 kg/ha and DAP at 130 kg/ha + 40 kg N/ha were compared. Results showed that manure at 2 tons /ha had the lowest yield. The highest yield was obtained from application of 6 tons FYM/ha which did not differ significantly from that obtained from application 130 kg DAP/ha or 130 kg DAP/ha + 40 kg N/ha. This means that farmers in these areas can use FYM and get a reasonable yield. (author)

  18. Small-Scale Industry, Environmental Regulation, and Poverty : The Case of Brazil

    Jayaraman, Rajshri; Lanjouw, Peter F.

    2004-01-01

    Governments and international development agencies have intensified efforts to promote small-scale enterprises as an engine of pro-poor growth. In Brazil, however, small scale industries may also be responsible for the bulk of air pollution emissions. Although employees of polluting small-scale industries in Brazil are not disproportionately poor, simulations suggest that stringent environ...

  19. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  20. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  1. Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device

    Sit, Roger Carson

    This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long-lived fission products could result in an irradiation effective half-life of a few years with a three order magnitude increase in the on-target neutron flux accomplishable through a combination of technological enhancements to the source and system design optimization; (3) the transmutation of long-lived fission products requires a thermal-slow energy spectrum to prevent the generation of activation products with half-lives even longer than the original radionuclide; (4) there is no benefit in trying to transmute short-lived fission products due to the ineffectiveness of the transmutation process and the generation of a multiplicity of counterproductive activation products; (5) for actinides, irradiation effective half-lives of scale transmutation technology is presently being researched world-wide for spent fuel management applications, such technology will not be viable for a couple of decades. This dissertation investigated the concept of a small-scale transmutation device using present technology. The results of this research show that with reasonable enhancements, transmutation of specific radionuclides can be practical in the near term.

  2. Small-scale recombination He - Sr+(Ca+ ) lasers

    A review of specific features and output characteristics of small-scale (l≤30 cm, d≤1.1cm) gas-discharge recombination He-Sr+ (λ=430.5 nm) and He- Ca+ (λ=373.7nm) lasers is provided. Such compact lasers are characterised by a relatively high reliability and durability. These lasers are easy to operate and are capable of generating laser pulses with high repetition rates f, a high specific mean power Psp, and an improved quality of output radiation. A typical mean power P of self-heating sealed-off He-Sr+ (Ca+) laser tubes with l∼ 30 cm and d∼ 1 cm is ∼ 0.5 W. The best specific characteristics of a He-Sr+ laser with tubes of this type were achieved with l=20 cm and d=0.6 cm (Psp=73 mW cm-3) and l=9 cm and d=0.55 cm (Psp=65 W cm-3). The best specific characteristics for a He-Ca+ laser were achieved with l=26.5 cm and d=0.7 cm (Psp=50 mW cm-3). The use of forced water cooling in a He-Sr+(Ca+) laser allowed the powers P=3.9 W and Psp=137 mW cm-3 to be achieved with a tube with l=30 cm and d=1.1 cm for f=29 kHz. A new method of inputting metal vapours based on cataphoresis is considered in detail. Using this method allowed the output characteristics of a He-Sr+ laser to be considerably improved and a record specific power Psp=277 mW cm-3 to be achieved for a tube with l=26 cm and d=0.3 cm with f=30 kHz and P=510 mW. A record gain, 0.15 cm-1, was also achieved under these conditions. Some possible areas of applications of small-scale He-Sr+(Ca+) lasers in semiconductor microtechnology, holography, ecology, and medicine are outlined. (invited paper)

  3. Small-scale volcanoes on Mars: distribution and types

    Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud volcanoes) seem possible. Other relatively rare volcanoes seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small volcanoes on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade ago. There are sometimes significant differences in the final morphologies between Martian hypothesized and possible terrestrial analogs, despite fact that the physical processes behind volcano formation should be similar on both planets. For example, Martian scoria cones are ~2.6 times wider than terrestrial analogues, as lower gravity and atmospheric pressure enable wider dispersion of pyroclasts from the vent. In addition, exit velocities of ejected particles should be increased on Mars because the lower atmospheric pressure favors more rapid exsolution of dissolved gases from the magma, which also favors a wider dispersion of ejected particles. Therefore, care must be taken when applying terrestrial morphometric relationships to the interpretation of hypothesized volcanic features on Mars and other terrestrial bodies. As on Earth, small-scale volcanoes on Mars display diverse shapes and hence provide insight into diverse volcanic processes responsible for such variations. Those diverse processes may point to various mechanisms of magma ascent and eruption styles in dependency on magma properties (e.g., amount of volatiles) and the paleo-environment at the time of formation. Hence the investigation of small-scale volcanoes provides useful tool enabling us to deepen our knowledge about the variety and richness of volcanism on Mars.

  4. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

  5. A Survey of Mining and Tailings Disposal Practices of Selected Artisanal and Small Scale Mining Companies in Ghana

    Chiri G. Amedjoe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of small scale mining operations for maximum profitability with good environmental stewardship requires careful planning of mining and tailings disposal strategies. Field studies and observations of eleven selected artisanal and small-scale gold mining companies winning gold from alluvial (placer source mostly, but also mine out cropping and underground quartz veins where available from the Takwaian and Birimian Formations in southwestern Ghana. Excavation is either by pitting or using backhoes. Sluicing, panning followed by mercury amalgamation and then roasting to recover the gold is the beneficiation method in use. Riverine waste rocks/tailings disposal is the main management invoked, however some companies do sell their waste to construction firms. Environmentally mining operations are impacting rivers with siltation, mercury pollution, channel diversions and possibly change in heavy metals concentration and water chemistry. Vast arable lands are degraded leaving peasant farmers with no livelihood due to failure by concessionaires to reclaim lands after closure. Only two companies out of the eleven somehow demonstrated environmental consciousness by constructing small tailings dam and backfilling some pits.

  6. Small-scale production of straight vegetable oil from rapeseed and its use as biofuel in the Spanish territory

    Biofuels nowadays are an important topic of study. The most significant point is the availability of bioethanol or biodiesel and their production from different raw materials. It is already known that large-scale production of first-generation biodiesel cannot be seen as an alternative to fossil fuels due to land requirements, competition with food, increase in fertilizer requirements and pressure on tropical forests among others. This fact does not necessarily apply to second-generation biofuels or small-scale niche productions. Straight vegetable oil (SVO) can be used directly in diesel engines with minor modifications. Our proposal is a small-scale SVO production system for self-supply in agricultural machinery. In this paper a model to provide SVO to local farmers in a specific area in Catalonia (Spain) is presented. We also present a discussion about the regulations to be changed in order to make possible the incorporation of SVO as engine fuel in diesel vehicles and a comparative analysis between the emissions of tractors fed with SVO and petrodiesel. Moreover, a quantitative economic analysis of modifying diesel engines and long-term operability costs are shown and a first-run economic analysis comparing the actual crop rotation with the proposed one and some alternatives is studied.

  7. Prevalence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk from large- and small-scale producers in Kenya.

    Shitandi, A; Sternesjö, A

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Kenyan milk and investigated any differences in antimicrobial resistance between large- (>200 L/d) and small- (producers. Susceptibility profiles for penicillin G, tetracycline, erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazine, and chloramphenicol were determined for Staph. aureus (n=402) isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis. There was a significant difference in the overall mean resistance profile between large- (7.1%) and small-scale farm (14.7%) isolates. The overall prevalence of multidrug resistance (> or =2 antibiotics) differed significantly between isolates from small farms (34.3%) and those from large farms (18.0%). Additionally, the producers were interviewed about their usage of antimicrobial drugs and their attitudes toward education in related fields. There was an evident difference between the producer types in their documentation of the use of antimicrobial drugs. Small-scale farms were less inclined to documentation, and treatment records were available from 22% of small-scale farms, compared with 73% of large-scale farms. Farmers expressed a need for more information in 5 areas, ranking preventive management highest (34.0%); followed by affordable tests to control residues in milk (22.8%); preparation of antimicrobial drugs (20.0%); public health concerns (11.2%); disposal of surplus antimicrobial drugs (7.8%); and antimicrobial drug residue persistence in milk (4.2%). It was concluded that herd size might be an indirect risk factor in the development of antimicrobial resistance in Staph. aureus within the region. PMID:15545376

  8. Small Scale Turbopump Manufacturing Technology and Material Processes

    Alvarez, Erika; Morgan, Kristin; Wells, Doug; Zimmerman, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As part of an internal research and development project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a high specific impulse 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine testbed with the capability to throttle 10:1. A Fuel Turbopump (FTP) with the ability to operate across a speed range of 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm was developed and analyzed. This small size and flight-like Fuel Turbopump has completed the design and analysis phase and is currently in the manufacturing phase. This paper highlights the manufacturing and processes efforts to fabricate an approximately 20-lb turbopump with small flow passages, intricately bladed components and approximately 3-in diameter impellers. As a result of the small scale and tight tolerances of the hardware on this turbopump, several unique manufacturing and material challenges were encountered. Some of the technologies highlighted in this paper include the use of powder metallurgy technology to manufacture small impellers, electron beam welding of a turbine blisk shroud, and casting challenges. The use of risk reduction efforts such as non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE), fractography, material testing, and component spin testing are also discussed in this paper.

  9. Small scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge

    Louis, Rohan E; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution broad-band filtergrams of active region NOAA 11271 in Ca ii H and G-band were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode to identify the physical driver responsible for the dynamic and small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge. We identified the jets in the Ca images using a semi-automatic routine. The chromospheric jets consist of a bright, triangular-shaped blob that lies on the light bridge, while the apex of this blob extends into a spike-like structure which is bright against the dark umbral background. The majority of the jets have apparent lengths of less than 1000 km and about 30% of them have lengths between 1000-1600 km. They are oriented within +/-35 deg. to the normal of the light bridge axis. A majority of them are clustered near the central part within a 2 arcsec wide area. The jets are seen to move rapidly along the light bridge and a majority of them cannot be identified in successive images taken with a 2 min cadence. The jets are primarily loc...

  10. Small-Scale Thermal Violence Cook Off Test

    Cook, Malcolm; Curtis, John; Stennett, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The Small-Scale thermal Violence Test (SSVT) is designed to quantify the violence (explosiveness) of test materials by means of observing the velocity history of a metal burst disk that forms one end of a strong thick-walled cylindrical test vehicle. A copper heating block is placed to the rear of, but in contact with, the sample and provides sealing. The difference in thermal conductivity between copper and steel is sufficient that thermal runaway is induced near to the explosive / copper interface in an unlagged test. A series of experiments has been made, in which explosive specimens were confined and heated to explosion. A high-accuracy velocity measurement system was used to record the motion of the bursting disk. These experiments have shown that the early-time motion of the bursting disk corresponds qualitatively to the onset of thermal explosion and growth of reaction within the explosive specimens. However, the velocity history traces are more complex than had been anticipated. In particular, unexplained shoulders were observed in the Phase-Doppler Velocimeter (PDV) data. Some preliminary modelling studies have been carried out in order to shed light on the complex shapes of the projectile velocity histories.

  11. Numerical simulation of a small-scale biomass boiler

    Highlights: ► Simplified model for biomass combustion was developed. ► Porous zone conditions are used in the bed. ► Model is fully integrated in a commercial CFD code to simulate a small scale pellet boiler. ► Pollutant emissions are well predicted. ► Simulation provides extensive information about the behaviour of the boiler. - Abstract: This paper presents a computational fluid dynamic simulation of a domestic pellet boiler. Combustion of the solid fuel in the burner is an important issue when discussing the simulation of this type of system. A simplified method based on a thermal balance was developed in this work to introduce the effects provoked by pellet combustion in the boiler simulation. The model predictions were compared with the experimental measurements, and a good agreement was found. The results of the boiler analysis show that the position of the water tubes, the distribution of the air inlets and the air infiltrations are the key factors leading to the high emission levels present in this type of system.

  12. Small Scale Clustering of Late Forming Dark Matter

    Agarwal, Shankar; Das, Subinoy; Rasera, Yann

    2014-01-01

    We perform a study of the non-linear clustering of matter in the Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM) scenario in which dark matter results from the transition of non-minimally coupled scalar field from radiation to collisionless matter. A distinct feature of this model is the presence of a damped oscillatory cut-off in the linear matter power spectrum at small scales. We use a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations to study the imprints of LFDM on the non-linear matter power spectrum, the halo mass function and the halo density profiles. The model satisfies high-redshift matter power spectrum constraints from Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest measurements. We find suppressed abundance of low mass halos ($\\sim 10^{9}-10^{10}$ h$^{-1}$ M$_\\odot$) at all redshifts compared to a vanilla $\\Lambda$CDM model. Furthermore, in this mass range we find significant deviations with respect to predictions from the Sheth-Tormen mass function. Halos with mass $M\\gtrsim 10^{11}$ h$^{-1}$ M$_\\odot$ show minor departures of the density pr...

  13. Small-scale electric generators for arctic applications

    Forest fires that have endangered remote US Air Force sites equipped with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) has prompted the assessment of power generating systems as substitutes for RTGs in small scale (10--120 watt) applications. A team of scientists and engineers of the US Air Forces' Wright Laboratory conductd an assessment of electrical power technologies for use by the Air Force in remote, harsh environments. The surprisingly high logistics costs of operating fossil fuel generators resulted in the extension of the assessment to non-RTG sites. The candidate power sources must operate unattended for long periods at a high level of operational reliability. Selection of the optimum power generation technology is complicated and heavily driven by the severe operating environment and compounded by the remoteness of the location. It is these site-related characteristics, more than any other, that drive the selection of a safe and economical power source for Arctic applications. A number of proven power generation technologies were evaluated. The assessment concluded that RGTs are clearly the safest, most reliable, and most economical approach to supplying electrical power for remote, difficult to assess locations. The assessment also indicated that the logistics costs associated with combustion driven generator systems could be substantially reduced through the use of conversion technologies which have been previously developed for space power applications. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  14. Development of a small-scale computer cluster

    Wilhelm, Jay; Smith, Justin T.; Smith, James E.

    2008-04-01

    An increase in demand for computing power in academia has necessitated the need for high performance machines. Computing power of a single processor has been steadily increasing, but lags behind the demand for fast simulations. Since a single processor has hard limits to its performance, a cluster of computers can have the ability to multiply the performance of a single computer with the proper software. Cluster computing has therefore become a much sought after technology. Typical desktop computers could be used for cluster computing, but are not intended for constant full speed operation and take up more space than rack mount servers. Specialty computers that are designed to be used in clusters meet high availability and space requirements, but can be costly. A market segment exists where custom built desktop computers can be arranged in a rack mount situation, gaining the space saving of traditional rack mount computers while remaining cost effective. To explore these possibilities, an experiment was performed to develop a computing cluster using desktop components for the purpose of decreasing computation time of advanced simulations. This study indicates that small-scale cluster can be built from off-the-shelf components which multiplies the performance of a single desktop machine, while minimizing occupied space and still remaining cost effective.

  15. Small scale clustering of late forming dark matter

    Agarwal, S.; Corasaniti, P.-S.; Das, S.; Rasera, Y.

    2015-09-01

    We perform a study of the nonlinear clustering of matter in the late-forming dark matter (LFDM) scenario in which dark matter results from the transition of a nonminimally coupled scalar field from radiation to collisionless matter. A distinct feature of this model is the presence of a damped oscillatory cutoff in the linear matter power spectrum at small scales. We use a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations to study the imprints of LFDM on the nonlinear matter power spectrum, the halo mass and velocity functions and the halo density profiles. The model largely satisfies high-redshift matter power spectrum constraints from Lyman-? forest measurements, while it predicts suppressed abundance of low-mass halos (˜109- 1010 h-1 M? ) at all redshifts compared to a vanilla ? CDM model. The analysis of the LFDM halo velocity function shows a better agreement than the ? CDM prediction with the observed abundance of low-velocity galaxies in the local volume. Halos with mass M ?1011 h-1 M? show minor departures of the density profiles from ? CDM expectations, while smaller-mass halos are less dense, consistent with the fact that they form later than their ? CDM counterparts.

  16. Social and Ecological Dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries

    Stevens, K.; Kramer, D.; Frank, K.

    2012-12-01

    Globalization's reach is rapidly extending to touch some of the most remote communities of the world, but we have yet to understand its scale and impact. On Nicaragua's previously remote Miskitu Coast, the introduction of new markets and global demand for seafood has resulted in changes in fishermen's harvest behavior manifested within the local fishery. Small-scale fisheries are a significant component in sustaining global fish trade, ensuring food security, and alleviating poverty, but because the fishermen are disperse, numerous and located in remote areas, the social and ecological dynamics of the system are poorly understood. Previous work has indicated a decline in fish abundance as a result of connection to markets, yet fishermen's response to this decline and the resulting shift in harvest strategy requires further examination. I identify the ecological and social factors that explain changes in fishermen behavior and use an innovative application of social network analysis to understand these changes. I also use interviews with fishermen and fishery-dependent surveys to measure catch and release behavior and seasonal gear use. Results demonstrate multiple cliques within a community that mitigate the response of fishermen to changes in the fishery. This research applies techniques in social science to address challenges in sustainable management of fisheries. As fisheries managers consider implementing new regulations, such as seasonal restrictions on gear, it is essential to understand not just how this might impact fish abundance, but how and why human systems respond as they do.

  17. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration.

    Green, David W; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Han-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a "water-tight" barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachment complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia, and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organizing cell-cell connections, cell-matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption, and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis. PMID:26903872

  18. Critical magnetic Prandtl number for small-scale dynamo.

    Schekochihin, Alexander A; Cowley, Steven C; Maron, Jason L; McWilliams, James C

    2004-02-01

    We report a series of numerical simulations showing that the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm(c) for the nonhelical small-scale dynamo depends on the Reynolds number Re. Namely, the dynamo is shut down if the magnetic Prandtl number Pr(m)=Rm/Re is less than some critical value Pr(m,c) or =1. We argue that, in the limit of Re-->infinity, a finite Pr(m,c) may exist. The second possibility is that Pr(m,c)-->0 as Re--> infinity, while Rm(c) tends to a very large constant value inaccessible at current resolutions. If there is a finite Pr(m,c), the dynamo is sustainable only if magnetic fields can exist at scales smaller than the flow scale, i.e., it is always effectively a large-Pr(m) dynamo. If there is a finite Rm(c), our results provide a lower bound: Rm(c) greater, similar 220 for Pr(m)< or =1/8. This is larger than Rm in many planets and in all liquid-metal experiments. PMID:14995310

  19. Social Norms of Cooperation in Small-Scale Societies

    Santos, Fernando P.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, besides providing a convenient framework to address the evolution of moral systems, offers a simple and plausible explanation for the prevalence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. By helping someone, an individual may increase her/his reputation, which may change the pre-disposition of others to help her/him in the future. This, however, depends on what is reckoned as a good or a bad action, i.e., on the adopted social norm responsible for raising or damaging a reputation. In particular, it remains an open question which social norms are able to foster cooperation in small-scale societies, while enduring the wide plethora of stochastic affects inherent to finite populations. Here we address this problem by studying the stochastic dynamics of cooperation under distinct social norms, showing that the leading norms capable of promoting cooperation depend on the community size. However, only a single norm systematically leads to the highest cooperative standards in small communities. That simple norm dictates that only whoever cooperates with good individuals, and defects against bad ones, deserves a good reputation, a pattern that proves robust to errors, mutations and variations in the intensity of selection. PMID:26808261

  20. Latent hardening size effect in small-scale plasticity

    We aim at understanding the multislip behaviour of metals subject to irreversible deformations at small-scales. By focusing on the simple shear of a constrained single-crystal strip, we show that discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations predict a strong latent hardening size effect, with smaller being stronger in the range [1.5 µm, 6 µm] for the strip height. We attempt to represent the DD pseudo-experimental results by developing a flow theory of Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity (SGCP), involving both energetic and dissipative higher-order terms and, as a main novelty, a strain gradient extension of the conventional latent hardening. In order to discuss the capability of the SGCP theory proposed, we implement it into a Finite Element (FE) code and set its material parameters on the basis of the DD results. The SGCP FE code is specifically developed for the boundary value problem under study so that we can implement a fully implicit (Backward Euler) consistent algorithm. Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the role of the material length scales involved in the SGCP model, from both the mechanical and numerical points of view. (paper)

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales.

    Horn, Sebastian; Caruso, Tancredi; Verbruggen, Erik; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies with markers covering the full Glomeromycota phylum were used to uncover phylogenetic community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Festuca brevipila. The study system was a semi-arid grassland with high plant diversity and a steep environmental gradient in pH, C, N, P and soil water content. The AMF community in roots and rhizosphere soil were analyzed separately and consisted of 74 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in total. Community-level variance partitioning showed that the role of environmental factors in determining AM species composition was marginal when controlling for spatial autocorrelation at multiple scales. Instead, phylogenetic distance and spatial distance were major correlates of AMF communities: OTUs that were more closely related (and which therefore may have similar traits) were more likely to co-occur. This pattern was insensitive to phylogenetic sampling breadth. Given the minor effects of the environment, we propose that at small scales closely related AMF positively associate through biotic factors such as plant-AMF filtering and interactions within the soil biota. PMID:24824667

  2. Small scale lithium-lead/water-interaction studies

    One current concept in fusion blanket design is to utilize water as the coolant and liquid lithium-lead as the breeding/neutron multiplier material. Considering the complex design of the blanket module, it is likely that a water leakage into the liquid alloy may occur due to a tube rupture provoking an intolerable pressure increase in the blanket module. The pressure increase is caused by the combined chemical and thermohydraulic reaction of lithium-lead with water. Experiments which simulate such a transient event are necessary to obtain information which is important for the blanket module design. The interaction has been investigated by conducting small-scale experiments at various injection pressures, alloy- and coolant temperatures. Besides using eutectic Li17Pb83, Li7Pb2, lithium and lead have been used. Among other results, the experiments indicate increasing chemical reaction with increasing lithium concentration. At the same time, the chemical reaction inhibits violent thermohydaulic reactions due to the attenuating effect of the hydrogen produced. The preliminary epxerimental results from Li17Pb83 and Li7Pb2 reveal that the pressure- and temperature transients caused by the chemical and thermohydraulic reactions lie within technically manageable limits. (orig.)

  3. Is the Production of Embryos in Small-Scale Farming an Economically Feasible Enterprise?

    Sánchez, Z; Lammoglia, M A; Alarcón, M A; Romero, J J; Galina, C S

    2015-08-01

    The present assay attempts to evaluate the feasibility of using embryo transfer in small community farmers by in vivo study and by modelling the results obtained. From the total of 59 donor cows, 62.7% responded to treatment, with a significant difference (p = 0.002) in the percentage of the response between breeds, being 90.5% (19/21) in Holstein and 47.4% (18/38) in Brahman. A total of 283 embryos were graded as transferable, while 141 as non-transferable, without difference in the percentage of transferable embryo by breed (p = 0.18). The mean of transferable embryos graded as class I and II was not different between Holstein and Brahman (p = 0.96 and p = 0.92, respectively); besides, no differences were observed in the other grades (non-transferable). The highest difference in costs, regardless of its quality by breed, was seen in the lower levels of probable fertility of the embryo transferred, even reaching several hundred dollars. When modelling the expected costs for embryo produced and transferred, values can reach nearly $2000.00 when the probable fertility is only 10%. However, when the probable fertility was 60%, embryo cost was close to $300.00. This technology seems to be viable on average or high-scale systems, having a superovulatory response between 60 and 80% with 4-6 transferrable embryos. Yet, in small-scale farming, due to the reduced number of donors and/or recipients, the costs surpass the economical feasibility of the technique. PMID:25916499

  4. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2012-09-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

  5. Small scale fluidized bed experiments under oxygen combustion conditions

    Toni Pikkarainen; Antti Tourunen; Heidi Nevalainen; Timo Leino; Jaakko Saastamoinen; Timo Eriksson [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    In oxygen combustion fuel is burned with almost pure oxygen and recycled flue gas without nitrogen from the air. By avoiding the diluting effect of nitrogen, the carbon dioxide capture of flue gas becomes more effective. Gas atmosphere in the reactor depends on flue gas recirculation ratio and consists mainly on carbon dioxide, water vapour and oxygen. Gas atmosphere has effects on burning rate, reaction kinetics, emission formation and sulphur capture by limestone. VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) has in Jyvaeskylae unique small scale fluidized bed combustors applicable for oxygen combustion research. Pilot scale (30-100 kW) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor can be operated at air firing and at oxygen combustion mode. Reactor is equipped with O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} feed from gas tanks and also with flue gas recirculation for demonstrating real oxygen combustion conditions. In addition, a smaller BFB/CFB reactor {lt} 1 kW), which can be operated at batch and continuous combustion modes, is suitable for phenomena studies of oxygen combustion. A set of oxygen combustion experiments with bituminous coal and limestone feed was carried out with pilot and laboratory scale reactors. With CFB-pilot reactor, normal air combustion is compared to oxygen combustion with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} feed from gas tanks and to real oxygen combustion with flue gas recirculation. Fuel reactivity and limestone sulphur capture tests were carried out at varying oxygen combustion conditions with laboratory scale reactor, and results were compared to air combustion. At pilot tests, feed gas oxygen content varied between 21-40% and at laboratory scale tests between 5-50%.

  6. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

  7. THE EXTREME SMALL SCALES: DO SATELLITE GALAXIES TRACE DARK MATTER?

    We investigate the radial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by modeling their small-scale clustering. Specifically, we model the Jiang et al. measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function down to very small projected separations (10 h–1 kpc ? r ? 400 h–1 kpc), in a wide range of luminosity threshold samples (absolute r-band magnitudes of –18 up to –23). We use a halo occupation distribution framework with free parameters that specify both the number and spatial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos. We assume one galaxy resides in the halo center and additional galaxies are considered satellites that follow a radial density profile similar to the dark matter Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, except that the concentration and inner slope are allowed to vary. We find that in low luminosity samples (Mr r 1/10, which is the fraction of satellite galaxies (or mass) that are enclosed within one-tenth of the virial radius of a halo. We find that M1/10 for low-luminosity satellite galaxies agrees with NFW, whereas for luminous galaxies it is 2.5-4 times higher, demonstrating that these galaxies are substantially more centrally concentrated within their dark matter halos than the dark matter itself. Our results therefore suggest that the processes that govern the spatial distribution of galaxies, once they have merged into larger halos, must be luminosity dependent, such that luminous galaxies become poor tracers of the underlying dark matter.

  8. Small scale folding observed in the NEEM ice core

    Jansen, Daniela; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Westhoff, Julien; Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Griera, Albert; Weikusat, Ilka

    2015-04-01

    Disturbances on the centimeter scale in the layering of the NEEM ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by means of visual stratigraphy as long as the ice does have a visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths of the visual stratigraphy method allow, to a certain extent, a three dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a structural analysis of the visible folds, discuss characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. With this study we aim to quantify the potential impact of small scale folding on the integrity of climate proxy data. We also analyze the structures with regard to the stress environment under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1700 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. Lattice orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analyzed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c.axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which has more or less a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. We conclude from these data that folding is a consequence of deformation along localized shear planes and kink bands. The findings are compared with results from other deep ice cores. The observations presented are supplemented by microstructural modeling using a crystal plasticity code that reproduces deformation, applying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), coupled with ELLE to include dynamic recrystallization processes. The model results reproduce the development of bands of grains with a tilted orientation relative to the single maximum fabric of the matrix and also the associated local deformation.

  9. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Gas explosion characterization, wave propagation (small-scale experiments)

    A number of experiments have been performed with blast waves arising from the ignition of homogeneous and well defined mixtures of methane, oxygen and nitrogen, contained within spherical balloons with controlled initial dimensions. In the initial small scale experiments pressure characteristics, ground reflection phenomena and pressure distribution on box like obstacles were studied. Both configurations with one box and two closely spaced boxes have been considered, and a wave-wave interaction phenomenom was observed in the case of closely spaced obstacles. Main emphasis has been placed on the half scale field experiments. In these, the maximum flame speed has been of the order of 100 m/s, resulting in positive peak pressures of 50-100.102Pa in 5 - 10 m distance from the source. The explosion process was found to be reasonable symmetric. The attenuation of the blast wave due to vegetation and the influence of obstacles as banks, walls and houses on the pressure field have been investigated. The presence of the bank and the house was felt in a zone with a length corresponding to a typical dimension of the obstacles, whereas the overall pressure field is shown to be unaffected by the type of obstacles and vegetation investigated. For the wall and house, reflection factors have been established, and some variation over the surface has been measured. The scatter of the pressure measurements is estimated for stable, neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions, and an attempt to determine the ground reflection factor has been performed. Finally the accelerations of a house exposed to the blast wave have been examined

  11. Thermalhydraulic analysis of small-scale tube rupture experiments

    Guillotine failure of a rupturing pressure tube is an accident situation currently being investigated in the safety analysis of CANDU reactors. One of the reasons for initiating the investigation was to determine the major factors controlling the onset of guillotine failure. As part of this program, small-scale rupture tests using fuel sheaths have been performed and numerically simulated. The fluid dynamic aspects of rupturing fuel sheaths simulated with a multi-dimensional prototype of the two-fluid thermalhydraulic code CATHENA are described in this paper. The results of the numerical simulations were examined by observing the behaviour of pressure transients of the fluid inside the tube during the rupture. A parametric study was first performed to determine optimum model conditions for two-dimensional simulations. Results from CATHENA simulations using these conditions were then compared with experimental data. Calculations were also extended to a three-dimensional thermalhydraulic analysis. This paper describes the results of the parametric and comparative studies. The effect of varying the simulation conditions on calculated pressure transients is also described. Although agreement between simulated results and experimental data was found to be good, some discrepancies were noted and are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of the three-dimensional study are also presented. This investigation has been successful in demonstrating a method that can be used to enhance the understanding of the behaviour of pressure-tube rupture under accident conditions. Areas in which the numerical analysis could be advanced to further the understanding of rupturing pressure tubes are provided. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance in Commensal Flora of Pig Farmers

    Aubry-Damon, Hélène; Grenet, Karine; Sall-Ndiaye, Penda; Che, Didier; Cordeiro, Eugenio; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Rigaud, Emma; Le Strat, Yann; Lemanissier, Véronique; Armand-Lefèvre, Laurence; Delzescaux, Didier; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Liénard, Michel; Andremont, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the quantitative contribution of pig farming to antimicrobial resistance in the commensal flora of pig farmers by comparing 113 healthy pig farmers from the major French porcine production areas to 113 nonfarmers, each matched for sex, age, and county of residence. All reported that they had not taken antiimicrobial agents within the previous month. Throat, nasal, and fecal swabs were screened for resistant microorganisms on agar containing selected antimicrobial agents. Nasophary...

  13. Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Barrio, Maria

    2002-05-01

    A small-scale stratified down draft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The CO content of the product gas (23-26 % vol.) is higher than in similar gasifiers and the H{sub 2} content has been found to vary between 14 and 16 % vol. The tar content in the product gas (Ca. 3 g/Nm{sup 3}) is rather high compared with similar gasifiers. The temperature profile, together with other relevant parameters like the air-excess ratio, the air to fuel ratio and gas to fuel ratio have been calculated. The experiments show that the air excess ratio is rather constant, varying between 0,25 and 0,3. Experiments have been conducted with a gas engine using mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as a fuel. NO{sub x} and CO emissions are analysed. The char gasification process has been studied in detail by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis. The study comprises the chemical kinetics of the gasification reactions of wood char in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, including the inhibition effect of CO and H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics has been found which relates the mass loss rate to the temperature, gas composition and degree of conversion for each reaction. The ratio CO/CO{sub 2} has been found to be a relevant parameter for reactivity. The gasification experiments in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O give reasons to believe that the rate of desorption for the complex C(O) varies depending on the gas mixture surrounding the char. It has been found that if the experimental data are obtained from separate H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} experiments, the reactivity of the char in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O can be fairly predicted. (author)

  14. Small-scale soil moisture determination with GPR

    Igel, Jan; Preetz, Holger

    2010-05-01

    The knowledge of topsoil moisture distribution is an important input for modelling water flow and evapotranspiration which are essential processes in hydrology, meteorology, and agriculture. All these processes involve non-linear effects and thus the small-scale variability of input parameters play an important role. Using smoothed interpolations instead can cause significant biases. Lateral soil moisture distribution can be sensed by different techniques at various scales whereby geophysical methods provide spatial information which closes the gap between point measurements by classical soil scientific methods and measurements on the field or regional scale by remote sensing. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to explore soil moisture on the field scale as propagation of electromagnetic waves is correlated to soil water content. By determining the velocity of the ground wave, which is a guided wave travelling along the soil surface, we can sense soil water content. This method has been applied to determine topsoil moisture for several years. We present a new groundwave technique which determines the velocity in between two receiving antennas which enables a higher lateral resolution (approx. 10 cm) compared to classical groundwave technique (half meter and more). We present synthetic data from finite-differences (FD) calculations as well as data from a sandbox experiment carried out under controlled conditions to demonstrate the performance of this method. Further, we carried out field measurements on two sites on a sandy soil which is used as grassland. The measurements were carried out in late summer at dry soil conditions. Soil moisture on the first site shows an isotropic pattern with correlation lengths of approx. 35 cm. We think this natural pattern is governed by rout distribution within the soil and the water uptake of vegetation. On the second site, soil moisture distribution shows a regular stripe pattern. As the land has been used as agricultural crop land until two years before the measurements were carried out, this anisotropy is obviously caused by the former cultivation of the land. Finally, we present a second technique to determine moisture of the topsoil by GPR using the same principle as remote sensing: the reflection of electromagnetic waves at the soil surface and determination of reflection amplitude. We use a 1 GHz horn antenna that is operated 0.5 m above the ground surface. As this method is based on a completely different physical principle than the first one, it provides an independent revision of our results. Even though, lateral resolution is not that high as when using the groundwave technique and the depth of investigation is not exactly the same, we get similar results showing the same pattern and characteristics at both sites.

  15. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

  16. Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water

    Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-12-01

    The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three units have been installed in Obama Hot Spring area, Nagasaki Prefecture, where about 15,000 tonnes of hot water are produced in a day and more than 35% of the hot water flow directly to the sea. Another demonstration experiments are also conducted in several hot spring areas. In this study we will review several examples to utilise low temperature hot springs in Japan. Binary Power Unit at Obama (Fujino, 2013)

  17. Financing Small Scale Business Enterprises in Nigeria: A Review of the Problems and the Way Forward

    Oboro, O. G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed the problems of financing small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and the way forward. It has identified the sources of finance, types of finance available for small business enterprises and problems inhibiting small scale business enterprises in Nigeria in securing funds for their smooth operations. The study concluded that adequate finance is indispensable for the successful operations of small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and recommended among others that government should increase loanable funds granted to small scale businesses, while micro finance banks should also live up to expectation in granting loanable funds to small scale businesses in Nigeria and a host of others for the effective operations of small scale business enterprises.

  18. Economic perspectives and social acceptance of possible increase in the small scale hydropower plants in Finland

    Dewandelaere, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis are to study the possibilities for increasing small scale hydropower in Finland, by studying the social acceptance and economical perspectives. It contains general information about the electricity market, production and consumption, as well as information collected about social acceptance and economical perspectives related to small scale hydropower plants. This thesis was conducted in Finland. The goals of this study are to determine why small scale hydropo...

  19. Community- Weighted Mean Plant Traits Predict Small Scale Distribution of Insect Root Herbivore Abundance

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Pfestorf, Hans; Jeltsch, Florian; Wurst, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calc...

  20. Financing Small Scale Business Enterprises in Nigeria: A Review of the Problems and the Way Forward

    Oboro, O. G.; Ighoroje, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed the problems of financing small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and the way forward. It has identified the sources of finance, types of finance available for small business enterprises and problems inhibiting small scale business enterprises in Nigeria in securing funds for their smooth operations. The study concluded that adequate finance is indispensable for the successful operations of small scale business enterprises in Nigeria and recommended among others that ...

  1. A Discussion on the Crisis Management of Small Scale Thermal Power Plant Basing on Sustainable Development

    Shijun Yang; Dongxiao Niu; Yongli Wang

    2009-01-01

    The strategy of sustainable development is one of the two important strategies for Chinese economic development. The present small scale thermal power plants cause much pollution, and consume too much energy, so they are being confronted with the crises of existence and management. Accordingly, it is urgent for small scale thermal power plants to carry out study on the crisis management about their own existence and development. Starting with the deficiencies of small scale thermal power plan...

  2. Poverty in small-scale fishing communities in Bangladesh: Contexts and responses

    Islam, Mohammad Mahmudul

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the causes of poverty and its manifestation in coastal small-scale fisheries in Bangladesh, the ways in which fishers cope with or overcome poverty, and possible measures supporting poor fishers to escape poverty. In a first approach towards exploring the poverty context, Paper I situates poverty in small-scale fisheries within a wider vulnerability analysis. The paper portrays the livelihoods of small-scale fishers in Bangladesh as being threatened by different factors, ...

  3. Strategies for Small Scale Vendors in India to Approach Lower Mainland Companies

    Dhaliwal, Baljeet; Mathew, George

    2008-01-01

    The top IT companies in India are interested in high value projects from Canada, while several small companies in India would be interested in accepting small-scale projects from Canada. This project develops strategies through which small-scale vendors in India may approach Lower Mainland companies for their smaller projects. Through a survey on Lower Mainland companies, the project recommends that small-scale Indian vendors should differentiate themselves through economies of scope, not nec...

  4. The small-scale forward modeling method for large models based on the wave equation

    Pu, Yitao; Yin, Xingyao; Cao, Danping; Zhang, Chong

    2015-12-01

    The small-scale modeling of an underground geological model can avoid the equivalent large-scale assumptions and show the seismic reflection characteristics more precisely. Considering the large number of perfectly matched layer (PML) boundaries in small-scale modeling of large models, we analyze the absorption effect of the PML boundary in different spatial spacing, and apply variable-grid technology to small-scale seismic modeling. Using small grids to compute the model region and large grids to compute the PML boundary, we successfully reduce the amount of PML boundary layers in small-scale seismic modeling. This method can reduce data storage and improve computational efficiency dramatically.

  5. Growth rate of small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers

    In this study, we discuss two key issues relating to a small-scale dynamo instability at low magnetic Prandtl numbers and large magnetic Reynolds numbers, namely: (i) the scaling for the growth rate of a small-scale dynamo instability in the vicinity of the dynamo threshold; (ii) the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in small-scale dynamos. There are two different asymptotics for the small-scale dynamo's growth rate: in the vicinity of the threshold of the excitation of the small-scale dynamo instability, λ∝ln(Rm/Rmcr), and when the magnetic Reynolds number is much larger than the threshold of the excitation of the small-scale dynamo instability, λ∝Rm1/2, where Rmcr is the small-scale dynamo instability threshold in the magnetic Reynolds number Rm. We demonstrate that the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations requires a finite correlation time of the random velocity field. On the other hand, the influence of the Golitsyn spectrum on the small-scale dynamo instability is minor. This is the reason why it is so difficult to observe this spectrum in direct numerical simulations for the small-scale dynamo with low magnetic Prandtl numbers. (comment)

  6. Growth rate of small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers

    Kleeorin, Nathan; Rogachevskii, Igor

    2012-01-01

    In this study we discuss two key issues related to a small-scale dynamo instability at low magnetic Prandtl numbers and large magnetic Reynolds numbers, namely: (i) the scaling for the growth rate of small-scale dynamo instability in the vicinity of the dynamo threshold; (ii) the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in small-scale dynamos. There are two different asymptotics for the small-scale dynamo growth rate: in the vicinity of the threshold of the excitation of th...

  7. Pesticides use by smallholder farmers in vegetable production in Northern Tanzania.

    Ngowi, A V F; Mbise, T J; Ijani, A S M; London, L; Ajayi, O C

    2007-11-01

    Small-scale farmers in Northern Tanzania grow vegetables that include tomatoes, cabbages and onions and use many types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these crops. Based on the use of questionnaires and interviews that were conducted in Arumeru, Monduli, Karatu, and Moshi rural districts, this study investigates farmers' practices on vegetable pest management using pesticides and related cost and health effects. The types of pesticides used by the farmers in the study areas were insecticides (59%), fungicides (29%) and herbicides (10%) with the remaining 2% being rodenticides. About a third of the farmers applied pesticides in mixtures. Up to 90% had a maximum of 3 pesticides in a mixture. In all cases there were no specific instructions either from the labels or extension workers regarding these tank mixtures. Fifty three percent of the farmers reported that the trend of pesticide use was increasing, while 33% was constant and 14% was decreasing. More than 50 percent of the respondents applied pesticides up to 5 times or more per cropping season depending on the crop. Insecticides and fungicides were routinely applied by 77% and 7%, respectively by these farmers. Sixty eight percent of farmers reported having felt sick after routine application of pesticides. Pesticide-related health symptoms that were associated with pesticides use included skin problems and neurological system disturbances (dizziness, headache). Sixty one percent of farmers reported spending no money on health due to pesticides. These results can be used to develop a tool to quantify the cost of pesticide use in pest management by small-scale vegetable farmers in Northern Tanzania and contribute to the reformation of pesticide policy for safe and effective use of pesticides. PMID:18528532

  8. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  9. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  10. Proceedings of a workshop on agroforestry tree seeds for farmers

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow

    Forest & Landscape Denmark, ICRAF and National Tree Seed Centres in three African countries implement an innovative twinning project. The project seeks to identify the major constraints and opportunities for improving seed/seedling production and distribution to small-scale tree-planting farmers in...... Sub-Saharan Africa. The project analyses existing production and distribution systems in three countries (Malawi, Uganda and Burkina Faso) and will test innovations on seed systems in pilot projects. A situation analysis of the Malawi tree seed sub sector carried out by this project has been prepared...

  11. Farmers on Welfare

    Knudsen, Ann-Christina

    member states of the European Community from 1958 onward. That story holds that the political priority given to the CAP, as well as its long-term stability, resides in a basic devil's bargain between French agriculture and German industry. In Farmers on Welfare, a landmark new account of the making of...... the single largest European policy ever, Ann-Christina L. Knudsen suggests that this accepted narrative is too neat. In particular, she argues, it neglects how a broad agreement was made in the 1960s that related to the national welfare state policies aiming to improve incomes for farmers. Drawing on...... cooperation. By tracing how the farm welfare objective was gradually implemented in other common policies, Knudsen offers an alternative account of European integration history. "This remarkable and rich book sheds much light on the origins and evolution of European agricultural policy. The combination of...

  12. Farmers Under Pressure

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Anneberg, Inger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how risk factors in highly industrialised agriculture are connected to animal neglect. With Danish agriculture as a case study, we use two types of data. First, we use register data from Statistics Denmark to map how risk factors such as farmers’ financial and social...... them face severe financial difficulties, divorce and psychiatric problems, which are connected to an increased risk of being convicted for the neglect of farm animals. The narratives bring forward themes of pressure related to financial trouble, technological break down, family problems, stress and a...... troubles are connected to convictions of neglect. Second, we analyse narratives where interviewed farmers, involved in cases of neglect, describe how they themselves experienced the incidents. We find that while livestock farmers in general have a low risk of animal neglect problems, a small percentage of...

  13. FarmLime manual: for small-scale production of agricultural lime

    Mitchell, C.J.; Mwanza, M.

    2005-01-01

    This manual is a concise guide to the small-scale production of agricultural lime. It was developed as part of a research project, ‘Low-cost lime for small-scale farming’ otherwise known as FarmLime (Mitchell, CJ, 2005). The ideal agricultural lime is a ground dolomite or dolomitic limestone with a particle size of 100%

  14. Wine Grape Production: A Promising Enterprise for Small Scale Enterprises in North Carolina?

    Jefferson-Moore, Kenrett Y.; Bynum, Jarvetta S.; Mosley, Jannety M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate wine grape production as a promising enterprise for small scale enterprises in North Carolina. Although results indicate that wine grape production is an ideal alternative enterprise for small scale producers, growers will have to wait at least 15 years to receive a complete return on the initial investment.

  15. Low and High Potentials of Entrepreneurial Development within the Framework of Indigenious Small Scale Management in Africa

    Olatunji Eniola Sule

    2013-01-01

    This work looked at the potentials of entrepreneurship development within the framework of indigenous small scale management. It also show those potentials that are inherent in entrepreneurs of small scale business both low and high potentials and possibly expose some of the problems or drawbacks of entrepreneur of small scale business in Africa. The writer try to show what small scale business is like and possibly other scholars¡¯ assumptions of what small scale business is all about. Finall...

  16. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source

    1980-06-01

    The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

  17. Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea

    Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution ocean color observations offer an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data were used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of 10 km are frequently observed during the upwelling season of each year over the 2004-2009 period. These small-scale eddies were generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagated eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed was consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies kept the high levels of phytoplankton rotating away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current became a meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along the cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

  18. Growth rate of small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers

    Kleeorin, N

    2011-01-01

    In this study we discuss two key issues related to a small-scale dynamo instability at low magnetic Prandtl numbers and large magnetic Reynolds numbers, namely: (i) the validity of the scaling, $\\lambda \\propto Rm^{1/2}$, for the growth rate of small-scale dynamo instability in the vicinity of the threshold; (ii) the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in small-scale dynamos. Our analysis shows that there are two different asymptotics for the small-scale dynamo growth rate: in the vicinity of the threshold of the excitation of the small-scale dynamo instability, $\\lambda \\propto \\ln(Rm / Rm^{cr})$, and when the magnetic Reynolds number is much larger than the threshold of the excitation of the small-scale dynamo instability, $\\lambda \\propto Rm^{1/2}$, where $Rm^{cr}$ is the small-scale dynamo instability threshold in the magnetic Reynolds number. We also demonstrated that the existence of the Golitsyn spectrum of magnetic fluctuations requires a finite correlation time of the random v...

  19. We are coffee farmers: Exploring coffee farmers’ identities in San Juan La Laguna, Guatemala

    Linders, E.H.E.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis, based on eight weeks of anthropological research in San Juan La Laguna, Guatemala, explores in what way being member of a coffee cooperation impacts upon the identities of local small scale coffee farmers. To answer this question it first looks at the coffee production process of the farmers, on their fields as well as in the cooperation. It then focuses on the history and working of the cooperation to provide a background for later exploring the reasons for members to join the c...

  20. Modelling biomass-fuelled small-scale CHP plants for process synthesis optimisation

    Savola, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    In this work possible process improvements for biomass-fuelled small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants are evaluated and a new mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for process synthesis optimisation of these processes is presented. Small-scale (1-20 MWe) CHP plants are of interest, as in Finland the potential to increase the CHP production is in converting small heating units to CHP production. However, the profitability of these small-scale CHP investments should be hig...

  1. The onset of a small-scale turbulent dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers

    Schekochihin, A. A.; Haugen, N. E. L.; Brandenburg, A.; Cowley, S C; Maron, J. L.; McWilliams, J C

    2004-01-01

    We study numerically the dependence of the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rmc for the turbulent small-scale dynamo on the hydrodynamic Reynolds number Re. The turbulence is statistically homogeneous, isotropic, and mirror--symmetric. We are interested in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl number Pm=Rm/Reconst as Re->infinity (a small-scale dynamo exists at low Pm) or Rmc/Re=Pmc->const as Re->infinity (no small-scale dynamo exists at low Pm). Results obtained in two independent sets of simu...

  2. Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas; Smaaskalig uppgradering och foeraedling av biogas

    Blom, Helena; Mccann, Michael; Westman, Johan (Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas is a report which aims to compile the state of knowledge in small-scale biogas upgrading. The project have been a collaboration with Agrovaest and Energy Farm and was funded by the Foundation for Agricultural Research, Western Goetaland and the Agriculture Department. The technology available for small scale upgrade has been examined from the technical and economic standpoint. An economic comparison has been made and the production of upgraded biogas has been estimated for different raw gas flows. The work also contains information related to biogas production, upgrading and a comparison of liquid biogas, DME and Ecopar-diesel

  3. Adoption of Improved Agroforestry Technologies among Contact Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

    Agomuo Florence Ozioma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the adoption of improved agroforestry technologies among farmers in Imo State. To achieve the study objectives, structured questionnaire were designed and administered to ninety farmers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC. Findings shows that the farmers were mainly small scale middle aged married men with secondary education and no access to credit. The average house hold size, farming experience and annual income of the farmers were 6 person, 15.5 years and N 148, 255.6 respectively with two contacts with extension agents on monthly basis. The results indicated that the farmers were largely aware of Gnetum Africana and have adopted plantain/banana technology. The mean adoption rate of agroforestry technologies was 33.81%. The main determinants of the adoption were farmers’ age, educational level, farm size, income, access to credit and extension contact as this variables were all significant. Apart from age of the farmers which was negatively related to adoption of agroforestry technologies all other variables mentioned affected the adoption rate of agroforestry technologies positively. Based on the findings, it was strongly recommended that farmers be provided with loans at concessionary interest rates to solve their financial problem of adopting innovations.

  4. Adoption of Improved Agroforestry Technologies among Contact Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

    Orisakwe Lambert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the adoption of improved agroforestry technologies among farmers in Imo State. To achieve the study objectives, structured questionnaire were designed and administered to ninety farmers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC. Findings shows that the farmers were mainly small scale middle aged married men with secondary education and no access to credit. The average house hold size, farming experience and annual income of the farmers were 6 person, 15.5 years and N 148,255.6 respectively with two contacts with extension agents on monthly basis. The results indicated that the farmers were largely aware of Gnetum Africana and have adopted plantain/banana technology. The mean adoption rate of agroforestry technologies was 33.81%. The main determinants of the adoption were farmers’ age, educational level, farm size, income, access to credit and extension contact as this variables were all significant. Apart from age of the farmers which was negatively related to adoption of agroforestry technologies all other variables mentioned affected the adoption rate of agroforestry technologies positively. Based on the findings, it was strongly recommended that farmers be provided with loans at concessionary interest rates to solve their financial problem of adopting innovations.

  5. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  6. Growth and Efficiency of Small Scale Industry and its Impact on Economic Development of Sindh

    Mumtaz Ali Junejo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the growth, efficiency, causes of sickness of small scale industry, emergence of entrepreneur and competencies of entrepreneurs at Larkana estate area of Sindh Province. The study examines the educational background of the entrepreneurs of small scale industry who are the helm of affairs and its impact on the growth of sales of the every year. Strong evidence emerges that owners of small industrial units are family concern and having a low educational background, lack of managerial knowledge and conservation-oriented attitude results in under utilization of capacity and low growth of units established every year. This research paper provides a survey of the theoretical and empirical literature relating to promote the small scale industry in the Larkana region. This study indicates effective policy measures to promote the small scale industry particularly in Larkana region and generally in Pakistan.

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY AND MOTIVATION FACTORS OF SMALL SCALE WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS

    A.Kaviyarasan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study made an attempt to find out the personality and motivation factors of small scale womenentre preneurs i n Nagapattinam district. The study tried to know whether there any influence of demographic variables on personality and motivation factors of small scale women entrepreneurs. In the present investigation a sample of 100 small scale women entrepreneurs were selected randomly. Primary data were collected from the respondents using questionnaire developed by researcher. After collecting the data, they were coded using Microsoft excel. The data were analyzed in Statistical Package for Social Science. Mean, Standard Deviation, t-test and One way ANOVA analysis were applied to test the hypotheses. Result shows that there is a significant difference between small scale women entrepreneurs differ in their personality and motivation factors.

  8. Regeneratively-Cooled, Turbopump-Fed, Small-Scale Cryogenic Rocket Engines Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To-date, the realization of small-scale, high-performance liquid bipropellant rocket engines has largely been limited by the inability to operate at high chamber...

  9. Small-scale production and use of wood fuels. Annual report 2007

    The 'Small-scale production and use of wood fuels' technology research programme is targeting to develop solutions which are economically competitive, reliable and acceptable in terms of emissions as regards small-scale (usually under 1 MW) wood fuel production, storage, processing, distribution and heat production. The programme aims to: 1. Develop technologies for the export market in the field of small-scale wood fuel production and use. 2. Strengthen the expertise of SMEs both in R and D and business operations. 3. Facilitate the networking of companies. 4. Improve international connections with similar companies and research institutes in order to exchange and boost specialist skills and knowledge.5. Enhance regional expertise through cooperation between the National Technology Agency and other operators. The programme supports the National Climate Strategy objective of developing competitive technological solutions to increase the small-scale use of wood by 45% by 2010

  10. Small-scale dynamo action in multi-scale magnetohydrodynamic and micro-turbulence

    Li, Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Nonlinear interplay between resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) magnetic island and drift wave micro-turbulence is investigated using direct Landau-fluid simulations. A twisting oscillation of magnetic island associated with the driving force of micro-turbulence is observed, which is referred to as magnetic island seesaw. In the initiating phase of the seesaw oscillation, small-scale current and magnetic field fluctuations increase dramatically while the magnetic induction grows exponentially at small-scales corresponding to the spatial scale of micro-turbulence, showing a small-scale dynamo action. A minimal model consisting of reduced MHD turbulence and a micro-instability is proposed to elucidate the underlying mechanism. It is identified that the island seesaw is driven by a net oscillatory electromagnetic torque, which results from small-scale dynamo-generated current and magnetic field. The dynamo mechanism may offer an important energy exchange channel between MHD and micro-turbulence in magnetic fusion plasmas.

  11. Study on optimized safety system modeling for small-scale passive reactor

    Small scale reactor is one of the most important issues in this low-carbon and green energy development era of 21st century, since small scale reactor enables (a) local heating, (b) desalinating, and (c) local electric power generating, which can avoid power loss arising out of long-distance power transmission. This study is about safety system (especially about PRHRS, Passive Residual Heat Remove System) of REX-10; one model of small scale passive reactor and its goals are (a) to research on characteristics of safety system of small scale reactors compared to conventional PWR or research reactors like SMART, (b) to nodalize the system and (c) to optimize the safety system through simulation and analysis of virtual accident. RELAP5/MOD3.3 will be used for analysis tool of accident simulation

  12. Farmers, Markets and Contracts: Chain Integration of Smallholder Producers in Costa Rica

    Ruerd Ruben; Fernando Sáenz-Segura

    2008-01-01

    Contract farming is frequently considered as an appropriate mechanism for integrating smallholders into dynamic markets. We discuss the rationale for the variety in contractual arrangements between small-scale producers and agro-processing firms in the Northern and Central region of Costa Rica. Different market configurations give rise to delivery conditions, ranging from spot market negotiations to verbal or written contracts. We analyse which types of farmers are typically engaged in each o...

  13. Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia

    Teshome, W.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopia. Although governments have been involved in the construction of irrigation infrastructures since the mid-1980s to mitigate drought and famine in many parts ofEthiopia, the responses of irrigators to such interventions have never been studied. The main concern of this study therefore is to document how irrigation intervention interfaces with the life-worlds of small-scale irr...

  14. Impacts of Fair Trade certification on coffee farmers, cooperatives, and laborers in Nicaragua

    Valkila, Joni; Nygren, Anja

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper analyzes the possibilities and challenges of Fair Trade certification as a movement seeking to improve the well-being of small-scale coffee growers and coffee laborers in the global South. Six months of fieldwork was conducted in 2005?2006 to study the roles of a wide range of farmers, laborers, cooperative administrators, and export companies in Fair Trade coffee production and trade in Nicaragua. The results of our evaluation of the ability of Fair Trade to me...

  15. Irrigation Water Value at Small-scale Schemes: Evidence from the North West Province, South Africa

    S. Speelman; Farolfi, S.; S. Perret; D'Haese, L.; D'Haese, M.

    2008-01-01

    Insight into the value of water is essential to support policy decision making about investments in the water sector, efficient allocation of water and water pricing. However, information on irrigation water values at small-scale schemes is scarce and in general little attention is paid to the determinants of these values. In this study values are calculated for small-scale irrigation schemes in the North West Province of South Africa, using the residual imputation method. An average water va...

  16. Poverty measurement :an application for small-scale fisheries in Bich Dam island, Vietnam

    Dien, Vo Van

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are one of the key sectors in Vietnam economy. This has been explained by its noticeable contribution to GDP, sizable share in the total export value in addition to the significant role in employment generation and food security. Contrary to the promising signs of sectorial performance, most of fishermen are considered the poorest of the poor and poverty is dominantly characteristic in small-scale fisheries. Poverty alleviation has emerged as an urgent requirement to sus...

  17. Microbiological food safety of cheese produced in Swedish small-scale dairies

    Rosengren, Åsa

    2012-01-01

    The number of small-scale dairies in Sweden has increased during the past decade. Current agricultural policy encourages such small-scale production and various ways to help producers have been proposed. Combining traditional cheese making and good product safety is a challenge, since several human pathogens pose a hazard in the products. Staphylococcus aureus is an important foodborne pathogen that can be transmitted via milk to cheese. Some strains can produce staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE...

  18. Current status of turbulent dynamo theory: From large-scale to small-scale dynamos

    Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, Dmitry; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Several recent advances in turbulent dynamo theory are reviewed. High resolution simulations of small-scale and large-scale dynamo action in periodic domains are compared with each other and contrasted with similar results at low magnetic Prandtl numbers. It is argued that all the different cases show similarities at intermediate length scales. On the other hand, in the presence of helicity of the turbulence, power develops on large scales, which is not present in non-helical small-scale turb...

  19. MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE: A STUDY OF SMALL SCALE MUNICIPALITY

    Arti Pamnani

    2015-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is nowadays becoming more area of concern due to increase in population and decrease in area for disposal of the same. Study and work has been done in metro and large cities while medium scale and small scale towns and villages are neglected for municipal solid waste management. Paper indicates identification of town according to population. India comprises of 70% population in medium and small scale town and villages thus any problem related to environment c...

  20. ARTISANAL AND SMALL?SCALE MINING IN WASSA AMENFI EAST DISTRICT, (Ghana)

    Ezeji Onyebuchi, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining in Ghana has been in existence as far back as pre-colonial era. The industry which is mostly controlled by Ghanaians is highly unregulated pre 1987 (Hilson, 2001). However, because of dwindling state of the economy, the government under the auspices of the German NGO; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) and the World Bank, decided to legalize small-scale mining as part of Economic Recovery Policies (ERP), allowing individuals to mine mine...

  1. Artisanal small-scale mining: Potential ecological disaster in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe

    Siduduziwe Ncube-Phiri; Alice Ncube; Blessing Mucherera; Mkhululi Ncube

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal small-scale mining (ASM) has devastating impacts on the environment, such as deforestation, over-stripping of overburden, burning of bushes and use of harmful chemicals like mercury. These environmental impacts are a result of destructive mining, wasteful mineral extraction and processing practices and techniques used by the artisanal small-scale miners. This paper explores the ecological problems caused by ASM in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe. It seeks to determine the nature and ex...

  2. Skewness-induced asymmetric modulation of small-scale turbulence by large-scale structures

    Agostini, Lionel; Leschziner, Michael; Gaitonde, Datta

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies discuss of role of skewness of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in near-wall shear layers, in the context of quantifying the correlation between large-scale motions and amplitude variations of small-scale fluctuations—referred to as "modulation." The present study is based on the premise that the skewness of the small-scale fluctuations should be accounted for explicitly in the process of defining their envelope, which characterizes their amplitude variations. This leads to the notion of two envelopes, one for positive and the other for negative small-scale fluctuations, and hence also to two corresponding correlation coefficients. Justification for this concept is provided first by an examination of a high-frequency synthetic signal subjected to realistic skewness-inducing modulation. A new formalism is provided for deriving the two envelopes, and its fidelity is demonstrated for the synthetic test case. The method is then applied to a channel flow at a friction Reynolds number of 4200, for which direct numerical simulation (DNS) data are available. The large-scale and small-scale fields are separated by the empirical mode decomposition method, and the modulation of the small-scale fluctuations by the large scales is examined. Separate maps of the correlation coefficient and of two-point correlations, the latter linking the large-scale motions and the envelopes of the small-scale motions, are derived for the two envelopes pertaining to positive and negative small-scale fluctuations, and these demonstrate a significant sensitivity to the envelope-definition process, especially close to the wall where the skewness of the small-scale fluctuations is the dominant contributor to the total value.

  3. The potential of energy efficiency measures in micro and small scale businesses in Kumasi-Ghana

    Kuranchie, Francis Atta

    2011-01-01

    In industry, energy efficiency reduces operating cost and emissions to the environment whiles enhancing energy security. In order to ensure the sustainability of micro and small scale businesses in a developing country such as Ghana, measures that can ensure energy efficiency are therefore essential for these businesses to have a productive and economical operation that will ensure their sustainability. In this study, the potential of energy efficiency measures for micro and small scale busin...

  4. Health and Safety Management for Small-scale Methane Fermentation Facilities

    Yamaoka, Masaru; Yuyama, Yoshito; Nakamura, Masato; Oritate, Fumiko

    In this study, we considered health and safety management for small-scale methane fermentation facilities that treat 2-5 ton of biomass daily based on several years operation experience with an approximate capacity of 5 t·d-1. We also took account of existing knowledge, related laws and regulations. There are no qualifications or licenses required for management and operation of small-scale methane fermentation facilities, even though rural sewerage facilities with a relative similar function are required to obtain a legitimate license. Therefore, there are wide variations in health and safety consciousness of the operators of small-scale methane fermentation facilities. The industrial safety and health laws are not applied to the operation of small-scale methane fermentation facilities. However, in order to safely operate a small-scale methane fermentation facility, the occupational safety and health management system that the law recommends should be applied. The aims of this paper are to clarify the risk factors in small-scale methane fermentation facilities and encourage planning, design and operation of facilities based on health and safety management.

  5. Ethnographic Approaches to Understanding Social Sustainability in Small-scale Water Systems

    Wutich, A.

    2011-12-01

    Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.

  6. An Investigation of Innovation in Small Scale Industries Located in Science Parks of Iran

    Alireza Fazlzadeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades with increasing of global economic competition, small scale industries have known as aneconomic growth engine and a tool for employment so they have important role in growth and development ofcountries. The importance small scale industries of is its need more investment for their survival and competitioncapability than big firms to new products and processes. Therefore, small scale industries are a potential resourcefor achieving new ideas and innovation. Previous studies on science and technology parks' performance in themost of countries demonstrate the effective and positive roles of these institutions in entrepreneurship,technology and economical development, increasing technological innovation and employment. This paperinvestigates the innovation in small scale industries which is settled in science parks of Iran. The primary datacollected from questionnaire and has been analyzed through using SPSS version 16 software. The results of thisstudy indicate that there are some factors that accelerate innovation within firms. Beside small scale industrieshas a positive and significant effect on innovation and the range of innovation in small scale industries is morethan other firms.

  7. Mental health of British farmers

    Thomas, H.; Lewis, G.(Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY, United States of America); Thomas, D.; Salmon, R.; Chalmers, R.; Coleman, T; Kench, S; Morgan-Capner, P.; Meadows, D.; Sillis, M.; Softley, P; Jenkins, R.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the prevalence of neurotic symptoms in a sample of British farmers, to investigate whether farming characteristics are associated with psychiatric morbidity, and to test the hypothesis that British farmers have a higher prevalence of depression and thoughts of life not worth living than the British household population.

  8. Application of improved management and nutrition technologies for small-holder dairy production and their adoption by farmers in developing countries

    Full text: The objectives of this presentation are to consider some of the factors concerned in the application of technical change to small-scale dairying and the adoption of change by farmers. The presentation will consider (1) the motives of the small-scale dairy farmer, (2) the small-scale dairy farmer's own perceptions of his problems and needs, (3) how farmers deal with the two fundamental technologies implicit in dairy farming, feeding their animals and getting their cows in calf, and (4) dissemination routes most favoured by small scale dairy farmers. The geographical focus of the presentation is East Africa, a region associated with considerable progress and success in small-scale dairying (Kenya) as well as dairying projects in their early development (Tanzania). The concerns of small-scale farmers have been characterised; thus the farmers have multiple objectives, their households have low capacity to bear risk, their livestock enterprises are often integrated with cropping activities, and their livestock are often expected to be multi-functional. Some of the expected implications for small-scale dairy farmers are that: (1) inputs (including feed) are low and therefore milk yields are expected to be low; (2) inputs are often matched to output so that a reduction in milk price results in a reduction in concentrate allowance for the cows; (3) the use of time and cash are optimised, implying that priority will not be given to cattle if other farm enterprises seem financially more attractive. Perhaps not surprisingly, attitudes and systems vary within the farming community, allowing sub-groups of small-scale dairy farmers to be identified and defined. Thus some farmers emerge as more specialist or entrepreneurial than others, prepared to make greater investment in return for higher outputs. Attitudes and activities also differ according to location. Small-scale farmers close to urban centres may well have off-farm employment, diverting their attention from their cows. The problems faced by small-scale dairy farmers are diverse but some common threads emerge from a number of different studies. As well as the usual farmer concerns about the low prices received for their product and the high price of inputs, the availability of working capital appears to be a general anxiety. Poor feeding practices, partly consequent on weather but also a result of cash shortages, are widely recognised. Animal disease is also a general source of concern. It is clear from farmer consultations that farmers do respond to these problems with technical innovations appropriate to their resources. Often these innovations represent adaptations to the limited inputs available or affordable. Thus long inter calving intervals, probably a function of chronic under feeding as well as difficulties associated with bull availability, are countered by exploiting the long flat lactation curve associated with the failure of the cow to peak in early lactation as a result of the inadequate feeding. Cows are milked for many months, often with no intervening dry period between lactations. Although this maintains milk production, the production of replacement heifer calves is jeopardised by the long calving intervals, threatening the sustainability of small-scale dairying at both the household and national level. It follows from the above that small-scale dairy farmers have limited capacity for technical change. However, in some areas, the very adoption of small-scale dairying over the past few years is sufficiently novel to illustrate that its practitioners are prepared to adopt change if the proposals are considered feasible within the recognised constraints. Sometimes innovations fail to get to farmers because of inadequate extension services, although increasing access to the internet may signal rapid change in some regions. However, it is also clear that scepticism remains widespread. Recent studies indicate that, in some areas, extension services have limited success at disseminating innovation. Farmers' preferred sources of information are their churches and organisations such as women's groups rather than scientists and government extension agents. Although peri-urban small-scale dairying can be identified as a largely market-orientated activity, it is clear that the risk-limiting, enterprise-optimising outlook of the small farmer frequently prevails. It must be recognised that the availability of cash, the main constraint and concern of most small-holder households, remains the major limiting factor to the adoption of technical change. It is equally clear that to achieve greater productivity and sustainability, greater investment, particularly in animal feed, is essential. Adaptive research must attempt to achieve a compromise between these two realities. In addition, the research must be carefully targeted from the outset at farmers and the groups and organisations that are positioned to influence farmers. This will require taking stakeholders into the project from the start. (author)

  9. Small-scale preparations in Sweden. Extemporaneous preparations and stock preparations at eleven community pharmacies.

    Kettis, A; Isacson, D; Bingefors, K; Eriksson, G

    1991-06-21

    Small-scale preparations, i.e. non-registered drugs that are extemporaneously prepared for each patient or made in larger batches for stock keeping, form a small but important group of drugs, especially for patients with rare diseases or allergies. Small-scale preparations are not included in the otherwise comprehensive statistics compiled by the National Corporation of Swedish Pharmacies and this makes knowledge of the use of these drugs limited. The occurrence of small-scale preparations was studied at eleven community pharmacies over a three-year period (1987-1989) by analysis of the orders from the pharmacies to the four production units of the National Corporation of Swedish Pharmacies in the first quarter of each study year. The number of small-scale preparations dispensed were compared with the total sales of drugs at each pharmacy. The proportion of small-scale preparations in the total drug sales was about 1.5% throughout the study period, but there were fluctuations over time at the individual pharmacies. The most common dosage forms were creams, liniments and mixtures. Dermatological drugs in different dosage forms were the most frequent (almost 50%). This was probably because of the necessity for a great variety of different strengths among these drugs. PMID:1923704

  10. Small scale effects on the mechanical behaviors of protein microtubules based on the nonlocal elasticity theory.

    Gao, Yuanwen; Lei, Fang-Ming

    2009-09-25

    Based on the nonlocal elastic theory, small scale effects are considered in the investigation of the mechanical properties of protein microtubules. A new prediction formula for the persistence lengths of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect is presented. Subsequently, the buckling of microtubules is studied based on a nonlocal elastic beam model. The predicted results of our model indicate that the length-dependence of persistence length is related not only to the shear terms, but also to the small scale effect. The Eular beam model, which is always considered unable to explain the length-dependence of microtubules, can capture the length-dependence of the persistence length of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect. The elastic buckling behaviors of microtubules in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm are also considered using the nonlocal Timoshenko beam model in this paper, and the results indicate that the small scale effect of microtubules also plays an important role in the buckling of microtubules. PMID:19615341

  11. Farmer Ted Goes Natural

    Martin, G

    1999-01-01

    A traditional "Farmer Ted" calculus problem is to minimize the perimeter of a rectangular chicken coop given the area N, so that as little as possible will be spent on the fencing. But what if N is an integer, and we are only allowed to consider rectangles with integer side lengths? Often it will be more cost-effective to build a coop with area smaller than N, where the measure of cost-effectiveness is the ratio of the area to the perimeter. Those numbers N that are the areas of rectangles that are more cost-effective than any smaller rectangle are dubbed "almost-squares", in deference to our intuition that such numbers ought to be the product of two nearly equal factors. This paper investigates the characterization and distribution of the almost-squares. It is shown that almost-squares can be equivalently described in a surprisingly elegant way, and that computing whether a number is an almost-square and computing the least almost-square not exceeding N can be done surprisingly efficiently (much faster than ...

  12. Farm, household, and farmer characteristics associated with changes in management practices and technology adoption among dairy smallholders.

    Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Ugoretz, Sarah Janes; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Wattiaux, Michel André

    2015-02-01

    This study explored whether technology adoption and changes in management practices were associated with farm structure, household, and farmer characteristics and to identify processes that may foster productivity and sustainability of small-scale dairy farming in the central highlands of Mexico. Factor analysis of survey data from 44 smallholders identified three factors-related to farm size, farmer's engagement, and household structure-that explained 70 % of cumulative variance. The subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis yielded three clusters. Cluster 1 included the most senior farmers with fewest years of education but greatest years of experience. Cluster 2 included farmers who reported access to extension, cooperative services, and more management changes. Cluster 2 obtained 25 and 35 % more milk than farmers in clusters 1 and 3, respectively. Cluster 3 included the youngest farmers, with most years of education and greatest availability of family labor. Access to a network and membership in a community of peers appeared as important contributors to success. Smallholders gravitated towards easy to implement technologies that have immediate benefits. Nonusers of high investment technologies found them unaffordable because of cost, insufficient farm size, and lack of knowledge or reliable electricity. Multivariate analysis may be a useful tool in planning extension activities and organizing channels of communication to effectively target farmers with varying needs, constraints, and motivations for change and in identifying farmers who may exemplify models of change for others who manage farms that are structurally similar but performing at a lower level. PMID:25404038

  13. Technology Awareness and Farmers Perception in Adoption of Wheat Production Technologies: Case Study in Njoro and Rongai Divisions

    Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in Kenya but its production has not been able to meet high demand, since production is only fifty percent. The shortfall is supplemented by importation. The purpose of this study was to assess and describe farmers' perception on adoption of wheat production technologies in Njoro and Rongai divisions. One hundred and fifty (150) wheat farmers were randomly selected using stratified proportional random sampling technique. The data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. farmers perception in wheat production is favourable with 80.2% agreeing that it access to credits by farmers. This was only possible to 7.3% of the farmers. above 90% of the farmers in the two divisions exist. Farmers' perception for small-scale 3.25% as higher than 2.75% for large-scale wheat farmers with t-test-2.21 at ?=0.05 for pest and disease control.s Education level and farm size significantly affected adoption, while gender and age were not significant

  14. MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE: A STUDY OF SMALL SCALE MUNICIPALITY

    Arti Pamnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste is nowadays becoming more area of concern due to increase in population and decrease in area for disposal of the same. Study and work has been done in metro and large cities while medium scale and small scale towns and villages are neglected for municipal solid waste management. Paper indicates identification of town according to population. India comprises of 70% population in medium and small scale town and villages thus any problem related to environment can be solved only when this area is focus. Study has been done in small scale municipality of sojitra, Gujarat state Suggestion has been done for better solid waste management. Analysis of waste is also done for study purpose and it is found that waste comprises of major portion of organic waste which can be handled properly for making natural manure or for utilizing as alternative fuel.

  15. Thermodynamic modeling of small scale biomass gasifiers: Development and assessment of the ''Multi-Box'' approach.

    Vakalis, Stergios; Patuzzi, Francesco; Baratieri, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Modeling can be a powerful tool for designing and optimizing gasification systems. Modeling applications for small scale/fixed bed biomass gasifiers have been interesting due to their increased commercial practices. Fixed bed gasifiers are characterized by a wide range of operational conditions and are multi-zoned processes. The reactants are distributed in different phases and the products from each zone influence the following process steps and thus the composition of the final products. The present study aims to improve the conventional 'Black-Box' thermodynamic modeling by means of developing multiple intermediate 'boxes' that calculate two phase (solid-vapor) equilibriums in small scale gasifiers. Therefore the model is named ''Multi-Box''. Experimental data from a small scale gasifier have been used for the validation of the model. The returned results are significantly closer with the actual case study measurements in comparison to single-stage thermodynamic modeling. PMID:26855290

  16. Comparison between full- and small-scale sensory assessments of air quality

    Wargocki, Pawel; Sabikova, J.; Lagercrantz, Love Per; Clausen, Geo; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    glass chambers ventilated at an airflow of 0.9 L/s. Full-scale assessments were made immediately upon entering offices ventilated at an outdoor air supply rate of 1.9 h-1. The ratio of ventilation rate to surface area of a building material was identical in the chambers and in the offices. Full-scale......Thirty-nine untrained subjects made small- and full-scale evaluations of the acceptability of the quality of air at 22 deg.C and 40% RH, polluted by either carpet, felt floor covering, painted gypsum board, linoleum or chipboard. Small-scale evaluations were made on the air extracted from 200-L...... sensory ratings of acceptability of air polluted by carpet and by linoleum were systematically better than small-scale assessments, but not for the other three materials. Calculated sensory emission rates from carpet and linoleum were significantly lower in full scale than in small scale. When modelling...

  17. Generation of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields by Small-Scale Dynamo in Shear Flows.

    Squire, J; Bhattacharjee, A

    2015-10-23

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects. PMID:26551120

  18. Responding to the challenge of artisanal and small-scale mining. How can knowledge networks help?

    Buxton, Abbi

    2013-02-15

    This paper reviews what is known about the problems and structural challenges facing the 20-30 million artisanal and small-scale miners and their communities worldwide. Better understanding of these structural challenges is needed to improve policies and policy implementation to further sustainable development opportunities for the sector. The paper explores the current gaps in knowledge to achieve policy change from researchers, practitioners and artisanal and small-scale miners themselves. It explores how a 'knowledge intermediary', which acts to link knowledge with policy, could address these gaps and includes case studies of IIED’s work on knowledge networks and programmes. The paper concludes by proposing a way forward for designing a knowledge programme to meet the particular needs of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector, and by inviting ASM sector stakeholders to share their views on the options outlined.

  19. Small-scale biomass CHP using gasa turbines: a scoping study

    Various options for small-scale (up to 250 KWe) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants evaluated in this scoping study. Plants using small gas turbines, and able to use biomass fuels when available are included. Three detailed case studies of small-scale biomass CHP plants are compared to match specific technical options with customer requirements. The commercial development of such biomass-fired CHP units, using gas turbines, is shown to be economically viable depending on fuel costs and the continuation of existing financial incentives. (UK)

  20. Development of small-scale directly gas-fired integrated HVAC system

    A small-scale directly gas-fired integrated HVAC system is being investigated. The main principle is to use the waste heat of a CHP plant, possibly in conjunction with solar energy, for dehumidification of ambient air. Driving a small-scale absorption chiller is not feasible because of the high waste heat temperature required and the high cost of an absorption chiller. The required cooling capacity of the mechanically / electrically driven compression-type chiller is reduced drastically since no further dehumidification by condensation is necessary. In contrast to Desiccant Cooling Systems no water is required. (author)

  1. Variability of Quality of Life at Small Scales: Addis Ababa, Kirkos Sub-City

    Tesfazghi, Elsa Sereke; Martinez, J A; Verplanke, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Urban quality of life (QoL) is becoming a subject of urban research mainly for western and Asian countries. Such attention is due to an increasing awareness of the contribution of QoL studies in identifying intervention areas and in monitoring urban planning policies. However, most studies are carried out at city or country level that can average out details at small scales. In this paper we present a case study where the urban QoL at small scale is measured and its variability is evaluated f...

  2. A small scale magnetically levitated train for project-based laboratory education

    Glehn Gregor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The drive train of a small scale magnetically levitated train reveals the principles of a mechatronic system and offers challenges related to design, construction and control. Therefore, it is used at the Institute of electrical Machines (IEM of the RWTH Aachen University as a demonstrator for engineering solutions. Instead of being a part of a static predefined student laboratory, the small scale magnetically levitated train is part of dynamic individual student projects. This approach provides the advantage that the students are directly involved in the engineering process and gain motivation out of their personal ideas becoming reality.

  3. Preferential Sampling and Small-Scale Clustering of Gyrotactic Microswimmers in Turbulence

    Gustavsson, K.; Berglund, F.; Jonsson, P. R.; Mehlig, B.

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies show that spherical motile microorganisms in turbulence subject to gravitational torques gather in down-welling regions of the turbulent flow. By analyzing a statistical model we analytically compute how shape affects the dynamics, preferential sampling, and small-scale spatial clustering. We find that oblong organisms may spend more time in up-welling regions of the flow, and that all organisms are biased to regions of positive fluid-velocity gradients in the upward direction. We analyze small-scale spatial clustering and find that oblong particles may either cluster more or less than spherical ones, depending on the strength of the gravitational torques.

  4. A Search for Small-Scale Anisotropy of PeV Cosmic Rays

    Zotov, M. Yu.; Kulikov, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent results of Milagro, Tibet, ARGO-YBJ and IceCube experiments on the small-scale anisotropy of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) with energies from units up to a few hundred TeV arise a question on a possible nature of the observed phenomenon, as well as on the anisotropy of CRs at higher energies. An analysis of a small-scale anisotropy of CRs with energies at around PeV registered with the EAS MSU array presented in the article, reveals a number of regions with an excessive flux. A typical si...

  5. Air emissions of small-scale (< 10 MW) biomass boilers. Review of three field tests

    Objectives of greenhouse gases emission reduction, which encourages bio-energy development for heat purposes, are compatible with air-quality policies if the concept of clean biomass combustion is applied. This paper presents actual emission levels of atmospheric pollutants of small-scale (2, NOx, fine particulate matters, metallic compounds. Installation design (power, flue-gas cleaning techno logy) also has a major impact on organic pollutants and fine particulate matter emissions. A large majority of boilers have very low emission levels. Guidelines are finally stated to keep on promoting small-scale biomass boilers in order to be air-quality compatible and efficient to fight climate change. (author)

  6. Fabrication of small-scale structures with non-planar features

    Burckel, David B.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2015-11-19

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  7. Isocurvature Perturbation of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles and Small Scale Structure.

    Choi, Ki-Young; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Shin, Chang Sub

    2015-11-20

    The adiabatic perturbation of dark matter is damped during the kinetic decoupling due to the collision with a relativistic component on subhorizon scales. However, the isocurvature part is free from damping and could be large enough to make a substantial contribution to the formation of small scale structure. We explicitly study the weakly interacting massive particles as dark matter with an early matter dominated period before radiation domination and show that the isocurvature perturbation is generated during the phase transition and leaves an imprint in the observable signatures for small scale structure. PMID:26636842

  8. Auto Farmer Using Renewable Energy

    TANAY CHOWDHURY; DAYARAM GORA; VIKASH YADAV; A.R.SURYAWANSHI

    2013-01-01

    AUTO FARMER is one of the mean machine project. In the world of increasing population the demand for increase in growth of the food increases, this demands greater productivity with greater quality. The aim of AUTO FARMER USING RENEWABLE ENERGY is to provide automation and create a imprint in the field of agriculture. Today the farming underwent many difficulties like depending on rain, the restless manual work and the efforts .

  9. Auto Farmer Using Renewable Energy

    TANAY CHOWDHURY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available AUTO FARMER is one of the mean machine project. In the world of increasing population the demand for increase in growth of the food increases, this demands greater productivity with greater quality. The aim of AUTO FARMER USING RENEWABLE ENERGY is to provide automation and create a imprint in the field of agriculture. Today the farming underwent many difficulties like depending on rain, the restless manual work and the efforts .

  10. Understanding collaborative partnerships between farmers

    Asai, Masayasu

    the extent and functioning of such existing partnerships between farms as well as farmers’ perceptions of what constitutes successful arrangements. Based on registry and farmer survey data the PhD thesis shows that the vast majority of manure exporters know their partners prior to establishing manure...... which only take into account economic criteria for decision making concerning resource use. Also, they illuminate the many formal and informal connections between farmers developed for other types of local action....

  11. Responding to Globalization: Impacts of Certification on Colombian Small-Scale Coffee Growers

    Ximena Rueda; Lambin, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    Eco-certification of food and other agricultural products has been promoted as a way of making markets work for sustainability. Certification programs offer a price premium to producers who invest in more sustainable practices. The literature on the impacts of certification has focused primarily on the economic benefits farmers perceive from participating in these schemes. These benefits, however, are often subject to price variability, offering only a partial explanation of why farmers join ...

  12. Quantifying stressors among Iowa farmers.

    Freeman, S A; Schwab, C V; Jiang, Q

    2008-10-01

    In order to identify events/activities that are particularly stressful for farmers/ranchers, afarm stress survey based on the proportionate scaling method was mailed to a stratified random sample of 3000 Iowa farmers by the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service. The participants were asked to compare 62 life events and farm activities to a marriage (assigned a baseline rating of 50), decide if it was less stressful or more stressful, and then assign a stress rating between 1 and 100. As expected, the most stressful events were the death of a spouse or child. Other high-stress events were disabling injuries, foreclosure on a mortgage, divorce, machinery breakdown during harvest, and loss of crop to weather. Mean stress ratings varied by age, marital status, and type of farming enterprise. Farmers between the ages of 40-59 and 60-79 had the most items with high stress levels. Females had more high-stress items than males. Divorced farmers had fewer high-stress items than other respondents. Farmer's whose primary focus was raising horses had more high-stress items than other farm types. Significant outcomes of this study go beyond the specific mean stress ratings of the events and activities. The results indicate that farm stressors can be quantified using the proportionate scaling method and that the impact of the stressor is based not just on the event but is also dependent on the characteristics of the farmer (e.g., age, gender, marital status, etc.). PMID:19044170

  13. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Mark L. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  14. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  15. "It's Really Making a Difference": How Small-Scale Research Projects Can Enhance Teaching and Learning

    Dexter, Barbara; Seden, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Following an internal evaluation exercise, using Action Research, this paper identifies the positive impact of small-scale research projects on teaching and learning at a single case study UK University. Clear evidence is given of how the projects benefited students and staff, and enhanced institutional culture. Barriers to better practice are…

  16. Towards systematic planning of small-scale hydrological intervention-based research

    Pramana, K. E. R.; Ertsen, M. W.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2015-09-01

    Many small-scale water development initiatives are accompanied by hydrological research to study either the shape of the intervention or its impacts. Humans influence both, and thus one needs to take human agency into account. This paper focuses on the effects of human actions in the intervention and its associated hydrological research, as these effects have not yet been discussed explicitly in a systematic way. In this paper, we propose a systematic planning, based on evaluating three hydrological research projects in small-scale water intervention projects in Vietnam, Kenya, and Indonesia. The main purpose of the three projects was to understand the functioning of interventions in their hydrological contexts. Aiming for better decision-making on hydrological research in small-scale water intervention projects, we propose two analysis steps: (1) being prepared for surprises and (2) cost-benefit analysis. By performing the two analyses continuously throughout a small-scale hydrological intervention based project, effective hydrological research can be achieved.

  17. Atomistic Simulations of Small-scale Materials Tests of Nuclear Materials

    Degradation of materials properties under neutron irradiation is one of the key issues affecting the lifetime of nuclear reactors. Evaluating the property changes of materials due to irradiations and understanding the role of microstructural changes on mechanical properties are required for ensuring reliable and safe operation of a nuclear reactor. However, high dose of neuron irradiation capabilities are rather limited and it is difficult to discriminate various factors affecting the property changes of materials. Ion beam irradiation can be used to investigate radiation damage to materials in a controlled way, but has the main limitation of small penetration depth in the length scale of micro meters. Over the past decade, the interest in the investigations of size-dependent mechanical properties has promoted the development of various small-scale materials tests, e.g. nanoindentation and micro/nano-pillar compression tests. Small-scale materials tests can address the issue of the limitation of small penetration depth of ion irradiation. In this paper, we present small-scale materials tests (experiments and simulation) which are applied to study the size and irradiation effects on mechanical properties. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation and nanopillar compression tests. These atomistic simulations are expected to significantly contribute to the investigation of the fundamental deformation mechanism of small scale irradiated materials

  18. The Rural Landscapes and Small-Scale Agricultural Practices in the Transylvanian Plain

    Nicolae BACIU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the relationships between small-scale agricultural practices and cultural landscape of Transylvanian Plain. The geographical position of Transylvanian Plain in central part of Romania shows with relevance its favourability for sustainable agriculture and developing assumptions. Despite of this, the region was kept outside of the major infrastructural and economic trends. We could, also, include the Transylvanian Plain into a typical rural “central isolation space” relating on this historical-political tendencies, concluding on different types of rural and agricultural landscapes. In this context, small-scale agriculture practices are alternatives to factory farming or more broadly, intensive agriculture or unsustainable farming methods. Sustainable agriculture is not only a package of prescribed methods but is a pre-requisite for territorial development of rural areas. Small scale agriculture include a number of sustainable farm practices such as: organic farming, which removes all chemical pesticides, herbicides and fertilizer from agriculture; permaculture, which provides a holistic methodology for farm design; arable land use that is used for growing crops; non-arable land use; pastoral land use etc. Generally speaking, the small-scale agricultural practices are oriented to: produce enough food; produce safe food; take care of the environment; build thriving and strong rural communities.

  19. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    Squire, Jonathan; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2015-11-01

    A new mechanism for turbulent mean-field dynamo is proposed, in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the ``shear-current'' effect. The dynamo is studied using a variety of computational and analytic techniques, both when the magnetic fluctuations arise self-consistently through the small-scale dynamo and in lower Reynolds number regimes. Given the inevitable existence of non-helical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help to explain generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects. This work was supported by a Procter Fellowship at Princeton University, and the US Department of Energy Grant DE-AC02-09-CH11466.

  20. Small-scale dynamos on the solar surface: dependence on magnetic Prandtl number

    Thaler, I

    2015-01-01

    The question of possible small-scale dynamo action in the surface layers of the Sun is revisited with realistic 3D MHD simulations. As in other MHD problems, dynamo action is found to be a sensitive function of the magnetic Prandtl number ${\\rm P_{\\rm m} }=\

  1. Design study of coated conductor direct drive wind turbine generator for small scale demonstration

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the properties of a superconducting direct drive generator suitable for demonstration in a small scale 11 kW wind turbine. The engineering current density of the superconducting field windings is based on properties of coated conductors wound into coils holding of the order 6...

  2. Simple Assessment Techniques for Soil and Water. Environmental Factors in Small Scale Development Projects. Workshops.

    Coordination in Development, New York, NY.

    This booklet was produced in response to the growing need for reliable environmental assessment techniques that can be applied to small-scale development projects. The suggested techniques emphasize low-technology environmental analysis. Although these techniques may lack precision, they can be extremely valuable in helping to assure the success…

  3. ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP: EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN RURAL SMALL SCALE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY

    Dilip Dnyandeo Jagdale; Sarang Shankar Bhola

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurial Leadership is a relatively new, sometimes controversial, andburgeoning field of management research. Significance of this concept is increasing day by day in entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneur’s different leadership styles effect on performanceof the organizations. Present research investigates the impact of employee perceived EntrepreneurialLeadership style on Organizational Performance. Study is conducted with reference to RuralSmall Scale Engineering Industry i...

  4. Air pollution and economics: Alternate use of fuels in small scale industries

    In developing countries the problem of air pollution was recognized earlier, however, it has acquired a greater dimension due to the conventional use of low grade fuels like coal, baggase, rice husk, etc. having high sulphur and ash content. The industrial sources contribute about 30--40% of the total emissions. In India, the small scale industries (low investment group) contribute about 60--80% of the total industrial emissions. These industries are characterized with various environmental pollution problems due to cluster of small scale industries located in sensitive area; use of low grade fuel, primitive processing techniques without emission abatement facilities etc., thus leading to enormous pollution in an confined region. Acute need was felt to reduce the pollution problem associated with small scale industries by use of cleaner fuel so as to reduce the localized problem. The paper presents the emissions associated with use of coal/coke, natural gas, LPG, and propane along with the fuel cost for small scale industrial sector of Agra, Firozabad and Mathura region. The studies carried out would find applicability to meet the air pollution standards based on shift in fuel and associated cost

  5. Social Economics Characteristics Of Coastal Small-Scale Fisheries In Tegal City Indonesia

    Agnes Puspitasari Sudarmo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many complex issues faced the livelihoods of small-scale fishermen in the town of Tegal including problems of exploiting coastal resources fish resource decline changes in the contour of the coastal area fuel crisis issues urbanization all of which put pressure on coastal areas. This study aims to describe the socio-economic characteristics of small-scale fishermen in the City of Tegal. Specifically the purpose of this study was to determine the profile of respondents analyzing the economic social health and education status. Location of the research was in the Muarareja village a typical small-scale fishermen village on the coast of Tegal City Indonesia. The research was conducted from July 2013 to March 2014. Sampling was taken purposively. The samples in this study consisted of 64 fishermen. The data was collected directly by using the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results show that small-scale fishermen in the town of Tegal is in good condition in terms of economic social health and education status or in other words the fishermen were on a high level of welfare.

  6. Fuel From Farms: A Guide to Small-Scale Ethanol Production.

    Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO.

    Ethanol and blends of ethanol and gasoline (such as gasohol) offer a near-term fuel alternative to oil. The focus of this handbook is upon the small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as the source of raw materials. Provided are chapters on ethanol production procedures, feedstocks, plant design, and financial planning. Also presented…

  7. Child Wasting in Emergency Pockets: A Meta-Analysis of Small-Scale Surveys from Ethiopia.

    Altare, Chiara; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in Ethiopia (stunting national prevalence: 44%; wasting: 10%), despite the overall improvement in child health status during the last decade. Hundreds of small-scale surveys are conducted in Ethiopia's emergency pockets under ENCU's supervision. We reviewed the evidence from small-scale surveys conducted between 2008 and 2013 with two objectives: to provide a summary estimate of wasting prevalence from emergency pockets and to examine reasons for variation in prevalence estimates. We created a dataset by combining data from the Complex Emergency Database, the Famine Early Warning System Network and the Armed Conflict Location Event Data. We conducted a meta-analysis of small-scale surveys using a random effects model with known within-study heterogeneity. The influence of survey covariates on estimated prevalence was investigated with meta-regression techniques. We included 158 surveys in the analysis. A high degree of heterogeneity among surveys was observed. The overall estimate of wasting prevalence was 10.6% (95% CI 9.8-11.4), with differences among regions and between residents and refugees. Meta-regression results showed that vaccination coverage, child mortality, diarrhea prevalence and food insecurity are significantly associated with wasting prevalence. Child care and displacement status were not. Aggregated analysis of small-scale surveys provides insights into the prevalence of wasting and factors explaining its variation. It can also guide survey planning towards areas with limited data availability. PMID:26828512

  8. Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water

    Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated fro...

  9. A review of mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners in developing countries

    Kristensen, Anders Kasper Bruun; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of gold using mercury has been a way out of poverty for millions of people in developing countries. Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has expanded during the last decades and is often carried out under primitive conditions. Thus, workers in this industry may be exposed to high...

  10. Evaluation of real-time operating system for small-scale embedded systems

    In this paper, the performance of some real-time operating systems for small-scale embedded systems are evaluated based on some criteria. The evaluation is performed qualitatively and quantitatively. The evaluation results based on a case study on an engineering application will be presented. (author)

  11. Numerical simulation of small-scale mixing processes in the upper ocean and atmospheric boundary layer

    Druzhinin, O.; Troitskaya, Yu; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2016-02-01

    The processes of turbulent mixing and momentum and heat exchange occur in the upper ocean at depths up to several dozens of meters and in the atmospheric boundary layer within interval of millimeters to dozens of meters and can not be resolved by known large- scale climate models. Thus small-scale processes need to be parameterized with respect to large scale fields. This parameterization involves the so-called bulk coefficients which relate turbulent fluxes with large-scale fields gradients. The bulk coefficients are dependent on the properties of the small-scale mixing processes which are affected by the upper-ocean stratification and characteristics of surface and internal waves. These dependencies are not well understood at present and need to be clarified. We employ Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) as a research tool which resolves all relevant flow scales and does not require closure assumptions typical of Large-Eddy and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (LES and RANS). Thus DNS provides a solid ground for correct parameterization of small-scale mixing processes and also can be used for improving LES and RANS closure models. In particular, we discuss the problems of the interaction between small-scale turbulence and internal gravity waves propagating in the pycnocline in the upper ocean as well as the impact of surface waves on the properties of atmospheric boundary layer over wavy water surface.

  12. Employability and Technical Skill Required to Establish a Small Scale Automobile Workshop

    Olaitan, Olawale O.; Ikeh, Joshua O.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on identifying the employability and technical skills needed to establish small-scale automobile workshop in Nsukka Urban of Enugu State. Five purposes of the study were stated to guide the study. Five research questions were stated and answered in line with the purpose of the study. The population for the study is 1,500…

  13. Fostering sustainable small-scale investments: lessons from experience and ideas for intervention and innovation

    This article presents lessons from experience pertinent to implementing small-scale natural resource and related investment projects in developing countries. It outlines ideas for intervention and innovation to foster such investments. Particular emphasis is placed on private-sector participation in these investments. Following a brief presentation of the economic development and other arguments that support intervention and innovation in support of such small-scale natural resource investments, the article discusses many of the lessons learned from experience. These lessons reinforce those touched upon in the investment-specific discussions in the previous articles. The experience and associated lessons that are examined include experiences in both developing and developed countries and encompass nor just lessons from natural resource investments, but also small-scale investments in other sectors. Financing and other innovations which facilitate meeting the challenges are drawn from relevant experience where barriers to investment have been surmounted. Options for programme and project interventions to increase market penetration of small-scale investments and achieve the associated development linkages and synergies are suggested. These suggestions are aimed especially at governments and bilateral and multilateral development finance and development assistance entities. It is those players who might support such interventions in collaboration with local financial institutions and other market players. (author)

  14. Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun

    Klimchuk, James

    2010-01-01

    There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

  15. Influence of Global Shapes on Children's Coding of Local Geometric Information in Small-Scale Spaces

    Chiang, Noelle C.

    2013-01-01

    This research uses enclosed whole shapes, rather than visual form fragments, to demonstrate that children's use of local geometric information is influenced by global shapes in small-scale spaces. Three- to six-year-old children and adults participated in two experiments with a table-top task. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with a…

  16. Seismic small-scale discontinuity sparsity-constraint inversion method using a penalty decomposition algorithm

    Zhao, Jingtao; Peng, Suping; Du, Wenfeng

    2016-02-01

    We consider sparsity-constraint inversion method for detecting seismic small-scale discontinuities, such as edges, faults and cavities, which provide rich information about petroleum reservoirs. However, where there is karstification and interference caused by macro-scale fault systems, these seismic small-scale discontinuities are hard to identify when using currently available discontinuity-detection methods. In the subsurface, these small-scale discontinuities are separately and sparsely distributed and their seismic responses occupy a very small part of seismic image. Considering these sparsity and non-smooth features, we propose an effective L 2-L 0 norm model for improvement of their resolution. First, we apply a low-order plane-wave destruction method to eliminate macro-scale smooth events. Then, based the residual data, we use a nonlinear structure-enhancing filter to build a L 2-L 0 norm model. In searching for its solution, an efficient and fast convergent penalty decomposition method is employed. The proposed method can achieve a significant improvement in enhancing seismic small-scale discontinuities. Numerical experiment and field data application demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method in studying the relevant geology of these reservoirs.

  17. Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya

    Margaret Njeri Gathura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text books and factory publications. The target population was over 700,000 small-scale coffee producers in Kenya out of which the accessible population of 10,000 producers drawn from Githunguri District in Kiambu County was selected which a sample size of 120 respondents was sampled. Stratified sampling technique was employed to compare views among coffee producers from the various coffee societies in the area. Data analysis was both qualitative and quantitative using descriptive statistics. Data presentation was in form of tables to help interpret findings and generate conclusions that aided solutions to identified problems. The research established that marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources greatly affected coffee production. The study recommended that the government should encourage coffee production by formulating favorable marketing factors and other policies and provide finances to small scale coffee producers. Producers on the other hand should strive to provide conducive working environment to their workers so as to sustain them in their farms. This will help to improve coffee yields and quality.

  18. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  19. Conversion of fracture toughness testing values from small scale three point bending test specimens to small scale yielding state (SSY) by elastic-plastic stress analysis

    The report describes the work performed for achieving readiness to calculate fracture toughness dependence on dimension effects and loading conditions in fracture test specimens and real structures. In the report two- and three-dimensional computer codes developed and calculational methods applied are described. One of the main goals is to converse fracture toughness from small scale three point bending test specimens to case of a depth crack in plane strain i.e. to small scale yielding state (SSY) by numerical elastic-plastic stress analysis. Thickness effect of a test specimens and effect of a crack depth are separately investigated. Tests of three point bending specimens with and without sidegrooves and curved crack front are numerically simulated and experimental and computed results are compared. J-integral is calculated along crack front and also from force-deflection dependence of the beam. For the analyses the computing system was thoroughly automatized. Measuring capacity of three point bending test specimens was tried to evaluate. (orig.) (7 refs., 54 figs.)

  20. Concepções de agricultores ecológicos do Paraná sobre alimentação saudável Concepciones de agricultores ecológicos de Paraná (Sur de Brasil sobre alimentación saludable Conceptions of healthy eating among ecological farmers in Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Erica Ell

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as concepções de agricultores ecológicos sobre alimentação saudável. MÉTODOS: Estudo com abordagem qualitativa. Entre janeiro e fevereiro de 2007, foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade com o apoio de um roteiro com 11 mulheres e um homem residentes em comunidade agrícola de Rio Branco do Sul, PR, selecionados aleatoriamente dentre as 20 famílias de agricultores ecológicos desse município. RESULTADOS: Três categorias de análise foram identificadas: "tomada de consciência da alimentação saudável", "capacidade de compra" e "terra saudável". O significado da alimentação saudável para as mulheres agricultoras envolve a ideia de que os alimentos devem ser naturais, sem agrotóxicos nem produtos químicos industrializados. Cotidianamente o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes somado ao básico feijão, arroz e carne deve ser abundante e a composição do prato deve visar à prevenção de obesidade e doenças crônico-degenerativas. O cuidado com os recursos naturais para garantir a produção de alimentos saudáveis, a segurança alimentar, a sustentabilidade do meio ambiente e a vida futura do planeta integram o conceito de alimentação saudável. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento, a autocrítica e o discernimento acompanharam as concepções em relação à alimentação saudável.OBJETIVO: Describir las concepciones de agricultores ecológicos sobre alimentación saludable. MÉTODOS: Estudio con abordaje cualitativo. Entre enero y febrero de 2007, se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad con el apoyo de un itinerario con 11 mujeres y un hombre residentes en comunidad agrícola de Rio Branco do Sul, Sur de Brasil, seleccionados aleatoriamente entre las 20 familias de agricultores ecológicos de este municipio. RESULTADOS: Tres categorías de análisis fueron identificadas: "tomada de consciencia de la alimentación saludable", "capacidad de compra" y "tierra saludable". El significado de la alimentación saludable para las mujeres agricultoras incluye la idea de que los alimentos deben ser naturales, sin pesticidas y productos químicos industrializados. Cotidianamente el consumo de frutas, verduras y legumbres sumado al básico grano, arroz y carne debe ser abundante y la composición del plato debe buscar la prevención de obesidad y enfermedades crónico-degenerativas. El cuidado con los recursos naturales para garantizar la producción de alimentos saludables, la seguridad alimentaria, la sustentabilidad del medio ambiente y la vida futura del planeta integran el concepto de alimentación saludable. CONCLUSIONES: El conocimiento, la autocrítica y el discernimiento acompañaron las concepciones con relación a la alimentación saludable.OBJECTIVE: To describe ecological farmers' conceptions of healthy eating. METHODS: Study with a qualitative approach. In January and February 2007, supported by a guide, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 women and one man who were living in an agricultural community in Rio Branco do Sul, Southern Brazil. The interviewees were selected randomly from among the 20 ecological farming families in this municipality. RESULTS: Three analysis categories were identified: "awareness of healthy eating"; "purchasing power" and "healthy land". The significance of healthy eating for the female farmers involved the idea that foods should be natural, without agricultural pesticides or manufactured chemical products. The daily routine should include abundant consumption of fruits, greens and other vegetables, in addition to the basic rice, beans and meat, and the composition of dishes should aim towards prevention of obesity and chronic-degenerative diseases. Care regarding natural resources in order to ensure production of healthy foods, food safety, environmental sustainability and the future of life on the planet form part of the concept of healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge, self-criticism and discernment accompanied the conceptions of healthy eating.

  1. Evaluation of the Accountings Systems Used by Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: The Case of Enugu- South East Nigeria

    B.E. Okoli

    2011-01-01

    The study evaluated the accounting systems in use by small scale enterprises operating in Enugu, South East of Nigeria. The study was necessitated due to high rate of small scale enterprises failure. The population of the study consists of 242 accounting officers and proprietors of small scale enterprises operating in Enugu. 148 respondents were selected through a simple random sampling technique. The instrument employed for the study was a structured questionnaire. Four research questions an...

  2. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITIES AND FOOD SECURITY AMONG FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

    Nnanna M. AGWU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analysed income inequalities and food security status of farmers in South Eastern Nigeria, using Abia State. Specifically, the study accessed the income inequalities of the farmers; determine the food security status of the farmers; estimate the factors that influence food security among the farmers in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of location and 180 respondents used for the study. The study employed Gini-coefficient, food security index and multiple regressions in the analysis of the data collected. Result shows that Gini coefficient value was 0.67, showing that there was high income inequality in the study area. Majority of the respondents, constituting about 68.57 percent were food insecurity in the study area. The regression results showed that age of the household head, educational attainment of the household head and monthly income of the head were the major determinants of food security status in the study area. The study recommends that government policies targeted at farmers should be strengthened, in order to bridge the gap in farmers’ income. Government should also create opportunities for small scale businesses to flourish in ural areas. This will provide the people the much needed income, amongst other things.

  3. Farmers' willingness to pay for less health risks by pesticide use: A case study from the cotton belt of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Khan, Muhammad; Damalas, Christos A

    2015-10-15

    The amount of pesticides used in crop production in Pakistan has increased rapidly in the last decades, whereas farmers in many areas of the country show little knowledge of safe and efficient use of pesticides. The level of willingness to pay (WTP) for avoiding health risks by pesticides was studied among 318 randomly selected cotton farmers from two districts of the area of Punjab (i.e., Vehari and Lodhran) in Pakistan, using the contingent valuation method. Most farmers felt that pesticide use is a prerequisite for successful cotton production, whereas at the same time they were well aware of pesticide health risks, which they considered minor. The majority of the farmers (77%) showed varying levels of WTP some fee up to 20% of the current pesticide expenditures for avoiding pesticide health risks, but few were willing to pay a fee over 20%. The mean WTP per farmer was low, reaching 5.8 $US on an annual basis. By contrast, a considerable proportion of the farmers (23%) were not willing to pay any fee for avoiding pesticide health risks. These individuals were mostly poor small-scale farmers with limited or no education. High levels of risk perception about pesticides, past experience of pesticide intoxication, high levels of education, and high income were associated with high farmers' WTP for less health risks by pesticides. Farmers who perceived major health risks by pesticides appeared to be highly willing to pay a premium for safe pesticides. Elderly farmers appeared more likely to pay some premium for safe pesticides as a result of higher farming experience and higher income than young farmers. Well-educated farmers were more likely to pay a high premium for safe pesticides. Large farm size was a significant predictor of positive WTP, which was interpreted as an indicator of farmers' wealth. PMID:26047864

  4. Watermill and Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Plant Landscapes Assessed According to Ecological Aspects

    Lilita Lazdāne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research of watermill and small-scale hydroelectric power plant (HPP landscapes in Latvia according to ecological aspects is a part of a more complex research. The aim of this research is to examine the existing situation of watermill and small-scale HPP landscapes in Latvia by applying the ecological assessment criteria, and then try to formulate a definition of common tendencies of the landscape character. This paper provides a landscape inventory matrix for research in the field stu­dies of landscape identification at the local planning level. The duration of the research was from 2010 to 2012. The research includes 42 territories starting with the three most densely developed areas in Latvia: in Latgale, Kurzeme and Vidzeme uplands distribution ranges. The research results reflect tendencies of the landscape features assessed according to the previously developed criteria of ecological aspects.

  5. STRATEGIC PLANNING IN BRAZILIAN SMALL-SCALE MUNICIPALITIES: IS THE BALANCED SCORECARD A FEASIBLE TOOL?

    Ricardo Corrêa Gomes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Balanced Scorecard has not yet been tested in Brazilian small-scale municipalities. The BSC is based on dimensions of Learning and Growth, Internal Processes Business, Financial and Customer. In order to fit to public organizations it needs some adjustments due to these organizations’ objectives. This paper presents a case study focusing on municipalities from Brazil. Data has been collected by action research and analysed by qualitative analysis. The analysis indicates that the BSC can be successfully implemented in small-scale municipalities. It soundly depends on Mayor’s leadership and staff’s engagement. The way the intervention is conducted is also important. By keeping it as easier as possible, employees are more able to participate and to collaborate in the process.

  6. Solving the small-scale structure puzzles with dissipative dark matter

    Foot, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale structure is studied in the context of dissipative dark matter, arising for instance in models with a hidden unbroken Abelian sector, so that dark matter couples to a massless dark photon. The dark sector interacts with ordinary matter via gravity and photon-dark photon kinetic mixing. Mirror dark matter is a theoretically constrained special case where all parameters are fixed except for the kinetic mixing strength, $\\epsilon$. In these models, the dark matter halo around spiral and irregular galaxies takes the form of a dissipative plasma which evolves in response to various heating and cooling processes. It has been argued previously that such dynamics can account for the inferred cored density profiles of galaxies and other related structural features. Here we focus on the apparent deficit of nearby small galaxies ("missing satellite problem"), which these dissipative models have the potential to address through small-scale power suppression by acoustic and diffusion damping. Using a variant o...

  7. A small scale cell culture system to analyze mechanobiology using reporter gene constructs and polyurethane dishes

    Seefried, Lothar; Mueller-Deubert, Sigrid; Wentzer, Thomas Schwarz; Lind, Thomas; Mentrup, Birgit; Kober, Melanie; Docheva, Denitsa; Liedert, Astrid; Kassem, Moustapha; Ignatius, Anita; Schieker, Matthias; Claes, Lutz; Wilke, Winfried; Jakob, Franz; Ebert, Regina

    2010-01-01

    used to apply cyclic stretching to the transfected cells. 1 Hz cyclic stretching for 30 min in this system resulted in a significant stimulation of AP1 and SP1 mediated luciferase activity compared to unstimulated cells. In summary we describe a small-scale cell culture/bioreactor system capable of......Mechanical forces are translated into biochemical signals and contribute to cell differentiation and phenotype maintenance. Mesenchymal stem cells and their tissue-specific offspring, as osteoblasts and chondrocytes, cells of cardiovascular tissues and lung cells are sensitive to mechanical loading...... involved in mechanotransduction and to analyze substances, which modulate cellular mechanosensitivity reporter gene constructs, which can be transfected into cells of interest might be helpful. Suitable small-scale bioreactor systems and mechanosensitive reporter gene constructs are lacking. To analyze the...

  8. Operation parameters of a small scale batch distillation column for hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production

    F. D. Mayer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch distillation applied to hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production on a small scale still requires operating conditions that ensure optimal top product quality and productivity. The aim of this study is to statistically validate a batch still through the employment of response surface methodology (RSM. Operational and productivity parameters were formulated in order to guarantee quality compliance with the legal requirements for the top product concentration, besides providing support information to control the production of HEF on a small scale. The reboiler control and dephlegmator temperatures maintained within the range of 97.5 to 99.5°C and 60 to 70°C, respectively, combined with a variable reflux ratio, was satisfactory in obtaining a top product concentration, in accordance with legal regulations, as well as high productivity. The results of this study may contribute to the assembly of a simple and low-cost batch distillation control system.

  9. Transient downflows associated with the intensification of small-scale magnetic features and bright point formation

    Narayan, G

    2011-01-01

    Small-scale magnetic features are present everywhere in the solar photosphere. Theoretical models, numerical calculations, and simulations describing the formation of these features have existed for a few decades, but there are only a few observational studies in direct support of the simulations. In this study we present the evolution of small-scale magnetic features with a spatial resolution close to 0.15 arcsecond and compare these observations with those predicted by numerical simulations and also with previous observational work of a similar nature. We analyze a 40 min time sequence of full Stokes spectropolarimetric 630.25 nm data from a plage region near the Sun center. We use line-of-sight velocities and magnetic field measurements obtained using Milne-Eddington inversion techniques with and without stray-light compensation along with measured continuum and line minimum intensities. We discuss the results in relation to earlier observations and simulations. We present eight cases involving strong down...

  10. ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE WITH REFERENCE TO RURAL SMALL SCALE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY IN PUNE DISTRICT

    Dilip Jagdale

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial Leadership is a significant concept in entrepreneurship literature. Different leadership styles effect on effectiveness and performance of the organizations. Present research investigates the impact ofEntrepreneurial Leadership style onOrganizational Performance with reference to Rural Small Scale Engineering Industry in Pune District of India. A ten items scale developed by (Boltan 2012 was used to find leadership styles. The data werecollected from one hundred and forty four (144 entrepreneursfrom Rural Small Scale Engineering Industryof 13 tehsils of in Pune District of India. For statistical analysis Mean, Standard Deviation, T-Test, and Chi-square test were used. Study concludes that there is no significant association between leadership styles and organizational performance.

  11. Mesogranulation and small-scale dynamo action in the quiet Sun

    Bushby, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Regions of quiet Sun generally exhibit a complex distribution of small-scale magnetic field structures, which interact with the near-surface turbulent convective motions. Furthermore, it is probable that some of these magnetic fields are generated locally by a convective dynamo mechanism. In addition to the well-known granular and supergranular convective scales, various observations have indicated that there is an intermediate scale of convection, known as mesogranulation, with vertical magnetic flux concentrations accumulating preferentially at mesogranular boundaries. Our aim is to investigate the small-scale dynamo properties of a convective flow that exhibits both granulation and mesogranulation, comparing our findings with solar observations. Adopting an idealised model for a localised region of quiet Sun, we use numerical simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamics, in a 3D Cartesian domain, to investigate the parametric dependence of this system (focusing particularly upon the effects of varying ...

  12. Small scale magnetic field evolution in the first objects formed in the universe

    Alejandra, Kandus; Reuven, Opher; Saulo M. R., Barros.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Large scale magnetic fields in galaxies are thought to be generated, by a mean field dynamo. In order to have generated the fields observed, the dynamo would have had to have operated for a sufficiently long period of time. However, magnetic fields of similar intensities to the one in our galaxy, ar [...] e observed in high redshift galaxies, where a mean field dynamo would not have had time to produce the observed fields. MHD turbulence produces small scale magnetic fields at a faster rate than it does mean fields, which can diffuse toward larger scales. If the turbulence is helical, magnetic fields generated at small scales can become correlated over large scales. We study the evolution of magnetic field correlations in the first objects formed in the universe, due to the action of a turbulent, helical, stochastic dynamo, for redshifts 5

  13. Prevalence of Small-scale Jets from the Networks of the Solar Transition Region and Chromosphere

    Tian, H; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W

    2014-01-01

    As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80-250 km/s from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20-80 seconds and widths of 300 km or less. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with ~20 km/s amplitudes. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~100000 K and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind.

  14. Purification System Configuration for a Small-Scale High Temperature Gas Loop

    The principal function of a purification system is to bypass a working fluid from the primary loop, remove its chemical impurities and radioactivity, and return it to the primary system. Especially, the chemical impurities in a working fluid are the main factor not only to decrease system ability but also to shorten the lifetime of the components and structures in the primary system. Hong et al. designed a small scale gas loop for simulating a VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor) and IS (Iodine-Sulfur) cycle for nuclear hydrogen generation. Especially, a high temperature gas heater is made with C and C composite vulnerable to oxidation with oxygen or steam at a high temperature condition. Purification system must be installed to maintain the C and C composite heaters. This paper introduces the design of purification system for the small scale gas loop to prevent high temperature heaters from oxidation

  15. Diffusion and Radiation in Magnetized Collisionless Plasmas with High-Frequency Small-Scale Turbulence

    Keenan, Brett D

    2015-01-01

    Magnetized high-energy-density plasmas can often have strong electromagnetic fluctuations whose correlation scale is smaller than the electron Larmor radius. Radiation from the electrons in such plasmas, which markedly differs from both synchrotron and cyclotron radiation, and their energy and pitch-angle diffusion are tightly related. In this paper, we present a comprehensive theoretical and numerical study of the particles' transport in both cold, "small-scale" Langmuir and Whistler-mode turbulence and its relation to the spectra of radiation simultaneously produced by these particles. We emphasize that this relation is a superb diagnostic tool of laboratory, astrophysical, interplanetary, and solar plasmas with a mean magnetic field and strong small-scale turbulence.

  16. Energy transfers and magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo

    Kumar, Rohit Raj

    2013-12-01

    In this letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo by studying energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers. We perform dynamo simulations for the magnetic Prandtl number Pm = 20 on 10243 grid using the pseudospectral method. We demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers moves towards lower wave numbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason why the integral scale of the magnetic field increases with time. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. Copyright © EPLA, 2013.

  17. Flow visualization and velocity measurement in a small-scale open channel using an electron microscope

    The present note describes a method for use in conjunction with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that has been developed to visualize a liquid flow under a high-level vacuum and to measure a velocity field in a small-scale flow through an open channel. In general, liquid cannot be observed via a SEM, because liquid evaporates under the high-vacuum environment of the SEM. As such, ionic liquid and room temperature molten salt having a vapor pressure of nearly zero is used in the present study. We use ionic liquid containing Au-coated tracer particles to visualize a small-scale flow under a SEM. Furthermore, the velocity distribution in the open channel is obtained by particle tracking velocimetry measurement and a parabolic profile is confirmed. (technical design note)

  18. Designing small-scale tests: A simulation study of parameter recovery with the 1-PL

    Dubravka Svetina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This simulation study investigated the recovery of item and person parameters of the one-parameter logistic model for short tests administered to small samples. A potential problem with such small scale testing is the mismatch between item and person location parameter distributions. In our study, we manipulated the match of these distributions as well as test length, sample size, and item discrimination. Results showed the degree of mismatch likely to occur in practice has a relatively modest effect on parameter recovery. As expected, accuracy in parameter estimation decreased as sample size and test length decreased. Nevertheless, researchers investigating small scale tests are likely to view parameter recovery as acceptable if a study has at least 100 subjects and 8 items.

  19. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  20. Financing Energy Services for Small-scale Energy-users - project FINESSE

    This paper presents the FINESSE (Financing Energy Services for Small-scale Energy users) launched in 1989 by World Bank 's Energy Sector Assistance Program (ESMAP) in association with the US Department of Energy and the Netherlands Ministry for Development Cooperation, whose purpose is to address financial, institutional and policy issues related to enhancing energy services for residential and commercial energy consumers in the Developing World. It describes the related technology benefits of renewable energy and energy efficiency, as well as a technology overview and outlines the strategies for financing alternatives in the Developing World. It concludes with a description of successful experiences in small-scale energy services, especially in Asia. (TEC). 8 figs

  1. Alternatives to R_lambda-scaling of Small-Scale Turbulence Statistics

    Hill, R J

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, trends of universal turbulence statistics are presented versus R-lambda, which is the Reynolds number based on Taylor's scale, lambda, and the root-mean-squared (rms) velocity, u'. Taylor's scale and u', and hence R-lambda, do not have the attribute of universality. The ratio of rms fluid-particle acceleration to rms viscous acceleration and the ratio of rms pressure-gradient acceleration to rms viscous accleration are alternatives to R-lambda which have the advantage of being determined by the small scales of turbulence. These ratios have the following attributes: they have the meaning of Reynolds number, are dimensionless, are composed of statistics of the small scales of turbulence: can be evaluated with single-wire hot-wire anemometry, and like R-lambda, can be partially evaluated by means of flow similarity.

  2. Operating Experiences of a Gas-Bearing Circulator in a Small-scale Gas Loop

    A small scale gas loop that can simulate a VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor) is in operation at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Control of gaseous impurities in the circulating gas at a high-temperature experimental loop is a significant operating requirement for the loop maintenance. Especially, the oil vapor induced by a circulator will contaminate and damage the sophisticated high temperature components such as the heat-generation material in the high temperature heater. Therefore, the high temperature gas loop generally requires the circulation without lubricant as oil. A gas-bearing circulator is widely used in the industry for low-pressure turbo-machinery without the oil. In this study, we discussed operational experiences of a laboratory scale high-pressure gas bearing circulator of the small-scale gas loop

  3. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

  4. Constraints on small-scale cosmological perturbations from gamma-ray searches for dark matter

    Scott, Pat; Akrami, Yashar

    2012-01-01

    Events like inflation or phase transitions can produce large density perturbations on very small scales in the early Universe. Probes of small scales are therefore useful for e.g. discriminating between inflationary models. Until recently, the only such constraint came from non-observation of primordial black holes (PBHs), associated with the largest perturbations. Moderate-amplitude perturbations can collapse shortly after matter-radiation equality to form ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs) of dark matter, in far greater abundance than PBHs. If dark matter self-annihilates, UCMHs become excellent targets for indirect detection. Here we discuss the gamma-ray fluxes expected from UCMHs, the prospects of observing them with gamma-ray telescopes, and limits upon the primordial power spectrum derived from their non-observation by the Fermi Large Area Space Telescope.

  5. Feasibility of small-scale gas engine-based residential cogeneration in Spain

    Nowadays all countries are developing their own policies to promote cogeneration in the small-scale residential sector. In this paper the feasibility of small-scale gas engine-based residential cogeneration plants under the current Spanish regulation is studied. A unitary thermal load profile is obtained to characterised the thermal demand of residential applications in Spain. This unitary profile is used to analyse the potential of cogeneration in the small-scale range of powers (100-1000 kW). A complete characterisation of the gas fuelled engines in the market is performed and subsequently used to evaluate the economic feasibility within the selected range by means of a self-tailored simulation model. It is underlined how the thermal storage is a crucial element that should be suitably included in a residential cogeneration plant and the distortions that the actual pricing system adds to the profitability of residential plants of different sizes. Finally a sensibility study is carried out in order to evaluate how the Spanish regulation is able to deal with future variations in the energy prices. It is shown that a rise in the price of the natural gas increases the current feasibility of a plant while a decrease descends the profitability. - Highlights: → Profitability is obtained within the whole small-scale range of powers. → The stepped structure of prices strongly affect the feasibility of the projects. → The inclusion of thermal storage notably affects the profitability of the plant. → Big chance for increase the feasibility exists in retrofitting old installations. → The system of tariff updating balances the future variations in the price of fuels.

  6. A small scale accelerator driven subcritical assembly development and demonstration experiment at LAMPF

    A small scale experiment designed to demonstrate many of the aspects of accelerator-driven transmutation technology is described. The experiment uses the high-power proton beam from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility accelerator to produce neutrons with a molten Lead target. The target is surrounded by a molten salt and graphite moderator blanket. Fissionable material can be added to the molten salt to demonstrate Plutonium burning or transmutation of commercial spent fuel or energy production from Thorium

  7. Mercury-Free Gold Extraction Using Borax for Small-Scale Gold Miners

    Peter Wiltje Uitterdijk Appel; Leoncio Degay Na-Oy

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale gold mining is the largest anthropogenic contributor of mercury pollution on planet Earth. The miners grind gold ore together with mercury in order to recover the fine gold grains. The gold amalgam is burned whereby the mercury evaporates and gold is left behind. This processing extracts only a fraction of the gold in the ore and the released mercury causes serious global health and environmental problems. However, a mercury-free method described below has p...

  8. Directions of the small-scale enterprises financial stability groth in the region

    Anna Makarova

    2008-01-01

    Directions of the small-scale business financial stability increase, focused on its economic power strengthening, are offered. They are connected with development of the external factors of financial stability and the internal factors including orientation of the small enterprises in strategic management on the company's value growth. Applicability of a balanced scorecard which fully reflects interrelation of small enterprises’ both financial and non-financial indicators of work to maintena...

  9. Small-scale structures in Compact Steep-Spectrum and GHz-Peaked-Spectrum radio sources

    Jeyakumar, S.; Saikia, D.J.; Rao, A. Pramesh; Balasubramanian, V.

    2000-01-01

    We determine the small-scale structure for a large sample of Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) and Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) sources and a sample of larger radio sources at 327 MHz using the technique of Inter-Planetary Scintillation (IPS) with the Ooty Radio Telescope. Our observations provide structural information on angular scales ranging from about 50 to a few hundred milliarcsec. We estimate the size and flux density of the scintillating components from the IPS observations. The fracti...

  10. Small-scale biogas production in the province of Pampanga, Philippines

    Trosgård, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to sustainable development in the Pampanga province, Philippines. The Philippines are facing several major environmental problems; pig production represents a major contributing factor to pollution and eutrophication of water bodies in the country. At present there is no requirement for purification of wastewater from backyard (small-scale) farms. With the help of anaerobic digestion the manure could be used to produce biogas. The study’s objective ...

  11. Design of a small-scale organic Rankine cycle engine used in a solar power plant

    Georges, Emeline; Declaye, Sébastien; Dumont, Olivier; Quoilin, Sylvain; Lemort, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Under the economic and political pressure due to the depletion of fossil fuels and global warming concerns, it is necessary to develop more sustainable techniques to provide electrical power. In this context, the present study aims at designing, building and testing a small-scale organic Rankine cycle (ORC) solar power plant ( 3 kWe) in order to define and optimize control strategies that could be applied to larger systems. This paper presents a first step of the design of the s...

  12. Thermal characteristics of various biomass fuels in a small-scale biomass combustor

    Biomass combustion is a mature and reliable technology, which has been used for heating and cooking. In the UK, biomass currently qualifies for financial incentives such as the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI). Therefore, it is vital to select the right type of fuel for a small-scale combustor to address different types of heat energy needs. In this paper, the authors attempt to investigate the performance of a small-scale biomass combustor for heating, and the impact of burning different biomass fuels on useful output energy from the combustor. The test results of moisture content, calorific value and combustion products of various biomass samples were presented. Results from this study are in general agreement with published data as far as the calorific values and moisture contents are concerned. Six commonly available biomass fuels were tested in a small-scale combustion system, and the factors that affect the performance of the system were analysed. In addition, the study has extended to examine the magnitude and proportion of useful heat, dissipated by convection and radiation while burning different biomass fuels in the small-scale combustor. It is concluded that some crucial factors have to be carefully considered before selecting biomass fuels for any particular heating application. - Highlights: • Six biomass materials combustion performance in a small combustor was examined. • Fuel combustion rate and amount of heat release has varied between materials. • Heat release by radiation, convection and flue gasses varied between materials. • Study helps engineers and users of biomass systems to select right materials

  13. Orientation-independent pseudoelasticity in small-scale NiTi compression pillars

    This study investigates the small-scale deformation behavior of [1 1 1], [2 1 0] and [0 0 1] NiTi shape memory alloys. In stark contrast to bulk deformation behavior, the pseudoelastic behavior of sub-micron diameter compression pillars is highly dependent on diameter and relatively independent of orientation. Transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate pillars post-compression, giving insight into the deformation mechanisms involved

  14. Solving the small-scale structure puzzles with dissipative dark matter

    Foot, Robert(ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 3010, Australia); Vagnozzi, Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale structure is studied in the context of dissipative dark matter, arising for instance in models with a hidden unbroken Abelian sector, so that dark matter couples to a massless dark photon. The dark sector interacts with ordinary matter via gravity and photon-dark photon kinetic mixing. Mirror dark matter is a theoretically constrained special case where all parameters are fixed except for the kinetic mixing strength, $\\epsilon$. In these models, the dark matter halo around spiral ...

  15. Fractographic study of high-density polyethylene gas pipe following Small Scale Steady State test

    A. Pusz; K. Michalik

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present work attempts to examine the failure performance of high density polyethylene [HDPE] gas pipe through a fractographic study of the fracture morphology following Small Scale Steady State test (S4). Failure mechanisms are discussed based on the fracture morphologies resulting from these tests. There are many instances where the rapid propagation of cracks is the result of fluid pressure acting on piping structures. This problem is recognized as one of the most important iss...

  16. Comparison of measurement methods of the front velocity of small-scale debris flows

    Francesco Bettella; Gian Battista Bischetti; Vincenzo D'Agostino; Simone Virginio Marai; Enrico Ferrari; Tamara Michelini

    2015-01-01

    Debris flow is a gravity-driven process, which is characterized by a travelling dense surge including large boulders, and it is followed by a more fluid tail. These characteristics make difficult the measurement of the mean flow velocity by means of common hydraulic techniques. Different methods can be used at real scale and small-scale to measure the front velocity but a dedicate comparison between available methods is still lacking. This research aims to compare the front velocity measureme...

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production in Small-scale Household Digesters in Vietnam

    Vu, T. K. V.; Vu, D. Q.; Jensen, L S; Sommer, S.G.; Bruun, S.

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts a...

  18. Big catch, little sharks: Insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries

    Doherty, Philip D; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Hodgson, David J.; Mangel, Jeffrey C; Witt, Matthew J.; Godley, Brendan J

    2014-01-01

    Shark take, driven by vast demand for meat and fins, is increasing. We set out to gain insights into the impact of small-scale longline fisheries in Peru. Onboard observers were used to document catch from 145 longline fishing trips (1668 fishing days) originating from Ilo, southern Peru. Fishing effort is divided into two seasons: targeting dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus; December to February) and sharks (March to November). A total of 16,610 sharks were observed caught, with 11,166 identi...

  19. Small scale irrigation using collector wells. Pilot project - Zimbabwe. Fourth progress report April 1994 - September 1994

    C. J. Lovell; Murata, M.; Brown, M.W.; Batchelor, C. H.; Thompson, D.M.; Dube, T.; Semple, A.J.; Chilton, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The ODA TC pilot project "Small scale irrigation using collector wells - Zimbabwe" began in October 1992. This report outlines progress made on all aspects during the fourth six months of work. The six project schemes are now complete. Two additional schemes for Plan International (NGO) are also near to completion. As planned, these schemes represent a range of physical, social, economic and institutional settings. The number of families obtaining domestic water from 011k-fu...

  20. Myths and Superstition in the Small Scale Gold Mining Industry of Ghana

    C. Addei; R.K. Amankwah

    2011-01-01

    In most parts of the world, there are several inexplicable happenings and these are generally shrouded in myths. In the mining industry of Ghana, especially the Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM), miners have several habits and conventions based on superstition and myths. Such superstitious beliefs and myths govern the selection of people to work in mining pits, gold processing, working and resting days as well as specific rituals to perform at specific times through the life of the...

  1. A Genealogy of Governing Economic Behaviour : Small-scale credit in Malawi 1930–2010

    Värlander, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the aim has been to analyse changes and continuity in the governing of economic behaviour in small-scale credit schemes in colonial Nyasaland and independent Malawi from 1930 until 2010. Furthermore, how the effects of history in terms of how colonial and post-colonial development discourses and practices have been rephrased and reused in the early 21st century are discussed. The study focuses on the teaching and fostering of borrowers’ economic behaviour in order to reach incr...

  2. ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP: EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN RURAL SMALL SCALE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY

    Dilip Dnyandeo Jagdale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial Leadership is a relatively new, sometimes controversial, andburgeoning field of management research. Significance of this concept is increasing day by day in entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneur’s different leadership styles effect on performanceof the organizations. Present research investigates the impact of employee perceived EntrepreneurialLeadership style on Organizational Performance. Study is conducted with reference to RuralSmall Scale Engineering Industry in Pune District of India.

  3. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix

  4. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix

  5. The challenging modelling of kLa in a periodic constricted small-scale tube

    Reis, N.; Vicente, A.A.; Teixeira, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    An extensive use in chemistry, biological and pharmaceutical laboratories is envisaged for a novel continuous screening reactor based on the oscillatory flow technology (Harvey, 2001). The basic unit of this reactor was recently presented by Harvey et al. (2003) and Reis et al. (2004) and consists in a 4.4 mm internal diameter and 350 mm long jacketed glass small-scale tube provided with smooth periodic constrictions, SPCs (Figure 1). Prediction of fluid mixing and residence time within th...

  6. The Rural Landscapes and Small-Scale Agricultural Practices in the Transylvanian Plain

    Nicolae BACIU; Cristian MALOŞ; Gheorghe ROŞIAN; Mircea MUREŞIANU; Eduard SCHUSTER; Barta, Andras; Carmen STĂNESCU; Octavian-Liviu MUNTEAN; Radu MIHĂIESCU

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on the relationships between small-scale agricultural practices and cultural landscape of Transylvanian Plain. The geographical position of Transylvanian Plain in central part of Romania shows with relevance its favourability for sustainable agriculture and developing assumptions. Despite of this, the region was kept outside of the major infrastructural and economic trends. We could, also, include the Transylvanian Plain into a typical rural “central isolation space” rel...

  7. Small-scale Gradients of Charged Particles in the Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    Guo, Fan; Giacalone, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Using numerical simulations of charged-particles propagating in the heliospheric magnetic field, we study small-scale gradients, or "dropouts", in the intensity of solar energetic particles seen at 1 AU. We use two turbulence models, the foot-point random motion model (Jokipii & Parker 1969; Giacalone et al. 2006) and two-component model (Matthaeus et al. 1990), to generate fluctuating magnetic fields similar to spacecraft observations at 1 AU. The turbulence models include a Kolmogorov-like ...

  8. Small-scale magnetic fields on late-type M-dwarfs

    Dorch, S. B. F.; Ludwig, H. -G

    2002-01-01

    We performed kinematic studies of the evolution of small-scale magnetic fields in the surface laters of M-dwarfs. We solved the induction equation for a prescribed velocity field, magnetic Reynolds number, and boundary conditions in a Cartesian box, representing a volume comprising the optically thin stellar atmosphere and the uppermost part of the optically thick convective envelope. The velocity field is spatially and temporally variable, and stems from detailed radiation-hydrodynamics simu...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE FOR FORMING SMALL PLASTIC ARTICLES FOR SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES

    OYETUNJI, A.

    2010-01-01

    Development of small injection moulding machine for forming small plastic articles in small-scale industries was studied. This work which entailed design, construction and test small injection moulding machine that was capable of forming small plastic articles by injecting molten resins into a closed, cooled mould, where it solidifies to give the desired products was developed. The machine was designed and constructed to work as a prototype for producing very small plastic components. Design ...

  10. Moving Frontiers in the Amazon: Brazilian Small-Scale Gold Miners in Suriname

    Marjo de Theije; Marieke Heemskerk

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the national, local, and personal frontiers that Brazilian small-scale gold miners – called garimpeiros – cross in their quest for gold in the larger Amazon region. Ethnographic research was conducted among garimpeiros and mining service providers in Suriname. In the past three decades, thousands of Brazilian migrants have entered Suriname and consequently affected its society, economy, and culture. It is argued that in the absence of strong state control, these garimpei...

  11. Primary System Detection for Cognitive Radio: Does Small-Scale Fading Help?

    Larsson, Erik G.; Regnoli, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    We consider the effect of small-scale fading on thedetection of weak signals in cognitive radio systems.We formulatea model for the detection problem taking fading into account,and give the associated likelihood ratio tests. Additionally we givean expression for the asymptotic detection performance and usethis to consider the tradeoff between the detection performanceand the coherence time and bandwidth of the channel.

  12. An economic evaluation of small-scale distributed electricity generation technologies: OIES paper: EL05

    Hansen, Christopher Joshi; Bower, John

    2003-01-01

    Numerous renewable and small-scale distributed generation (DG) technologies have now progressed to the stage where their technical feasibility has been proven and full-scale projects have been successfully implemented worldwide. These technologies hold the potential to help provide basic electricity service to the nearly two billion people who are without access to grid-connected power. This paper surveys the available DG technologies and models their economic performance in ru...

  13. Exploring the relationship between sustainability and university curricula: a small-scale study

    Baughan, P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the concept of sustainability and wather there is a case for sustainability issues to be incorporated into university curricula, within the context of a single university. After discussing selected literature on sustainability, the main body of the work reports on a small-scale study undertaken at City University London by the author. Four members of staff were interviewed and invited to give their views on what sustainability is, and whether it should be incorporated into ...

  14. Fabrication and testing of small scale mock-ups of ITER shielding blanket

    Small scale mock-ups of the primary first wall, the baffle first wall, the shield block and a partial model for the edge of the primary first wall module were designed and fabricated incorporating most of the key design features of the ITER shielding blanket. All mock-ups featured the DSCu heat sink, the built-in SS coolant tubes within the heat sink and the SS shield block. CFC tiles was used as the protection armor for the baffle first wall mock-up. The small scale shield block mock-up, integrated with the first wall, was designed to have a poloidal curvature specified in the ITER design. Fabrication routes of mock-ups were decided based on the single step solid HIP of DSCu/DSCu, DSCu/SS and SS/SS reflecting the results of previous joining techniques development and testing. For attaching the CFC tiles onto DSCu heat sink in the fabrication of the baffle first wall mock-up, a two-step brazing was tried. All mock-ups and the partial model were successfully fabricated with a satisfactory dimensional accuracy. The small scale primary first wall mock-up was thermo-mechanically tested under high heat fluxes of 5-7 MW/m2 for 2500 cycles in total. Satisfactory heat removal performance and integrity of the mock-up against cyclic high heat flux loads were confirmed by measurement during the tests and destructive examination after the tests. Similar high heat flux tests were also performed with the small scale baffle first wall mock-up under 5-10 MW/m2 for 4500 cycles in total resulting in sufficient heat removal capability and integrity confirmed by measurements during the tests. (author)

  15. Growing magma chambers control the distribution of small-scale flood basalts

    Yu, Xun; Chen, Li-Hui; Zeng, Gang

    2015-11-01

    Small-scale continental flood basalts are a global phenomenon characterized by regular spatio-temporal distributions. However, no genetic mechanism has been proposed to explain the visible but overlooked distribution patterns of these continental basaltic volcanism. Here we present a case study from eastern China, combining major and trace element analyses with Ar–Ar and K–Ar dating to show that the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts is controlled by the growth of long-lived magma chambers. Evolved basalts (SiO2?>?47.5?wt.%) from Xinchang–Shengzhou, a small-scale Cenozoic flood basalt field in Zhejiang province, eastern China, show a northward younging trend over the period 9.4–3.0?Ma. With northward migration, the magmas evolved only slightly ((Na2O?+?K2O)/MgO?=?0.40–0.66 TiO2/MgO?=?0.23–0.35) during about 6?Myr (9.4–3.3?Ma). When the flood basalts reached the northern end of the province, the magmas evolved rapidly (3.3–3.0?Ma) through a broad range of compositions ((Na2O?+?K2O)/MgO?=?0.60–1.28 TiO2/MgO?=?0.30–0.57). The distribution and two-stage compositional evolution of the migrating flood basalts record continuous magma replenishment that buffered against magmatic evolution and induced magma chamber growth. Our results demonstrate that the magma replenishment–magma chamber growth model explains the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts.

  16. Impact of radiative decay on cosmic string dynamics at small scales

    Stuckey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic strings are topological defects appearing as extended solutions in many high energy physics scenarios. Observation of signatures expected due to the presence of cosmic string networks could provide critical evidence in distinguishing and constraining fundamental cosmological and particle physics theories. Large scale evolution of cosmic string is well understood but the dynamics influenced by small scale structure remains unclear. Radiation back-reaction is expected t...

  17. ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE WITH REFERENCE TO RURAL SMALL SCALE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY IN PUNE DISTRICT

    Dilip Jagdale; Sarang Shankar Bhola

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurial Leadership is a significant concept in entrepreneurship literature. Different leadership styles effect on effectiveness and performance of the organizations. Present research investigates the impact ofEntrepreneurial Leadership style onOrganizational Performance with reference to Rural Small Scale Engineering Industry in Pune District of India. A ten items scale developed by (Boltan 2012) was used to find leadership styles. The data werecollected from one h...

  18. Natural Regeneration of Common Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Stands Using Small Scale Shelterwood System

    Igor Ani?

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of practical examples of small scale natural regeneration of common beech were investigated in the period 2006–2010. In Croatia, the research area consisted of forest administrations of Zagreb, Koprivnica, Karlovac, Plitvice Lakes National Park and Žumberak – Samoborsko Gorje Nature Park, and outside Croatia it included Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Slovakia and Slovenia (Fig. 1. This paper presents the results of research into small scale regeneration of common beech in the form of groups (Fig. 2, Table 1, using the example of a Dinaric montane beech forest (as. Lamio orvalae-Fagetum /Ht. 1938/ Borhidi 1963 and small-stand regeneration, using the example of a beech forest with sedge (as. Carici pilosae-Fagetum Oberforfer 1957.Natural regeneration in virgin beech stands begins in the form of clusters and groups (Fig. 3 and 4, Table 2. This regeneration method can be applied in special purpose forests and in protection forests, since it forms structurally diverse stands that will satisfy non-market forest goods and services of these forests. It is also suitable for private forest owners because not only does it enable the concentration of treatments in small areas, but also allows the planning of a continuous yield.Small scale regeneration with shelterwood cuts in large complexes of managed forests is both possible and desirable. Regeneration over small areas at the level of small (1–3 ha and medium (3–5 ha stands has proven successful (Fig. 5, Table 3.Compared with classical regular management over large areas, small scale management is a closer-to-nature and more intensive management method. It requires the construction of a silvicultural plan that contains a map of initial regeneration gaps and directions of its expansion. Silvicultural treatments are applied simultaneously, but in different parts of the regeneration area. This type of management alleviates the application and supervision of silvicultural treatments and enables long-term and continuous planning of the felling cut.

  19. Extending and Characterizing Fuel Flexibility in Small-Scale Power Systems

    McCoy, Christopher David

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal and hope for engines of the near future is the development of wide range fuel-flexibility within internal combustion engines. This research dissertation presents three innovations that have pushed the boundary of science and technology to enable this vision on the mini scale. First, the design and construction of a new small-scale, fuel flexible, engine dynamometer that allowed for precise measurement and control of mini engines operating on non standard fuels. Second, the f...

  20. Nexus between Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining and Livelihood in Prestea Mining Region, Ghana

    Arthur, Francis; Agyemang-Duah, Williams; Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Yeboah, Joseph Yaw; Otieku, Evans

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the DFID’s sustainable livelihood framework, this paper explores the nexus between artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and livelihood in Prestea mining region, Ghana. A cross-sectional mixed method survey involving simple random and purposively sampled participants (N=151) was carried out. The results suggest both positive and negative relationships between ASM and livelihoods of the people. The study found various livelihood assets associated with ASM and how critical assets ar...

  1. Fair Trade Gold: A New Way of Governing Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Tanzania?

    Childs, John

    2012-01-01

    Alongside exponential rises in global prices for gold, there has been a concurrent rise in the geographical scope of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector. This poverty-driven activity has been associated with elevated levels of environmental degradation, a high degree of informality, poor health and safety practices and below market prices for their gold. Despite these putatively conceived problems, there has been a historical and widespread failure by policy makers to significan...

  2. Sublithospheric small-scale convection-A mechanism for collision zone magmatism

    Kaislaniemi, L.; J. van Hunen; M. B. Allen; Neill, I.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the effect of increased water content on the dynamics of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary in a postsubduction setting. Results from numerical mantle convection models show that the resultant decrease in mantle viscosity and the peridotite solidus produce small-scale convection at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and magmatism that follows the spatially and temporally scattered style and volumes typical for collision magmatism, such as the late Cenozoic volcanism of the ...

  3. Nexus between Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining and Livelihood in Prestea Mining Region, Ghana

    Francis Arthur; Williams Agyemang-Duah; Razak Mohammed Gyasi; Joseph Yaw Yeboah; Evans Otieku

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the DFID’s sustainable livelihood framework, this paper explores the nexus between artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and livelihood in Prestea mining region, Ghana. A cross-sectional mixed method survey involving simple random and purposively sampled participants (N=151) was carried out. The results suggest both positive and negative relationships between ASM and livelihoods of the people. The study found various livelihood assets associated with ASM and how critical assets ar...

  4. ICT adoption in developing countries : perspectives from small-scale agribusinesses

    Aleke, Bartholomew; Ojiako, Udechukwu; Wainwright, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critically examine how social augmented parameters impact on the effective adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) by small-scale agribusinesses operating in Southeast Nigeria. The relevance of incorporating social imperatives in scholarship focused on technology adoption is due to its role in sustaining the process of adoption and diffusion. Data were gathered from a focus group made up of 27 agribusiness proprietors affiliated with a st...

  5. Small-scale bioenergy projects in rural China: Lessons to be learnt

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Large amounts of small-scale bioenergy projects were carried out in China's rural areas in light of its national renewable energy policies. These projects applied pyrolysis gasification as the main technology, which turns biomass waste at low costs into biogas. This paper selects seven bioenergy projects in Shandong Province as a case and assesses these projects in terms of economy, technological performance and effectiveness. Results show that these projects have not achieved a satisfying pe...

  6. SRP radioactive glass studies: small-scale process development and product performance

    A small-scale joule-heated ceramic melter contained in the Shielded Cells Facility has demonstrated the vitrification process for actual Savannah River Plant radioactive waste. Losses of radionuclides due to volatility are low and easily treated, and the glass produced is of comparable quality to laboratory-prepared simulated glass. Future work will include studies with wastes from other tanks, using new frit compositions. Leaching tests will continue, with emphasis being placed on long-term tests under anticipated repository conditions

  7. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

  8. Low Discounting Behavior among Small-Scale Fishers in Fiji and Sabah, Malaysia

    Louise S. L. Teh; Teh, Lydia C. L.; Rashid Sumaila, U.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the socio-economic factors that are associated with fishers’ willingness to delay gratification may be useful for designing appropriate fisheries management and conservation policies. We aim to identify the predictors of low discounting behaviour among fishers, which is analogous to having a longer-term outlook. We base our empirical study on two small-scale tropical reef fisheries in Sabah, Malaysia, and Fiji. We use an experimental approach to identify fishers with low discoun...

  9. Fuzzy logic and its possibility using in automation of small-scale hydroelectric power plants regulation

    The paper explains how can computer understand and process inaccurate (indefinite) information. It is processing of terms like e.g. 'around in the middle of month' or 'not too big'. Fuzzy logic, fuzzy sets, operations with them, fuzzy rules and using of linguistics variables are explained. The possibilities of application of fuzzy systems in automation of regulation of small-scale hydro power plants are discussed. (author)

  10. Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program

    James O' Brien

    2012-09-01

    This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

  11. The winning cards of small-scale hydroelectric power in the prevention of greenhouse effect

    Among global environment problems, the risk of global warming is one of the most important. This risk and the associated climatic or socio-economic disorders are in relationships with the growth of greenhouse gases content in the atmosphere, connected with massive fossil fuels uses. This paper presents the advantages of small-scale hydroelectric power, often ignored, which can be a substitution energy source. 14 refs., 4 figs

  12. The impact of small scale cogeneration on the gas demand at distribution level

    Vandewalle, Jeroen; D'HAESELEER, William

    2014-01-01

    Smart grids are often regarded as an important step towards the future energy system. Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration has several advantages in the context of the smart grid, which include the efficient use of primary energy and the reduction of electrical losses through transmission. However, the role of the gas network is often overlooked in this context. Therefore, this work presents an analysis of the impact of a massive implementation of small scale (micro) cogeneration uni...

  13. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    None

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  14. Evaluation of the Pollution by Toxic Elements around the Small-Scale Mining Area, Boroo, Mongolia

    Bolormaa Oyuntsetseg; Katsunori Kawasaki; Makiko Watanabe; Batkhishig Ochirbat

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the contamination levels of toxic elements (TEs) in the vicinity of the small-scale mining Boroo area, Mongolia. Samples of surface soil, ground water and human hair were collected around the gold washing or milling places, grassland and village areas. After appropriate preparation, all samples were analyzed for major and toxic elements (TEs) by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission Spectrometry (PIXE). Soil texture, conductivity (EC), pH, total organic...

  15. A Preliminary Review of Trends in Small-Scale Public-Private Partnership Projects

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to understand what small-scale PPP projects look like; to examine at a preliminary level if there are overarching problems and constraints in undertaking these projects; and to use the preliminary observations and findings to inform further work in this area. This paper looks specifically at 10 projects of value at or below $50 million in the South Asia, Middle East and Africa regions across a few identified parameters, summarizes the findings, and identifies...

  16. Biomass fired small-scale CHP technologies - Present status and possibilities

    Konttinen, J. (Univ. of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland), Renewable energy programme), e-mail: jukontti@jyu.fi; Linna, V. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), e-mail: veli.linna@vtt.fi; Uusi-Maahi, I. (Keulink Oy, Keuruu (Finland)), e-mail: ilkka.uusi-maahi@keulink.fi

    2010-07-01

    The competitiveness of biomass-fuelled CHP (Combined Heat and Power) production technologies is rising. Small-scale (or micro-CHP) means power and heat production in the scale of 10...1000 kW{sub e} by combustion or gasification of biomass. A survey about the commercial potential and technologies in Europe of micro-CHP was made by the University of Jyvaeskylae and VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland). The survey was funded by Keulink Oy and Jyvaeskylae Innovation Oy. According to the results of the literature survey, the most promising technologies for power production are based on so called ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) and Stirling engines. Woody-type of biomass is the best raw material for these applications. With the small-scale technologies, the power production efficiency can vary in the range of 15...30 % of the biomass thermal input. New innovative technologies for small-scale CHP application of woody biomass are being developed by private companies in Central and Northern Finland. Some of these are presented in more detail. The technologies are either based on combustion or gasification of wood-based biomass. Using the product gas in combustion engines requires cleaning, which can be carried out with innovative dry or wet clearing processes. Dry cleaning is possible with catalysts and wet cleaning with scrubbers. The small-scale CHP technologies offer significant potential in local consumption sites of power and heat, such as greenhouses and farms. So called 'eco-villages' are also being built to demonstrate this potential. The possibilities for producing liquid transport fuels, such as biodiesel, are also discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  17. Multi-spacecraft observations of small-scale fluctuations in density and fields in plasmaspheric plumes

    Matsui, H; Darrouzet, F; Goldstein, J.; P. A. Puhl-Quinn; Khotyaintsev, Yu V; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Georgescu, E.; C. G. Mouikis; Torbert, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this event study, small-scale fluctuations in plasmaspheric plumes with time scales of ~10 s to minutes in the spacecraft frame are examined. In one event, plasmaspheric plumes are observed by Cluster, while IMAGE measured density enhancement at a similar location. Fluctuations in density exist in plumes as detected by Cluster and are accompanied by fluctuations in magnetic fields and electric fields. Magnetic fluctuations are transverse and along the direction of the plu...

  18. Multi-spacecraft observations of small-scale fluctuations in density and fields in plasmaspheric plumes

    Matsui, H; Darrouzet, F; Goldstein, J.; P. A. Puhl-Quinn; Khotyaintsev, Yu V; P.-A. Lindqvist; Georgescu, E.; C. G. Mouikis; Torbert, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this event study, small-scale fluctuations in plasmaspheric plumes with time scales of ~10 s to minutes in the spacecraft frame are examined. In one event, plasmaspheric plumes are observed by Cluster, while IMAGE measured density enhancement at a similar location. Fluctuations in density exist in plumes as detected by Cluster and are accompanied by fluctuations in magnetic fields and electric fields. Magnetic fluctuations are transverse and along the direction of the plumes. The ...

  19. Experimental and Thermoeconomic Analysis of Small-Scale Solar Organic Rankine Cycle (SORC) System

    Suresh Baral; Dokyun Kim; Eunkoo Yun; Kyung Chun Kim

    2015-01-01

    A small-scale solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is a promising renewable energy-driven power generation technology that can be used in the rural areas of developing countries. A prototype was developed and tested for its performance characteristics under a range of solar source temperatures. The solar ORC system power output was calculated based on the thermal and solar collector efficiency. The maximum solar power output was observed in April. The solar ORC unit power output ranged from 0.4 ...

  20. Large-scale convective instability in an electroconducting medium with small-scale helicity

    Kopp, M. I.; Tur, A. V.; Yanovsky, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    A large-scale instability occurring in a stratified conducting medium with small-scale helicity of the velocity field and magnetic fields is detected using an asymptotic many-scale method. Such a helicity is sustained by small external sources for small Reynolds numbers. Two regimes of instability with zero and nonzero frequencies are detected. The criteria for the occurrence of large-scale instability in such a medium are formulated.