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Sample records for small-scale farmers healthy

  1. Vertical organisation of small scale farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Steyn, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Small scale farmers represent 80% of all farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and contribute up to 90% of agriculture production. Small scale farming is not without its problems and sub-Saharan Africa has one of the lowest agriculture productivities in the world - this despite ample land and water availability. These problems include inter alia, the fundamental lack of economies of scale and access to market, high transaction costs, and limited access to finance. This is in a global environment, whe...

  2. Thai indigenous cattle production provided a sustainable alternative for the benefit of small-scale farmers, healthy food and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Thailand, there were 5.66 million indigenous cattle and 1.76 million of their crosses. Farmers raised these cattle integrated with crop and fish in livestock-crop-fish integrated farming systems. These farming systems are in small scales for efficient utilization of available resources and for maximisation of production of diversified products per unit area to increase the income of the farmers and enhance food production. Thai indigenous cattle meat have more specific nutrient that are beneficial for consumers, such as omega 3, omega 6, and CLA. Furthermore, farmers use cattle manures as fertilizer for crop production, production of plankton for the fish and biogas/electric power used in the household. Additionally, Thai indigenous cattle are used for draught power. Consequently, Thai indigenous cattle increased food production and there was minimal cattle waste on farms thus, we could keep the environment clean and green. Performance data, meat quality, compost production, biogas production, and draught animal and reference were collected from 103 smallholder farmers in the northern part of Thailand, northeastern, central and southern parts of Thailand during October 2005 to September 2007. Growth and reproductive performance: Thai indigenous cattle had various skin and hair colour such as red, light brown, black, piebald, and only Kow-Lamphun cattle in northern part of Thailand, orange-pink skin and white hair colour. Their navels were not slackened but attachedeir navels were not slackened but attached to the belly. Their dewlaps were also not slacken. The average birth weight was 19.6 kg and the weaning weight at 200 d of age was 137.96 kg. They had good characteristics of heat tolerance, disease resistance, and high fertility traits. They were the main red-meat source for consumers. Thai indigenous cattle were main source of red meat for consumption in Thailand. They produced high Omega 3 and Omega 6 in red meat, so their meat was the main source of protein and healthy food.Other utility of Thai indigenous cattle integrated farming system: Farmer raised on average 31.95 heads of Thai indigenous cattle on each farm integrated with crops (rice, corn, pineapple, sugar cane) and fish (striped catfish, catfish, tilapia, crucian carp). Cattle were fed on natural grass, rice straw as the main feed and other by-product from crops. Farmers used cattle manure to replaced chemical fertilizer and produced compost, which was used as fertilizer for crop production. Farmers also used manure to produce plankton for fish. They harvested 85.19 ton of crop production by using compost from manure and produced 0.25 ton per rai, which was less than the average country production (0.40 ton/rai). Average fish production was 100.00 kg per farm per year (147.06 kg/rai), which was similar to fish feeding with manure and concentrate (142.67 kg/rai). By integrating production in livestock-crop-fish, farming systems on small-scale, farmers produced safety food and gain their income. In addition, they could prevent air pollution, and global warming, leading to clean environment. (author)

  3. A gender perspective on empowerment of women small scale farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Friis-rasmussen, Clara

    2012-01-01

    The research described in this report was conducted during my internship March-June 2012 at the NGO Surplus People Project based in Cape Town, South Africa. The research is using a constructivist approach in analyzing the potential of the organization to improve it’s facilitation of women empowerment in the local rural areas through an increased focus on adressing gender specific issues related to being a woman small scale farmer. The research has been conducted with various qualitati...

  4. Jatropha and Sustainable Livelihood of Small-scale Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Ladefoged, Tanja; Hansen, Rasmus Bo

    2009-01-01

    The jatropha trees oil containing seeds can be used for biofuel. There are a lot of discussions about whether a Jatropha production and utility can be beneficial for a sustainable development in the developing countries, or if it’s just another cash crop for oil-export to the developed countries biofuel use. The content of this thesis is a determination of the possible livelihood impacts from a jatropha production, through a case in Zambia where 25.000 small-scale farmers are involved in...

  5. Export horticulture – empowering female small-scale farmers in Kenya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Export horticulture is one of Kenya’s most dynamic sectors, with the Mount Kenya Region playing a crucial role as a result of its professional large- and small-scale production and marketing structures. The sector is consequently referred to as a “success story of African regional development” (Dolan and Sutherland 2002: 1. A qualitative case study was carried out to understand the impacts on gender inequality of the integration of horticultural smallholdings into the fresh fruit and vegetable (FFV supply chain to the European market. It will be outlined how export horticulture affects female small-scale farmers with reference to local distribution channels, the organisation of the farm as a group or an individual player, and the specific organisation of labour on the farm. The focus here is on the traditional division of labour, ownership and mobility patterns, as well as knowledge and income. The study shows that the influence of the integration in the FFV chain on gender inequality is conditioned by both the type of relations to the buyers and the internal and institutional organisation of the smallholding. Surprisingly, in some areas of the primarily male-dominated rural society, an integration in the form of outgrower schemes that resembles Gereffi et al.’s model of a captive value chain, with women farmers exclusively responsible for export production, can enhance gender equality, as women gradually gain more decision-making power and greater independence.

  6. A Niche for Small-Scale Farmers: Report of a Five-State Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John A.

    This paper reports on a survey of 221 small-scale farmers conducted in 5 western states. Despite the current productive dominance of large farms, an argument can be made that small-scale farming is desirable both for social and ecological reasons. Discussion focuses on the tradition-oriented goals and values of small-scale farmers, special…

  7. Diversity of shifting cultivation cycles among small-scale farmers in Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Van Damme; Vladimir Verner; Lucie Banoutova; Jan Banout; Bohdan Lojka

    2011-01-01

    Although shifting cultivation is practiced by millions of farmers, it is often blamed for caus-ing deforestation and keeping farmers in pov-erty. Our study focused on the Amazon basin, where small-scale farmers widely practice shift- ing cultivation. The objective was to identify the diversity in land use after initial slash-and- burn land clearing among migrant peasants. Our research aimed at documenting typical crop sequences, plant species composition and specific lengths of particular pha...

  8. Constraints and Challenges Facing the Small Scale Farmers in Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Sylvester Mpandeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and micro-structural constraints, including those linked to and exacerbated by historical, natural and financial factors are some of the many stressors facing small-scale farmers in Limpopo Province. The challenge is to co-design ways to effectively manage these constraints with development actions. Small scale farmers in South Africa are still facing major challenges in the agricultural sector. In this paper some of the challenges faced by small-scale farmers in the Limpopo Province have been identified. Some of the challenges found during the formal surveys and focus group meetings in the Tshakhuma, Rabali and Tshiombo areas were those linked to financial, assets, land ownership and biophysical factors. Specific constraints included: (a Market information and market access; (b Price of inputs, for example fertilizer and herbicides; (c Availability of inputs; (d Irrigation; (e Cost of transport, and Natural constraint.

  9. Adaptation to climate change and other stressors among commercial and small-scale South African farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Wilk, Julie; Andersson, Lotta; Warburton, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Commercial and small-scale farmers in South Africa are exposed to many challenges. Interviews with 44 farmers in the upper Thukela basin, KwaZulu-Natal, were conducted to identify common and specific challenges for the two groups and adaptive strategies for dealing with the effects of climate and other stressors. This work was conducted as part of a larger participatory project with local stakeholders to develop a local adaptation plan for coping with climate variability and change. Although ...

  10. Assessing Farm Record Keeping Behaviour among Small-Scale Poultry Farmers in the Ga East Municipality

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    Enoch Kwame Tham-Agyekum

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to investigate the farm record keeping behaviour among small-scale poultry farmers in the GaEast Municipality. Data was collected by the use of the simple random sampling technique. All the poultryfarmers interviewed kept at least production and financial records. The chi-square test of independence showedthat farm record keeping was independent of age, educational level, experience in poultry farming, farmer status,number of birds owned by respondents and respondents’ membership of a farmer association. The reason whymost of the farmers did not keep all the farm records was because they assert that those records were notbeneficial to them. An award for the best farm record keeper must be instituted by the Ministry of Food andAgriculture (MoFA in collaboration with other non-governmental agencies to help boost farmers’ interest inkeeping farm records.

  11. Diffusion of information among small-scale farmers in Senegal: the concept of Farmer Field Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Pemsl, Diemuth E.; Waibel, Hermann; Witt, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    Recent research on the Farmer Field School (FFS) approach in agriculture in developing countries has raised some doubts on the economic impacts of this concept and especially the knowledge diffusion effects from trained to non-trained farmers. Based on a study in Senegal this paper hypothesizes that the question of the project placement strategy is vital when analyzing knowledge diffusion effects of FFS in Africa. Results show that the share of trained farmers in a community is a decisive fac...

  12. Effect of a Food Crop Development Project on Livelihood of Small-Scale Maize Farmers, Ghana

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    Julio César Vinay-Vadillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Food Crop Development Project (FCDP was introduced with the aim of improving farm incomes, household food security, nutrition and reducing poverty among small-scale farmers. This study sought to find answers to the questions of whether the project improved farmers’ access to credit, improved maize output or whether small-scale maize farmers adopted the improved maize production practices and how it impacted on maize production. Descriptive survey was conducted and using multi-stage random sampling procedure a final sample of 130 farmers was selected. The results indicated that participation in FCDP had a positive and significant but moderate relationship with maize output. More participants reported having easy access to credit than nonparticipants with chi-square value of 17.29 being highly significant indicating the possible relationship between ease of access to credit and participation in FCDP. The OLS stepwise regression analysis showed that participation, farm size and ease of access to credit were the main predictors of maize output while participation, income and household size were also the main predictors of food security. Thus, FCDP helped to improve the livelihoods of maize farmers in the study area. The policy implication of these findings is that subsidized agricultural input projects like the FCDP, have the potential to improve food security and farm incomes of peasant households.

  13. Effect of Poultry Production on the Poverty Status of Small Scale Farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde, Raphael Olanrewaju; Adekunle, Adedayo Olufemi; Olagunju, Funke Iyabo

    2012-01-01

    Using data from 104 small scale poultry farmers in Oyo state of Nigeria, this study examined the role of poultry production in rural poverty reduction. The results show that majority of the farmers were male (87 percent), married (87 percent), having family size of 5 to 7 persons (53 percent), above 44 years of age with farming experience of 7.5 years on average and with formal education (95 percent). The average net farm income (NFI) is N788,164 per annum indicating that, the business is wor...

  14. Worth assessment of information and their access points by small scale cassava farmers in Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Osikabor; I. O., Oladele; I, Ogunlade.

    Full Text Available This study determined the access, worth assessment and use of information by small-scale farmers in Oyo State. The study described socio-economic characteristics of small-scale cassava farmers; ascertained information access point preferences and analyzed information worth assessment. A multi stage [...] sampling was used to select 360 respondents and data were collected through pre-tested and face validated questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.88. The results show that majority of the cassava farmers (76.4%) had low access to information and 85.6% rated cassava innovation packages as of low worth. The most frequently used access point is oral communication (83%), which was also rated highest in motivation ability (77.7%), regularity (96.3%) and relevance of information (83.4%). Radio was rated as the most persistent (68.5%). social participation, farm size and use of hired labour had a statistically significant effect on access to information (p

  15. A Comparative Study of Marketing Problems Faced by Small-scale Crop Farmers in Botswana and Kenya. Is There a Way out?

    OpenAIRE

    Mburu, P. T.; Massimo, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Most governments in third world countries including sub Saharan Africa, tend to either neglect or fail to the avail the necessary resources to small-scale farmers to enable such farmers attain any meaningful development. The small-scale farmers contribute the biggest percentage of the national food requirement compared to large-scale farmers who produce largely for international markets. Besides, small-scale farmers contribute to the creation of employment, development of agro-based industrie...

  16. Diversity of shifting cultivation cycles among small-scale farmers in Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Van Damme

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although shifting cultivation is practiced by millions of farmers, it is often blamed for caus-ing deforestation and keeping farmers in pov-erty. Our study focused on the Amazon basin, where small-scale farmers widely practice shift- ing cultivation. The objective was to identify the diversity in land use after initial slash-and- burn land clearing among migrant peasants. Our research aimed at documenting typical crop sequences, plant species composition and specific lengths of particular phases of shifting cultivation cycles on the basis of farmers re-lated field histories. Land use was examined in two settlements: Antonio Raimondi and Pimen-tal in Ucayali region, Peru. Data was gathered via semi-structured questionnaires that focused on the socio-demographic characterization of agriculture-dependent households and their land use characteristics. More in-depth as-sessments of crop occurrence, cropping se-quence and length of the different shifting cul-tivation cycles were conducted on 114 fields in Pimental and 44 fields in Antonio Raimondi. In-terview analysis showed that in both villages, forest cover has substantially decreased over the last 10 years. Results also indicate consid-erable variation in swidden-fallow systems. Whereas settlers in Antonio Raimondi plant annual crops after slashing and burning the forest, settlers in Pimental gave more impor-tance to perennial crops. Progress in deforesta-tion and land degradation is relatively more pronounced in the younger settlement (Antonio Raimondi. These differences are likely caused by the different social backgrounds of settlers and histories of each site. Small-scale farmers in the study area are now facing a problem with the transition from shifting cultivation to sed-entary farming. Farmers in areas with a preva-lence of annual cropping use a significantly shorter fallow period, which causes a higher rate of forest degradation. As annual cropping seems to be unsustainable in relation with for-est degradation, farmers should either use a longer natural fallow to sustain longer cropping cycles, or shift to tree-based land use systems.

  17. Supporting small-scale dairy farmers in increasing milk production: evidence from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraïri, Mohamed Taher; El Jaouhari, Meryem; Saydi, Abdessalam; Kuper, Marcel; Le Gal, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of technical support provided to five small-scale cattle farms in the Tadla irrigation scheme (Morocco) on their milk yield. The first stage consisted of assessing the initial management of dairy herds, especially feeding strategies, and their effects on milk output. This diagnosis revealed major gaps between the existing and the potential milk yield, due to insufficient and imbalanced dietary rations. Based on this diagnosis, technical support was adapted to the reality of each farm by regularly adjusting the dietary rations to the production potential of lactating cows using available feed resources. The production potential of either pure Holstein or crossbred cows was based on the herd's physiological status and its genetic merit. Results showed that milk production could be rapidly improved by balanced dietary rations that enabled the average milk yield of lactating cows to be reached, while optimising feed costs and reducing the cost of milk production. Providing technical support to dairy farms should have a significant impact on overall milk production at different scales (irrigation scheme, plant supply area, national production) while alleviating the poverty of small-scale farmers. It would require the involvement of farmers' organisations such as milk collection co-operatives to replace services provided by the State, which is currently withdrawing from extension activities. PMID:20625930

  18. Food at All Costs? : Investigating attitudes towards genetically modified crops among small-scale farmers in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrsjo?, Ulrika; Malmholt, Tove

    2014-01-01

    The international debate on genetically modified crops as a means of ending world hunger is characterised by the polemic between environmental organisations and the biotechnology industry. In African developing countries, the much-needed increase in agricultural productivity could potentially be reached through commercialisation of GMOs, but the findings of this study show that consumer acceptance among small-scale farmers in western Kenya is low. The farmers are not shown to have been influe...

  19. Detection of Transgenes in Local Maize Varieties of Small-Scale Farmers in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M.; Den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primar...

  20. Ulcer Type of Disease in the Fishes of Small-Scale Farmer`s Pond in Bangladesh

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    M.B.R. Chowdhury

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to investigate ulcer type of disease in the small-scale rural poor fish farmer?s pond and to suggest a low-cost treatment measure. In total 20 ponds of 10 different sites were selected in the district of Mymensingh for treatment and control ones. Fishes were sampled on monthly basis starting from September 2000 and continued until April 2001 to examine their disease condition. Ulcer type of disease with expression of lesions was detected by spot observation followed by laboratory examination. A number of suspective bacterial pathogens were recovered from the lesions and kidney of diseased fishes, viz., Cirrhinus cirrhosus, Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Barbodes gonionotus, Pangasius hypophthalamus. Fungal isolates especially Aphanomyces sp., Saprolegnia sp. and Achlya sp. were recovered from the lesions and affected muscles of the sampled fishes. A number of recovered bacterial isolates were detected as pathogenic among which Aeromonas hydrophila, Ah-11 and A. veronii biover sobria were recognized as high virulent isolates. In the case of fungal isolates Aphanomyces sp. and Saprolegnia sp. were detected as pathogenic. Prevalence of disease outbreak was found to be very low where preventive treatment measures were taken with salt and lime (1:1, 1 kg/decimal. In the winter months (January and February, the disease outbreaks were found to be very high in the non-treated (control ponds, whereas in the treated ponds prevalence of infection were significantly low. In laboratory based treatment trial, antibiotic renamycin was found to be effective against bacterial invasion at a dose of 50mg/kg body wt/day applying for five days. In the case of fungal infection, the diseased fishes were found to be cured within five days by one hour bath in 0.5% salt and lime suspension at a ratio of 1:1 applying for 3 days.

  1. Assessing the Educational and Financial Needs of Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. Summary of Research 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    The process of transferring agricultural technology in many countries was studied to determine the perceived educational and financial needs of small-scale dairy farmers in Socopo, Venezuela. The following data were collected: (1) demographic characteristics--age, educational level, farm size, number of lactating cows, dairy farming experience,…

  2. Multinomial Logit Analysis of Small-Scale Farmers’ Choice of Organic Soil Management Practices in Bungoma County, Kenya

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    Oscar I. Ayuya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bungoma County is one of the areas in Kenya where maize is produced on small-scale basis; however, the County isfacing soil nutrient depletion due to continuous and unsustainable cultivation of land. Various interventions have sensitized farmers into adopting organic soil management techniques of enhancing soil fertility and upholding environmental sustainability. The study was aimedatestablishing the most preferred organic soil managementtechniques among farmers and the factors influencing the choice of these techniques. This wasbased on an exploratory study of small-scale organic maize farmers in Bungoma County.Asimple random sampling approach was used to select a sample of 150 smallholder maize farmers and primary data was collected using a semistructured questionnaire. In the analyses, descriptive statistics and a multinomial Logit model were employed using STATA computer program. The results indicated that extension, farm size household size, gender, age, education, credit, group membership, land tenure, farm distance and slope of land significantly influenced the choice of different techniques. Therefore the study recommends that policies in support of organic soil management should disaggregate farmers according to their socioeconomic, farmer and farm characteristics in order to achieve their intended objectives. Further there is need to increase extension visits to improve farmer awareness on the advantages of the various techniques.

  3. Socio Cultural Determinants of the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers in Ndhiwa Division, Kenya

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    Isaiah K. Okuthe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the influence of socio cultural factors on the adoption of integrated natural resource management technologies by small scale farmers in Ndhiwa division, Kenya. Soil fertility depletion and the corresponding declining agricultural productivity in Kenya’s Ndhiwa division have led to many attempts to develop and popularize Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external input agriculture and extreme forms of traditional low external input agriculture. The main components of INRM in Ndhiwa division are chemical fertilizer, animal manure, green manure, stover lines and agro forestry. However the adoption of these technologies appears to be low resulting to probably the low production. It is not understood well why farmers who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, either do not adopt or adopt the technologies and then abandon them. However it is acknowledged that soil depletion is a serious and slow process hence the determinants of the adoption of INRM technologies are critical. An ex-post-facto survey design which utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used in the study. For quantitative data collection, a sample of 220 small scale farmers selected using systematic random sampling from the small scale farmers in the Division were engaged. For qualitative data, 40 small scale farmers and 37 Key Informants selected using purposive sampling from the division were used. Results of the study indicated that households’ education status, gender, cosmopoliteness, leadership status, cultural beliefs and social norms were important variables which had positively and significantly influenced adoption of INRM technologies. The overall finding of the study underlined the high importance in strengthening social groups to enhance adoption of INRM technologies. The study will be significant to planners, policy makers, researchers, extension and farmers to build the case for interventions on INRM within the development sector for improved and sustainable agriculture and rural development.

  4. Small scale farmers’ access to and participation in markets : The case of the P4P program in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Skjo?ldevald, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand how small scale farmers navigate the market to access and participate in the formal maize market to improve their revenue, utilising the case of the P4P program inKenya. The empirical material was collected during fieldwork in Kenya. Qualitative methods were found to be the most suitable for this thesis. The methods that was utilised were a case study strategy, semi structured interviews, focus groups, observations and analysis of secondary sources....

  5. A Success Story of Organizing Small Scale Farmers in Kenya : It's Possible Replication for the Payment of Environmental Services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Managing agricultural landscapes for reducing carbon dioxide emissions is believed to be a Payment for Environmental Services mechanism (PES) of major significance after the 2012 Kyoto Protocol era. The big number of small scale farmers in the developing countries, and not least in SSA, will through this have a chance to contribute to national development, but to also enhance their own livelihood. The big problem of relying on small scale farmers is an organization model that ensures endurance and reliability. The Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA) has through almost 50 years been successful in integrating 600.000 smallholders in the tea production making tea number one income earner in Kenya and enhancing the livelihoods of the involved contract growers. The article argues that lessons should be learned from the success of KTDA in possibly replicating the organizational model to other crops, but not least to be used in PES schemes. The article emphasizes vertical integration and production diversification, enabling market conditions, and democratization as the main factors in KTDA’s success that could possibly be replicated in promoting small scale farmers participating in the post-Kyoto carbon trade.

  6. A Survey of Mechanization Problems of the Small Scale (Peasant Farmers in the Middle Belt of Nigeria

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    Jonathan Kuje Yohanna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Food shortage problem is increasing every day among the developing nations. So many farmers are on the land on small scale basis and their production has not been enough. Their farm sizes have not increased over the years due to absence of the relevant mechanization machinery. This study was made to evaluate the level of solutions of the problems of small farm mechanization, which is the only viable means of food production in the developing nations such as Nigeria. From the studies, the various levels of mechanization tools in the various farm operations are as follows: land clearing 21.54%, tillage 24.62%, planting 3.85%, spraying 86.15%, fertilization 2.13%, weeding 3.08%, harvesting 40%, crop processing 7.69% and crop storage 0.00%. Most of the farm sizes (93.85% range from 1-5 hectares. The mechanization process being emphasized in the country is still beyond the scope of the small scale farmers who produce the bulk of the food. It is recommended among other things that government should set up agricultural machinery industries which should developed or purchase and hired out to small scale farmers at subsidized rates to increase the level of mechanization of certain farm operations in the middle belt states of the country.

  7. Socio Economic Determinants of the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers: Evidence from Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah K. Okuthe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to examine the influence of socio economic factors on the adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external input agriculture and extreme forms of traditional low external input agriculture. The main components of INRM in Ndhiwa division are chemical fertilizer, animal manure, green manure, stover lines and agro forestry. However the adoption of these technologies appears to be low resulting to probably the low production. It is not understood well why farmers who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, either do not adopt or adopt the technologies and then abandon. An ex-post-facto survey design which utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used in the study. For quantitative data collection, a sample of 220 small scale farmers selected using systematic random sampling from the small scale farmers in the Division were engaged. For qualitative data, 40 small scale farmers and 37 Key Informants selected using purposive sampling from the division were used. Results of the study indicated that households education status, gender, access to credit and membership in social groups were important variables which had positively and significantly influenced adoption of INRM technologies. The overall finding of the study underlined the high importance of institutional support in the areas of extension, strengthening social groups and improving market and credit condition to enhance adoption of INRM technologies. The study will be significant to planners, policy makers, researchers, extension and farmers to build the case for interventions on INRM within the development sector for improved and sustainable agriculture and rural development.

  8. The Right to Food Sovereignty for Small Scale Farmers: Case Study of Farming Cooperatives in Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Sharon Groenmeyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper on small scale farmers focuses on the right to food sovereignty in South Africa. Food sovereignty is defined as the fundamental democratic right to shape agricultural and food policy from the bottom up. Africa is the hardest hit by climate change because it depends on natural resources where small-scale agriculture is the dominant method of food production, except in South Africa where commercial agriculture dominates. This has direct links to climate change discourse reveals that rapid climate change including more frequent and intense weather systems with greater climate variability and the effects of increases in the average global temperature lead to changes in average rainfall patterns (Babagura 2011. In Sub-Saharan Africa, men make up approximately 85% of landholders and women 15% (UN Africa HDR 2012. Cultural practices and the dominance of patriarchal norms influence equal ownership and inheritance rights for men and women. Consequently landownership amongst women is lower in sub-Saharan Africa than in any other region in the world. In contrast, women make up approximately 50% of the agriculture workforce on male owned African small scale farms. Therefore, women in sub-Saharan Africa have less control than men do over productive resources such as assets of land and credit. Women’s time is often devoted to the domestic sphere in activities that are non-marketed and undervalued and their access to key institutions such as markets is curtailed (Annecke 2010. Climate change discourse demonstrates that the poor are disproportionately affected especially women who become shock absorbers during a food crisis, skipping meals to ensure family members have adequate nutrition. Household food security is part of a complex matrix of inequality which includes high levels of unemployment and increasing impoverishment because of the rising cost of basic services of electricity and water. Consequently, the increasing prices of basic foods like maize and wheat as the staple foods of most rural and urban poor poses a problem, because impoverished households are not buyers of food. Coupled with the stressors of poverty, poor health (HIV and AIDS and societal inequalities (race and gender small scale farmers have less flexibility to protect themselves or avoid risks. This case study based on group interviews with small scale farmers who are members of cooperatives located in the Mopani District in the Limpopo Province in South Africa investigates how these small scale farmers have addressed food insecurity.

  9. Detection of Transgenes in Local Maize Varieties of Small-Scale Farmers in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Marianne; Grønsberg, Idun M.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Fischer, Klara; Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Bøhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM) crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i) the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii) what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii) how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv) to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves) and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001–2008). Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers’ practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed). Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013%) and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%). Three of the 20 seed samples (15%) included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603) intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10%) included genes for insect resistance (from MON810). In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system. PMID:25551616

  10. Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Böller, Marianne; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2014-05-01

    Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. However, at the current price for a ton of carbon, the potential to earn significant carbon credits is limited. Therefore carbon storage should not be seen as a goal in itself. Potential for earning carbon credits and generating further benefits lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrub land and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. Therefore, soil management has to be addressed from a holistic understanding of the livelihoods of small-scale farmers. This includes a detailed understanding of the constraints in farming, as well as the motivation behind farming. The aim of this study is the identification of intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of soil quality, farm management and the constraints and motivations regarding farming. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity of land while at the same time building up landscape carbon stocks. They furthermore show the importance of carefully choosing the way new farming techniques are introduced, as many farmers are afraid of trying something new.

  11. Determinants of Market Participation among Small-scale Pineapple Farmers in Kericho County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Sigei, Geoffrey; Bett, Hillary; Kibet, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Marketing agricultural produce is important amongst smallholder farmers because they derive benefits such as income and rural employment. In developing countries like Kenya, most smallholder farmers are characterized by poor market participation because they lack market information on pineapple marketing. In Bureti district; pineapples have been perceived to have high market value, resulting in trade-offs with staple food. Despite pineapples market value, its market participation has not been...

  12. Evaluation of the appropriateness of certain grain production technologies for small-scale farmers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.P.N., du Toit; E.A., Nemadodzi.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The paper suggests a combination of both modern, high-input technologies and low-input technologies in a context based technology development approach. These technologies are: improved maize varieties; row planting; legumes in the cropping system; reduced tillage practices and weed control. Although [...] some adaptations are needed, none of the innovations in the program failed the test of appropriateness completely. According to the findings Open Pollinated Varieties (OPV's), although intensively promoted, were only preferred by 35% of the farmers while hybrid seed was preferred by 59% of the farmers. The majority of farmers (63%) indicated that they do plant maize in rows with a mechanised planter; despite high labour costs 59% of farmers still control weeds by hand and 61% of the respondents do realise the economic advantage of reduced tillage practices but still does not implement the practices. The strong linkages between all role players and active farmer participation are probably the most important reasons for the fact that farmers are still enthusiastic and eager to continue with the program.

  13. Resource Use Efficiency of Turkish Small Scale Dairy Farmers Supported Through Cooperatives in Cukurova Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Yilmaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical efficiencies of cooperative member dairy farmers in Cukurova region were estimated with a stochastic frontier model. Effects of several factors on technical efficiency were analyzed. Farms were grouped based on their efficiency scores. Unit milk costs and gross margins per head cow were calculated for each farm group to give a sense what efficiency means in terms of some farm economic criteria. Concentrate feed and capital costs were found to have statistically significant contributions to milk production. Farm location, herd size, farming experience, on-farm feed growing, milking by equipment and grazing had effects on efficiency. However, only positive effect of farming experience and negative effect of grazing were statistically significant. Results show that 75% of the variation in milk production can be attributed to inefficiency. Mean efficiency score of the sample farms was estimated to be 68% implying there is plenty of scope to increase production under existing technology without incurring higher costs. Lower unit costs of milk and higher gross returns of efficient farmers show that technical efficiency is an important component of competitiveness. It was concluded that farmers should be encouraged and supported to increase use of concentrate feed and decrease share of grazing for obtaining higher milk yields. However, in the long run structural enhancements are required to transform small subsistence farms into more market oriented units. Economic analyses show that many farmers cannot cover full economic costs but they can still generate farm income since family labor does not incur cash costs.

  14. Resource Use Efficiency of Turkish Small Scale Dairy Farmers Supported Through Cooperatives in Cukurova Region, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal Yilmaz; Tuna Alemdar

    2011-01-01

    Technical efficiencies of cooperative member dairy farmers in Cukurova region were estimated with a stochastic frontier model. Effects of several factors on technical efficiency were analyzed. Farms were grouped based on their efficiency scores. Unit milk costs and gross margins per head cow were calculated for each farm group to give a sense what efficiency means in terms of some farm economic criteria. Concentrate feed and capital costs were found to have statistically significant contribut...

  15. Assessment of Small Scale Farmers’ Skills Regarding Integrated Pest Management (IPM in District Sargodha-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejaz Ashraf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Asurvey study was conducted to assess the knowledge/awareness level in IPM technology among farmers. Fourvillages were randomly selected from Sargodha district fordata collection. Thirteen farmers from each village wereselected randomly and sample size was 52 respondents. Morethan 92% of respondents have no advisory services eitherfrom public or private sector. The findings imply that respondentsneed knowledge for all levels of competence in IPM technology.They need to get high-level of competence for application ofthis technology in the field. In addition, they have littleexposure to long-term training opportunities due to loweducation level for applications of this technology. More than77% of respondents think that government agricultural policiesand no access to information sources regarding integrated pestmanagement at grass-root level are main constraints. Thefindings from correlation and regression analyses indicate thatage and knowledge/awareness level are negatively correlated.It may be concluded that elder respondents have less adaptabilityto new ideas and techniques as compared to young respondents.However, training and information, education, and experienceplay a significant role in enhancing the knowledge/awarenesslevel of respondents in IPM technology.

  16. The impact of mobile phones on knowledge access and transfer of small-scale horticultural farmers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krone, Madlen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the main economic activity in Tanzania and the country´s largest employer, providing livelihood for at least 80 % of the economically active population. Many studies have identified key challenges facing the sector for Africa in general – among these lack of access to knowledge. For agricultural producers, access to knowledge is important for an improved productivity and competitiveness. The fast diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICT such as mobile phones across Africa in the last years has resulted in an improved access and transfer of agricultural knowledge. Studies have shown that rural actors like farmers in remote areas even use mobile phones for their farming business. Based on qualitative interviews in the Mwanza Region in northwestern Tanzania, this study aims to identify and categorise the different types of knowledge which are transferred via mobile phones. Our results show that mobile phones enlarge the ability of farmers to access business-relevant knowledge at an increasing spatial scale. However, the effects of the use depend on the type of knowledge and other factors. The results add to existing studies by deepening the understanding of the benefits of ICT on knowledge access and transfer for the context of rural small-scale framers in Tanzania.

  17. Survey of the Current Status of Weed Control and Herbicide Usage by the Small-Scale Commercial Vegetable Farmers in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetable production in Kenya is a market that has grown very rapidly in the decade due to increased demand in the local and international markets. This has led to an increase in hectarerage planted to vegetable thus leading in labour shortage due urban migration of potential casual labourers especially the youth. This has resulted to inadequate labour for weed control especially at the critical period. The objectives of this study were to find out the problems encountered by farmers in their bid to control weeds and whether they considered weeds as their major problem. The survey was conducted in Kikuyu, Lari and Kinango divisions where intensive vegetable farming is done by small-scale farmers for commercial purposes. The farmers were randomly selected and interviews conducted in their farms, based on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method. The results obtained showed that the farmers who previously relied on manual labour for weed control were increasingly using herbicides for weed control. The adoption of herbicide technology by these small scale farmers was out of their own initiative, either due to labour shortage or because one had a special weed problem that had defied other methods of control.From the information obtained it was clear that locally generated data information on herbicide use by small-scale farmers is seriously lacking for most if not all vegetable crops

  18. Ixodid ticks on indigenous goats owned by small-scale farmers in four communal grazing areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A.J. du Plessis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous goats belonging to small-scale farmers in 4 communal grazing areas in South Africa were sampled for ixodid ticks during the period September 1991 to May 1993. Three of these areas were in the North West Province (Rietgat, Madinyane and Bethany, and one in Mpumalanga Province (Geluk. No tick control was practised unless requested by the owners. Seven ixodid tick species, of which the majority were immature ticks, were collected from the goats in North West Province. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous of these, followed by Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Substantially more ticks were collected from goats at Rietgat than at the Madinyane and Bethany grazing areas. Five tick species were collected at Geluk and R. evertsi evertsi comprised more than 95 % of the total population. At Rietgat and Geluk A. hebraeum nymphs were present on goats throughout the year, while most R appendiculatus nymphs were collected during September and October 1991 and most adults during January and February 1992. At both Rietgat and Geluk most immature R. evertsi evertsi were collected from spring to late summer, while adults were present throughout the year.

  19. Allocative efficiency constraints in snail (Archachatina marginata production by small scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius B. Adinya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined constraints militating against the profitability potentials of snail (Archachatina marginata production by small-scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 120 respondents in the study area by means of structured and semi-structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of three (Ogoja, Ikom and Odukpani local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State, Nigeria. This was followed by random selection of three villages (Igoli in Ogoja Local Government Area, Alesi in Ikom Local Government Area and Adiabo in Odukpani Local Government Area in Cross River State. The respondents were randomly selected from each of the villages, 40 respondents were selected each from three villages, making a total number of 120 respondents. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and costs returns analysis. The results indicated that Cobb-Douglas production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of snail and inputs used, the coefficient of multiple determinant (R2=0.60 indicates that sixty percent of the variability in output of snail is explained by the independent variables. Results from the analysis revealed that the marginal value products of farm size, labour, farm management practices and operating costs were N1080, N20.6, N972.8, N14.84 respectively, there existed allocative inefficiency, there is a high potential for snail farmers to increase their yields and income. Further analysis of results revealed that net returns on snail is N2,935,000.00 with return on every naira invested of N0.14 is also positive indicating a profit from the business, with attractive net return on investment. This study shows that snail farmers are faced with several problems in their production activities. These problems or constraints affect the efficiency of snail production in the study area. Notable among them are high cost of feed supplement, lack of capital, inaccessibility of formal credit source because lack of collaterals, lack of extension agents, lack of medication/vaccines, poor production infrastructures and lack of good farm management practices occupied 15%, 14.17%,11.67%,10%,9.17%,9.17% and 8.33% respectively. The constraints associated with the business as highlighted in this paper if tackled could pave a way to increase profit and this will alleviate poverty in Cross River State. Hence, forefficient production of snail in the study area, these constraints must be drastically reduced to the barest minimum. This can be done through efficient policy formulation and implementation, proper supervision of snail production programme, effective extension services and proper agricultural financing. Snail farmers in the study area should be train by extension agents on how to control some of constraints that militate against the profitability potential of snail production. Beside that snail farmers should form cooperative group (s in order to obtain loans from bank (s to increase their capital base for higher output.

  20. Factors Influencing Potential Acceptance and Adoption of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Carbon Trade Tree Project among Small Scale Farmers in Njoro District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar I. Ayuya

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to assess the willingness of small scale farmers to accept and the extent of willingness to adopt carbon trade tree project and by so doing to identify and quantify factors that will influence adoption of carbon trade tree project. The study used multi-stage sampling procedure to select 150 small-scale farmers in Njoro district, Kenya. Both primary and secondary data sources collected using observations and interviews with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. The double hurdle model was used identify the factors that influence the willingness to accept and the extent the farmers are willing to adopt the carbon tree trade project. Findings of the double hurdle model indicate that gender, household size, farm debt, attitude towards risk, farm size,land tenure, availability of voluntary CDM and perception of the technology were found to influence the willingness to accept the project. Further, age, extension contacts, attitude towards risk, land tenure and perception towards the technology influenced on the extent the farmer is willing to adopt. The study therefore, recommends policy interventions of improved training offarmers and extension officers on agroenvironmental programmes, formation of agro-environmental self-help groups by farmers and creation of strategies that would improve socio-economic conditions of smallholder farmers in Kenya.

  1. AN AGRI-FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL TO ENHANCE THE BUSINESS SKILLS OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS USING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

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    Wahyudi Sutopo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, small-scale vegetable farmers experience problems in improving the safety and quality of vegetables for supplying high-class consumers in modern retailers. Farmer Group and/or Cooperative (FGC should be able to assist its members to meet the relevant provisions of modern retail on product specifications, delivery terms, and internal business requirements. This study proposed an agri-food supply chain (ASC model that involves the corporate social responsibility (CSR activities to enhance the business skills of the FGC as supplier of modern retailer. Multi-objective optimization programming is developed to determine the amount and timing of supply, level of farmers training skills, quality improvement target, and the CSR total cost. The results show that the proposed model can be used to determine the priority of programs in order to empower farmers' groups as modern retail suppliers.

  2. Exploring the role of sugarcane in small-scale farmers' livelihoods in the Noodsberg area, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. J, Cockburn; H. C, Coetzee; J, Van den Berg; D. E, Conlong; J, Witthöft.

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Participatory, mixed-methods research was conducted to study the role of sugarcane in small-scale sugarcane farmers' livelihoods in the Noodsberg area, KwaZulu-Natal. Thirty-five farmers were visited at their homes and data was collected through semi-structured interviews, participatory sketch mappi [...] ng, matrix scoring activities and informal field-based discussions. Results indicated that sugarcane was a key livelihood resource providing employment and income, and it generated more income than any other single agricultural enterprise. It was considered the most important crop in most households, even though it was grown within a diverse agricultural system including maize, beans, taro (amadumbe) and potatoes. Considering the important role of sugarcane as a cash crop in farmers' livelihoods, further development of land to sugarcane in the Noodsberg area will continue to reduce poverty and improve the livelihoods of farmers.

  3. An analysis of the Mngcunube "hands-on” mentorship program for small-scale stock farmers in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A J, Jordaan.

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The Elundini program included small-scale livestock farmers in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The program's data analyses and the impact on farmers and the economy were evaluated. Since program inception, sheep mortality decreased from >20% to 3%. Lamb weaning rates were approximately one lamb for [...] every two ewes (50%). Farmers' annual income increased from R650.00 to R20,956.00 (R1.00~ $0.15) with a total net gain of >R56 million for the region. Strict mentor management principles and payment for services were fundamental to the program's success. The impact of the program was immediately apparent and farmers were willing to pay for mentorship and treatments, provided they experience the benefits.

  4. Understanding the dynamics of multi-stakeholder innovation systems and the opportunities for joint learning by small scale farmers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. B., Stevens; B., Letty.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a European Union funded project called JOLISAA (Joint Learning in Innovation Systems in African Agriculture), the nature of smallholder oriented innovation systems have been explored in terms of partnerships, triggers that have given rise to them and the nature of the innovations themselves. [...] The main objective was to analyse a broad diversity of multi-stakeholder agricultural innovation processes involving smallholders. The analysis of 11 cases documented comprises innovation bundles composed of technical, organisational and institutional innovations. The eleven cases documented showed that six exhibited nontechnical innovation processes frequently related to market access as well as to inputs and services. Triggers that drive smallholders and other stakeholders to initiate innovation processes include environment stress, introduction of new technologies, identification of market change as well as policy or regulatory changes. The cases that have been documented show a variation of stakeholders responsible for initiating the process. In some cases it was smallholders approaching other stakeholders for assistance with addressing a challenge, while in other cases it was researchers or extensionists who undertook to develop an innovation to address a challenge that they had encountered through their interaction with smallholders. All documented cases have involved the contribution of ideas, knowledge and skills by at least three different types of stakeholders and the role of local knowledge has been acknowledge through the study. Out of the eleven cases three cases have been selected for a collaborative case assessment which strives to assess further key issues such as actual roles and contributions of various role-players, the dynamics of the innovation process and outcome. Several opportunities arise for joint learning with small scale farmers.

  5. Ixodid ticks on cattle belonging to small-scale farmers at 4 communal grazing areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ixodid ticks were collected during the period September 1991 to August 1993 from cattle belonging to small-scale farmers utilising 4 communal grazing areas. Three of these were in North West Province and 1 in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Ten tick species were collected in North West Province and 7 in Mpumalanga. The adults of Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were most numerous in North West Province, while in Mpumalanga Boophilus decoloratus comprised more than 75% of the total population. Amblyomma hebraeum was present on all grazing areas, and heavy infestations of adults occurred during the period October to May on 1 of these. Few B. decoloratus were collected in North West Province, chiefly because the sampling method was inadequate, and most of these were present during early summer (October to December and late summer and autumn (March to May. The initially low population of B. decoloratus in Mpumalanga increased substantially towards the conclusion of the survey, probably because of the cessation of dipping. Boophilus microplus was present in small numbers on 2 grazing areas in the North West Province. Adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes reached peak numbers from December to February and Hyalomma truncatum from February to April in the North West Province. Only H. marginatum rufipes was collected in Mpumalanga. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was present on all the grazing areas, with most adults present from December to April. Most adult Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were collected from September to April and Rhipicephalus simus was present during the period October-April.

  6. What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

  7. A Study of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Relating to Brucellosis among Small-Scale Dairy Farmers in an Urban and Peri-Urban Area of Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of knowledge, attitudes and practices among urban livestock farmers could have a significant impact on the reduction of many zoonotic infections in urban farming. This study aimed to describe and evaluate weak areas in knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to brucellosis among urban and peri-urban small-scale dairy farmers in a low income country to generate information essential for control programmes and public health interventions. The cross-sectional study was conducted during six weeks in 2011. The study subjects were small-scale dairy farmers living in the urban and peri-urban area of the capital Dushanbe in Tajikistan. In total, 441 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with questions about demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis. Descriptive statistics were used and a logistic regression model applied to evaluate potential predictors to knowledge about brucellosis. The majority (85%) of the farmers had never heard of brucellosis. Low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of brucellosis (P = < 0.001). Respondents who talked about animal health issues with family members or friends were less likely to have heard of brucellosis compared to those who often talked to veterinarians (P = 0.03). Sixty three per cent of the participants wanted more information about brucellosis. Seventeen per cent sold unpasteurized dairy products on a regular basis direct to consumers. Almost 30% of the households consumed unpasteurized dairy products on regular basis. A majority of the respondents did not use any protection when handling cows having an abortion or when dealing with aborted materials. Poor knowledge, high-risk behaviours and a willingness to learn more strengthens the logic for including health education as part of control programmes. PMID:25668783

  8. A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis among small-scale dairy farmers in an urban and peri-urban area of Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of knowledge, attitudes and practices among urban livestock farmers could have a significant impact on the reduction of many zoonotic infections in urban farming. This study aimed to describe and evaluate weak areas in knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to brucellosis among urban and peri-urban small-scale dairy farmers in a low income country to generate information essential for control programmes and public health interventions. The cross-sectional study was conducted during six weeks in 2011. The study subjects were small-scale dairy farmers living in the urban and peri-urban area of the capital Dushanbe in Tajikistan. In total, 441 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with questions about demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis. Descriptive statistics were used and a logistic regression model applied to evaluate potential predictors to knowledge about brucellosis. The majority (85%) of the farmers had never heard of brucellosis. Low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of brucellosis (P = < 0.001). Respondents who talked about animal health issues with family members or friends were less likely to have heard of brucellosis compared to those who often talked to veterinarians (P = 0.03). Sixty three per cent of the participants wanted more information about brucellosis. Seventeen per cent sold unpasteurized dairy products on a regular basis direct to consumers. Almost 30% of the households consumed unpasteurized dairy products on regular basis. A majority of the respondents did not use any protection when handling cows having an abortion or when dealing with aborted materials. Poor knowledge, high-risk behaviours and a willingness to learn more strengthens the logic for including health education as part of control programmes. PMID:25668783

  9. BT cotton in South Africa : adoption and the impact on farm incomes amongst small-scale and large-scale farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Gouse, Marnus; Kirsten, Johann F.; Jenkins, L.; Gouse, Marthinus

    2003-01-01

    South Africa is one of few developing countries, and the only one in Africa that has adopted genetically modified crops for commercial production. The very impressive adoption rate of insect-resistant cotton in South Africa can be attributed to different benefits enjoyed by adopters. This article focuses on the reasons and effects of Bt cotton adoption by large-scale and small-scale cotton farmers in South Africa and considers the impact of the adoption on yields, cost and profit. In addition...

  10. A method for evaluating climate change adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers using survey, experimental and modeled data

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, L. F. G.; Antle, J. M.; Stoorvogel, J. J.; Valdivia, R. O.; Thornton, P. K.; Herrero, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is predicted to experience considerable negative impacts of climate change. The IPCC Fourth Assessment emphasizes that adaptation strategies are essential. Addressing adaptation in thecontext of small-scale, semi-subsistence agriculture raises special challenges. High data demands includingsite-specific bio-physical and economic data are an important constraint. This paper applies a newapproach to impact assessment, the Tradeoff Analysis model for Multi-Dimensional Im...

  11. Helping small-scale farmers in the semi-arid tropics: Linking participatory research, traditional research and simulation modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to link necessary research skills to increase the range of options available to resource-poor farmers in the study area. The research consisted of on-station research to evaluate and understand cropping-system options resulting from insertion of a legume crop into the sorghum and castor system, on-farm research whereby farmers evaluate cropping-system options that are of interest to them, use of 15N as a label to help understand the nitrogen (N) balance of the various options, and cropping-systems simulation to examine long-term climatic risks from possible options. Particular attention was placed on the option of sorghum/pigeon pea intercrops, and on quantifying the inputs of N from animal manure and by the pigeon-pea component. We were also interested in the process of linking on-station to on-farm research, and simulation modelling to the cropping system research. One important outcome was that different groups identified different problems and posed different questions. The problems identified and questions raised were examined by use of scenario analyses run for ten to thirty years which contrasted the existing practice with a range of alternative practices. The simulations were useful in guiding the design of on-farm experiments. Other likely outcomes are the setting of low-rate fertilizer recommendations specifically for the semi-arid tropics, the marketing of small packs of fertilizers, and increased use of manure resources for crop prodased use of manure resources for crop production. (author)

  12. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  13. Bovine tuberculosis on small-scale dairy farms in Adama Town, central Ethiopia, and farmer awareness of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameni, G; Erkihun, A

    2007-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 378 households, owning 524 head of cattle, to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and assess its public health implications. Stratified systematic sampling and a questionnaire were used, in addition to the comparative intradermal tuberculin test, mycobacterial culture and biochemical and drug susceptibility tests. Using a confidence interval (CI) of 95%, the herd and animal prevalences were 15% (11.4%, 18.6%) and 11% (8.32%, 13.68%), respectively. A significant variation in prevalence (P) was observed in regard to herd size (chi2 = 32.3, P < 0.0001); age group (chi2 = 11.47, P < 0.05); and reproductive status (chi2 = 10.9, P < 0.05). The herd prevalence was significantly associated with feeding practices (chi2 = 6.6, P < 0.05) and respiratory signs (chi2 = 8.7, P < 0.01). A significant (chi2 = 8.4, P < 0.01) association was recorded between the presence of reactor cattle and human TB cases in a household. Thirty-five percent (132/378) of the respondents knew about bovine TB while only 32% (121/378) were aware it could be transmitted from cattle to humans. Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis were isolated from 18.2% and 11.4% (n = 44) of the milk of reactor cows, respectively. In conclusion, the herd and animal prevalences of bovine TB were moderate. The fact that human TB patients and reactor cattle were present in the same household suggests the transmission of mycobacterial species between cattle and their owners, while the awareness of these farmers about bovine TB and its transmission was generally poor. PMID:18293619

  14. Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orewa, S. I.

    The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha) and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65%) of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

  15. Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Orewa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil palm farmers were randomly selected from each zone for the study. The study tried to identify the size of oil palm cultivated, types of food and cash crops planted and the proportion consumed and sold and the sufficiency of labour for various farm activities. The study showed that the average oil palm farm size at Ekuku-Agbor zone was smaller (about 1.57 ha and more fragmented while for Mosogar zone it was 2.28 ha. However a greater percentage (over 65% of the farms at both locations were within 0.01-2.00 ha farm size range which could be said to be relatively small. The study revealed that among other factors the farmers desire to ensure adequate family food needs which equates to food security and some cash to meet regular family financial needs necessitated their intercropping of the oil palm farms. Others include the need to maximize the returns from the use of labour which they considered a major limiting factor in farm maintenance and to take advantage of the relative high unit price of cassava and its products that prevailed then by cultivating on any available land space including the palm plantations and thereby increasing their farm income.

  16. Designing Agricultural Development Projects for the Small Scale Farmers: Some Lessons from the World Bank Assistance Small Holder Oil Palm Development Scheme in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Orewa, S. I.

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate farmers reasons for intercropping their oil palm farms with food and other cash crops rather than the sole oil palm planting arrangement specified for participation in the World Bank Assistance Smallholder Oil Palm development project financed during the 1975-83 period. The study was conducted at the Ekuku-Agbor Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the East) and Mosogar Tree Crop Unit Zone (to the Southwest) of the old Bendel State of Nigeria. A total of 35 oil pal...

  17. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  18. A farmers' market in a food desert: Evaluating impacts on the price and availability of healthy food. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have examined supermarket access for low-income residents, but few have explored how access to healthy food changes when a new food retailer such as a farmers' market opens in a place previously known as a 'food desert'. This paper uses a 'before and after' approach to examine the impact of the introduction of a farmers' market on the price and availability of healthy food in an underserved urban neighbourhood.

  19. Contract farming and its impact on income and livelihoods for small-scale farmers: Case study in Vietnam Kontraktacja i jej wp?yw na dochód i utrzymanie rolników produkuj?cych na ma?? skal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nham Phong Tuan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Contract farming has been expected as one of the measures to facilitate participation of farmers in the production of agriculture commercially, adding more values to agricultural produces. Mixed evidence in Vietnam however, has been shown on the well-known ad-vantage of the contract farming to small farmers such as reduce the cost to access to market, accessing credit, obtaining information on market opportunities or new technologies, pur-chasing certain inputs and accessing product markets and reducing price fluctuations. The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of contract farming to farmers and to deter-mine policies to facilitate farmer entry into beneficial contractual relationships. In addition to the literature review, one intensive case study of contract farming practices with commodity was conducted. The results from the study have direct relevance to work of agencies and organizations working to promote the welfare of small holding farmers, either through prac-tical field support or through policy advocacy.

  20. Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Schmidt; Joyce Thamaga-Chitja; Fezile Mdluli

    2013-01-01

    During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range ...

  1. EFFECTS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF DIRECT SEEDED MAIZE PRODUCTION UNDER SMALL SCALE FARMERS CONDITIONS IN UNAÍ, MG (BRAZILIAN CERRADO EFEITOS DA INTRODUÇÃO DO SISTEMA DE PLANTIO DIRETO DE MILHO POR AGRICULTORES FAMILIARES DO MUNICÍPIO DE UNAÍ, MG (CERRADO BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Fernandes Zoby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper evaluates the effects of the introduction of no tillage systems (SPD in rainfed maize grain production, by smallholders, under Cerrado conditions, in the region of Unaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The main constraints faced by farmers to produce are related to soil fertility management, difficulties in assessing tractors for preparing their land, and high levels of weed infestation. SPD was tested jointly with farmers trying to decrease these problems impacts. It showed promising results to stabilize, technically and economically, maize production. SPD solved completely the tractors dependency and contributed to decrease labour requirements for weed control. The production levels attained led to a better valorisation of the most scarce production factors, such as family labour and land. It was also evidenced the need to conduct more studies on the use of cover crops in those production systems.

     

    Key-words: Family farming; conservation agriculture; no-tillage.

  1. Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Gikunoo, Emmanuel; Andrews, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Small Scale Foundries (SSFs) have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individu...

  2. Small-scale anisotropy in Lagrangian turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Ouellette, Nicholas; Xu, Haitao; Bourgoin, Mickae?l; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2006-01-01

    We report measurements of the second-order Lagrangian structure function and the Lagrangian velocity spectrum in an intensely turbulent laboratory flow. We find that the asymmetries of the large-scale flow are reflected in the small-scale statistics. In addition, we present new measurements of the Lagrangian structure function scaling constant C-0, which is of central importance to stochastic turbulence models as well as to the understanding of turbulent pair dispersion and scalar mixing. The...

  3. Small-Scale Biomass Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Carrara, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to provide a full overview on small scale technologies regarding biomass exploitation (particularly woody one) for power generation, in order to define the most interesting solutions from a thermodynamic and economic point of view. Existing configurations or those which are expected to be potentially available on the market in the near future have been considered. Three plant sizes have been focused: 100 kWel, 1 MWel and 5 MWel. Internal combustion engines (ICE)...

  4. Universal Nonlinear Small-Scale Dynamo

    OpenAIRE

    Beresnyak, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    We consider astrophysically relevant nonlinear MHD dynamo at large Reynolds numbers (Re). We argue that it is universal in a sense that magnetic energy grows at a rate which is a constant fraction C_E of the total turbulent dissipation rate. On the basis of locality bounds we claim that this "efficiency of small-scale dynamo", C_E, is a true constant for large Re and is determined only by strongly nonlinear dynamics at the equipartition scale. We measured C_E in numerical si...

  5. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  6. Small scale statistics of viscoelastic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, S; Boffetta, G; Celani, A; Musacchio, S

    2006-01-01

    The small scale statistics of homogeneous isotropic turbulence of dilute polymer solutions is investigated by means of direct numerical simulations of a simplified viscoelastic fluid model. It is found that polymers only partially suppress the turbulent cascade below the Lumley scale, leaving a remnant energy flux even for large elasticity. As a consequence, fluid acceleration in viscoelastic flows is reduced with respect to Newtonian turbulence, whereas its rescaled probability density is left unchanged. At large scales the velocity field is found to be unaffected by the presence of polymers.

  7. Profitability of small-scale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several small-scale power plants have been constructed in Finland during the last few years. Fuel oil and natural gas has been used as a fuel in diesel plants, natural gas in gas-turbine plants, and peat and industrial waste wood in solid fuel fired plants. Larger towns have already acquired combined power and heat generation either in their own power plants or in cooperation with industry. A usual mean of cooperation has been buying of district heat from industrial back-pressure power plants. Numerous small district heat loads still rely on separate heat production. The cheap price of electric power, caused by the good water and nuclear power conditions and long-term delivery contracts, has rendered the construction of small-scale power plants. The fuel prices have been stable for the last few years. The most significant changes have been caused by changing of exchange rate of the Finnish mark and the fuel taxation. Two power plant are reviewed in detail: 6/17 MW peat fired steam power plant and 6/6 MW oil fueled diesel power plant. The electricity prices of these two have been compared with coal condensing power and the electricity tariffs. The price comparisons have been made using the present price level. Energia-Ekono has compiled a new simulation program ELMO, operating in PC-WINDOWS environment, for simulation of cogeneration

  8. Impact of improved technologies on small-scale soybean production: empirical evidence from benue state, nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study examined the impact of improved technologies on the lives of small-scale soybean farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. A total of 160 respondents were selected using simple random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Tobit model and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Findings revealed that 35.6% of the respondents were between 31 and 40 years old, 40.6% had household size of between 6 and 10 members. Majority of the respondents were male, married, and had secondary school education. Tobit analysis revealed that farmers socioeconomic characteristics which include gender, educational status and farming experience; and farmers knowledge on soybean innovations were significant factors determining the adoption of improved soybean production technologies. These factors were statistically significant at p=0.05. The adoption of improved soybean technologies has had a clear positive impact on farmers belief on soybean innovations. The major problems facing farmers in the adoption of improved soybean production technologies according to Kruskal-Wallis ranking were high cost of inputs, problem of labour availability and lack of credit/loan. The results of this study provide a strong case for the promotion of soybean as a solution for malnutrition and a means of poverty alleviation for poor people. (author)

  9. Seropositivity and risk factors for Brucella in dairy cows in urban and peri-urban small-scale farming in Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Sattori, Izzatullo; Magnusson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we assessed and mapped the seroprevalence of brucellosis in small-scale dairy farming in an urban and peri-urban area of Tajikistan and investigated factors associated with seropositivity. As urban and peri-urban farming is both an opportunity to improve the livelihood for small-scale farmers and a potential public health hazard, studies are warranted to reveal possible peculiarities in the epidemiology of brucellosis in this type of dairy farming. In total, 904...

  10. Integrating science with farmer knowledge: Sorghum diversity management in north-east Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kudadjie, C. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:   Convergence of sciences, diversity management, experimentation, farmer knowledge, genetic diversity, Ghana, plant variation, private sector, research, Sorghum bicolor (L.)Moench, small-scale farmers, seed quality.Sub-optimal impact of agricultural research is connected to lack of involvement of farmers. This is especially true forAfricawhere problems are diverse and complex. Farmer participation might help research to become better focused and resulting technologies more adopte...

  11. Small scale structure formation in chameleon cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chameleon fields are scalar fields whose mass depends on the ambient matter density. We investigate the effects of these fields on the growth of density perturbations on sub-galactic scales and the formation of the first dark matter halos. Density perturbations on comoving scales R<1 pc go non-linear and collapse to form structure much earlier than in standard ?CDM cosmology. The resulting mini-halos are hence more dense and resilient to disruption. We therefore expect (provided that the density perturbations on these scales have not been erased by damping processes) that the dark matter distribution on small scales would be more clumpy in chameleon cosmology than in the ?CDM model

  12. Small-Scale Features in Pulsating Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah; Jaynes, Allison N.; Knudsen, David J.; Trondsen, Trond; Lessard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the offphase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

  13. Small-scale clumps of dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Berezinsky, V S; Eroshenko, Yu N

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale clumps of dark matter are gravitationally bounded structures that have masses comparable to or lower than stellar masses and consist of noninteracting or weakly interacting dark matter particles. In this paper, the current knowledge about the formation and evolution of such structures is reviewed, various types of spectra of primordial cosmological perturbations are considered, and various dark matter models are discussed. Depending on the particular spectrum type, dark matter clumps may differ considerably in their formation processes and ultimate characteristics. The role of clumps in experiments on indirect detection of dark matter particles via their annihilation products is discussed. A number of astrophysical problems and phenomena that are related to dark matter clumps are examined.

  14. New markets for small-scale hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for small and medium sized hydro-electric power plant is more attractive than ever. The boom in Europe has increasingly spread to the emerging countries, and here too small hydro plays an important ecological role. In addition to new plant rehabilitation of 'historical' plant is now a major factor. The last few years have seen a market shift from single machine components to complete plant and systems, requiring a strategy re-think on the part of larger companies. Following the influx of private capital into the power industry, business conditions have also undergone a thorough transformation. In place of 'fast money', hydro power offers the prospect of earning longer-term, sustainable money'. The term small-scale hydro-electric power (or simply 'small hydro') is used slightly differently depending on the country and market. Here, it is used to denote plant with turbines up to 10 MW. (Author)

  15. Simulation of efficiency impact of drainage water reuse: case of small-scale vegetable growers in North West Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Speelman, S.; D Haese, M. F. C.; D Haese, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the effect of drainage water reuse on the technical efficiency of small-scale vegetable growers in South Africa applying a data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the semi-arid North West Province of South Africa water scarcity and the soon to be implemented water charges have urged farmers in small-scale irrigation schemes to evaluate the efficiency of their water use. Data on 60 farmers were used to estimate the level of technical efficiency and the effect that ...

  16. Small-scale nonlinear dynamics of K-mouflage theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brax, Philippe; Valageas, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the small-scale static configurations of K-mouflage models defined by a general function K (? ) of the kinetic terms. The fifth force is screened by the nonlinear K-mouflage mechanism if K'(? ) grows sufficiently fast for large negative ? . In the general nonspherically symmetric case, the fifth force is not aligned with the Newtonian force. For spherically symmetric static matter density profiles, we show that the results depend on the potential function W-(y )=y K'(-y2/2 ) ; i.e., W-(y ) must be monotonically increasing to +? for y ?0 to guarantee the existence of a single solution throughout space for any matter density profile. Small radial perturbations around these static profiles propagate as travelling waves with a velocity greater than the speed of light. Starting from vanishing initial conditions for the scalar field and for a time-dependent matter density corresponding to the formation of an overdensity, we numerically check that the scalar field converges to the static solution. If W- is bounded, for high-density objects there are no static solutions throughout space, but one can still define a static solution restricted to large radii. Our dynamical study shows that the scalar field relaxes to this static solution at large radii, whereas spatial gradients keep growing with time at smaller radii. If W- is not bounded but nonmonotonic, there is an infinite number of discontinuous static solutions. However, the Klein-Gordon equation is no longer a well-defined hyperbolic equation, which leads to complex characteristic speeds and exponential instabilities. Therefore, these discontinuous static solutions are not physical, and these models are not theoretically sound. Such K-mouflage scenarios provide an example of theories that can appear viable at the cosmological level, for the cosmological background and perturbative analysis, while being meaningless at a nonlinear level for small-scale configurations. This shows the importance of small-scale nonlinear analysis of screening models. All healthy K-mouflage models should satisfy K'>0 , and W±(y )=y K'(±y2/2 ) are monotonically increasing to +? when y ?0 .

  17. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N. Patience, Manzana; Cheryl M.E., McCrindle; P. Julius, Sebei; Leon, Prozesky.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances in land ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational study was conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistribution project in [...] Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For the purposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than 500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and design appropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the second phase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. These were: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residues with minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a total mixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank from the cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoption was monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulated rations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded that veterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option for such complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extension services appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditional model of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labour intensive.

  18. Galaxy alignment on large and small scales

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, X; Wang, Y O; Dutton, A; Macciò, A

    2014-01-01

    Galaxies are not randomly distributed across the universe but showing different kinds of alignment on different scales. On small scales satellite galaxies have a tendency to distribute along the major axis of the central galaxy, with dependence on galaxy properties that both red satellites and centrals have stronger alignment than their blue counterparts. On large scales, it is found that the major axes of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) have correlation up to 30Mpc/h. Using hydro-dynamical simulation with star formation, we investigate the origin of galaxy alignment on different scales. It is found that most red satellite galaxies stay in the inner region of dark matter halo inside which the shape of central galaxy is well aligned with the dark matter distribution. Red centrals have stronger alignment than blue ones as they live in massive haloes and the central galaxy-halo alignment increases with halo mass. On large scales, the alignment of LRGs is also from the galaxy-halo shape correlation, but with some ex...

  19. Simulations of small-scale turbulent dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Schekochihin, A A; Taylor, S F; Maron, J L; McWilliams, J C

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of an extensive numerical study of the small-scale turbulent dynamo. The focus is on large magnetic Prandtl numbers, which are relevant for hot low-density astrophysical plasmas. A Pr parameter scan is given for the model case of low-Reynolds-number turbulence. The main results are (i) the folded structure of the field (direction reversals at the resistive scale, field lines straight up to the flow scale) persists from the kinematic to the nonlinear regime, (ii) the field distribution is lognormal and self-similar during the kinematic stage of the dynamo and exponential in the saturated state; (iii) the bulk of the magnetic energy is at the resistive scale in the kinematic regime and remains there in saturation, although the magnetic-energy spectrum becomes much shallower. We propose an analytical model of the dynamo saturation based on the idea of partial two-dimensionalization of the velocity field with respect to the local direction of the magnetic folds. The saturated spectra resulti...

  20. Small-scale irradiated fuel electrorefining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the metallic fuel cycle development for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), a small scale electrorefiner was built and operated in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West. The initial purpose of this apparatus was to test the single segment dissolution of irradiated metallic fuel via either direct dissolution in cadmium or anodic dissolution. These tests showed that 99.95% of the uranium and 99.99% of the plutonium was dissolved and separated from the fuel cladding material. The fate of various fission products was also measured. After the dissolution experiments, the apparatus was upgraded to stady fission product behavior during uranium electrotransport. Preliminary decontamination factors were estimated for different fission products under different processing conditions. Later modifications have added the following capabilities: Dissolution of multiple fuel segments simultaneously, electrotransport to a solid cathode or liquid cathode and actinide recovery with a chemical reduction crucible. These capabilities have been tested with unirradiated uranium-zirconium fuel and will support the Fuel Cycle Demonstration program

  1. Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel GIKUNOO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Small Scale Foundries (SSFs have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individuals and private investors are heavily involved in producing several thousands of tonnes of castings annually generating revenue for the government through taxation as well as helping with metal waste disposal. Metal cast products are sold both locally and internationally to neighbouring countries. The industry is however faced with numerous challenges. These include quality issues due to lack of technical know-how, access to funding from both government and private financial institutions and foundry waste management. To promote this industry, government and private financial institutions must be encouraged to come on board. Policies must be established and proper training programme developed to improve and promote this technology. This could go a long way in reducing the high unemployment rate in Ghana.

  2. Small scale structure and high redshift HI

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, D H; Katz, N; Miralda-Escudé, J; Weinberg, David H; Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal; Miralda-Escude, Jordi

    1995-01-01

    Cosmological simulations with gas dynamics suggest that the Lyman-alpha forest is produced mainly by "small scale structure" --- filaments and sheets that are the high redshift analog of today's galaxy superclusters. There is no sharp distinction between Lyman-alpha clouds and "Gunn-Peterson" absorption produced by the fluctuating IGM -- the Lyman-alpha forest {\\it is} the Gunn-Peterson effect. Lyman limit and damped Lyman-alpha absorption arises in the radiatively cooled gas of forming galaxies. At z~2-3, most of the gas is in the photoionized, diffuse medium associated with the Lyman-alpha forest, but most of the {\\it neutral} gas is in damped Lyman-alpha systems. We discuss generic evolution of cosmic gas in a hierarchical scenario of structure formation, with particular attention to the prospects for detecting 21cm emission from high redshift HI. A scaling argument based on the present-day cluster mass function suggests that objects with M_{HI} >~ 5e11 h^{-1} \\msun should be extremely rare at z~3, so dete...

  3. Displacement expanders for small scale cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platell, P. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Machine Design

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this thesis work has been to investigate the potential for positive displacement (or volumetric) types of expansion machines for the application in small scale cogeneration as alternatives to conventional turbo expanders. Major design parameters have been identified, and fairly generalized relation between design parameters and operational, application-specific, parameters have been established for various types of volumetric expanders. Rotary displacement expanders and the Lysholm twin-screw type in particular, as well as piston type expanders have been analyzed. This study has been concentrated on thermodynamic performance related to design parameters, and also on mechanical design aspects and constraints. The possibilities for direct drive of high-speed, high frequency generators, have also been considered. Analytical expressions for performance evaluation, based on major design parameters, have been derived. For the screw expander, also a more detailed model for computer simulation has been developed. Simulation results have been used for a generalized performance prediction for screw expanders, independent of machine size. Due to mechanical limitations and increased internal leakage at higher pressures, the screw expander should be limited to roughly 40 bar. For low/medium temperature expander applications, the screw machine application should then be straight-forward. In a 40 bar saturated steam cycle, the total efficiency should be limited to roughly 15-20%. Piston machines have a potential for high-pressure applications and improved efficiency particularly at part load. For expansion of steam, with 200 bar, 500 centigrade admission, a total efficiency of roughly 30% should be possible at part load. However, several problems remain to be solved, e.g. concerning tribology and lubrication, valve design, materials selection, etc. 35 refs, 70 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Small scale imaging using ultrasonic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound technology progressed through the 1960 from simple A-mode and B-mode scans to today M-mode and Doppler two dimensional (2-D) and even three dimensional (3-D) systems. Modern ultrasound imaging has its roots in sonar technology after it was first described by Lord John Rayleigh over 100 years ago on the interaction of acoustic waves with media. Tomography technique was developed as a diagnostic tool in the medical area since the early of 1970s. This research initially focused on how to retrieve a cross sectional images from living and non-living things. After a decade, the application of tomography systems span into the industrial area. However, the long exposure time of medical radiation-based method cannot tolerate the dynamic changes in industrial process two phase liquid/ gas flow system. An alternative system such as a process tomography systems, can give information on the nature of the flow regime characteristic. The overall aim of this paper is to investigate the use of a small scale ultrasonic tomography method based on ultrasonic transmission mode tomography for online monitoring of liquid/ gas flow in pipe/ vessel system through ultrasonic transceivers application. This non-invasive technique applied sixteen transceivers as the sensing elements to cover the pipe/ vessel cross section. The paper also details the transceivers selection criteria, hardware setup, the electronic measurement circuit and also the image reconstruction algorithm applied. T image reconstruction algorithm applied. The system was found capable of visualizing the internal characteristics and provides the concentration profile for the corresponding liquid and gas phases. (author)

  5. Small-scale models of multiring basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Pascal; Thomas, Pierre

    1999-07-01

    Small-scale sand-silicone simulations of multiring impact structures have been undertaken in order to understand the effects of the rheology of the lithosphere on the variability of natural multiring structures. For low sand-silicone thickness ratio (1:3), brittle strain is accommodated by spiral strike-slip faults. For higher sand-silicone ratios (1:1 or 2:1), an inner concentric ring affected by strike-slip faults is relayed by an external ring affected by concentric normal faults. The diameter of the inner ring decreases with the increase of the sand-silicone thickness ratio. It is suggested that the flexure of the brittle layer due to the silicone flow is responsible for the brittle strain field which is enhanced by the channel flow of the lower crust. The characteristic geometry of the intersection of conjugated strike-slip faults can be observed around large multiring basins on silicate crust such as Orientale on the Moon and on icy crust, such as Valhalla on Callisto and Gilgamesh on Ganymede. The strain field around these large craters is discussed in terms of mechanical properties of the lithospheres. On the Moon, large craters without relaxation faults, such as Imbrium are located on thin crust regions. The crust was too thin to have a ductile lower layer at the time of impact. Gilgamesh on Ganymede is surrounded mainly by strike-slip faults. Asgard on Callisto has the same diameter as Gilgamesh but is surrounded by concentric normal faults. The brittle-ductile thickness ratio is thus higher on Callisto than on Ganymede.

  6. Cassini RTG's -- Small scale module tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cassini spacecraft, scheduled for a 1997 launch to Saturn, will be powered by three GPHS RTGs (General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope thermoelectric Generators). The RTGs are the same type as those powering the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft. Three new converters (F-6, F-7, and F-8) are to be built and one converter (F-2) remaining from the GPHS program will be used. F-6 and F-7 are to be fueled and F-8 serves as a spare converter. In addition, the back-up RTG (F-5) from the Ulysses launch, which is still fueled, will serve as the Cassini back-up RTG. The new RTGs will have a lower fuel loading than in the past and will provide a minimum of 276 watts each at B.O.M. (beginning of mission). The mission length is 10.75 years, at which time these RTGs will provide a minimum of 216 watts and a possible extension to 16 years when the power will be 199 watts. This paper discusses tests performed to date to confirm the successful re-establishment of the unicouple production at Martin Marietta. This production line, shut down 10 years ago, has been restarted and over 1,500 unicouples have been produced to date. Confirmation will be primarily obtained by the performance of three small scale converters in comparison with previously tested modules from the Multi Hundred Watt (MHW) (Voyager) and GPHS (Galileo, Ulysses) programs. Test results to date have shown excellent agreement with the data base

  7. Impacts of Domestic Maize Price Changes on the Performance of Small-scale Broiler Farming in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. K. Umboh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at analyzing the impact of maize price changes on the performance of small-scale broiler farming in Indonesia using a multimarket model analysis. The multimarket model analysis is partial equilibrium analysis that contains six blocks of equations: prices, supply, input demand, consumption, income and equilibrium. This model analysis was originally designed in General Algebric Modelling System (GAMS using the Path NLP solver. Employed data in this study were classified into 3 types, namely: (1 production and input, consumption, and household income; (2 inputs and outputs, and (3 elasticities. Decreased domestic maize price was responded by farmer through reducing maize planted area and fertilizers uses. It further had undesired impact on the maize production and maize farmer’s income. Whereas, this policy had positive impact on meat production and small-scale broiler farming income. The opposite impact will happen on those variables, if government increases domestic maize price. This policy caused the maize demand for feed industry decreased. As a result of this condition, it decreased the chicken meat production and small-scale broiler farming income.

  8. Effect of Irrigation on Poverty among Small-Scale Farmers in Limpopo Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Majory Ongie Meliko; Oni, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the strength and stability of South African economy, poverty and inequality remain a glaring and persistent issue in the country. About 40% of the population live in outright poverty or continuing vulnerability to being poor, with poverty being more persistent in rural areas. The Forster-Greer-Thorbecke index and a Logit econometric model were used to measure the dynamics of poverty among irrigation and non-irrigation individuals and households. The poverty incidence, depth and severi...

  9. Impacts of Maize Policy Changes on Small Scale Farmers' Vulnerability to Exploitation in Nyimba District, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Njobvu, Idah

    2011-01-01

    Taking cognisance of the fact that SSFs the major producers of maize in Zambia were most affected by the 1991 agricultural policy reforms, from 2005 onward, the state became very active in the maize market and production systems in order to mitigate their problems. The main objective of this study is to investigate to what extent the maize policy changes have contributed to the SSFs’ vulnerability to exploitation. This information will be of use in the policy formulation process to ensure t...

  10. Concepções de agricultores ecológicos do Paraná sobre alimentação saudável Concepciones de agricultores ecológicos de Paraná (Sur de Brasil sobre alimentación saludable Conceptions of healthy eating among ecological farmers in Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Ell

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as concepções de agricultores ecológicos sobre alimentação saudável. MÉTODOS: Estudo com abordagem qualitativa. Entre janeiro e fevereiro de 2007, foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade com o apoio de um roteiro com 11 mulheres e um homem residentes em comunidade agrícola de Rio Branco do Sul, PR, selecionados aleatoriamente dentre as 20 famílias de agricultores ecológicos desse município. RESULTADOS: Três categorias de análise foram identificadas: "tomada de consciência da alimentação saudável", "capacidade de compra" e "terra saudável". O significado da alimentação saudável para as mulheres agricultoras envolve a ideia de que os alimentos devem ser naturais, sem agrotóxicos nem produtos químicos industrializados. Cotidianamente o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes somado ao básico feijão, arroz e carne deve ser abundante e a composição do prato deve visar à prevenção de obesidade e doenças crônico-degenerativas. O cuidado com os recursos naturais para garantir a produção de alimentos saudáveis, a segurança alimentar, a sustentabilidade do meio ambiente e a vida futura do planeta integram o conceito de alimentação saudável. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento, a autocrítica e o discernimento acompanharam as concepções em relação à alimentação saudável.OBJETIVO: Describir las concepciones de agricultores ecológicos sobre alimentación saludable. MÉTODOS: Estudio con abordaje cualitativo. Entre enero y febrero de 2007, se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad con el apoyo de un itinerario con 11 mujeres y un hombre residentes en comunidad agrícola de Rio Branco do Sul, Sur de Brasil, seleccionados aleatoriamente entre las 20 familias de agricultores ecológicos de este municipio. RESULTADOS: Tres categorías de análisis fueron identificadas: "tomada de consciencia de la alimentación saludable", "capacidad de compra" y "tierra saludable". El significado de la alimentación saludable para las mujeres agricultoras incluye la idea de que los alimentos deben ser naturales, sin pesticidas y productos químicos industrializados. Cotidianamente el consumo de frutas, verduras y legumbres sumado al básico grano, arroz y carne debe ser abundante y la composición del plato debe buscar la prevención de obesidad y enfermedades crónico-degenerativas. El cuidado con los recursos naturales para garantizar la producción de alimentos saludables, la seguridad alimentaria, la sustentabilidad del medio ambiente y la vida futura del planeta integran el concepto de alimentación saludable. CONCLUSIONES: El conocimiento, la autocrítica y el discernimiento acompañaron las concepciones con relación a la alimentación saludable.OBJECTIVE: To describe ecological farmers' conceptions of healthy eating. METHODS: Study with a qualitative approach. In January and February 2007, supported by a guide, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 women and one man who were living in an agricultural community in Rio Branco do Sul, Southern Brazil. The interviewees were selected randomly from among the 20 ecological farming families in this municipality. RESULTS: Three analysis categories were identified: "awareness of healthy eating"; "purchasing power" and "healthy land". The significance of healthy eating for the female farmers involved the idea that foods should be natural, without agricultural pesticides or manufactured chemical products. The daily routine should include abundant consumption of fruits, greens and other vegetables, in addition to the basic rice, beans and meat, and the composition of dishes should aim towards prevention of obesity and chronic-degenerative diseases. Care regarding natural resources in order to ensure production of healthy foods, food safety, environmental sustainability and the future of life on the planet form part of the concept of healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge, self-criticism and discernment accompanied the conceptions of healthy eating.

  11. Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaffar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality, nutrition (balanced feed reproduction (mineral supplementation, and general management (training of farmers were identified and implemented in a participatory approach at the selected dairy farms. The calf mortality was reduced from 35 to 13 percent up to the age of 3 months. Use of Alfa Deval post milking teat dips reduced the incidence of sub-clinical mastitis from 34 to 5% showing economical benefits of the interventions. Partial budget technique was used to analyze its impact in the registered herds. The farmers recorded monthly quantities of different feed ingredients and seasonal green fodder offered to the animals. From this data set total metabolizeable energy requirements and availability from feed were computed which revealed that animals were deficient in metabolizeable energy in all locations. This was also confirmed by seasonal variation in body condition scoring. At some selected farms the mineral mixture supplement was introduced which exhibited increased milk yield by 5 % in addition to shorten service period by 30 days. Three sessions of training were arranged to train the farmers to care new born calves, daily farm management and detect the animals in heat efficiently to enhance the over all income of the farmers. The overall income of the farm was increased by 40%.

  12. Tailor-made solutions : Small-scale biofuels and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Pacini, Henrique; Khatiwada, Dilip; Lo?nnqvist, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    In current debates on biofuels trade, the focus tends to be on large-scale production. However, the production of small-scale biofuels is better suited for many smaller developing and least-developed countries. Small-scale biofuels can bring many social and environmental benefits at the local level and, cumulatively, their production and utilisation can bring significant trade benefits.

  13. Potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented and market-oriented small-scale farming systems of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael; Zander, Kerstin K; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems. PMID:22639035

  14. Small-scale dynamical processes in quiet stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution observations of small-scale solar dynamics are discussed, taking into account the phase relations of high degree p-modes, power spectra of short-period oscillations, observations of high frequency waves using CCD array, dynamic signatures of quiet sun magnetic fields, and small-scale dynamical processes in the solar chromosphere. Other topics explored are related to projected improvements to high-resolution measurements, interpretation of high-resolution measurements, modelling of small-scale dynamical processes, convection and wave generation, interaction between solar convection and magnetism, low-resolution observations bearing on small-scale dynamical processes in the sun, the interpretation of low resolution observations, the accuracy of models obtained from low-resolution observations, and observations and interpretations of small-scale dynamical processes in stellar atmospheres. Attention is given to the observation of stellar granulation, and Zeeman broadening in solar type stars

  15. Ellerman bombs: small-scale brightenings in the photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. J.; Doyle, J. G.; Erdélyi, R.; Madjarska, M.; Mumford, S. J.

    Observations of small-scale events in the solar atmosphere are limited by the spatial and temporal resolutions of the current crop of observational instruments. Both high-cadence and high-resolution observations of the photosphere have shown the continued dynamics to extremely small-scales. Ellerman bombs, brightening events in the wings of the Halpha line profile, are one example of small-scale, short-lived events which have been widely studied due to their fast dynamics in recent years. By combining the Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) instrument with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI/SDO), we show the small-scale nature of these events, as well as their link to the background magnetic field. It is found that EBs can be much smaller and shorter-lived than previous estimates have stated, implying the continued dynamics of the solar atmosphere below current observational limits.

  16. A Small-Scale Low-Cost Gas Chromatograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Natasa; Vrtacnik, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    The design and application of a small-scale portable gas chromatograph for learning of the basic concepts of chromatography is described. The apparatus consists of two basic separable units, which includes a chromatographic unit and an electronic unit.

  17. The potential for small scale hydropower development in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an earlier paper (), the potential for small scale hydropower to contribute to US renewable energy supplies, as well as reduce current carbon emissions, was investigated. It was discovered that thousands of viable sites capable of producing significant amounts of hydroelectric power were available throughout the United States. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the cost-effectiveness of developing these small scale hydropower sites. Just because a site has the necessary topographical features to allow small scale hydropower development, does not mean that it should be pursued from a cost-benefit perspective, even if it is a renewable energy resource with minimal effects on the environment. This analysis finds that while the average cost of developing small scale hydropower is relatively high, there still remain hundreds of sites on the low end of the cost scale that are cost-effective to develop right now.

  18. Development of small-scale fisheries in Yemen: An exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenaar, A.; D Haese, M. F. C.

    2007-01-01

    Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the world. The development of its fishery sector is increasingly being mentioned as a source of livelihood creation. The aims of this paper are to: (a) provide an overview of the institutional environment in which small-scale fishermen in Yemen operate; (b) investigate the constraints they face; and (c) discuss the potential role that co-operatives could play in such development. Small-scale fisheries in Yemen are increasingly important, yet they strug...

  19. Turbulent small-scale dynamo action in solar surface simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Jonathan Pietarila; Cameron, Robert; Schuessler, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that a magneto-convection simulation incorporating essential physical processes governing solar surface convection exhibits turbulent small-scale dynamo action. By presenting a derivation of the energy balance equation and transfer functions for compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we quantify the source of magnetic energy on a scale-by-scale basis. We rule out the two alternative mechanisms for the generation of small-scale magnetic field in the simulatio...

  20. Small-Scale Variations of HI Spectra from Interstellar Scintillatio

    CERN Document Server

    Gwinn, C R

    2001-01-01

    I suggest that radio-wave scattering by the interstellar plasma, in combination with subsonic gradients in the Doppler velocity of interstellar HI, is responsible for the observed small-scale variation in HI absorption spectra of pulsars. Velocity gradients on the order of 0.05 to 0.3 km/s across 1 AU can produce the observed variations. I suggest observational tests to distinguish between this model and the traditional picture of small-scale opacity variations from cloudlets.

  1. Profitability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Elmina, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Okyere; Cephas Asare; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Y.; Asare, Noble K.; Belinda Quaynor; Aheto, Denis W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species caught and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Interviews were conducted among 60 fishermen between February and March 2010. Economic assessment of small-scale fishing activities were done using questionnaires based on direct market pricing and co...

  2. Small Scale Mechanization of Thinning in Artificial Coniferous Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Savelli; Raffaele Cavalli; Sanzio Baldini; Rodolfo Picchio

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, where conventional forests have a protective rather than productive purpose, some silvicultural operations as first and second thinning could be carried out in an economic way adopting systems based on small scale mechanization. Authors tested a system based on small scale mechanization for bunching and skidding operations, using an All Terrain Vehicle (ATV), a compact, agile and versatile vehicle that adapts well to dense and rather inaccessible forests, such as forests of artifici...

  3. Small-scale eruptive filaments on the quiet sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of a little known class of eruptive events on the quiet sun was conducted. All of 61 small-scale eruptive filamentary structures were identified in a systematic survey of 32 days of H alpha time-lapse films of the quiet sun acquired at Big Bear Solar Observatory. When fully developed, these structures have an average length of 15 arc seconds before eruption. They appear to be the small-scale analog of large-scale eruptive filaments observed against the disk. At the observed rate of 1.9 small-scale eruptive features per field of view per average 7.0 hour day, the rate of occurence of these events on the sun were estimated to be greater than 600 per 24 hour day.. The average duration of the eruptive phase was 26 minutes while the average lifetime from formation through eruption was 70 minutes. A majority of the small-scale filamentary sturctures were spatially related to cancelling magnetic features in line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms. Similar to large-scale filaments, the small-scale filamentary structures sometimes divided opposite polarity cancelling fragments but often had one or both ends terminating at a cancellation site. Their high numbers appear to reflect the much greater flux on the quiet sun. From their characteristics, evolution, and relationship to photospheric magnetic flux, it was concluded that the structures described are small-scale eruptive filaments and are a subset of all filaments

  4. Financing Sustainable Small-Scale Forestry: Lessons from Developing National Forest Financing Strategies in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Savenije

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems that hamper the financing of sustainable forest management (SFM are manifold and complex. However, forestry is also facing unprecedented opportunities. The multiple functions and values of forests are increasingly recognized as part of the solution to pressing global issues (e.g., climate change, energy scarcity, poverty, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and raw material supply. Emerging initiatives to enhance forest carbon stocks and cut greenhouse gas emissions associated with forest clearing (known as REDD+, together with voluntary carbon markets, are offering additional funding options for SFM. Indigenous peoples, local communities and small scale farmers feature as key players in the discourse on implementing such initiatives. Based on the experience of countries developing national forest financing strategies and instruments, we suggest the following points be considered when financing such initiatives, particularly for small scale forestry: (1 Integrate financing of REDD+ and similar initiatives within broader national strategies for SFM financing; (2 Design REDD+ finance mechanisms that are ‘community ready’, i.e., tailored to local realities; (3 Consider existing livelihood strategies as the starting point; (4 Build on existing structures, but be mindful of their strengths and weaknesses; (5 Be strategic with your priority actions; and (6 Promote innovation, knowledge sharing and information exchange.

  5. Germination as a processing technique for soybeans in small-scale farming

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.C., Kayembe; C., Jansen van Rensburg.

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Heat processing is an effective way of reducing antinutritional factors (ANFs) in legumes, but requires expensive facilities and equipment. Accurate control of temperature is critical to avoid under- or overheating. Therefore, heat treatment of soybeans is not a viable option for the average small-s [...] cale farmer in remote areas. Germination and other traditional methods, namely soaking and dehulling, were evaluated as alternative processing methods for soybeans. The effect of the processing treatment on the level of different ANFs, nutritional composition and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of soybean seeds was determined. Soybeans were soaked for 24 hours and allowed to germinate for one to six days. Soaked soybeans were manually dehulled. Changes within seeds were noted for nutritional and ANFs during germination. Crude protein and fat content increased with increasing number of days germinated, but germination caused a decrease in starch content. Dehulling also increased the crude protein and fat content of the seeds. All treatments caused a significant decrease in condensed tannins of the soybeans. Trypsin inhibitor levels were numerically lower after germinating, soaking and dehulling of seeds, but not significantly so. There were no changes in IVPD after treatment of the soybeans. It was concluded that germination for a period of three days effectively improved the nutritional value of soybeans and can be considered an alternative treatment of soybeans for the small-scale farmer where heat treatment is impractical or impossible.

  6. Engineering development for a small-scale recirculator experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is evaluating the physics and technology of recirculating induction accelerators for heavy-ion inertial-fusion drivers. As part of this evaluation, the authors are building a small-scale recirculator to demonstrate the concept and to use as a test bed for the development of recirculator technologies. System designs have been completed and components are presently being designed and developed for the small-scale recirculator. This paper discusses results of the design and development activities that are presently being conducted to implement the small-scale recirculator experiments. An, overview of the system design is presented along with a discussion of the implications of this design on the mechanical and electrical hardware. The paper focuses primarily on discussions of the development and design of the half-lattice period hardware and the advanced solid-state modulator

  7. On the diagnostics of solar small scale magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodilka, M. I.

    2015-02-01

    The model of small scale magnetic fields was proposed. The fields are described by two distribution functions: for unsigned magnetic field and for field vectors directions. The distribution functions were used to derive expressions for elements of the line absorption matrix and to deduce function that characterizes mutual cancellation of magnetic fields. We received the solutions for polarized radiative transfer problem within 3D MHD model of the solar photosphere and determined Stokes profiles parameters for two magnetosensitive lines Fe I ? 525.0 nm and ? 524.7 nm. The Stokes profiles parameters of the lines were used for further test diagnostics of small scale magnetic fields. A regression approach to diagnostics of the magnetic fields was proposed. The correlation between theoretical and reproduced parameters of small scale magnetic fields is greater than 0.95.

  8. Contributions of small scales to statistics of Hall MHD turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct numerical simulation of decaying, homogeneous and isotropic turbulence of the incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamic equations is carried out to clarify its statistical natures. Contributions of small scales to the statistics are examined. It is shown that the probability density function (PDF) of the enstrophy density is well characterized by the Gaussian distribution when the short wave number coefficients are removed, even though the vortex field shows intermittent structures. It is also shown that the local vortex structures are aligned to the magnetic field lines especially when the turbulent field is under developing and small scales are going to be excited. The alignment is lost in the relaxation process, suggesting the small scale current density field is less affected by the dissipations than the vorticity field. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Small-Scale Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Thomassen, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    In current designs of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopoles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated. In this paper the diameter effect on laterally loaded non-slender piles in sand is evaluated by means of results from six small-scale laboratory tests, numerical modelling of the same test setup and existing theory. From the numerical models, p?y curves are derived and compared to current design regulations. The recommendations in API (1993) and DNV (1992) are observed to be in poor agreement with the numerically obtained p?y curves. The initial stiffness, Epy*, of the p?y curves is found to increase with increasing pile diameter. Considerable uncertainties are observed to be related to small-scale testing, and the evaluations clearly indicate that the accuracy of small-scale testing is increased when increasing the pile diameter and applying overburden pressure.

  10. CO2-impacts of a small-scale consumers levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of a number of developments (altered budgets of Dutch ministries and implementation of environmental policy plans of energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) the 1993 analyses of the effects of a small-scale consumer levy on the emission of CO2 are updated. First, attention is paid to the conservation impetus as a result of an increase of the energy price for small-scale consumers. Next, the effects that can occur as a consequence of the presently suggested form of the levy (in particular, the exemption of renewable energy and waste heat) are discussed. Subsequently, the alterations of other policy tools, that are necessary in case a higher effectiveness of conservation measures is realized, are dealt with. The direct effect of a higher energy price on the saving behavior of the small-scale consumers is calculated by means of the CENECA-model. 4 tabs., 1 appendix, 8 refs

  11. The outlook for small-scale CHP in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outlook for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) in the USA is discussed. Improved technologies and environmental benefits suggest that the market will increase, but regulatory and other barriers are expected to limit applications in the short-term to niche markets. The environmental benefits of small-scale CHP, the market opportunities offered by the deregulation of electric power, environmental regulatory barriers, comparisons of nitrogen oxide emissions, promising emerging technologies (gas microturbines and fuel cells), emerging markets (small manufacturing plants and medium and small commercial/institutional CHP systems) and the need for policies to overcome barriers and spur future growth are considered

  12. Farmers Insures Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  13. Trends in Agriculturally-Relevant Rainfall Characteristics for Small-scale Agriculture in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesis Tambang Yengoh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study set out to investigate the trends of agriculturally-relevant rainfall characteristics among small-scale farmers in the rainfall-sensitive dry savanna agro ecological zone of northern Ghana.  Interviews are used to identify characteristics of rainfall which are deemed by the farmers as important in their food production. Time series daily rainfall data from 1960-2007 is then used to identify trends in these variables which include the amount and temporal distribution of rainfall, occurrence of extreme daily rainfall events, the onset of rains, risk of dry spells and coefficient of variability of rains. The risk of dry spells for varying number of days following the planting period is computed using first-order Markov chain modeling. We find that there is a significant increase in mean rainfall per rain day and the coefficient of variation or summer rainfall amounts. No significant change in the onset of rains, the annual rainfall amount and maximum rainfall days are established. However, a significant decrease in the number of rain days and the probability of dry spells of up to seven and eleven days in the first four weeks of the planting season is revealed. There is need for development of an agricultural policy framework designed to understand the growing risks associated with agricultural production among small-scale farmers, and to improve management practices to accommodate and adapt to the new challenges of varying rainfall.

  14. Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    With all of the talk about the demise of the family farm, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has decided to step in to create this campaign to inform citizens about their own local farmers. The basic idea behind this initiative is to "create new economic opportunities by better connecting consumers with local producers." On their homepage, visitors can check out profiles of farmers in their area and learn about how support for such individuals helps strengthen rural communities and protects natural resources. The "Promote Healthy Eating" area is quite useful, as it contains links to other sites that address community food projects and a farmers market promotion program. The "Sights and Sounds" area includes images and videos from the USDA's campaign along with farmers talking about their work.

  15. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  16. DESIGN OF A SMALL ? SCALE SOLAR CHIMNEY FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    After several months of design and testing it has been determined that a small scale solar chimney can be built using nearly any local materials and simple hand tools without needing superior construction knowledge. The biggest obstacle to over come was the weather conditions....

  17. Small Scale Charcoal Making: A Manual for Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Ed; And Others

    This training program offers skills training in all stages of the development of technologies related to small-scale charcoal production, including the design, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and evaluation of prototype kilns. The kiln designs are selected to be as consistent as possible with the realities of rural areas in…

  18. Small-Scale Retailers in an Island Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivapalan Selvadurai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the competition faced by small-scale general store and textile retailing in an island town in Malaysia. The study was carried out in Labuan Town in Labuan Island of East Malaysia. A qualitative research design was utilized, involving primarily interview data which were collected from 12 in-depth interviews with 6 sundry and general store retailers and 6 textile retailers. Content analysis was executed to analyse the narrative data. The findings reveal that large store retailing negatively impact the small traders on trade diversion, but also positively modernize their retail formats. Competition was intense for the town centre small-scale retailers who were facing multiple competitions from large retailers and bazaar retailers in the town centre, small-scale retailers from the rural areas, as well as place competition in the region. The study suggests the need for creative response of the local authority in place making and balanced development, coupled with the strategic response of small-scale retailers in cultivating local enterprise.

  19. The Large- and Small-scale Structure of HVCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ulrich J.; Wakker, Bart P.

    2004-01-01

    The main question addressed in this chapter is whether or not HVCs have small-scale structure that di ers from that in low-velocity gas and the IVCs. If so, this could make it possible to distinguish HVCs from galactic gas not only by their deviating velocities, but also by their structural characteristics. Further, the physical characteristics derived from the small-scale structure may provide clues to their origin. We find that the core-halo structure that was discovered in the early seventies by Giovanelli, Hulsbosch and others, is typical for all HVCs that have been observed so far. We review some methods to characterize the small-scale structure numerically. These include the autocorrelation function, low- and high-pass filtering, and the concept of fractality. In general, these methods show a tendency for HVCs to have more pronounced small-scale structure than lower-velocity gas. However, the differences are not so pronounced that it is possible to easily distinguish between high- and low-velocity gas.

  20. DISPOSAL OF SMALL-SCALE FISH PROCESSING WASTE THROUGH COMPOSTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large catfish processors in the U.S. typically recycle fish waste into fish meal. For small-scale processors or aquaculture research facilities, fish waste disposal can be problematic. We adapted a design developed for composting wastes from Minnesota fishing lodges and tested it for suitability fo...

  1. Development of small-scale peat production. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this three year project was to develop the production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat producers so that the profitability of small-scale peat production is improved and the competitiveness remains. The aim in 1996 was to determine the present situation of small-scale peat producers, and the research and development needs, as well as to prepare a development plan of the small-scale peat production. The aims for 1997 were: the diminishing of the environmental hazards and the run-off waters of the small-scale peat production, the intensification of the peat deliveries from small-scale peat production, and the reduction of the peat production costs by improving the degree of utilization of the equipment via common or shared use. According to the results of the study peat production in Finland in 1996 was 25.0 TWh in total. The share of milled peat was 91 % of the peat production, and that of sod peat 9.0 %. About 1 440 000 m3 of other than energy peat was produced. The share of energy peat producers, replying to the questionnaire was 13 % (3.3 TWh) and the share of other peat producers was 18 %. Peat was produced from the area of 59 000 ha, the share of small-scale peat producers was 9 250 ha corresponding to about 16 % of the total peat production area. The share of milled peat of the peat produced by small-scale peat producers was about 73 %. The number of peat produces replying to the questionnaire was 164. The level o to the questionnaire was 164. The level of water protection and other environmental protection of twelve peat producers in the Southern Ostrobothnia were studied. According to the survey the main shortages comprised too small or lacking settling ponds. Also other shortages in environmental protection were observed. Feedback on the survey, as well as guidance and suggestions for improvements were given to the producers. Deliveries of peat by the small-scale peat producers to the Rauhalahti power plant of Jyvaeskylaen Energiantuotanto Oy were reviewed in order to intensify the deliveries. By using new delivery regions it would be possible to reduce the number of lorries transporting the peat from the present 17 lorries to 9 lorries. The annual transportation amounts will be normalized and they would be increased from the present average of 53 000 m3 to 109 000 m3. The value of reducing of the waiting times would be about 1.0 FIM/m3 calculated on the basis of the total peat deliveries to the plant. The shared usage of the transportation devices of the Haku method by several producers might in some cases be profitable method for replacing the own pneumatic harvesters of peat producers. Hence the common production area should be at least 50 - 100 ha. The engine-rents determination principles were reviewed in the study. In addition to this it was calculated that on the basis of long-term weather condition data it would be possible to produce 250 - 300 m3 of milled peat along with the sod peat production without interfering the sod peat production by using hired milled peat machines. The profitability of the production depends, however, on the rent determined on the basis of the total usage rate of milled peat production machinery

  2. Prevalence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in milk from large- and small-scale producers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitandi, A; Sternesjö, A

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Kenyan milk and investigated any differences in antimicrobial resistance between large- (>200 L/d) and small- (small-scale farm (14.7%) isolates. The overall prevalence of multidrug resistance (> or =2 antibiotics) differed significantly between isolates from small farms (34.3%) and those from large farms (18.0%). Additionally, the producers were interviewed about their usage of antimicrobial drugs and their attitudes toward education in related fields. There was an evident difference between the producer types in their documentation of the use of antimicrobial drugs. Small-scale farms were less inclined to documentation, and treatment records were available from 22% of small-scale farms, compared with 73% of large-scale farms. Farmers expressed a need for more information in 5 areas, ranking preventive management highest (34.0%); followed by affordable tests to control residues in milk (22.8%); preparation of antimicrobial drugs (20.0%); public health concerns (11.2%); disposal of surplus antimicrobial drugs (7.8%); and antimicrobial drug residue persistence in milk (4.2%). It was concluded that herd size might be an indirect risk factor in the development of antimicrobial resistance in Staph. aureus within the region. PMID:15545376

  3. Working Capital Management of Small Scale Industries in Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Matarneh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Small scale industry (SSI plays an important role in the economy of the state Rajasthan of India. In spite of all the odds, the SSI sector has emerged as India’s engine of growth in the new millennium. The SSI sector in India contribute almost 40% of the gross industrial value added, the study is undertaken by taking 5 years data from secondary source. From this study, it has been found the working capital management is to decide the pattern of financing of the current assets, which is one of the biggest problems of working capital management. The SSIs has to decide about the sources of funds which can be avail to make investment in the current assets. The problem of working capital management of small-scale industries is not new.

  4. Examples of backreaction of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    In previous work, we introduced a new framework to treat large scale backreaction effects due to small scale inhomogeneities in general relativity. We considered one-parameter families of spacetimes for which such backreaction effects can occur, and we proved that, provided the weak energy condition on matter is satisfied, the leading effect of small scale inhomogeneities on large scale dynamics is to produce a traceless effective stress-energy tensor that itself satisfies the weak energy condition. In this work, we illustrate the nature of our framework by providing two explicit examples of one-parameter families with backreaction. The first, based on previous work of Berger, is a family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus, which satisfies all of the assumptions of our framework. As the parameter approaches its limiting value, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth background metric, but spacetime derivatives of the deviation of the metric from the background metric do not converge uniformly to...

  5. Small-scale turbulence in the atmosphere of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, R.; Armstrong, J. W.; Kliore, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Pioneer Venus data on the morphology of the 45 and 65 km altitude scintillation regions were analyzed. A poleward decrease in the 65 km scintillations was detected, together with a peak at 60-70 deg latitude. Poleward increases in refractive index fluctuations and temperature fluctuations from previous observations displayed a peak near 70 deg latitude, with greater turbulence near the pole. The same fluctuations were an order of magnitude lower at 45 km altitude, with turbulence considerably lower than at 60 km. The favorable comparison of the scintillation measurements with the in-situ velocity and temperature measurements validates the radio measurement technique as a probe of small scale turbulence in a planetary atmosphere. Particular success is noted in identification of small scale temperature fluctuations as a result of shear generated turbulence.

  6. LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1996-06-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

  7. Application of improved management and nutrition technologies for small-holder dairy production and their adoption by farmers in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The objectives of this presentation are to consider some of the factors concerned in the application of technical change to small-scale dairying and the adoption of change by farmers. The presentation will consider (1) the motives of the small-scale dairy farmer, (2) the small-scale dairy farmer's own perceptions of his problems and needs, (3) how farmers deal with the two fundamental technologies implicit in dairy farming, feeding their animals and getting their cows in calf, and (4) dissemination routes most favoured by small scale dairy farmers. The geographical focus of the presentation is East Africa, a region associated with considerable progress and success in small-scale dairying (Kenya) as well as dairying projects in their early development (Tanzania). The concerns of small-scale farmers have been characterised; thus the farmers have multiple objectives, their households have low capacity to bear risk, their livestock enterprises are often integrated with cropping activities, and their livestock are often expected to be multi-functional. Some of the expected implications for small-scale dairy farmers are that: (1) inputs (including feed) are low and therefore milk yields are expected to be low; (2) inputs are often matched to output so that a reduction in milk price results in a reduction in concentrate allowance for the cows; (3) the use of time and cash are optimised, implying that priority will not be given to cattle if other farm enterprises seem financially more attractive. Perhaps not surprisingly, attitudes and systems vary within the farming community, allowing sub-groups of small-scale dairy farmers to be identified and defined. Thus some farmers emerge as more specialist or entrepreneurial than others, prepared to make greater investment in return for higher outputs. Attitudes and activities also differ according to location. Small-scale farmers close to urban centres may well have off-farm employment, diverting their attention from their cows. The problems faced by small-scale dairy farmers are diverse but some common threads emerge from a number of different studies. As well as the usual farmer concerns about the low prices received for their product and the high price of inputs, the availability of working capital appears to be a general anxiety. Poor feeding practices, partly consequent on weather but also a result of cash shortages, are widely recognised. Animal disease is also a general source of concern. It is clear from farmer consultations that farmers do respond to these problems with technical innovations appropriate to their resources. Often these innovations represent adaptations to the limited inputs available or affordable. Thus long inter calving intervals, probably a function of chronic under feeding as well as difficulties associated with bull availability, are countered by exploiting the long flat lactation curve associated with the failure of the cow to peak in early lactation as a result of the inadequate feeding. Cows are milked for many months, often with no intervening dry period between lactations. Although this maintains milk production, the production of replacement heifer calves is jeopardised by the long calving intervals, threatening the sustainability of small-scale dairying at both the household and national level. It follows from the above that small-scale dairy farmers have limited capacity for technical change. However, in some areas, the very adoption of small-scale dairying over the past few years is sufficiently novel to illustrate that its practitioners are prepared to adopt change if the proposals are considered feasible within the recognised constraints. Sometimes innovations fail to get to farmers because of inadequate extension services, although increasing access to the internet may signal rapid change in some regions. However, it is also clear that scepticism remains widespread. Recent studies indicate that, in some areas, extension services have limited success at disseminating innovation. Farmers' preferred sources of information are their chur

  8. Small-scale variability in Saturn’s lower ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcheva, Katia I.; Barrow, Daniel J.

    2012-11-01

    We perform and present a wavelet analysis on all 31 Cassini electron density profiles published to date (Nagy, A.F. et al. [2006]. J. Geophys. Res. 111 (A6), CiteID A06310; Kliore, A.J. et al. [2009]. J. Geophys. Res. 114 (A4), CiteID A04315). We detect several discrete scales of variability present in the observations. Small-scale variability (S large altitude range.

  9. Simulations of the small-scale turbulent dynamo

    OpenAIRE

    Schekochihin, Aa; Cowley, Sc; Taylor, Sf; Maron, Jl; Mcwilliams, Jc

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of an extensive numerical study of the small-scale turbulent dynamo. The primary focus is on the case of large magnetic Prandtl numbers Prm, which is relevant for hot low-density astrophysical plasmas. A Prm parameter scan is given for the model case of viscosity-dominated (low Reynolds number) turbulence. We concentrate on three topics: magnetic energy spectra and saturation levels, the structure of the magnetic field lines, and intermittency of the field strength distr...

  10. Small scale combined heat and power units using external combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Pa?l Andre?

    2013-01-01

    Combined heat and power plants are of increasing interest due to the rising concern over global warming as they can lower emissions, by having very higher efficiencies than traditional power plants. Implemented on a small scale units and with external combustion they allow for great flexibility in implementation and fuel, and can allow for remote locations to serve their own heat and power needs. This thesis investigates in the first part the available technologies for such plants on a small ...

  11. Latent hardening size effect in small-scale plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Bardella, Lorenzo; Segurado Escudero, Javier; Panteghini, Andrea; Llorca Martinez, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    We aim at understanding the multislip behaviour of metals subject to irreversible deformations at small-scales. By focusing on the simple shear of a constrained single-crystal strip, we show that discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations predict a strong latent hardening size effect, with smaller being stronger in the range [1.5 µm, 6 µm] for the strip height. We attempt to represent the DD pseudo-experimental results by developing a flow theory of Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity (S...

  12. Solar Receiver Design and Verification for Small Scale Polygeneration Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Aichmayer, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    Against a backdrop of our world’s changing climate solar thermal power generation shows great potential to move global energy production away from fossil fuels to non-polluting sources. The Department of Energy Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm is contributing to the development and research of solar thermal power by building a solar driven small scale polygeneration unit based on an externally fired micro gas turbine. This project focused on the design, analysis and...

  13. Streamers generation by small-scale drift-Alfvén waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J. S. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China and Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Excitation of streamers by modulationally unstable small-scale drift-Alfvén wave (SSDAW) is investigated. It is found that the excitation depends strongly on the propagation direction of the SSDAW, and the ion and electron diamagnetic drift waves are both unstable due to the generation of streamers. It is also shown that zonal flows can be effectively excited by the SSDAW with the propagation direction different from that for streamer excitation.

  14. Development of a small scale orange juice extractor

    OpenAIRE

    Olaniyan, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A small scale motorized orange juice extractor was designed and fabricated, using locally-available construction materials. The essential components of the machine include feeding hopper, top cover, worm shaft, juice sieve, juice collector, waste outlet, transmission belt, main frame, pulleys and bearings. In operation, the worm shaft conveys, crushes, presses and squeezes the fruit to extract the juice. The juice extracted is filtered through the juice sieve into juice collector while the re...

  15. Manufacture of a Biodegradable Detergent on Small Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Majeed, Abdulla A. Aziz A.; Jairam Singh

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with an aggregate planning for a small scale production unit using a network flow model for full utilization of its capacity to meet the changing forecasted demand .The formulation of the problem is done by using the given inventory capacity with backorders by making a trade-off among inventory costs , backlog costs, production and subcontracting costs. The total cost function and the constraint inequalities were developed assuming the cost functions to be linear. The paramet...

  16. On the Statistics of Small Scale Turbulence and its Universality

    OpenAIRE

    Renner, Ch; Reisner, B.; Lu?ck, St; Peinke, J.; Friedrich, R.

    1998-01-01

    We present a method how to estimate from experimental data of a turbulent velocity field the drift and the diffusion coefficient of a Fokker-Planck equation. It is shown that solutions of this Fokker-Planck equation reproduce with high accuracy the statistics of velocity increments in the inertial range. Using solutions with different initial conditions at large scales we show that they converge. This can be interpreted as a signature of the universality of small scale turbu...

  17. Optimal Combustion Conditions for a Small-scale Biomass Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Pla?ek; Cyril Oswald; Jan Hrdli?ka

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an attempt to achieve maximum efficiency and lowest possible emissions for a small-scale biomass boiler. This aim can be attained only by changing the control algorithm of the boiler, and in this way not raising the acquisition costs for the boiler. This paper describes the experimental facility, the problems that arose while establishing the facility, and how we have dealt with them. The focus is on discontinuities arising after periodic grate sweeping, and on finding t...

  18. Economic Optimization of Small Scale Organic Rankine Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Tchanche, Bertrand; Quoilin, Sylvain; Declaye, Se?bastien; Papadakis, George; Lemort, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the economic optimization of a small scale ORC in waste heat recovery application with specific investment cost as objective function. First, a pre-design model of the ORC was built and simulations run with different working fluids to evaluate their technical performance. In a second step, components and system cost models were built and simulations carried out to evaluate the cost effectiveness of systems associated with different fluids. The working ...

  19. Costs for renewable electricity. Small-scale hydroelectric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to provide an objective basis for the determination of the assumptions that are used for the calculation of the so-called uneconomic top of electricity production from renewable energy sources, carried out by ECN and KEMA. The results will be used for the determination of the subsidy tariffs for small-scale hydroelectric power plants and is part of the Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP, abbreviated in Dutch) policy

  20. WTO and its Impact on Small Scale Industries in India

    OpenAIRE

    Anchal Singh

    2014-01-01

    Small Scale Industries have emerged as an engine of growth in several developed and developing countries of the world including India and has acquired a prominent place in our socio-economic development since Independence through their ever-increasing contribution to national income. However, with the advent of economic reforms in 1991 it had to face stiff competition from globalization and economic liberalization as it has allowed companies to increase their base of operation...

  1. The nonlinear small-scale dynamo and isotropic MHD turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Schekochihin, A A; Hammett, G W; Maron, J L; McWilliams, J C

    2002-01-01

    This is a brief review of the main results of our recent studies of the nonlinear evolution of the small-scale MHD dynamo in the high-Prandtl-number regime and of the structure of the resulting saturated state of the isotropic homogeneous MHD turbulence. It is emphasized that the MHD regime without a uniform mean field (as is the case in our studies) is fundamentally different from the one in which such a field is externally imposed. The ability of the turbulence to bend and fold the magnetic-field lines leads to the emergence of a distinctive small-scale structure. The fields are organized in folds of characteristic length comparable to the size of the largest turbulent eddies with spatial-direction reversals at the resistive scale. These folds are very hard to destroy. In the nonlinear regime, the folding structure coexists with Alfven waves propagating along the folds. The turbulent energy injected by the forcing is dissipated in part resistively via the small-scale magnetic fields, and in part viscously v...

  2. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Caizhi

    2010-12-15

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  3. Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkman, Linda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

  4. Does small scale structure significantly affect cosmological dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Julian; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe is generally thought to imply a well-defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today-which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N-body numerical simulations-a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is added, in fact the virialization of structure saturates the backreaction effect at the same level independently of the equality scale. This implies that backreaction is a small effect independently of initial conditions. Nevertheless, it may still contribute at the percent level to certain cosmological observables and therefore it cannot be neglected in precision cosmology. PMID:25699430

  5. The small-scale treatability study sample exemption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued an interim final rule that conditionally exempted ''waste samples collected solely for the purpose of monitoring or testing to determine their characteristics or composition'' from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulations. This exemption [40 CFR 261.4(d)] apples to the transportation of samples between the generator and testing laboratory, temporary storage of samples at the laboratory prior to and following testing, and storage at a laboratory for specific purposes such as an enforcement action. However, the exclusion did not include large-scale samples used in treatability studies or other testing at pilot plants or other experimental facilities. As a result of comments received by the EPA subsequent to the issuance of the interim final rule, the EPA reopened the comment period on the interim final rule on September 18, 1987, and specifically requested comments on whether or not the sample exclusion should be expanded to include waste samples used in small-scale treatability studies. Almost all responders commented favorably on such a proposal. As a result, the EPA issued a final rule (53 FR 27290, July 19, 1988) conditionally exempting waste samples used in small-scale treatability studies from full regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA. The question of whether or not to extend the exclusion to larger scale as proposed by the Hazardous Waste Treatment Council was deferred until a later date. This information Brief summarizes the requirements of the small-scale treatability exemption

  6. Nature of the solar dynamo at small scales

    CERN Document Server

    Stenflo, J O

    2012-01-01

    It is often claimed that there is not only one, but two different types of solar dynamos: the one that is responsible for the appearance of sunspots and the 11-yr cycle, frequently referred to as the "global dynamo", and a statistically time-invariant dynamo, generally referred to as the "local dynamo", which is supposed to be responsible for the ubiquitous magnetic structuring observed at small scales. Here we examine the relative contributions of these two qualitatively different dynamos to the small-scale magnetic flux, with the following conclusion: The local dynamo does not play a significant role at any of the spatially resolved scales, nearly all the small-scale flux, including the flux revealed by Hinode, is supplied by the global dynamo. This conclusion is reached by careful determination of the Sun's noise-corrected basal magnetic flux density while making use of a flux cancellation function determined from Hinode data. The only allowed range where there may be substantial or even dominating contrib...

  7. Does Small Scale Structure Significantly Affect Cosmological Dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Julian; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe is generally thought to imply a well-defined background cosmological model. It may not. Smoothing over structure adds in an extra contribution, transferring power from small scales up to large. Second-order perturbation theory implies that the effect is small, but suggests that formally the perturbation series may not converge. The amplitude of the effect is actually determined by the ratio of the Hubble scales at matter-radiation equality and today—which are entirely unrelated. This implies that a universe with significantly lower temperature today could have significant backreaction from more power on small scales, and so provides the ideal testing ground for understanding backreaction. We investigate this using two different N -body numerical simulations—a 3D Newtonian and a 1D simulation which includes all relevant relativistic effects. We show that while perturbation theory predicts an increasing backreaction as more initial small-scale power is added, in fact the virialization of structure saturates the backreaction effect at the same level independently of the equality scale. This implies that backreaction is a small effect independently of initial conditions. Nevertheless, it may still contribute at the percent level to certain cosmological observables and therefore it cannot be neglected in precision cosmology.

  8. Spatial Nonlocality of the Small-Scale Solar Dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Lamb, Derek A; DeForest, Craig E

    2014-01-01

    We explore the nature of the small-scale solar dynamo by tracking magnetic features. We investigate two previously-explored categories of the small-scale solar dynamo: shallow and deep. Recent modeling work on the shallow dynamo has produced a number of scenarios for how a strong network concentration can influence the formation and polarity of nearby small-scale magnetic features. These scenarios have measurable signatures, which we test for here using magnetograms from the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) on Hinode. We find no statistical tendency for newly-formed magnetic features to cluster around or away from network concentrations, nor do we find any statistical relationship between their polarities. We conclude that there is no shallow or "surface" dynamo on the spatial scales observable by Hinode/NFI. In light of these results, we offer a scenario in which the sub-surface field in a deep solar dynamo is stretched and distorted via turbulence, allowing the field to emerge at random locations on the photo...

  9. Relative risk for human illness of biogas effluent use in horticulture at small-scale pig farms in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilholma, Jenni; Stockmarr, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of animal manure in small-scale biogas systems are spreading rapidly in developing countries like Vietnam. The anaerobic fermentation breaks down solid matter and transforms it into methane which can be used for cooking and generation of light. Other benefits include a high-quality fertilizer effluent, reduction of problems with mal odour and a potential also to treat human waste products. Often the hygiene and health aspects of handling and digesting these organic wastes are unknown and the promotion of biogas technologies does rarely consider hygienic aspects. The aim of the current study was therefore to establish simple hygiene models for Vietnamese small-scale farmers that could describe the relative health risks associated with management of manure and consumption of the fertilized crop when using; i) fresh manure, ii) stored manure or iii) manure processed in the biogas plants. The hygiene models were developed based on information collected during interviews and observations of Vietnamese farmers operating biogas digesters as well as from the literature. Rather than calculating the specific risk for one person to become infected when handling a specific type of manure, we established hygiene models to calculate the relative risks of infection with the two model pathogens, Salmonella Typhimurium and Ascaris, allowing a comparison of risks for the different manure handling systems. Results showed that there was ten times higher risk of a human S. Typhimurium infection when handling fresh manure or composted manure as compared to handling of manure treated in a biogas system. In contrast, the risk for infection with the more resistant Ascaris was equivalent for all three manure handling systems. There is an urgent need to document the hygiene aspects of biogas systems developed and promoted to farmers in developing counties. Thus, further studies are needed on human exposure when handling animal manure and human excreta and pathogen survival in biogas systems as such information is essential to further refine the hygiene models developed and to formulate hygiene guidelines for biogas systems.

  10. Rethinking the Risk Management Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale, Traditionally Based Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Soleri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of genetically engineered (GE crops often assume that the risk management used in the industrial world is appropriate for small-scale, traditionally based agriculture in the Third World. Opponents of GE crops often assume that risk management is inappropriate for the Third World, because it is inherently biased in favor of the industrial world. We examine both of these assumptions, by rethinking risk management for GE crops and transgenes, using the example of maize transgene flow from the U.S. to Mexico. Risk management for the Third World is a necessary first step of a broader benefit–cost analysis of GE crops, which would include comparisons with existing varieties and with alternative varieties such as transgenic farmer varieties and organic varieties. Our goal is to use existing information on GE crops and on the social and biological characteristics of Third World agriculture to identify key processes that need to be considered in risk management, and the additional research required to adequately understand them. The four main steps in risk management are hazard identification, risk analysis (exposure x harm, risk evaluation, and risk treatment. We use informal event trees to identify possible exposure to GE crops and transgenes, and resulting biological and social harm; give examples of farmers' ability to evaluate social harm; and discuss the possibilities for risk treatment. We conclude that risk management is relevant for Third World agriculture, but needs to be based on the unique biological and social characteristics of small-scale, traditionally based agriculture, including the knowledge and values of Third World farmers and consumers.

  11. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngufor L. Atanga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P, agro-pastoral (AP, and landless intensive (LI small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through grey literature and semi-structured interviews, assessing livestock and feed resources, production technology, land tenure, financial and gender issues. Our results suggested that feed shortages (FS are directly related to grazing pressure (G and inversely related to grass recovery rates (R. According to our indicators, AP was the most sustainable while P and LI were only conditionally sustainable production systems. 93% of 82 interviewees claimed that private land ownership was the best land tenure incentive for efficient rangeland management. Farmers perceived Prosopis juliflora expansion, sporadic rainfall, and disease infestation as the most significant causes for decreasing livestock productivity. Landless intensive farmers had the highest equality in income distribution (Gini Index: GI = 0.4, followed by P and AP (each with a GI = 0.5. Neither educational background nor income seemed to determine grazing species conservation efforts. We claimed that sustainability indicators are valuable tools to highlight shortcomings and strengths of the three main livestock production systems and help with future livestock management in Ethiopia. Selecting suitable indicators, however, is crucial as data requirements and availability can vary across livestock systems.

  12. A small-scale land-sparing approach to conserving biological diversity in tropical agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Richard B; King, David I; Raudales, Raul; Trubey, Richard; Chandler, Carlin; Chávez, Víctor Julio Arce

    2013-08-01

    Two contrasting strategies have been proposed for conserving biological diversity while meeting the increasing demand for agricultural products: land sparing and land sharing production systems. Land sparing involves increasing yield to reduce the amount of land needed for agriculture, whereas land-sharing agricultural practices incorporate elements of native ecosystems into the production system itself. Although the conservation value of these systems has been extensively debated, empirical studies are lacking. We compared bird communities in shade coffee, a widely practiced land-sharing system in which shade trees are maintained within the coffee plantation, with bird communities in a novel, small-scale, land-sparing coffee-production system (integrated open canopy or IOC coffee) in which farmers obtain higher yields under little or no shade while conserving an area of forest equal to the area under cultivation. Species richness and diversity of forest-dependent birds were higher in the IOC coffee farms than in the shade coffee farms, and community composition was more similar between IOC coffee and primary forest than between shade coffee and primary forest. Our study represents the first empirical comparison of well-defined land sparing and land sharing production systems. Because IOC coffee farms can be established by allowing forest to regenerate on degraded land, widespread adoption of this system could lead to substantial increases in forest cover and carbon sequestration without compromising agricultural yield or threatening the livelihoods of traditional small farmers. However, we studied small farms (<5 ha); thus, our results may not generalize to large-scale land-sharing systems. Furthermore, rather than concluding that land sparing is generally superior to land sharing, we suggest that the optimal approach depends on the crop, local climate, and existing land-use patterns. PMID:23551570

  13. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1 on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Papa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1 of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P, Limousine(L, Kianina(C, Sharole(Sh and Markixhana(M on meat production increasing on small scale farms. To carried out this objective, two study methods were used: (i The survey - 284 small scale farms was observed in the Albanian coastal field and (ii Comparative essay of fattening calves (F1 in semi intensive small scale farm condition - 32 calves, F1 crosses of Holstein cows with above mentioned meat breeds were put in fattening in semi intensive small scale farm condition. 6 Holstein breed (H calves of 3-4 months age was used as control group. The feeding of animals was based on forages produced in farm: corn silage 30 % D.M, fresh alpha-alpha and its hay. 35 % of dry matter requirements were supplied by bought concentrate feedstuffs with 15 % crude protein on dry matter bases. The fattening period lasted 8 months . The average daily body weight increasing for each crosses and control group were respectively 889g (PxH, 998g (LxH, 850g (KxH, 1010g( ChxH, 953g (MxH and 702g (HxH. Multivariate analyses according to a linear model with constant factors ( genotype, sex, genotype x sex and covariance “live body weight in the beginning of experiment” showed that: (i The effect of crossbreds on average daily gain is evident under the small-scale farms conditions, also, (ii The average daily gain increases with 23 -38 % , depending on the type of crosses, (iii The crosses of dairy cattle with Limousine and Sharole result as most effective. The differences between F1 crosses of Markigiana, Kianine and Piemonteze are not statistically significant, (iv In semi intensive small scale farms the calf fattening can start from second month of life, (v The farmers even though small scale farm condition can produce more meat though the crossing of dairy cattle with meat breeds in comparison with pure dairy breed calves.

  14. Analysis of hydrological triggered clayey landslides by small scale experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickermann, A.; Malet, J.-P.; van Asch, T. W. J.; Schanz, T.

    2010-05-01

    Hydrological processes, such as slope saturation by water, are a primary cause of landslides. This effect can occur in the form of e.g. intense rainfall, snowmelt or changes in ground-water levels. Hydrological processes can trigger a landslide and control subsequent movement. In order to forecast potential landslides, it is important to know both the mechanism leading to failure, to evaluate whether a slope will fail or not, and the mechanism that control the movement of the failure mass, to estimate how much material will move in which time. Despite numerous studies which have been done there is still uncertainty in the explanation of the processes determining the failure and post-failure. Background and motivation of the study is the Barcelonnette area that is part of the Ubaye Valley in the South French Alps which is highly affected by hydrological-controlled landslides in reworked black marls. Since landslide processes are too complex to understand it only by field observation experiments and computer calculations are used. The main focus of this work is to analyse the initialization of failure and the post-failure behaviour of hydrological triggered landslides in clays by small-scale experiments, namely by small-scale flume tests and centrifuge tests. Although a lot of effort is made to investigate the landslide problem by either small-scale or even large-scale slope experiments there is still no optimal solution. Small-scale flume tests are often criticised because of their scale-effect problems dominant in dense sands and cohesive material and boundary problems. By means of centrifuge tests the scale problem with respect to stress conditions is overcome. But also centrifuge testing is accompanied with problems. The objectives of the work are 1) to review potential failure and post-failure mechanisms, 2) to evaluate small-scale experiments, namely flume and centrifuge tests in the analysis of the failure behaviour in clayey slopes and 3) to interpret the failure behaviour and possible mechanisms in tests on Zoelen clay and black marls by numerical calculations. After a general view of mechanisms that might initialise failure and mechanisms that might determine post-failure motion relevant for landslides occurring in non-cohesive and cohesive slopes, the performed tests on reworked black marls are presented. The problems and restrictions of both test methods are explained and discussed strategies for future tests given. The assumed mechanisms that might trigger failure and control post-failure motion that have been observed in the tests are examined by numerical modelling. It is shown that the results of the numerical simulation give an important contribution to the interpretation of the experimental observations and to the evaluation of the small-scale experiments.

  15. Small Scale Testing of Core Fast Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fuel Cycle R and D (FCRD) initiative is investigating methods of burning minor actinides in a transmutation fuel. To achieve this goal, the fast reactor core materials (cladding and duct) must be able to withstand very high doses (>200 dpa design goal). While mechanical testing on large samples delivers direct engineering data these types of tests are only possible if enough sample material and required hot cell capabilities are available. Small scale materials testing methods in addition to large scale materials testing allows one to gain more insight on the same specimen and directly probe areas of interest which are not accessible otherwise (small welds, areas with different microstructure, etc.). However, in order to use small scale testing techniques and to probe materials microstructures using these methods, the relationship between the different scales needs to be investigated. In order to establish a research based relationship between small scale and large scale materials testing several different mechanical testing techniques were conducted on the same specimen irradiated in the Spallation Target Irradiation Program (STIP) at the Swiss spallation source (SINQ) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) up to a dose of 19 dpa. Tensile testing, micro hardness testing and micro compression testing on focused ion beam (FIB) manufactured pillars were performed on remaining parts of tensile test specimens tested and irradiated at PSI. It is shown that the yield streed at PSI. It is shown that the yield strength increases measured by tensile testing, micro compression testing and micro hardness testing all show the same trend. In addition FIB based techniques also allow one to cut local electrode atom probe (LEAP) samples. In this procedure samples are cut of such a small size that no radioactivity on the prepared sample can be measured. In order to establish trust in these FIB based techniques estimations of residual activity on these samples is essential and presented here. (author)

  16. Examples of backreaction of small-scale inhomogeneities in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen R.; Wald, Robert M.

    2013-06-01

    In previous work, we introduced a new framework to treat large-scale backreaction effects due to small-scale inhomogeneities in general relativity. We considered one-parameter families of spacetimes for which such backreaction effects can occur, and we proved that, provided the weak energy condition on matter is satisfied, the leading effect of small-scale inhomogeneities on large-scale dynamics is to produce a traceless effective stress-energy tensor that itself satisfies the weak energy condition. In this work, we illustrate the nature of our framework by providing two explicit examples of one-parameter families with backreaction. The first, based on previous work of Berger, is a family of polarized vacuum Gowdy spacetimes on a torus, which satisfies all of the assumptions of our framework. As the parameter approaches its limiting value, the metric uniformly approaches a smooth background metric, but spacetime derivatives of the deviation of the metric from the background metric do not converge uniformly to zero. The limiting metric has nontrivial backreaction from the small-scale inhomogeneities, with an effective stress energy that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition, in accord with our theorems. Our second one-parameter family consists of metrics which have a uniform Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker limit. This family satisfies all of our assumptions with the exception of the weak energy condition for matter. In this case, the limiting metric has an effective stress-energy tensor which is not traceless. We emphasize the importance of imposing energy conditions on matter in studies of backreaction.

  17. Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Plants Using Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon-Popa, Marianne [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-11-01

    In this time period where energy supply and climate change are of special concern, biomass-based fuels have attracted much interest due to their plentiful supply and favorable environmental characteristics (if properly managed). The effective capture and continued sustainability of this renewable resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants with high fuel energy conversion. At the same time, deregulation of the electricity market offers new opportunities for small-scale power plants in a decentralized scheme. These two important factors have opened up possibilities for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. The objective of this pre-study is to assess the possibilities and technical limitations for increased efficiency and energy utilization of biofuels in small size plants (approximately 10 MWe or lower). Various energy conversion technologies are considered and proven concepts for large-scale fossil fuel plants are an especially important area. An analysis has been made to identify the problems, technical limitations and different possibilities as recognized in the literature. Beyond published results, a qualitative survey was conducted to gain first-hand, current knowledge from experts in the field. At best, the survey results together with the results of personal interviews and a workshop on the role of small-scale plants in distributed generation will serve a guideline for future project directions and ideas. Conventional and novel technologies are included in the survey such as Stirling engines, combustion engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, steam motors, fuel cells and other novel technologies/cycles for biofuels. State-of-the-art heat and power plants will be identified to clarify of the advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles for their implementation.

  18. Putting farmers first: reshaping agricultural research in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimbert, Michel

    2012-01-15

    How agricultural research is funded, organised, controlled and practised can have a huge impact on small-scale producers in the global South. In many countries, such research is driven by external funds, priorities and technological fixes, such as hybrid seeds, which can erode crop diversity. But food producers across the world are beginning to raise their voices to ensure that agricultural research better meets their needs and priorities. A series of farmer assessments and citizens' juries in West Africa has helped farmers assess existing approaches and articulate recommendations for policy and practice to achieve their own vision of agricultural research. In 2012, a high-level policy dialogue between farmers and the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa hopes to take this discussion to the next level and develop a shared agenda that can serve development and the public good.

  19. From Small-Scale Dynamo to Isotropic MHD Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Schekochihin, A A; Taylor, S F; Maron, J L; McWilliams, J C

    2003-01-01

    We review the problem of incompressible, forced, nonhelical, homogeneous, isotropic MHD turbulence with no mean magnetic field. This problem is essentially different from the case with externally imposed uniform mean field. There is no scale-by-scale equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energies as would be the case for the Alfv'en-wave turbulence. The isotropic MHD turbulence is the end state of the turbulent dynamo which generates folded fields with small-scale direction reversals. We propose that the statistics seen in numerical simulations of isotropic MHD turbulence could be explained as a superposition of these folded fields and Alfv'en-like waves that propagate along the folds.

  20. Working Capital Management of Small Scale Industries in Rajasthan

    OpenAIRE

    Bashar Matarneh

    2012-01-01

    Small scale industry (SSI) plays an important role in the economy of the state Rajasthan of India. In spite of all the odds, the SSI sector has emerged as India’s engine of growth in the new millennium. The SSI sector in India contribute almost 40% of the gross industrial value added, the study is undertaken by taking 5 years data from secondary source. From this study, it has been found the working capital management is to decide the pattern of financing of the current assets, which is one...

  1. Small scale studies of production of fissium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small scale study concerning the production and analysis of fission product aerosols formed at various temperatures as a function of the chemical composition of the fissium/corium mixture at the source is presented. CsOH, CsJ and Te are the main aerosol components to be expected. The thermodynamic characterization of occuring Te-iodides and other phases is of great importance for reactor core meltdown chemistry and for the evaluation of the aerosol transport tests. Elemental iodine seems not to be released in significant amounts in reducing atmosphere. Analysis data concerning elements, phases, themral analysis and gases are presented. (G.B.)

  2. Aerodynamics of small-scale vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Desy, P.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the influence of various rotor parameters on the aerodynamic performance of a small-scale Darrieus wind turbine. To do this, a straight-bladed Darrieus rotor is calculated by using the double-multiple-streamtube model including the streamtube expansion effects through the rotor (CARDAAX computer code) and the dynamicstall effects. The straight-bladed Darrieus turbine is as expected more efficient with respect the curved-bladed rotor but for a given solidity is operates at higher wind speeds.

  3. Small-scale generator opportunities in the competitive supply market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last franchises for electricity supply held by Public Electricity Suppliers are due to expire early in 1998. As a consequence from then on, after a phased start-up, all electricity consumers will be free to choose their supplier, completing the process of introducing competition into the electricity market which started in 1990 with the privatisation of the Industry. Then the framework by which the industry operates will become very different. This paper will review the changes to the operation of the market and assess the opportunities for small scale embedded generators post 1998. (Author)

  4. Optimal Tracking Controller Design for a Small Scale Helicopter

    CERN Document Server

    Budiyono, Agus

    2008-01-01

    A model helicopter is more difficult to control than its full scale counterparts. This is due to its greater sensitivity to control inputs and disturbances as well as higher bandwidth of dynamics. This works is focused on designing practical tracking controller for a small scale helicopter following predefined trajectories. A tracking controller based on optimal control theory is synthesized as part of the development of an autonomous helicopter. Some issues in regards to control constraints are addressed. The weighting between state tracking performance and control power expenditure is analyzed. Overall performance of the control design is evaluated based on its time domain histories of trajectories as well as control inputs.

  5. Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification ofwoody biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Barrio, Maria

    2002-01-01

    A small-scale stratified downdraft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The...

  6. WIPP small scale seal performance tests: Status and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous small-scale in situ seal experiments have been emplaced in boreholes up to 38 in. in diameter at the WIPP. Seal materials include expansive salt concrete, bentonite, and crushed salt. Emplacement techniques stressed conventional technology and the use of available site personnel. Preliminary evaluation of the performance of these seals has been completed by using structural data from embedded instrumentation and fluid flow data from gas and brine flow measurements. Preliminary results suggest that submicrodarcy permeabilities can be obtained using these materials and that structural performance is satisfactory

  7. Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Utilization by Small Holder Banana Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwombe, Simon O. L.; Mugivane, Fred I.; Adolwa, Ivan S.; Nderitu, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was carried out to identify information communication technologies (ICTs) used in production and marketing of bananas, to determine factors influencing intensity of use of ICT tools and to assess whether use of ICT has a significant influence on adoption of tissue culture bananas by small-scale banana farmers in Gatanga…

  8. Small-scale engagement model with arrivals: analytical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an analytical model of small-scale battles. The specific impetus for this effort was provided by a need to characterize hypothetical battles between guards at a nuclear facility and their potential adversaries. The solution procedure can be used to find measures of a number of critical parameters; for example, the win probabilities and the expected duration of the battle. Numerical solutions are obtainable if the total number of individual combatants on the opposing sides is less than 10. For smaller force size battles, with one or two combatants on each side, symbolic solutions can be found. The symbolic solutions express the output parameters abstractly in terms of symbolic representations of the input parameters while the numerical solutions are expressed as numerical values. The input parameters are derived from the probability distributions of the attrition and arrival processes. The solution procedure reduces to solving sets of linear equations that have been constructed from the input parameters. The approach presented in this report does not address the problems associated with measuring the inputs. Rather, this report attempts to establish a relatively simple structure within which small-scale battles can be studied

  9. Small-scale AFBC hot air gas turbine power cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, R.A. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Orrville, OH (United States); Keener, H.M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center; Hall, A.W. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC), the Will-Burt Company (W-B) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully developed and completed pilot plant tests on a small scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. This system can be used to generate electricity, and/or hot water, steam. Following successful pilot plant operation, commercial demonstration will take place at Cedar Lane Farms (CLF), near Wooster, Ohio. The system demonstration will be completed by the end of 1995. The project is being funded through a cooperative effort between the DOE, EER, W-B, OARDC, CLF and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO). The small scale AFBC, has no internal heat transfer surfaces in the fluid bed proper. Combining the combustor with a hot air gas turbine (HAGT) for electrical power generation, can give a relatively high overall system thermal efficiency. Using a novel method of recovering waste heat from the gas turbine, a gross heat rate of 13,500 Btu/kWhr ({approximately}25% efficiency) can be achieved for a small 1.5 MW{sub e} plant. A low technology industrial recuperation type gas turbine is used that operates with an inlet blade temperature of 1,450 F and a compression ratio of 3.9:1. The AFBC-HAGT technology can be used to generate power for remote rural communities to replace diesel generators, or can be used for small industrial co-generation applications.

  10. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

  11. Small Scale Mechanization of Thinning in Artificial Coniferous Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Savelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, where conventional forests have a protective rather than productive purpose, some silvicultural operations as first and second thinning could be carried out in an economic way adopting systems based on small scale mechanization. Authors tested a system based on small scale mechanization for bunching and skidding operations, using an All Terrain Vehicle (ATV, a compact, agile and versatile vehicle that adapts well to dense and rather inaccessible forests, such as forests of artificial origin where no kind of intervention, particularly thinning, had ever been carried out. The vehicle was used for bunching, using an electric winch, and for skidding whole trees. The use of the ATV showed that it is a competitive vehicle with both traditional and cutting edge vehicles, performing a traction power average of 313 daN and PHS0 productivity variable from 1.20 to 3.05 td.m.h-1. Such figures confirm how in first thinning, on level ground but also on slopes (max 50%, over distances not exceeding 200 m, the ATV is a perfectly suitable vehicle. Furthermore, the impact of the vehicle on the ground and especially on the shallow soil horizons was negligible and had no effect on tree roots.

  12. Atmospheric dispersion modelling over complex terrain at small scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, S.; Janour, Z.; Kukacka, L.; Jurcakova, K.; Kellnerova, R.; Gulikova, E.

    2014-03-01

    Previous study concerned of qualitative modelling neutrally stratified flow over open-cut coal mine and important surrounding topography at meso-scale (1:9000) revealed an important area for quantitative modelling of atmospheric dispersion at small-scale (1:3300). The selected area includes a necessary part of the coal mine topography with respect to its future expansion and surrounding populated areas. At this small-scale simultaneous measurement of velocity components and concentrations in specified points of vertical and horizontal planes were performed by two-dimensional Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and Fast-Response Flame Ionization Detector (FFID), respectively. The impact of the complex terrain on passive pollutant dispersion with respect to the prevailing wind direction was observed and the prediction of the air quality at populated areas is discussed. The measured data will be used for comparison with another model taking into account the future coal mine transformation. Thus, the impact of coal mine transformation on pollutant dispersion can be observed.

  13. MODELING THE VERY SMALL SCALE CLUSTERING OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We model the small-scale clustering of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Specifically, we use the halo occupation distribution formalism to model the projected two-point correlation function of LRGs on scales well within the sizes of their host halos (0.016 h -1 Mpc ? r ? 0.42 h -1 Mpc). We start by varying P(N|M), the probability distribution that a dark matter halo of mass M contains N LRGs, and assuming that the radial distribution of satellite LRGs within halos traces the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter density profile. We find that varying P(N|M) alone is not sufficient to match the small-scale data. We next allow the concentration of satellite LRG galaxies to differ from that of dark matter and find that this is also not sufficient. Finally, we relax the assumption of an NFW profile and allow the inner slope of the density profile to vary. We find that this model provides a good fit to the data and the resulting value of the slope is -2.17 ± 0.12. The radial density profile of satellite LRGs within halos is thus not compatible with that of the underlying dark matter, but rather is closer to an isothermal distribution.

  14. Design and Develop a Honeypot for Small Scale Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Sharma,

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer Network and Internet is growing every day. Computer networks allow communicating faster than any other facilities. These networks allow the user to access local and remote databases. It is impossible to protect every system on the network. In industries, the network and its security are important issues, as a breach in the system can cause major problems. Intrusion detection system (IDS is used for monitoring the processes on a system or a network for examining the threats and alerts the administrator about attack. And IDS provide a solution only for the large scale industries, but there is no solution for the small scale industries so model is proposed for honeypot to solve the problem of small scale industries which is the hybrid structure of Snort, Nmap, Xprobe2, P0f. This model captures the activities of attackers and maintains a log for all these activities. Virtualization is performed with the help of virtual machine. The focus of this paper is primarily on preventing the attacks from external and internal attackers and maintaining the log file using honeypot with virtual machine.

  15. Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface, Nicholas James

    The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.

  16. CMB spectral distortions from small-scale isocurvature fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chluba, J.; Grin, D.

    2013-09-01

    The damping of primordial perturbations at small scales gives rise to distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Here, the dependence of the distortion on the different types of cosmological initial conditions is explored, covering adiabatic, baryon/cold dark matter isocurvature, neutrino density/velocity isocurvature modes and some mixtures. The radiation transfer functions for each mode are determined and then used to compute the dissipative heating rates and spectral distortion signatures, utilizing both analytic estimates and numerical results from the thermalization code COSMOTHERM. Along the way, the early-time super-horizon behaviour for the resulting fluid modes is derived in conformal Newtonian gauge, and tight-coupling transfer function approximations are given. CMB spectral distortions caused by different perturbation modes can be estimated using simple k-space window functions which are provided here. Neutrinos carry away some fraction of the primordial perturbation power, introducing an overall efficiency factor that depends on the perturbation type. It is shown that future measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum have the potential to probe different perturbation modes at very small scales (corresponding to wavenumbers 1 ? k ? few × 104 Mpc- 1). These constraints are complementary to those obtained at large scales and hence provide an exciting new window to early-universe physics.

  17. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  18. Probing Small-Scale Interstellar Structure At High Column Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauroesch, James T.; Meyer, David M.; Cartledge, Stefan I. B.

    2000-02-01

    We propose to obtain very high resolution (~ 1.7 km s^- 1) observations of interstellar K I absorption toward the components of 5 multiple star systems as part of an ongoing program to more thoroughly understand recent evidence of ubiquitous small-scale structure in the diffuse ISM. Based upon KPNO Coude observations, Watson & Meyer (1996) have found interstellar Na I line profile variations toward 17 out of 17 binaries, indicative of ISM structure on scales of 500 to 29,000 AU. Using KPNO Coude Feed measurements of interstellar K I line profiles, Lauroesch & Meyer (1999) detected significant differences between components of multiple star systems in 3 out of 5 cases. However, Na I cannot be used to trace structure at high column densities, due to line saturation. Given its lower cosmic abundance, K I provides a useful probe of high column density sightlines. These differences suggest that the small- scale structure traced by Na I for low column density sightlines is present at some level in clouds of all column densities. However, the current sample size is too small for statistical analyses of the characteristics of structure and its variations. Our proposed observations are designed to supplement the undersampled high column density regime with systems previously selected, but not observed due to poor weather. Observations of these systems will double the size of the sample, allowing us to refine our conclusions about the presence of variations at various column densities and hence the mass fraction of the interstellar material involved.

  19. Involvement of small-scale dairy farms in an industrial supply chain: when production standards meet farm diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J; Le Gal, P Y; Triomphe, B; Hostiou, N; Moulin, C H

    2011-05-01

    In certain contexts, dairy firms are supplied by small-scale family farms. Firms provide a set of technical and economic recommendations meant to help farmers meet their requirements in terms of the quantity and quality of milk collected. This study analyzes how such recommendations may be adopted by studying six farms in Brazil. All farms are beneficiaries of the country's agrarian reforms, but they differ in terms of how they developed their activities, their resources and their milk collection objectives. First, we built a technical and economic benchmark farm based on recommendations from a dairy firm and farmer advisory institutions. Our analysis of the farms' practices and technical and economic results show that none of the farms in the sample apply all of the benchmark recommendations; however, all farms specialized in dairy production observe the main underlying principles with regard to feeding systems and breeding. The decisive factors in whether the benchmark is adopted and successfully implemented are (i) access to the supply chain when a farmer establishes his activity, (ii) a grasp of reproduction and forage production techniques and (iii) an understanding of dairy cattle feed dietary rationing principles. The technical problems observed in some cases impact the farms' dairy performance and cash position; this can lead to a process of disinvestment. This dynamic of farms facing production standards suggests that the diversity of specialized livestock farmers should be taken into account more effectively through advisory approaches that combine basic zootechnical training with assistance in planning farm activities over the short and medium term. PMID:22440036

  20. Small Scale Gasification: Gas Engine CHP for Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandin, Jan (Linnaeus Univ., Vaexjoe. Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering (Sweden)); Tuner, Martin; Odenbrand, Ingemar (The Faculty of Engineering at Lund Univ. (LTH) (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    In a joint project, Linnaeus Univ. in Vaexjoe (LNU) and the Faculty of Engineering at Lund Univ. (LTH) were commissioned by the Swedish Energy Agency to make an inventory of the techniques and systems for small scale gasifier-gas engine combined heat and power (CHP) production and to evaluate the technology. Small scale is defined here as plants up to 10 MW{sub th}, and the fuel used in the gasifier is some kind of biofuel, usually woody biofuel in the form of chips, pellets, or sawdust. The study is presented in this report. The report has been compiled by searching the literature, participating in seminars, visiting plants, interviewing contact people, and following up contacts by e-mail and phone. The first, descriptive part of the report, examines the state-of-the-art technology for gasification, gas cleaning, and gas engines. The second part presents case studies of the selected plants: - Meva Innovation's VIPP-VORTEX CHP plant - DTU's VIKING CHP plant - Guessing bio-power station - Harbooere CHP plant -Skive CHP plant The case studies examine the features of the plants and the included unit operations, the kinds of fuels used and the net electricity and overall efficiencies obtained. The investment and operating costs are presented when available as are figures on plant availability. In addition we survey the international situation, mainly covering developing countries. Generally, the technology is sufficiently mature for commercialization, though some unit operations, for example catalytic tar reforming, still needs further development. Further development and optimization will probably streamline the performance of the various plants so that their biofuel-to-electricity efficiency reaches 30-40 % and overall performance efficiency in the range of 90 %. The Harbooere, Skive, and Guessing plant types are considered appropriate for municipal CHP systems, while the Viking and VIPP-VORTEX plants are smaller and considered appropriate for replacing hot water plants in district heating network. The Danish Technical Univ. (DTU) Biomass Gasification Group and Meva International have identified a potentially large market in the developing countries of Asia. Areas for suggested further research and development include: - Gas cleaning/upgrading - Utilization of produced heat - System integration/optimization - Small scale oxygen production - Gas engine developments

  1. Farmers’ perceptions of pollinators’ importance in coffee production in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théodore Munyuli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea canephora is the principal cash crop and the country’s largest agricultural foreign revenue earner in Uganda. Previous surveys confirmed that coffee grown in central Uganda was largely depending on bee pollination to set fruit set. Despite its high contribution to the economics of agricultural sector in Uganda and despite its great dependency to bees for fruit set, it is not clear if small-scale farmers are aware of the importance of managing farm-landscapes for pollination services conservation to increase coffee yield. The aim of this study was to assess farmers’ perceptions and knowledge of the importance of pollinators and pollination services conservation for coffee production enhancement. The main hypothesis was that small-scale coffee growers were not aware of the relevance of pollination services for coffee production. Farmers’ surveys were conducted in coffee-banana farming systems in central Uganda. It was found in this study that more than 90% of interviewed farmers were not aware of the role played by bees in coffee yield increase. Farmers were not willing to manage their lands to protect pollination services, particularly because they considered pollination service as an unsolicited “free service”, or as a “public good”. Farmers were not aware of the role of semi- natural habitats serving as reservoir (hiding points for pollinators in the surrounding of coffee fields. However, they were aware of some ecosystem services delivered in the coffee- banana farming system such as planting shading trees. Only 3.3% of respondents believed that placing beehives in coffee farms could increase the yield. The study recommended the increase of the awareness of small-scale coffee growers on the importance of pollinators to increase coffee production. It is recommended that future management of pollination services are built on improving farmers’ indigenous knowledge and on adequate understanding of the ecology of the local pollinator species. There is a need to broadly scale-up best field, habitat and landscape management strategies and practices that are friendly to coffee pollinators in rural landscapes of Uganda

  2. Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

    2014-05-01

    Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems to productive smallholder irrigation: soil nutrient depletion, salinization, disease and pest resulting from inefficient irrigation practices, infrastructure problems leading to a reduction of the size of the command area and decrease in reservoir volume. The major causes have been poor irrigation infrastructure, poor on-farm soil and water management, prevalence of various crop pests and diseases, lack of inputs and reservoir siltation. On-farm participatory research focusing on soil, crop and water management issues, including technical, institutional and managerial aspects, to identify best performing innovations while taking care of the environment was recommended. Currently, a range of interlinked activities are implemented a multiple scales, combining participatory and scientific approaches towards innovation development and up-scaling of promising technologies and institutional and managerial approaches from local to regional scales. ____________________________ Key words: Irrigation scheme, productivity, innovation, participatory method, Gumselassa, Ethiopia

  3. DTN: The Progressive Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Progressive Farmer magazine, established in 1886, now has a presence on the Web. Their stories cover all the major crops and livestock, but also include information about other topics important to rural readers such as the environment, rural health care, and farm safety. Many stories "celebrate rural living and the outdoors. Progressive Farmer says its goal is to help readers make money, save money, and enjoy their rural lifestyle. Columns include News, Markets, Weather, Over the Fence, Countryplace, and Rural Sportsman.

  4. Farmers Almanac: Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This astronomy section of the Farmer\\'s Almanac website provides dates, times, names and meanings of various full moons; definitions of moon terms; and the best times to view the planets. There are links to obtain the exact times of sunrise, sunset, moonrise, and moonset for one day or an entire year; phases of the moon; fraction of moon illumination; and tidal information (height and current speed predictions).

  5. Improving the Management and Use of Water Resources for Small-Scale Irrigation Farming in the Garu Tempane District of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amosah Jonah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small scale irrigation farming has been recognized as an important avenue for improving the well being of poor people living in arid and marginal areas of the world. The contribution of small scale irrigation can be seen in its ability to ensure food security as well as contribute to the income of farmers. In the Garu-Tempane District, small scale irrigation farming is a major source of livelihood for people in the district. Despite the importance of the irrigation schemes to dry season farming the schemes face challenges such as inadequate water, inadequate canals, choked and broken canals due to frequent breakdown and inadequate repairs which affect their effective operation. Although the major use of the dam waters was dry season farming, animal watering and fishing were also found to be significant uses of the dam waters. In north-eastern Ghana as it is in many parts of the third world, external development agencies support the formation of Water User Associations (WUAs for the management of community-based irrigation schemes. Although, the management of the schemes and the use of the dam is the responsibility of the community represented by the WUAs it was revealed by the study that, in the management of challenges that confront small scale irrigation schemes, WUAs depended on the supportive roles of traditional authorities as well as district assemblies for discharging their management responsibilities more effectively.

  6. Computationally inexpensive way to study windstorms on small scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-02-01

    Windstorms are a major source of economic damage in Europe. To study their impacts on regional scales, scientists need large data sets of detailed, high-resolution wind field data. However, high-resolution regional simulations are computationally expensive. Haas and Pinto developed a statistical approach to downscale wind characteristics from large-scale atmospheric models to obtain wind speed data on smaller scales. They use their method to derive windstorm-related gust speeds on a small-scale grid over Europe for a sample of windstorm events. The method is computationally inexpensive and reproduces observed windstorm events adequately, the authors report. The technique can be applied to ensembles of global climate models to project the potential future regional impacts of wind in a changing climate. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2012GL054014, 2012)

  7. CAMUI Type Hybrid Rocket as Small Scale Ballistic Flight Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Harunori; Uematsu, Tsutomu; Ito, Kenichi

    The authors have been developing CAMUI (Cascaded Multistage Impinging-jet) type hybrid rockets, explosive-flee small rocket motors. This is to downsize the scale of suborbital flight experiments on space related technology development. A key idea is a new fuel grain design to increase gasification rates of a solid fuels. By the new fuel grain design, the combustion gas repeatedly impinges on fuel surfaces to hasten the heat transfer to the fuel. Suborbital flight experiments by sounding rockets provide variety of test beds to accumulate basic technologies common to the next step of space development in Japan. By using hybrid rockets one can take the cost advantage of small-scale rocket experiments. This cost advantage improves robustness of space technology development projects by dispersion of risk.

  8. Effects of thermal inflation on small scale density perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Sungwook E; Lee, Young Jae; Stewart, Ewan D; Zoe, Heeseung

    2015-01-01

    In cosmological scenarios with thermal inflation, extra eras of moduli matter domination, thermal inflation and flaton matter domination exist between primordial inflation and the radiation domination of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. During these eras, cosmological perturbations on small scales can enter and re-exit the horizon, modifying the power spectrum on those scales. The largest modified scale, $k_\\mathrm{b}$, touches the horizon size when the expansion changes from deflation to inflation at the transition from moduli domination to thermal inflation. We analytically calculate the evolution of perturbations from moduli domination through thermal inflation and evaluate the curvature perturbation on the constant radiation density hypersurface at the end of thermal inflation to determine the late time curvature perturbation. Our resulting transfer function suppresses the power spectrum by a factor $\\sim 50$ at $k \\gg k_\\mathrm{b}$, with $k_\\mathrm{b}$ corresponding to anywhere from megaparsec to subparsec scal...

  9. The Challenge of Small-Scale Repeats for Indel Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narzisi, Giuseppe; Schatz, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive sequences are abundant in the human genome. Different classes of repetitive DNA sequences, including simple repeats, tandem repeats, segmental duplications, interspersed repeats, and other elements, collectively span more than 50% of the genome. Because repeat sequences occur in the genome at different scales they can cause various types of sequence analysis errors, including in alignment, de novo assembly, and annotation, among others. This mini-review highlights the challenges introduced by small-scale repeat sequences, especially near-identical tandem or closely located repeats and short tandem repeats, for discovering DNA insertion and deletion (indel) mutations from next-generation sequencing data. We also discuss the de Bruijn graph sequence assembly paradigm that is emerging as the most popular and promising approach for detecting indels. The human exome is taken as an example and highlights how these repetitive elements can obscure or introduce errors while detecting these types of mutations. PMID:25674564

  10. Small-scale Testing of Bucket Foundations in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, BjØrn S.; Østergaard, Martin Underlin

    2013-01-01

    For offshore foundation structures, the loads are of varying nature both in magnitude and duration. For the bucket foundation the dissipation of the pore pressure is highly relevant since it greatly affects the strength of the structure. The build up of pore pressures with varying loading rate is therefore a highly relevant research subject. In computational models, e.g. FE-models, normally either a drained or an undrained behaviour is assumed. In real life, the behaviour is partially drained, which calls for a time-dependent model. Especially, the tracking of pore pressures in and around the bucket skirt will provide valuable information of the quasi-static behaviour. For a number of small-scale tests performed in the laboratory at Aalborg University, a bucket foundation will be loaded with varying velocity to investigate the dissipation and general behaviour of bucket foundations used as offshore support structures for wind turbines.

  11. Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

  12. Small-scale power/heat production based on biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional energy production from biomass is most often used to produce steam, hot water or air heating. According to this conference paper, the maximum electric output is obtained in processes based on gasification of biomass in combined gas turbine/steam turbine systems. The efficiency increases with increasing plant size. Production cost decreases with increasing plant size. However, large plants producing 20 MW electric also produce 30 MW heat energy which must be utilized if the total efficiency is to be large. There is a potential for small systems (3 - 5 kw electric) for decentralized power/heat production. The paper surveys in brief various technologies for small-scale power/heat plants based on biomass: steam turbine, steam engine, gas turbine, Stirling engine, diesel engine/gas engine. 9 refs., 5 figs

  13. The challenge of small-scale repeats for indel discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narzisi, Giuseppe; Schatz, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive sequences are abundant in the human genome. Different classes of repetitive DNA sequences, including simple repeats, tandem repeats, segmental duplications, interspersed repeats, and other elements, collectively span more than 50% of the genome. Because repeat sequences occur in the genome at different scales they can cause various types of sequence analysis errors, including in alignment, de novo assembly, and annotation, among others. This mini-review highlights the challenges introduced by small-scale repeat sequences, especially near-identical tandem or closely located repeats and short tandem repeats, for discovering DNA insertion and deletion (indel) mutations from next-generation sequencing data. We also discuss the de Bruijn graph sequence assembly paradigm that is emerging as the most popular and promising approach for detecting indels. The human exome is taken as an example and highlights how these repetitive elements can obscure or introduce errors while detecting these types of mutations. PMID:25674564

  14. Structures and dynamics of small scales in decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Dallas, Vassilios

    2013-01-01

    The topological and dynamical features of small scales are studied in the context of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows using direct numerical simulations. Joint probability density functions (PDFs) of the invariants of gradient quantities related to the velocity and the magnetic fields demonstrate that structures and dynamics at the time of maximum dissipation depend on the large scale initial conditions. This is evident in particular from the fact that each flow has a different shape for the joint PDF of the invariants of the velocity gradient in contrast to the universal teardrop shape of hydrodynamic turbulence. The general picture that emerges from the analysis of the invariants is that regions of high vorticity are correlated with regions of high strain rate $\\bm S$ also in contrast to hydrodynamic turbulent flows. Magnetic strain dominated regions are also well correlated with region of high current density $\\bm j$. Viscous dissipation ($\\propto \\bm S^2$) as well as Ohmic dissipation ($\\propt...

  15. Manufacture of a Biodegradable Detergent on Small Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A. Aziz A. Majeed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an aggregate planning for a small scale production unit using a network flow model for full utilization of its capacity to meet the changing forecasted demand .The formulation of the problem is done by using the given inventory capacity with backorders by making a trade-off among inventory costs , backlog costs, production and subcontracting costs. The total cost function and the constraint inequalities were developed assuming the cost functions to be linear. The parameters of objective function and the constraints were estimated from the economics of the plant. The values of the work force, overtime, backlog, amount subcontracted were determined for a planning horizon of six months using an LP computer package. This method of production scheduling took care of the fluctuating demand utilizing the full capacity of the plant.

  16. Small-Scale Pellet Boiler with Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Wilhelm; Friedl, Guenther; Haslinger, Walter [Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Wieselburg (Austria); Hofbauer, Hermann [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-15

    Pellet burners need auxiliary electrical power to provide CO{sub 2}-balanced heat in a comfortable and environment-friendly way. The idea is to produce this and some extra electricity within the furnace in order to save resources and to gain operation reliability and independency. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) allow the direct conversion of heat to electrical power to a certain extent. They have the advantages of a maintenance-free long life and soundless operation without moving parts or any working fluid. A novel kind of decentralised small-scale biomass-based combined heat and power generation will be developed. The basic system allows grid-independent operation of automatically running biomass furnaces including fuel delivery from storage and circulating the cooling respectively heating water or air. The advanced system also provides electricity for network supply or for other electrical devices and is an additional benefit.

  17. Scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, J C; Boldyrev, S; Cattaneo, F

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the majority of natural systems, including the interstellar medium, the solar corona, and the solar wind, has Reynolds numbers far exceeding the Reynolds numbers achievable in numerical experiments. Much attention is therefore drawn to the universal scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations, which can be reliably measured in the simulations and then extrapolated to astrophysical scales. However, in contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, where the universal structure of the inertial and dissipation intervals is described by the Kolmogorov self-similarity, the scaling for MHD turbulence cannot be established based solely on dimensional arguments due to the presence of an intrinsic velocity scale -- the Alfven velocity. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the Kolmogorov first self-similarity hypothesis cannot be formulated for MHD turbulence in the same way it is formulated for the hydrodynamic case. Besides profound consequences for the analytical consideration, this...

  18. Small-scale resistance spot welding of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) was carried out for austenitic stainless steels. A weld lobe that shows the process window for making sound joints was obtained for type 304 stainless steel thin sheets, and the effects of welding current, force and weld time on joint strength and nugget size were investigated. The cooling rate that was estimated from the solidification cell size was approximately 2.4 x 105 K/s which is almost similar to that produced by laser beam welding. The microstructures of weld zones were almost fully austenitic due to the rapid solidification rate. Despite the fully austenitic microstructure, no hot cracking was found in types 302, 304, 316L, 310S and 347 austenitic stainless steels by SSRSW. Rapid cooling rate in SSRSW made it difficult to predict the microstructures from the conventional Schaeffler diagram

  19. Small Scale Field Emergence and Its Impact on Photospheric Granulation

    CERN Document Server

    Yurchyshyn, V; Abramenko, V; Goode, P; Cao, W

    2012-01-01

    We used photospheric intensity images and magnetic field measurements from the New Solar Telescope in Big Bear and Helioseismic Magnetic Imager on board Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to study the the effect that the new small-scale emerging flux induces on solar granulation. We report that emerging flux appears to leave different types of footprint on solar granulation: i) diffuse irregular patches of increased brightness, ii) well defined filament-like structures and accompanied bright points, and iii) bright point-like features that appear inside granules. We suggest that the type of the footprint depends on the intensity of emerging fields. Stronger fields, emerging as a part of large magnetic structure, create on the solar surface a well defined filamentary pattern with bright points at the ends of the filaments, while weak turbulent fields are associated with bright patches inside the host granule.

  20. Small scale renewable solar energy and the best result project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilbao, J.; Miguel, A.H.; Perez-Burgos, A.M. [Valladolid Univ. (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    The European Community has established programmes with different Projects in relation with the develop of an energy system according to de Kyoto objectives, improving energy efficiency, maintaining security supply and doubling the share of renewable energy use. The Best Result Project (Building and Energy Systems and Technology in Renewable Energy Sources Update and Linked Training), is financed by the European Commission, Intelligent Energy Agency (EIE) and the project objectives are to develop training and diffusion activities in the field of Renewable Energy Technology. The project aims to raise the renewable energy knowledge among suppliers and general public. The project activities are: basis and specialized training events, workshops, meetings, visits and e-learning common platform. The final objective is to extend the market of small scale RES applications in the building and energy sector through common and local activities addressing RES suppliers and consumers. (orig.)

  1. Stability of small-scale baryon perturbations during cosmological recombination

    CERN Document Server

    Venumadhav, Tejaswi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study small-scale fluctuations (baryon pressure sound waves) in the baryon fluid during recombination. In particular, we look at their evolution in the presence of relative velocities between baryons and photons on large scales ($k \\sim 10^{-1} \\ {\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$), which are naturally present during the era of decoupling. Previous work concluded that the fluctuations grow due to an instability of sound waves in a recombining plasma, but that the growth factor is small for typical cosmological models. These analyses model recombination in an inhomogenous universe as a perturbation to the parameters of the homogenous solution. We show that for relevant wavenumbers $k\\gtrsim 10^3\\ {\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ the dynamics are significantly altered by the transport of both ionizing continuum ($h\

  2. Technology Development of Fully-Passive Small-Scale Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability of unexpected Station Blackout after Fukushima is becoming the challenging issue to provide electric power for a long period of time to minimize the damages to the property and the person. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor have been studied by considering the passive safety, the system simplicity and the high reliability between 100kWt ? 20MWt. 1MWth movable nuclear reactor(MAGMA) among them is selected as a future R and D objective with regard to fuel cycle, power generation and high reliability. This study is in phase to develop the concept of small-scale reactor to provide emergent power. Therefore, further study should be conducted to specify the MAGMA with related to system design, analysis, component test and integral demonstration test

  3. Performance analysis of small-scale experimental facility of TWDEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present paper is to analyze small-scale experimental facilities of TWDEC (Travelling Wave type Direct Energy Converter) and to propose a modification in regard to a measuring device of the facilities by means of numerical simulation with the axisymmetrical two-dimensional approximation (a PIC method). The numerical simulation has given the following results: (1) tendency of the numerical results agree with the experimental results on the measured deceleration efficiency, (2) the deceleration efficiency measured in the experiment will increase if the radius of Faraday cup installed in the experiment increases and (3) the wave of condensation and rarefaction of measured electric charge density, which is averaged in the r-direction below the radius of Faraday cup, is not formed enough with a small radius of Faraday cup because of the r component of electric field which is induced by the electrode geometry

  4. First Principle Approach to Modeling of Small Scale Helicopter

    CERN Document Server

    Budiyono, A; Lesmana, H

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of global helicopter linear model is very precious and useful for the design of the linear control laws, since it is never afforded in the published literatures. In the first principle approach, the mathematical model was developed using basic helicopter theory accounting for particular characteristic of the miniature helicopter. No formal system identification procedures are required for the proposed model structure. The relevant published literatures however did not present the linear models required for the design of linear control laws. The paper presents a step by step development of linear model for small scale helicopter based on first-principle approach. Beyond the previous work in literatures, the calculation of the stability derivatives is presented in detail. A computer program is used to solve the equilibrium conditions and then calculate the change in aerodynamics forces and moments due to the change in each degree of freedom and control input. The detail derivation allows the c...

  5. Optimal Combustion Conditions for a Small-scale Biomass Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Pla?ek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an attempt to achieve maximum efficiency and lowest possible emissions for a small-scale biomass boiler. This aim can be attained only by changing the control algorithm of the boiler, and in this way not raising the acquisition costs for the boiler. This paper describes the experimental facility, the problems that arose while establishing the facility, and how we have dealt with them. The focus is on discontinuities arising after periodic grate sweeping, and on finding the parameters of the PID control loops. Alongside these methods, which need a lambda probe signal for proper functionality, we inroduce another method, which is able to intercept the optimal combustion working point without the need to use a lambda sensor.

  6. Small-scale fuel cells for residential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammes, N. M.; Boersma, R.

    The market and technical requirements for small-scale fuel cells in residential applications are investigated, focusing on the 1 to 10 kW range. In particular, the peculiar features of the New Zealand situation are explored, with its specific energy resources and demands. It is shown that various technologies could be applied, with PEM, SOFC, PAFC and AFC competing on almost equal terms, with cost targets of 500 to 700 EUR/kW. The attributes and disadvantages are discussed, with a number of technology gaps being identified, and some solutions proposed. Two new developments in the PEM and SOFC systems are compared in relation to their use in domestic applications. The obvious premium application of fuel cells in New Zealand exists where grid connection is expensive. Other priority markets are also studied.

  7. Economic feasibility of small scale button mushroom production in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract:- Mushroom is widely cultivated as a proteineous vegetable in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Its cultivation requires less space, care, equipment and cost compared to many other crops and livestock. The present study was conducted in 2010 to estimate the profitability of small scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross return of mushroom was estimated at 155.6 kg ha and Rs.77,800 ha , respectively. The results indicated the fact that mushroom production is very much remunerative to its producers as it can give maximum net return by reducing their cost of production as its cultivation is dependent on the agricultural raw material which is cheaply available. (author)

  8. Burn-rate Measurement on Small-scale Rocket Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Maggi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale rocket motors are widely used by propulsion industries to carry out burn ratemeasurement for a variety of needs. Several automated data-reduction procedures have beenimplemented to derive burn rate from pressure-time profiles resulting from experimentation. Evenif these are easy and fast to use, these procedures are not completely reliable in that thesemeasure only the average behaviour of a motor. A new model has recently been proposed toovercome this problem. However, it was soon noticed that the results depend on the propellantgrain production and forming processes even if the motor hardware is the same. A series ofpropellant grains has been produced to be sampled to map the local ballistic behaviour andchanges introduced by the manufacturing process. In this study, sampling and testing proceduresare reported and the results of an almost complete grain mapping are discussed.

  9. Numerical Simulation and Optimazation of Small Scale LNG Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Fan, Q. H.; Yin, Q. S.

    2006-04-01

    The LNG20 is a small-scale natural gas liquefier. Its capacity is 20 cube meters LNG per day. This liquefier could be used for the pipeline gas, coalbed gas, oil field gas liquefaction and peakshaving plant for town gas gate station and natural gas power plant. Two processing cycles are applied to LNG20, nitrogen expander cycle and mixed refrigerant cycle. In this report, two feed gases are the target sources; one is the pipeline gas in "West-to-east pipeline gas" in a gate station in Zhejiang province and coalbed gas in Northeast China. The numerical simulation and optimization for the LNG20 were carried out to obtain the design parameters.

  10. Technology Development of Fully-Passive Small-Scale Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hong Sik; Kim, Yong Wan; Noh, Jae Man; and others

    2013-02-15

    The probability of unexpected Station Blackout after Fukushima is becoming the challenging issue to provide electric power for a long period of time to minimize the damages to the property and the person. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor have been studied by considering the passive safety, the system simplicity and the high reliability between 100kWt ? 20MWt. 1MWth movable nuclear reactor(MAGMA) among them is selected as a future R and D objective with regard to fuel cycle, power generation and high reliability. This study is in phase to develop the concept of small-scale reactor to provide emergent power. Therefore, further study should be conducted to specify the MAGMA with related to system design, analysis, component test and integral demonstration test.

  11. Emissions from small scale combustion of pelletized wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion of wood pellets in small scale heating systems with an effect below 20 kW has increased. During the winter season 1995/96 1500 small plants for heating houses are estimated to be in operation. Stack emissions from three pellet burners and two pellet stoves have been studied at laboratory. Different pellet qualities were tested. When the fraction of fines increased also the NOx emissions increased with about 10 %. As reference fuel 8 mm pellets was used. Tests with 6 mm pellets gave, in most cases, significant lower emissions of CO and THC. Eleven stoves, burners and boilers were studied in a field test. The results show that all the plants generally have higher emissions in the field than during conditions when the plants are adjusted with a stack gas monitoring instrument. A conclusion is that it is difficult for the operator to adjust the plant without a monitoring instrument. The emissions from the tested plants give an estimation of stack gas emissions from small scale pellet plants. The difference between the 'best' and 'worst' technologies is big. The span of emissions with the best technology to the worst is given below. The interval is concerning normal combustion . During abnormal conditions the emissions are on a significant higher level: * CO 80-1 000 mg/MJ; * Tar 0,3-19 mg/MJ; * THC (as methane equivalents) 2-100 mg/MJ; * NOx 50-70 mg/W;, and * Dust emissions 20-40 mg/MJ. Emissions from pellets heating are lower than from wfrom pellets heating are lower than from wood combustion and the best technology is close to the emission from oil burners. Wood and pellets have the same origin but the conditions to burn them in an environmental friendly way differ. Combustion of pellets could be improved through improved control of the air and fuel ratio that will create more stable conditions for the combustion

  12. Properties of small-scale magnetism of stellar atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Oskar; Salhab, René; Freytag, Bernd; Rajaguru, Paul; Schaffenberger, Werner; Steffen, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic field outside of sunspots is concentrated in the intergranular space, where it forms a delicate filigree of bright ribbons and dots as seen on broad band images of the Sun. We expect this small-scale magnetic field to exhibit a similar behavior in stellar atmospheres. In order to find out more about it, we perform numerical simulations of the surface layers of stellar atmospheres. Here, we report on preliminary results from simulations in the range between 4000 K and 6500 K effective temperature with an initial vertical, homogeneous magnetic field of 50 G strength. We find that the field strength of the strongest magnetic flux concentrations increases with decreasing effective temperature at the height level where the average Rosseland optical depth is one. On the other hand, at the same level, the field is less strong than the thermal equipartition value in the coolest model but assumes superequipartition in the models hotter than 5000 K. While the Wilson depression of the strongest field concentrations is about one pressure scale height in the coolest model, it is more than four times the pressure scale height in the hottest one. We also find that the relative contribution of the bright filigree to the bolometric, vertically directed radiative intensity is most significant for the Teff = 5000 K model (0.6%-0.79%) and least significant for the hottest and coolest models (0.1%-0.46% and 0.14%-0.32%, respectively). This behavior suggests that the effect of the small-scale magnetic field on the photometric variability is more significant for K dwarf stars than for F-type and also M-type stars.

  13. Small-scale production of straight vegetable oil from rapeseed and its use as biofuel in the Spanish territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels nowadays are an important topic of study. The most significant point is the availability of bioethanol or biodiesel and their production from different raw materials. It is already known that large-scale production of first-generation biodiesel cannot be seen as an alternative to fossil fuels due to land requirements, competition with food, increase in fertilizer requirements and pressure on tropical forests among others. This fact does not necessarily apply to second-generation biofuels or small-scale niche productions. Straight vegetable oil (SVO) can be used directly in diesel engines with minor modifications. Our proposal is a small-scale SVO production system for self-supply in agricultural machinery. In this paper a model to provide SVO to local farmers in a specific area in Catalonia (Spain) is presented. We also present a discussion about the regulations to be changed in order to make possible the incorporation of SVO as engine fuel in diesel vehicles and a comparative analysis between the emissions of tractors fed with SVO and petrodiesel. Moreover, a quantitative economic analysis of modifying diesel engines and long-term operability costs are shown and a first-run economic analysis comparing the actual crop rotation with the proposed one and some alternatives is studied.

  14. The occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on a farm with small-scale production of raw milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, H J; Mørk, T; Rørvik, L M

    2005-11-01

    In recent years, the small-scale production of raw milk products has increased in Norway, and there is some concern that such foods may pose a risk of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers. The aim of the study was to evaluate potential sources of contamination of raw milk cheese with Staphylococcus aureus on a bovine dairy farm with small-scale production. Samples for bacteriological analyses (n = 144) were collected from the animals, the environment, processing equipments, from humans, and from cheeses at various stages of production. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 10 of 11 cows, the farmer, equipment, the environment, and the cheese. Seventy-five Staph. aureus isolates were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, tested for enterotoxin (SE) production by reversed passive latex agglutination, for SE genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and for penicillin resistance by the cloverleaf method. Five different pulsotypes were identified and SE gene fragments were identified in 11 isolates, but no isolates produced SE or were penicillin resistant. Staphylococcus aureus was found throughout the farm, and appeared to be spread with the milk to the environment, equipment, and to products. One pulsotype dominated and was identified from most sample sites on the farm. Raw milk products are vulnerable to contamination with Staph. aureus. Strategies to reduce the occurrence of Staph. aureus in bulk milk are of particular importance on farms where milk is used for raw milk products. PMID:16230686

  15. An exploration of the impact of interdependence based collaborations (IBC) on small-scale farmers and poverty alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Holeni-mdhluli, Mikateko

    2013-01-01

    Poverty and food insecurity are common problems among low-income households in developing countries. Innovative interventions in the agricultural sector are regarded as effective in poverty alleviation and therefore food insecurity. Food insecurity is defined by London and Anupindi (2012) as a lack of access to adequate, safe and nutritious food and is closely associated with poverty. It can ultimately be addressed as part of a broader strategy to alleviate poverty, which would include enterp...

  16. Linking agribusiness and small-scale farmers in developing countries: is there a new role for contract farming?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten, Johann F.; Sartorius, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    This article examines a new role for contract farming in developing countries in the light of the industrialisation of agriculture and the globalisation of world markets. A theoretical rationale for contracting in developing countries is developed on the basis of adopting new institutional economic theory for the purpose of matching governance forms to market failure problems and transaction characteristics. The history of contract farming is reviewed together with the advantages and disadvan...

  17. A review of a public private extension partnership for small-scale sugarcane farmers in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eweg, Matin

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of APPRI Workshop was to analyse conditions for implementing alternative action-research practices in partnership for development, taking into account the difficulties of "official" research and of the rural world, faced with the major challenges of sustainable development in the South. One originality of APPRI was to compare experiences from rural zones of Africa, with those of the UNICAMPO Peasants' University set up 10 years ago in the Brazilian Nordeste, a semi-arid reg...

  18. TROPICAL MAIZE SYNTHETICS BREEDING IN MOISTURE-STRESS TOLERANCE FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN BRAZILIAN SEMI ARID REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELTO EUGENIO GOMES E GAMA

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate 144 S2 progenies from each of two synthetic maize populations, Syndent and Synflint, from a breeding program for drought tolerance, to obtain synthetics with high yield potential and good agronomic performance in the semi-arid regions in Brazil. The 288 S2 progenies from the two synthetics were evaluated using a 12 x 12 lattice design with two replications in two conditions with water stress (WS and non water stress (NS in Janaúba, MG, Brazil, in 2000. The combining analysis of variance showed highly significant (P<0.01 effects in environments and progenies and their interaction for Synflint, and significant ones (P<0.05 in the interaction for Syndent. The estimates of the broad sense heritability of ear yield were: Synflint h2 = 0.382 and 0.752 for WS and NS, respectively; Syndent h2 = 0.607 and 0.635 for WS and NS, respectively. The genetic variance estimates were greater in NS than in WS environments. The error variance estimates were the greatest in WS x NS interaction for the two synthetics. The predicted responses to selection pointed out better gains for yield when selection is performed in NS rather than WS environments. Substantial variability exists in these two synthetics for drought tolerance and its characteristics, indicating that there is an opportunity for improving their tolerance via recurrent selection.

  19. Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Roger Carson

    This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long-lived fission products could result in an irradiation effective half-life of a few years with a three order magnitude increase in the on-target neutron flux accomplishable through a combination of technological enhancements to the source and system design optimization; (3) the transmutation of long-lived fission products requires a thermal-slow energy spectrum to prevent the generation of activation products with half-lives even longer than the original radionuclide; (4) there is no benefit in trying to transmute short-lived fission products due to the ineffectiveness of the transmutation process and the generation of a multiplicity of counterproductive activation products; (5) for actinides, irradiation effective half-lives of < 1 year can be achieved with a four orders magnitude increase in the on-target flux; (6) the ideal neutron energy spectra for transmuting actinides is highly dependent on the particular radionuclide and its fission-to-capture ratio as they determine the generationrate of other actinides; and (7) the methodology developed in this dissertation provides a mechanism that can be used for studying the feasibility of transmuting other radionuclides, and its application can be extended to studying the production of radionuclides of interest in a transmutation process. Although large-scale transmutation technology is presently being researched world-wide for spent fuel management applications, such technology will not be viable for a couple of decades. This dissertation investigated the concept of a small-scale transmutation device using present technology. The results of this research show that with reasonable enhancements, transmutation of specific radionuclides can be practical in the near term.

  20. EFFICIENCY OF RESOURCE USE IN SMALL-SCALE WHITE SHRIMP (PENAEUS VANNAMEI PRODUCTION IN LAMONGAN REGENCY, EAST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riski A. Lestariad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to determine the efficiency of recourses used in white shrimp (Pe-naeus Vannamei production in Lamongan Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia. The simple random sampling technique used to select 125 small-scale white shrimp farmers from six-study areas in Lamongan Regency. The white shrimp production function was es-timated using Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique. The results indicated that Double Log production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of white shrimp and inputs used. The coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.846 indicated that the eighty-four point six percent of variation in output of white shrimp was explained by the independent variables in the model. Findings showed that labor, fertilizer, feed and stocking density are significant determinants of production inputs. Moreover, the estimates of the ra-tio of the value of marginal product (VMP to marginal factor cost (MFC revealed that the non-optimal combination of inputs among the white shrimp farmers, it showed that the aq-uaculture farms resources were inefficiently utilized for labor, feed and stocking density by 1.94, 1.93 and 171.4 respectively, while fertilizer showed otherwise by 0.11 or over uti-lized.

  1. EFFICIENCY OF RESOURCE USE IN SMALL-SCALE WHITE SHRIMP (PENAEUS VANNAMEI PRODUCTION IN LAMONGAN REGENCY, EAST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riski A. Lestariadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to determine the efficiency of recourses use in white shrimp (Penaeus Vannamei production in Lamongan Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia. The simple random sampling technique used to select 125 small-scale white shrimp farmers from six-study areas in Lamongan Regency. The white shrimp production function was estimated using Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique. The results indicated that Double Log production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of white shrimp and inputs used. The coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.846 indicated that the eighty-four point six percent of variation in output of white shrimp was explained by the independent variables in the model. Findings showed that labor, fertilizer, feed and stocking density are significant determinants of production inputs. Moreover, the estimates of the ratio of the value of marginal product (VMP to marginal factor cost (MFC revealed that the non-optimal combination of inputs among the white shrimp farmers, it showed that the aquaculture farms resources were inefficiently utilized for labor, feed and stocking density by 1.94, 1.93 and 171.4 respectively, while fertilizer showed otherwise by 0.11 or over utilized.

  2. Small-scale recombination He - Sr+(Ca+ ) lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of specific features and output characteristics of small-scale (l?30 cm, d?1.1cm) gas-discharge recombination He-Sr+ (?=430.5 nm) and He- Ca+ (?=373.7nm) lasers is provided. Such compact lasers are characterised by a relatively high reliability and durability. These lasers are easy to operate and are capable of generating laser pulses with high repetition rates f, a high specific mean power Psp, and an improved quality of output radiation. A typical mean power P of self-heating sealed-off He-Sr+ (Ca+) laser tubes with l? 30 cm and d? 1 cm is ? 0.5 W. The best specific characteristics of a He-Sr+ laser with tubes of this type were achieved with l=20 cm and d=0.6 cm (Psp=73 mW cm-3) and l=9 cm and d=0.55 cm (Psp=65 W cm-3). The best specific characteristics for a He-Ca+ laser were achieved with l=26.5 cm and d=0.7 cm (Psp=50 mW cm-3). The use of forced water cooling in a He-Sr+(Ca+) laser allowed the powers P=3.9 W and Psp=137 mW cm-3 to be achieved with a tube with l=30 cm and d=1.1 cm for f=29 kHz. A new method of inputting metal vapours based on cataphoresis is considered in detail. Using this method allowed the output characteristics of a He-Sr+ laser to be considerably improved and a record specific power Psp=277 mW cm-3 to be a277 mW cm-3 to be achieved for a tube with l=26 cm and d=0.3 cm with f=30 kHz and P=510 mW. A record gain, 0.15 cm-1, was also achieved under these conditions. Some possible areas of applications of small-scale He-Sr+(Ca+) lasers in semiconductor microtechnology, holography, ecology, and medicine are outlined. (invited paper)

  3. Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP) based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. RESULTS: To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell) for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and comparedits performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm) in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs.

  4. Rural electrification in Malaysia via small scale biomass gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the government of Malaysia's vision to see that the rural community is not left behind in its endeavour to be an industrialised nation in the year 2020. The standard of living in the rural areas is very far different from that in the urban areas. To obtain equality the standard of living of the rural folks need to be ungraded. This is done largely by electrification. Electricity has been in the past the catalyst for development and raising the standard of living of the poor. Electricity supplied by the nation's electricity company might not reach all remote areas and therefore there must be a means to provide alternative electrical supply to these places. Present method employ the use of diesel generator sets to provide electricity. The availability of biomass source of supply in the rural areas could be effectively exploited to provide alternative source of energy via a gasification system to run a reciprocating engine coupled to a generator to generated electricity. A small-scale biomass gasification generator set in the range of 2-5 kW is suitable to provide electrical supply to a typical house in the rural area. The present use of biomass source of energy is in its utilisation to provide source of heat for cooking. Several tests have been conducted and the performance is very good. Alternatively another medium scale system generating about 50-20O kW would be suitable for a typical village having about 50 houses. A small-scale system has been developed in USMall-scale system has been developed in USM to provide 5 kW of electrical power. The system used a petrol engine and produces an overall efficiency of 7% with a specific consumption of about 3 kg/kWh. The biomass material used is wood. However for application in the rural areas the biomass material will depend on the type available. A further 50 kW system is being develop in USM. (Author)

  5. Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohoni Sujata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For fermentation process and strain improvement, where one wants to screen a large number of conditions and strains, robust and scalable high-throughput cultivation systems are crucial. Often, the time lag between bench-scale cultivations to production largely depends on approximate estimation of scalable physiological traits. Microtiter plate (MTP based screening platforms have lately become an attractive alternative to shake flasks mainly because of the ease of automation. However, there are very few reports on applications for filamentous organisms; as well as efforts towards systematic validation of physiological behavior compared to larger scale are sparse. Moreover, available small-scale screening approaches are typically constrained by evaluating only an end point snapshot of phenotypes. Results To address these issues, we devised a robust, small-scale cultivation platform in the form of MTPs (24-square deepwell for the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor and compared its performance to that of shake flasks and bench-scale reactors. We observed that re-designing of medium and inoculum preparation recipes resulted in improved reproducibility. Process turnaround time was significantly reduced due to the reduction in number of unit operations from inoculum to cultivation. The incorporation of glass beads (ø 3 mm in MTPs not only improved the process performance in terms of improved oxygen transfer improving secondary metabolite production, but also helped to transform morphology from pellet to disperse, resulting in enhanced reproducibility. Addition of MOPS into the medium resulted in pH maintenance above 6.50, a crucial parameter towards reproducibility. Moreover, the entire trajectory of the process was analyzed for compatibility with bench-scale reactors. The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production rates of antibiotics. Conclusion We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other filamentous bacteria and the use may significantly reduce the workload and costs.

  6. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

  7. Fanny Farmer Cookbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    On February 22, Bartleby.com (last mentioned in the January 28, 2000 Scout Report) announced its latest release: the 1918 edition of the Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, later known as the Fanny Farmer Cookbook. Written by the director of the Boston Cooking School, Fannie Farmer (1857-1915), this landmark, no-nonsense cookbook aimed at the ordinary person has sold over 4 million copies internationally. Bartleby selected the 1918 edition because it was the last edition authored completely by Farmer. The online version includes over 1,800 recipes and is browseable by chapter or subject index, or searchable by keyword. This classic work is not only interesting as a piece of culinary history, but it offers techniques and recipes that stand the test of time.

  8. A Small-Scale Safety Test for Initiation Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutting, J; Chow, C; Chau, H; Hodgin, R; Lee, R

    2002-04-22

    We have developed a small-scale safety test for initiation train components. A low-cost test was needed to assess the response of initiation components to an abnormal shock environment and to detect changes in the sensitivity of initiation components as they age. The test uses a disk of Detasheet to transmit a shock through a PMMA barrier into a the test article. A schematic drawing of the fixture is shown. The 10-cm-diameter disk of 3-mm-thick Detasheet, initiated at its center by a RISI, RP detonator, produces a shock wave that is attenuated by a variable-thickness PMMA spacer (gap). Layers of metal and plastic above the test article and the material surrounding the test article may be chosen to mock up the environment of the test article at its location in a warhead. A metal plate at the bottom serves as a witness plate to record whether or not the test article detonated. For articles containing a small amount of explosive, it can be difficult to determine whether or not a detonation has occurred. In such cases, one can use a pressure transducer or laser velocimeter to detect the shock wave from the detonation of the article. The assembly is contained in a 10-cm-ID section of PVC pipe and fired in a containment vessel rated at 100 g. Test results are given for a hemispherical, exploding-bridgewire (EBW) detonator.

  9. Social and Ecological Dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, K.; Kramer, D.; Frank, K.

    2012-12-01

    Globalization's reach is rapidly extending to touch some of the most remote communities of the world, but we have yet to understand its scale and impact. On Nicaragua's previously remote Miskitu Coast, the introduction of new markets and global demand for seafood has resulted in changes in fishermen's harvest behavior manifested within the local fishery. Small-scale fisheries are a significant component in sustaining global fish trade, ensuring food security, and alleviating poverty, but because the fishermen are disperse, numerous and located in remote areas, the social and ecological dynamics of the system are poorly understood. Previous work has indicated a decline in fish abundance as a result of connection to markets, yet fishermen's response to this decline and the resulting shift in harvest strategy requires further examination. I identify the ecological and social factors that explain changes in fishermen behavior and use an innovative application of social network analysis to understand these changes. I also use interviews with fishermen and fishery-dependent surveys to measure catch and release behavior and seasonal gear use. Results demonstrate multiple cliques within a community that mitigate the response of fishermen to changes in the fishery. This research applies techniques in social science to address challenges in sustainable management of fisheries. As fisheries managers consider implementing new regulations, such as seasonal restrictions on gear, it is essential to understand not just how this might impact fish abundance, but how and why human systems respond as they do.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities are phylogenetically clustered at small scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Sebastian; Caruso, Tancredi; Verbruggen, Erik; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies with markers covering the full Glomeromycota phylum were used to uncover phylogenetic community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Festuca brevipila. The study system was a semi-arid grassland with high plant diversity and a steep environmental gradient in pH, C, N, P and soil water content. The AMF community in roots and rhizosphere soil were analyzed separately and consisted of 74 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in total. Community-level variance partitioning showed that the role of environmental factors in determining AM species composition was marginal when controlling for spatial autocorrelation at multiple scales. Instead, phylogenetic distance and spatial distance were major correlates of AMF communities: OTUs that were more closely related (and which therefore may have similar traits) were more likely to co-occur. This pattern was insensitive to phylogenetic sampling breadth. Given the minor effects of the environment, we propose that at small scales closely related AMF positively associate through biotic factors such as plant-AMF filtering and interactions within the soil biota. PMID:24824667

  11. Numerical Simulation of a Small-Scale Mild Combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports numerical simulations of a small-scale cylindrical combustor operating in the mild combustion regime. Preheated air is supplied by a central nozzle, while the fuel (methane) is injected through 16 holes placed equidistantly in a circumference concentric with the air nozzle. The calculations were carried out using the commercial code Ansys-Fluent. Turbulence was modelled using the realizable k-? model. Two different combustion models were employed, namely the eddy dissipation concept and the joint composition pdf transport model. In both cases, a chemical mechanism comprising 13 transported species and 73 chemical reactions was used, as well as a global single-step reaction. A thorough comparison of the predictions obtained using the pdf transport model and the eddy dissipation concept with detailed experimental data is presented. Both models are able to accurately predict the temperature and the O2 and CO2 molar fractions over most of the combustor, but the temperature field is overestimated in the vicinity of the burner. Discrepancies are found in the prediction of the CO molar fraction, particularly when the eddy dissipation concept is used.

  12. Numerical Simulation of a Small-Scale Mild Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, A.; Oliveira, R.; Coelho, P. J.; Costa, M.

    2012-11-01

    This work reports numerical simulations of a small-scale cylindrical combustor operating in the mild combustion regime. Preheated air is supplied by a central nozzle, while the fuel (methane) is injected through 16 holes placed equidistantly in a circumference concentric with the air nozzle. The calculations were carried out using the commercial code Ansys-Fluent. Turbulence was modelled using the realizable k-epsilon model. Two different combustion models were employed, namely the eddy dissipation concept and the joint composition pdf transport model. In both cases, a chemical mechanism comprising 13 transported species and 73 chemical reactions was used, as well as a global single-step reaction. A thorough comparison of the predictions obtained using the pdf transport model and the eddy dissipation concept with detailed experimental data is presented. Both models are able to accurately predict the temperature and the O2 and CO2 molar fractions over most of the combustor, but the temperature field is overestimated in the vicinity of the burner. Discrepancies are found in the prediction of the CO molar fraction, particularly when the eddy dissipation concept is used.

  13. Dynamic properties of small-scale solar wind plasma fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazantseva, M O; Budaev, V P; Zelenyi, L M; Zastenker, G N; Pavlos, G P; Safrankova, J; Nemecek, Z; Prech, L; Nemec, F

    2015-05-13

    The paper presents the latest results of the studies of small-scale fluctuations in a turbulent flow of solar wind (SW) using measurements with extremely high temporal resolution (up to 0.03?s) of the bright monitor of SW (BMSW) plasma spectrometer operating on astrophysical SPECTR-R spacecraft at distances up to 350?000?km from the Earth. The spectra of SW ion flux fluctuations in the range of scales between 0.03 and 100?s are systematically analysed. The difference of slopes in low- and high-frequency parts of spectra and the frequency of the break point between these two characteristic slopes was analysed for different conditions in the SW. The statistical properties of the SW ion flux fluctuations were thoroughly analysed on scales less than 10?s. A high level of intermittency is demonstrated. The extended self-similarity of SW ion flux turbulent flow is constantly observed. The approximation of non-Gaussian probability distribution function of ion flux fluctuations by the Tsallis statistics shows the non-extensive character of SW fluctuations. Statistical characteristics of ion flux fluctuations are compared with the predictions of a log-Poisson model. The log-Poisson parametrization of the structure function scaling has shown that well-defined filament-like plasma structures are, as a rule, observed in the turbulent SW flows. PMID:25848078

  14. Small Scale Turbopump Manufacturing Technology and Material Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Erika; Morgan, Kristin; Wells, Doug; Zimmerman, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As part of an internal research and development project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a high specific impulse 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine testbed with the capability to throttle 10:1. A Fuel Turbopump (FTP) with the ability to operate across a speed range of 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm was developed and analyzed. This small size and flight-like Fuel Turbopump has completed the design and analysis phase and is currently in the manufacturing phase. This paper highlights the manufacturing and processes efforts to fabricate an approximately 20-lb turbopump with small flow passages, intricately bladed components and approximately 3-in diameter impellers. As a result of the small scale and tight tolerances of the hardware on this turbopump, several unique manufacturing and material challenges were encountered. Some of the technologies highlighted in this paper include the use of powder metallurgy technology to manufacture small impellers, electron beam welding of a turbine blisk shroud, and casting challenges. The use of risk reduction efforts such as non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE), fractography, material testing, and component spin testing are also discussed in this paper.

  15. The Extreme Small Scales: Do Satellite Galaxies Trace Dark Matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Douglas F; McBride, Cameron K; Hogg, David W; Jiang, Tao

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the radial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos by modeling their small-scale clustering, as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Specifically, we model the Jiang et al. (2011) measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function down to very small projected separations (10 < r < 400 kpc/h), in a wide range of luminosity threshold samples (absolute r-band magnitudes of -18 up to -23). We use a halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework with free parameters that specify both the number and spatial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos. We assume that the first galaxy in each halo lives at the halo center and that additional satellite galaxies follow a radial density profile similar to the dark matter Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, except that the concentration and inner slope are allowed to vary. We find that in low luminosity samples, satellite galaxies have radial profiles that are consistent with NFW. M_r < -20 and bright...

  16. Small-scale spatial variations of shortwave downward radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Ralf; Gebauer, Petra; Behrens, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    DWD/Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg is operating a small-scale ground-based network of measurement sites for precipitation and shortwave radiation. The area is located roughly 60 km southeast of Berlin city. 8 measurement sites are equipped with high quality instruments CM21/CM11 by Kipp & Zonen. The quality assessment routinely applied takes into account the basic astronomical and empirical considerations as well as some interdependencies like total to diffuse flux ratio and cross checking with sunshine duration. Possible shading due to growing vegetation is taken into account, too. This is complemented by an approach that is utilizing time-series of clear sky radiative transfer simulations for every site. For that purpose a link to cloud coverage obtained from Meteosat second generation geostationary satellite data, highly resolved in time and space, was established. The paper provides an overview of the surface radiation network and the current activities to improve automatic quality assessment using remotely sensed data and clear sky modelling. First evaluation efforts cover up to 12 years of data.

  17. Calvin’s election mix in small-scale theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Loader

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how Calvin’s ideas about the Old Testament concept of Israel’s election can be dangerous when they are applied uncritically. The main illustration material is drawn from a context the author was himself part of, notably the South African apartheid theology of Calvinist provenance. The paper begins with documenting Calvin’s views on Israel and Israel’s election in the Old Testament, moving to a consideration of how this motif was connected to the idea of predestination and construed to become an instrument to defend apartheid in what may be called a substandard theology. It is suggested that a glance at the English-speaking world shows surprising similarities that justify further consideration. In this title several dimensions are present that need to be explicated.

    How to cite this article: Loader, J.A., 2009, ‘Calvin’s election mix in small-scale theology’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 65(1, Art. #337, 6 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v65i1.337

  18. Small?scale distribution of fish in offshore windfarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Sande; Stenberg, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about small?scale distribution of fish around turbines in offshore windfarms (OWF) remains relatively scarce. In the present study we used underwater video camera installations to access abundance of fish at 0, 25, and 50 m around the turbine foundations in Middelgrund and Lillgrund OWFs in Øresund between Denmark and Sweden in the period August–November 2011. Fish fauna in both localities were dominated in terms of numbers by two?spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). Average number of fish observed per hour was a factor 100 higher at Lillgrund and a factor of 2 higher at Middelgrund at 0 m from the turbine compared to 25 and 50 m away. At Lillgrund sediment was dominated by bare sand while Middelgrund had more heterogeneous sediment types with sand, boulder, pebbles, and dense eelgrass areas. This suggests that OWFs in areas with homogeneous sand sediment have a higher impact on fish fauna compared to OWFs in areas with heterogeneous sediment. Furthermore, the effect of OWFs on fish appears tobe of a much smaller scale than previously thought

  19. Structures and Intermittency in Small Scales Solar Wind Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several observations in space plasmas have reported the presence of coherent structures at different plasma scales. Structure formation is believed to result from nonlinear interactions between the plasma modes, which depend strongly on their phase synchronization. Despite this important role of the phases in turbulence, very limited work has been devoted to study the phases as potential tracers of nonlinearities in comparison with the wealth of literature on power spectra of turbulence where phases are totally missed. The reason why the phases are seldom used is probably because they usually appear to be completely mixed (due to their dependence on an arbitrary time origin and to 2? periodicity). To handle the phases properly, a new method based on using surrogate data has been developed recently to detect coherent structures in magnetized plasmas [Sahraoui, PRE, 2008]. Here, we show new applications of the technique to study the nature (weak vs strong, self-similar vs intermittent) of the small scale turbulence in the solar wind using the Cluster observations.

  20. An analytical model for small-scale rural bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaul, Mirco [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Energy Engineering and Centre for Technology and Society

    2011-07-01

    The strong international growth of agrofuels in the last decade brought the interest in bioenergy back on the agenda. While rural areas are typically highly dependent on bioenergy and have at the same time the largest biomass potentials, most approaches focus on large-scale production and processing of biomass for the energy demand of urban areas. This paper presents an analytical model for rural bioenergy supply pathways, which supports a simplified and manageable small-scale bioenergy planning. To this aim, different supply pathways are quantitatively compared by their conversion and cost efficiency to analyse technological feasibility and economical viability. The focus lies on the three basic rural service categories of lighting, cooking and motive power. Additionally, a set of criteria is developed to qualitatively discuss other effects on rural livelihood. The methodology is applied to a Jatropha project on the Indonesian island Sumbawa. Results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis are combined to evaluate different energy supply pathways. The paper concludes with a discussion of the proposed methodology. (orig.)

  1. On the `piston effect' in a small-scale gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manela, Avshalom; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas

    2007-11-01

    The `piston effect', the time response of a fluid to a change in the thermal properties of its boundaries, is studied for a gas confined in a small-scale (of the order of the mean free path) gap and subject to an instantaneous jump in the temperature of its boundaries. The problem is formulated for a collisionless gas in the case where the relative temperature change at each wall is small and independent of the other. An analytic solution for the probability density function is obtained and the respective hydrodynamic fields are calculated. It is found that the characteristic time scale for arriving at the new equilibrium state is of the order of several acoustic time scales. The results are compared with direct Monte Carlo simulations of the Boltzmann equation and a good agreement is found for nondimensional times (scaled by the acoustic time) not exceeding the system Knudsen number. Thus, the present analysis describes the early-time behaviour of systems of arbitrary size and may provide the initial behaviour in the counterpart continuum-limit problem.

  2. Performance of small-scale tidal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, J. A.; Smachlo, M. A.

    1983-12-01

    Small-scale tidal power plants - having electric power between 1 and 100 MW, approximately - possess several attractive economic and environmental benefits. The dynamical behavior of such systems is calculated in terms of dimensionless variables and parameters, so that the size of the system is inconsequential (except for one parameter related to the slope of the walls of the tidal basin). Two measures of system performance are defined: capacity factor (ratio of average to rated power) and effectiveness (ratio of average to ideal tidal power). It was found that improving both parameters is mutually incompatible so that an economic analysis will determine the optimum values of the system design and performance parameters. The effects of variation of tidal range and basin shape were determined. Using typical variable flow properties of low-head hydroturbines, a favorable design head could be determined from the analysis. It was found that the change in the area of the intertidal zone relative to the surface area of the tidal pond is greater for small, as compared to large, systems, possibly leading to proportionately greater environmental effects. A comparison of the performance of several tidal power plant designs with the methodology of this paper showed generally good agreement with the dimensionless performance parameters and only a modest difference among them over several orders of magnitude in size of power plant.

  3. Latent hardening size effect in small-scale plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aim at understanding the multislip behaviour of metals subject to irreversible deformations at small-scales. By focusing on the simple shear of a constrained single-crystal strip, we show that discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations predict a strong latent hardening size effect, with smaller being stronger in the range [1.5 µm, 6 µm] for the strip height. We attempt to represent the DD pseudo-experimental results by developing a flow theory of Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity (SGCP), involving both energetic and dissipative higher-order terms and, as a main novelty, a strain gradient extension of the conventional latent hardening. In order to discuss the capability of the SGCP theory proposed, we implement it into a Finite Element (FE) code and set its material parameters on the basis of the DD results. The SGCP FE code is specifically developed for the boundary value problem under study so that we can implement a fully implicit (Backward Euler) consistent algorithm. Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the role of the material length scales involved in the SGCP model, from both the mechanical and numerical points of view. (paper)

  4. Small scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Rohan E; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution broad-band filtergrams of active region NOAA 11271 in Ca ii H and G-band were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode to identify the physical driver responsible for the dynamic and small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge. We identified the jets in the Ca images using a semi-automatic routine. The chromospheric jets consist of a bright, triangular-shaped blob that lies on the light bridge, while the apex of this blob extends into a spike-like structure which is bright against the dark umbral background. The majority of the jets have apparent lengths of less than 1000 km and about 30% of them have lengths between 1000-1600 km. They are oriented within +/-35 deg. to the normal of the light bridge axis. A majority of them are clustered near the central part within a 2 arcsec wide area. The jets are seen to move rapidly along the light bridge and a majority of them cannot be identified in successive images taken with a 2 min cadence. The jets are primarily loc...

  5. Impact of small-scale geometric roughness on wetting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vaibhaw; Errington, Jeffrey R

    2013-09-24

    We examine the extent to which small-scale geometric substrate roughness influences the wetting behavior of fluids at solid surfaces. Molecular simulation is used to construct roughness wetting diagrams wherein the progression of the contact angle is traced from the Cassie to Wenzel to impregnation regime with increasing substrate strength for a collection of systems with rectangularly shaped grooves. We focus on the evolution of these diagrams as the length scale of the substrate features approaches the size of a fluid molecule. When considering a series of wetting diagrams for substrates with fixed shape and variable feature periodicity, we find that the diagrams progressively shift away from a common curve as the substrate features become smaller than approximately 10 fluid diameters. It is at this length scale that the macroscopic models of Cassie and Wenzel become unreliable. Deviations from the macroscopic models are attributed to the manner in which the effective substrate-fluid interaction strength evolves with periodicity and the important role that confinement effects play for substrates with small periodicities. PMID:24011170

  6. Structures and Intermittency in Small Scales Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Fouad; Goldstein, Melvyn

    2010-03-01

    Several observations in space plasmas have reported the presence of coherent structures at different plasma scales. Structure formation is believed to result from nonlinear interactions between the plasma modes, which depend strongly on their phase synchronization. Despite this important role of the phases in turbulence, very limited work has been devoted to study the phases as potential tracers of nonlinearities in comparison with the wealth of literature on power spectra of turbulence where phases are totally missed. The reason why the phases are seldom used is probably because they usually appear to be completely mixed (due to their dependence on an arbitrary time origin and to 2? periodicity). To handle the phases properly, a new method based on using surrogate data has been developed recently to detect coherent structures in magnetized plasmas [Sahraoui, PRE, 2008]. Here, we show new applications of the technique to study the nature (weak vs strong, self-similar vs intermittent) of the small scale turbulence in the solar wind using the Cluster observations.

  7. Configuration scheme for small scale Multi-FPGA systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengchang Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-FPGA systems have tremendous potential, providing a high-performance computing substrate for many different applications. These systems harness multiple FPGAs, connected in a fixed pattern, to implement complex logic structures.  In order to use such a system effectively, it is a key for constructing a good performance hardware platform. The configuration scheme is an important part in hardware design. This paper aims at small scale Multi-FPGA systems composed of SRAM-based FPGAs developed by Xilinx Corporation,  proposes a novel configuration technique by using Platform Flash PROM XCF32P. Using this scheme, only adopting one XCF32P and one Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD we can configure four FPGAs with monolithic configuration data smaller than 8Mbit. When the number of FPGA is more than four, Design revisioning allows the user to cascade more XCF32P PROMs to realize. Since Xilinx Platform PROM and Xilinx FPGA/CPLD are used to get a single-vender solution, the design for hardware and software is simplified.

  8. Observations of How Magnetofluid Turbulence Dissipates at Small Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Sahraoui, Fouad

    2012-01-01

    The solar wind is a turbulent magneto fluid that can be studied intensively at multiple scales. Investigations using single spacecraft have revealed much about the properties of the solar wind throughout the heliosphere (from 0.3 AU to 100 AU). More recently, data from multiple spacecraft have provided further details of both the statistical properties of the turbulence and its small-scale structure. In particular, high time resolution magnetic field measurements from the four Cluster spacecrafl have led to the conclusion that at spatial scales of order the proton inertial length and smaller, the turbulence becomes strongly anisotropic and the power in fluctuations that are perpendicular to the (local) magnetic field is measured to be much larger than that in fluctuations that are parallel to the magnetic field. As the spatial scales approach the electron inertial length, the power is almost completely dissipated. Various analysis techniques and theoretical ideas have been put forward to account for the properties of those measurements. The talk will describe the current state of observations, theory and simulations.

  9. Small-scale inviscid accretion discs around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Beloborodov, A M; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Illarionov, Andrei F.

    2000-01-01

    Gas falling quasi-spherically onto a Schwarzschild black hole can form an inner thin accretion disc if its specific angular momentum, $l$, exceeds $\\lmin\\approx 0.75r_gc$, where $r_g$ is the Schwarzschild radius. The standard disc model assumes $l\\gg\\lmin$. We argue that in many black-hole sources the accretion flows can have $l\\simgt\\lmin$, and assess the mechanism of accretion in this regime. In a range $\\lminsmall-scale disc forms in which gas overcomes the centrifugal barrier and spirals fast into the black hole without any help of horizontal viscous stresses. Such an ``inviscid'' disc, however, interacts inelastically with the infall feeding the disc, which leads to energy dissipation. This interaction determines the disc dynamics and luminosity. We find the radiative efficiency of this accretion regime to be comparable with the efficiency of the standard disc. The maximum radius of the fast inviscid disc is $r_{\\rm max}\\approx 2\\lcr^2/r_gc^2\\sim 14 r_g$, and the energy release peaks at...

  10. Small scale turbulence in a plane mixing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Judith Kathleen

    1994-03-01

    Two measures of small scale turbulence, viscous dissipation and a direct count of the random fine eddies which dissipate energy, were correlated to the large scale coherent motions in a plane mixing layer. Experiments were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel at moderate Reynolds number with laminar boundary layers separating from both the high and low speed sides. Extensive x- and parallel-wire measurements yielded three-component velocity data taken point by point in a plane normal to the freestream. The location of the large scale coherent motions was determined by spatially differentiating the long-time averages of these data. The primary spanwise vortex was identified from Delta U/Delta y while the secondary streamwise ribs were obtained from Delta V/Delta z, where Delta y and Delta z represent the spacing between data points in the cross-stream and spanwise directions, respectively. It will be demonstrated how Delta U/Delta z identifies the rib locations, as well. The data, moreover, were taken so that the fine-scale eddies, those whose length scale corresponds exactly to the peak in the 3-D dissipation spectrum, were resolved both spatially and temporally. These 'dissipative' eddies were identified by a novel technique, the peak-valley-counting (PVC) method. Several of the viscous dissipation terms were also calculated. The fine-scale eddy population distributions and the measures of viscous dissipation correlated extremely well. Indeed, the 'dissipative' eddies dissipate the energy, and the PVC method identifies them. Both sets of distributions peak in the core of the spanwise vortex, and are independent of the streamwise ribs at this downstream location.

  11. Gas explosion characterization, wave propagation (small-scale experiments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of experiments have been performed with blast waves arising from the ignition of homogeneous and well defined mixtures of methane, oxygen and nitrogen, contained within spherical balloons with controlled initial dimensions. In the initial small scale experiments pressure characteristics, ground reflection phenomena and pressure distribution on box like obstacles were studied. Both configurations with one box and two closely spaced boxes have been considered, and a wave-wave interaction phenomenom was observed in the case of closely spaced obstacles. Main emphasis has been placed on the half scale field experiments. In these, the maximum flame speed has been of the order of 100 m/s, resulting in positive peak pressures of 50-100.102Pa in 5 - 10 m distance from the source. The explosion process was found to be reasonable symmetric. The attenuation of the blast wave due to vegetation and the influence of obstacles as banks, walls and houses on the pressure field have been investigated. The presence of the bank and the house was felt in a zone with a length corresponding to a typical dimension of the obstacles, whereas the overall pressure field is shown to be unaffected by the type of obstacles and vegetation investigated. For the wall and house, reflection factors have been established, and some variation over the surface has been measured. The scatter of the pressure measurements is estimated for stable, neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions, and an attempt to determine the ground reflection factor has been performed. Finally the accelerations of a house exposed to the blast wave have been examined

  12. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

  13. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Thermalhydraulic analysis of small-scale tube rupture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillotine failure of a rupturing pressure tube is an accident situation currently being investigated in the safety analysis of CANDU reactors. One of the reasons for initiating the investigation was to determine the major factors controlling the onset of guillotine failure. As part of this program, small-scale rupture tests using fuel sheaths have been performed and numerically simulated. The fluid dynamic aspects of rupturing fuel sheaths simulated with a multi-dimensional prototype of the two-fluid thermalhydraulic code CATHENA are described in this paper. The results of the numerical simulations were examined by observing the behaviour of pressure transients of the fluid inside the tube during the rupture. A parametric study was first performed to determine optimum model conditions for two-dimensional simulations. Results from CATHENA simulations using these conditions were then compared with experimental data. Calculations were also extended to a three-dimensional thermalhydraulic analysis. This paper describes the results of the parametric and comparative studies. The effect of varying the simulation conditions on calculated pressure transients is also described. Although agreement between simulated results and experimental data was found to be good, some discrepancies were noted and are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of the three-dimensional study are also presented. This investigation has been successful in demonstrating a method that can be used to emonstrating a method that can be used to enhance the understanding of the behaviour of pressure-tube rupture under accident conditions. Areas in which the numerical analysis could be advanced to further the understanding of rupturing pressure tubes are provided. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Adoption of Improved Agroforestry Technologies among Contact Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agomuo Florence Ozioma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the adoption of improved agroforestry technologies among farmers in Imo State. To achieve the study objectives, structured questionnaire were designed and administered to ninety farmers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC. Findings shows that the farmers were mainly small scale middle aged married men with secondary education and no access to credit. The average house hold size, farming experience and annual income of the farmers were 6 person, 15.5 years and N 148, 255.6 respectively with two contacts with extension agents on monthly basis. The results indicated that the farmers were largely aware of Gnetum Africana and have adopted plantain/banana technology. The mean adoption rate of agroforestry technologies was 33.81%. The main determinants of the adoption were farmers’ age, educational level, farm size, income, access to credit and extension contact as this variables were all significant. Apart from age of the farmers which was negatively related to adoption of agroforestry technologies all other variables mentioned affected the adoption rate of agroforestry technologies positively. Based on the findings, it was strongly recommended that farmers be provided with loans at concessionary interest rates to solve their financial problem of adopting innovations.

  16. Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution ocean color observation offers an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data are used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of the order of 10 km are frequently observed during upwelling season of each year over 2004–2009. These small-scale eddies are generated in the vici...

  17. An Investigation of Innovation in Small Scale Industries Located in Science Parks of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Fazlzadeh; Mostafa Moshiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades with increasing of global economic competition, small scale industries have known as aneconomic growth engine and a tool for employment so they have important role in growth and development ofcountries. The importance small scale industries of is its need more investment for their survival and competitioncapability than big firms to new products and processes. Therefore, small scale industries are a potential resourcefor achieving new ideas and innovation. Previous studies o...

  18. A Discussion on the Crisis Management of Small Scale Thermal Power Plant Basing on Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shijun Yang; Dongxiao Niu; Yongli Wang

    2009-01-01

    The strategy of sustainable development is one of the two important strategies for Chinese economic development. The present small scale thermal power plants cause much pollution, and consume too much energy, so they are being confronted with the crises of existence and management. Accordingly, it is urgent for small scale thermal power plants to carry out study on the crisis management about their own existence and development. Starting with the deficiencies of small scale thermal power plan...

  19. ?????????????? The Model of Price Adjustment Mechanisms Focus on Small-Scale Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????In recent years, prices of Chinese small-scale agricultural product market careen a larger fluctuation, which has seriously affected China’s small-scale agricultural products market’s stability. This paper focuses on building a mechanism to indicate the price movements of agricultural products. Especially in the event of ab- normal phenomenon of prices’ shock, using price adjustment mechanism to ensure that the price level of small- scale agricultural products remain relatively stable condition.

  20. Small-Scale Forest Ownership across Europe: Characteristics and Future Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersum, K. F.; Elands, B. H. M.; Hoogstra, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of small-scale forest ownership means different things to different people in different countries. Traditionally, within Europe, many small-scale forest owners were economically dependent on their forests, either for home or commercial use, usually linked with farming activities. However, many small-scale forest owners are no longer economically dependent on their forests and these owners appear to increasingly focus their management on amenity functions rather than on production ...

  1. Eating Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Healthy Share This Page: Eating Healthy Resources Eating Healthy Eating healthy is part of living a healthy life. Healthy eating is a responsibility of our communities, schools, clinics, ...

  2. Beyond the field : Impact of Farmer Field Schools on food security and poverty alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LilleØr, Helene Bie; Larsen, Anna Folke

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the impact of a farmer field school intervention among small scale farmers in Northers Tanzania. Unlike previous farmer field school evaluations, we go beyond the immediate agricultural impact and estimate the impact of farmer field school participation in the pre-specified development objects, namely poverty alleviation and food security among participating households. We wxploit the implementation design of a gradual project roll-out to establish a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference setup, which can account for potential selection info the project, both at village and household level, despite the lack of baseline data. we find strong positive effects on measures of food security, but we find no effect on the poverty indicators. We investigate possible mechanisms for this and conclude that both reallocation of labor ressources and improved production smoothing among participation households may, in part, lead to this finding.

  3. Small-scale soil moisture determination with GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Jan; Preetz, Holger

    2010-05-01

    The knowledge of topsoil moisture distribution is an important input for modelling water flow and evapotranspiration which are essential processes in hydrology, meteorology, and agriculture. All these processes involve non-linear effects and thus the small-scale variability of input parameters play an important role. Using smoothed interpolations instead can cause significant biases. Lateral soil moisture distribution can be sensed by different techniques at various scales whereby geophysical methods provide spatial information which closes the gap between point measurements by classical soil scientific methods and measurements on the field or regional scale by remote sensing. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to explore soil moisture on the field scale as propagation of electromagnetic waves is correlated to soil water content. By determining the velocity of the ground wave, which is a guided wave travelling along the soil surface, we can sense soil water content. This method has been applied to determine topsoil moisture for several years. We present a new groundwave technique which determines the velocity in between two receiving antennas which enables a higher lateral resolution (approx. 10 cm) compared to classical groundwave technique (half meter and more). We present synthetic data from finite-differences (FD) calculations as well as data from a sandbox experiment carried out under controlled conditions to demonstrate the performance of this method. Further, we carried out field measurements on two sites on a sandy soil which is used as grassland. The measurements were carried out in late summer at dry soil conditions. Soil moisture on the first site shows an isotropic pattern with correlation lengths of approx. 35 cm. We think this natural pattern is governed by rout distribution within the soil and the water uptake of vegetation. On the second site, soil moisture distribution shows a regular stripe pattern. As the land has been used as agricultural crop land until two years before the measurements were carried out, this anisotropy is obviously caused by the former cultivation of the land. Finally, we present a second technique to determine moisture of the topsoil by GPR using the same principle as remote sensing: the reflection of electromagnetic waves at the soil surface and determination of reflection amplitude. We use a 1 GHz horn antenna that is operated 0.5 m above the ground surface. As this method is based on a completely different physical principle than the first one, it provides an independent revision of our results. Even though, lateral resolution is not that high as when using the groundwave technique and the depth of investigation is not exactly the same, we get similar results showing the same pattern and characteristics at both sites.

  4. Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, Maria

    2002-05-01

    A small-scale stratified down draft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The CO content of the product gas (23-26 % vol.) is higher than in similar gasifiers and the H{sub 2} content has been found to vary between 14 and 16 % vol. The tar content in the product gas (Ca. 3 g/Nm{sup 3}) is rather high compared with similar gasifiers. The temperature profile, together with other relevant parameters like the air-excess ratio, the air to fuel ratio and gas to fuel ratio have been calculated. The experiments show that the air excess ratio is rather constant, varying between 0,25 and 0,3. Experiments have been conducted with a gas engine using mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as a fuel. NO{sub x} and CO emissions are analysed. The char gasification process has been studied in detail by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis. The study comprises the chemical kinetics of the gasification reactions of wood char in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, including the inhibition effect of CO and H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics has been found which relates the mass loss rate to the temperature, gas composition and degree of conversion for each reaction. The ratio CO/CO{sub 2} has been found to be a relevant parameter for reactivity. The gasification experiments in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O give reasons to believe that the rate of desorption for the complex C(O) varies depending on the gas mixture surrounding the char. It has been found that if the experimental data are obtained from separate H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} experiments, the reactivity of the char in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O can be fairly predicted. (author)

  5. Small-scale Geothermal Power Plants Using Hot Spring Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosha, T.; Osato, K.; Kiuchi, T.; Miida, H.; Okumura, T.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-12-01

    The installed capacity of the geothermal power plants has been summed up to be about 515MW in Japan. However, the electricity generated by the geothermal resources only contributes to 0.2% of the whole electricity supply. After the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of north-eastern Japan on Friday, March 11, 2011, the Japanese government is encouraging the increase of the renewable energy supply including the geothermal. It needs, however, more than 10 years to construct the geothermal power plant with more than 10MW capacity since the commencement of the development. Adding the problem of the long lead time, high temperature fluid is mainly observed in the national parks and the high quality of the geothermal resources is limited. On the other hand hot springs are often found. The utilisation of the low temperature hot water becomes worthy of notice. The low temperature hot water is traditionally used for bathing and there are many hot springs in Japan. Some of the springs have enough temperature and enthalpy to turn the geothermal turbine but a new technology of the binary power generation makes the lower temp fluid to generate electricity. Large power generators with the binary technology are already installed in many geothermal fields in the world. In the recent days small-scale geothermal binary generators with several tens to hundreds kW capacity are developed, which are originally used by the waste heat energy in an iron factory and so on. The newly developed binary unit is compact suitable for the installation in a Japanese inn but there are the restrictions for the temperature of the hot water and the working fluid. The binary power unit using alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon as the working fluid is relatively free from the restriction. KOBELCO, a company of the Kobe Steel Group, designed and developed the binary power unit with an alternative for chlorofluorocarbon. The unit has a 70 MW class electric generator. Three units have been installed in Obama Hot Spring area, Nagasaki Prefecture, where about 15,000 tonnes of hot water are produced in a day and more than 35% of the hot water flow directly to the sea. Another demonstration experiments are also conducted in several hot spring areas. In this study we will review several examples to utilise low temperature hot springs in Japan. Binary Power Unit at Obama (Fujino, 2013)

  6. Experimental investigations of the vertically loaded small scale bored piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazachev Anton Olegovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, while evaluating bored piles load capacity in clay soils by CPT data, the depth of active area below the end face plane, within which the averaging of CPT values takes place, is taken as different in different Codes. Thus, for instance, in native Codes and Recommendations the depth of active area is taken from 2 to 4 pile diameters. In foreign Codes such as Belorussian, the depth of active area is taken up to 4 pile diameters and in European Codes - within 0,8-4 pile diameters. In order to specify the regularities of active area forming at different stages of loading, in-situ experimental investigations of large scale models have been carried out. At the test site, two small scale bored piles with the diameter of 130 mm were penetrated into the soil to the depth of 1100 m. The investigations were carried out in two stages: the first - pile static test with measuring of soil vertical displacements with the help of deep marks; the second - digging out soil around the pile and soil sampling at different depths. According to the results of the investigations carried out, the depth of the active area while reaching the limit state was determined to be about two pile diameters. With significant pile settlements (more than 0,58 d, the dimensions of this area do not exceed three pile diameters below the end face plane, and two diameters to the side from the pile axis. Within the lateral surface the significant variation of soil physical characteristics appears to be at the distance not less than 0,4 pile diameter from the lateral surface. Due to investigations’ results, it can be noted that in case of bored pile load less than the limit one, the depth of the active area is about two pile diameters. When the pile reaches its limit state, that provokes significant settlements, zone of compaction does not exceed three diameters to the depth and two diameters to the side from the pile axis.

  7. Small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Rohan E.; Beck, Christian; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2014-07-01

    Context. The chromosphere above sunspot umbrae and penumbrae shows several different types of fast dynamic events such as running penumbral waves, umbral flashes, and penumbral microjets. Aims: The aim of this paper is to identify the physical driver responsible for the dynamic and small-scale chromospheric jets above a sunspot light bridge. Methods: High-resolution broadband filtergrams of active region NOAA 11271 in Ca ii H and G band were obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. We identified the jets in the Ca ii H images using a semi-automatic routine and determined their length and orientation. We applied local correlation tracking (LCT) to the G-band images to obtain the photospheric horizontal velocity field. The magnetic field topology was derived from a Milne-Eddington inversion of a simultaneous scan with the Spectropolarimeter. Results: The chromospheric jets consist of a bright, triangular-shaped blob that lies on the light bridge, while the apex of this blob extends into a spike-like structure that is bright against the dark umbral background. Most of the jets have apparent lengths of less than 1000 km and about 30% of the jets have lengths between 1000-1600 km. The jets are oriented within ±35° to the normal of the spine of the light bridge. Most of them are clustered near the central part of the light bridge within a 2'' area. The jets are seen to move rapidly along the light bridge and many of them cannot be identified in successive images taken with a 2 min cadence. The jets are primarily located on one side of the light bridge and are directed into the umbral core. The Stokes profiles at or close to the location of the blobs on the LB exhibit both a significant net circular polarization and multiple components, including opposite-polarity lobes. The magnetic field diverges from the light bridge towards the umbral cores that it separates. The LCT reveals that in the photosphere there is a predominantly uni-directional flow with speeds of 100-150 m s-1 along the light bridge. This unidirectional flow is interrupted by a patch of weak or very small motions on the light bridge which also moves along the light bridge. Conclusions: The dynamic short-lived chromospheric jets above the LB seem to be guided by the magnetic field lines. Reconnection events are a likely trigger for such phenomenon since they occur at locations where the magnetic field changes orientation sharply and where we also observe isolated patches of opposite-polarity magnetic components. We find no clear relation between the jets and the photospheric flow pattern.

  8. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

  9. FARMERS SUICIDE : CAUSES & REMEDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Pimple, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the today economical structure creating paradox or line “Excellent far, medium business and subordinate service. Since ancient age in India most of changes in political views but in Rural society and economical system of self sufficient and self-dependence intact till Britisher arrival. In British rule drain process Rural aria and destroy the farms, and related Business on the farm are destroy. In this period most of the farmer expoted by the natural adversity and critica...

  10. Beyond the field : Impact of Farmer Field Schools on food security and poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; LilleØr, Helene Bie

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the impact of a Farmer Field School intervention among small-scale farmers in northern Tanzania on two main development objectives: food security and poverty. We employ a series of evaluation methodologies, including a Quasi-Difference-in-Difference setup, to account for potential selection into the project, despite lack of baseline data. We find strong positive effects on food security, but no effect on poverty. Investigating possible mechanisms for this result shows that reallocation of labor resources toward own agricultural production and improved production smoothing may have led to improved food security while poverty remained unaffected.

  11. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  12. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  13. Danish farmer’s perception of GM-crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØndergaard, Janus; Pedersen, SØren Marcus

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study of 185 farmer’s perception of GM-crops in Denmark. The respondent’s attitude to GM-crops mainly reflects a conservative view of the adoption of GM-crops. Among farmers only the exciting crops in rotation is seen as their future potential GM-crops. Findings from this study show that more the 60 pct do not expect any or less than 13 EUR increase in gross margins on their farms from adopting GM-crops. This assessment illustrates that the farmers regard the GM-crops more as a way of ‘staying in business” than a technology to increase their profits.

  14. Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teshome, W.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopia. Although governments have been involved in the construction of irrigation infrastructures since the mid-1980s to mitigate drought and famine in many parts ofEthiopia, the responses of irrigators to such interventions have never been studied. The main concern of this study therefore is to document how irrigation intervention interfaces with the life-worlds of small-scale irr...

  15. The risks of inclusion: shifts in governance processes and upgrading opportunities for cocoa farmers in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Laven, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD study provides a detailed description and analysis of upgrading opportunities for small-scale cocoa farmers in Ghana. It shows how and why producers do, or do not, benefit from being inserted in a global value chain that is increasingly driven by multinational cocoa processors and chocolate manufacturers. The study contributes to the recent discussions on hybrid governance structures, in which both public and private actors play a role. Ghana provides a unique case because, unlike...

  16. Climate Kids: Farmer's Market Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this career-oriented interview, readers are introduced to the manager of several farmer's markets in Portland, Oregon. Following a brief description of his job and the general operations of a farmer’s market, he explains why these venues are beneficial to the vendors, the customers and the environment. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

  17. Factors affecting farmers networking decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pascucci, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses farmers' decisions to carry out transactions by using three different types of networks: input supply cooperatives, processing and/or marketing cooperatives, and producers associations. We use arguments from economic sociology and new institutional economics to define the main factors affecting farmers' networking decisions, namely relational, asset and location specificity. We applied a multivariate probit (MVP) model to a sample of 15,368 Italian farmers recorded in the ...

  18. Farmer Ted Goes Natural

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Greg

    1998-01-01

    A traditional "Farmer Ted" calculus problem is to minimize the perimeter of a rectangular chicken coop given the area N, so that as little as possible will be spent on the fencing. But what if N is an integer, and we are only allowed to consider rectangles with integer side lengths? Often it will be more cost-effective to build a coop with area smaller than N, where the measure of cost-effectiveness is the ratio of the area to the perimeter. Those numbers N that are the area...

  19. Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution ocean color observations offer an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data were used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of 10 km are frequently observed during the upwelling season of each year over the 2004-2009 period. These small-scale eddies were generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagated eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed was consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies kept the high levels of phytoplankton rotating away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current became a meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along the cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

  20. Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ocean color observation offers an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS daily 300 m data are used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of the order of 10 km are frequently observed during upwelling season of each year over 2004–2009. These small-scale eddies are generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagate eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s?1. This propagation speed is consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies keep rotating high levels of the phytoplankton away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticylconic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current become meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

  1. Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas; Smaaskalig uppgradering och foeraedling av biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Helena; Mccann, Michael; Westman, Johan (Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas is a report which aims to compile the state of knowledge in small-scale biogas upgrading. The project have been a collaboration with Agrovaest and Energy Farm and was funded by the Foundation for Agricultural Research, Western Goetaland and the Agriculture Department. The technology available for small scale upgrade has been examined from the technical and economic standpoint. An economic comparison has been made and the production of upgraded biogas has been estimated for different raw gas flows. The work also contains information related to biogas production, upgrading and a comparison of liquid biogas, DME and Ecopar-diesel

  2. Farmer’s union and the economic sustainability of cocoa farmers in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrose Kwankam, Njila

    2013-01-01

    This research on the activities and rule of cocoa farmers unions and organizations in Cameroon and the impact on cocoa farming, I will be looking at cocoa farmers unions in Cameroon and what they do to improve on the quality of cocoa farming while looking at how they have helped to make cocoa farming more economically profitable for farmers. The worry is that cocoa farmers in Cameroon take the activity as professional but are not able to produce on a mega scale and therefore cannot or find i...

  3. An Appraisal of Farmer Variety Selection in Drought Prone Areas and Its Implication to Breeding for Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Mhike

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize production and productivity among small scale farmers of southern Africa is limited mainly by drought and low soil fertility. This study aimed at assessing how farmers prioritize selection of varieties for planting under drought stress and how this could help improve the breeding approaches for varieties for resource constrained farmers in marginal environments. A survey was conducted in two drought prone districts of Zimbabwe. Data collection was done using a structured questionnaire, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The study revealed that farmers have limited options for drought tolerant varieties available on the market. Contrary to breeders, farmers in drought prone areas do not consider disease resistance as an important trait. The farmer preferred traits include, high yield potential, drought tolerance, early maturity, and good performance even under poor soil conditions. Drought tolerance associated traits such as resistance to leaf rolling, tassel blast, general plant recovery to stress and stay green characteristics were identified as the most important traits but most of the varieties currently available on the market do not have these traits. The farmers were willing to make trade-offs among traits like taste or disease resistance for increased yield potential when selecting varieties to grow. Traits preferences or ranking and possible trade-offs were specific to specific areas and groups of farmers. In this study farmers still planted the traditional varieties or landraces because they are drought tolerant, taste better and can be propagated from farm saved seed. These findings show that farmers have limited options on drought tolerant varieties on the market and that scientists need to tap into farmer knowledge, especially on possible trade offs, trait ranking and germplasm for use in developing better adapted varieties which are specific to target farmers. Policies and seed systems analysis on variety availability, distribution and marketing channels also need to be strengthened.

  4. Growth and Efficiency of Small Scale Industry and its Impact on Economic Development of Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali Junejo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the growth, efficiency, causes of sickness of small scale industry, emergence of entrepreneur and competencies of entrepreneurs at Larkana estate area of Sindh Province. The study examines the educational background of the entrepreneurs of small scale industry who are the helm of affairs and its impact on the growth of sales of the every year. Strong evidence emerges that owners of small industrial units are family concern and having a low educational background, lack of managerial knowledge and conservation-oriented attitude results in under utilization of capacity and low growth of units established every year. This research paper provides a survey of the theoretical and empirical literature relating to promote the small scale industry in the Larkana region. This study indicates effective policy measures to promote the small scale industry particularly in Larkana region and generally in Pakistan.

  5. Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburjania, G.

    2009-04-01

    EGU2009-233 Nonlinear Generation of shear flows and large scale magnetic fields by small scale turbulence in the ionosphere by G. Aburjania Contact: George Aburjania, g.aburjania@gmail.com,aburj@mymail.ge

  6. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  7. Small-scale production and use of wood fuels. Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Small-scale production and use of wood fuels' technology research programme is targeting to develop solutions which are economically competitive, reliable and acceptable in terms of emissions as regards small-scale (usually under 1 MW) wood fuel production, storage, processing, distribution and heat production. The programme aims to: 1. Develop technologies for the export market in the field of small-scale wood fuel production and use. 2. Strengthen the expertise of SMEs both in R and D and business operations. 3. Facilitate the networking of companies. 4. Improve international connections with similar companies and research institutes in order to exchange and boost specialist skills and knowledge.5. Enhance regional expertise through cooperation between the National Technology Agency and other operators. The programme supports the National Climate Strategy objective of developing competitive technological solutions to increase the small-scale use of wood by 45% by 2010

  8. A new framework for analyzing the effects of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett's formulation of the "shortwave approximation", which we generalize to analyze the effects of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a "background metric", but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small scale inhomogeneities can have on the dynamics of the background metric is to provide an "effective stress-energy tensor" that is traceless and has positive energy density---corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy....

  9. Analysis of Labour Supply & Use in Small Scale Farming In Ikwuano/Umuahia L.G.A. of Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonah, Ikoku John

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the supply and utilisation of labour resources among farmers in Ikwuano-Umuahia Local Government Area of Abia State. A total of 175 small scale farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with the use of structured questionnaires in five out of the nine autonomous communities that make up the local government area. The data collected were analysed and the results showed that average family labour force of 200 man days was not enough to cultivate the average farm size of 2.158 hectares. Labour shortage exists. Farmers are making up for this shortage by using communal and hired labour. Each farmer uses on the average 48.0 mandays of communal labour and 222.24 mandays of hired labour in order to cultivate the average farm size. Shortage of farm labour was found to be due to increasing rate of migration of rural labour force to the urban centres, non-farm employment, non-availability of saving technologies e.g. fertilizers etc.. A labour demand function was estimated against the following independent variables: Wage rate, farm size ,cost of capital, cost of other inputs, family labour in mandays, communal labour and hired labour in mandays. The result showed that farm size, family labour, communal labour and hired labour were all significant while the other independent variables though not significant, have signs which agree with economic theory. Based on the findings of the analysis, some recommendations were made namely reducing drastically the rate of migration of rural labour force by embarking on rural development projects, provision of labour saving technologies.

  10. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaiu, Marian; Lapusan, Alexandra; Mihaiu, Romolica; Dan, Sorin D.; Jecan, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its? product?s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating it...

  11. Marketing strategy for retailing small-scale wind energy turbines in Indian markets

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The study analyzes the small-scale wind energy markets in Mumbai, focusing on questions: How feasible is the wind energy for SME businesses in Mumbai, and what are the main challenges and opportunities of small-scale wind energy in Mumbai? The study is a qualitative case study, in which, the data has been collected through observing the markets by visiting wind energy sites and companies, interviewing and meeting potential customers and other stakeholders in the market. Theoretical frame...

  12. GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50) small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significant...

  13. Application of Heterogeneous Catalysis in Small-Scale Biomass Combustion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Thiel; Mirjam Matthes; Ingo Hartmann; Saad Butt; René Bindig

    2012-01-01

    Combustion of solid biomass fuels for heat generation is an important renewable energy resource. The major part among biomass combustion applications is being played by small-scale systems like wood log stoves and small wood pellet burners, which account for 75% of the overall biomass heat production. Despite an environmentally friendly use of renewable energies, incomplete combustion in small-scale systems can lead to the emission of environmental pollutants as well as substances which are h...

  14. Small scale fisheries in Europe: A comparative analysis based on a selection of case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Guyader, Olivier; Berthou, Patrick; Koutsikopoulos, Constantin; Alban, Frederique; Demaneche, Sebastien; Gaspar, M. B.; Eschbaum, R.; Fahy, E.; Tully, O.; Reynal, Lionel; Curtil, Olivier; Frangoudes, Katia; Maynou, F.

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries have traditionally received less research effort than large-scale fisheries and are generally under-studied in Europe. In spite of their comparatively low volume of catches and economic importance, small-scale fisheries are socially important and an integral part of the European coastal zone. Considering the high heterogeneity of situations and the paucity of quantitative data, we used an analytical methodology based on the comparative method. We carried out an analysis ...

  15. Measuring capacity and capacity utilization in small-scale fisheries in Nha Trang

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Thi Hien

    2011-01-01

    To develop effective capacity management programs, it is significant to evaluate and control the fishing capacity and its utilization in order to reduce overcapacity and excess capacity and create a stable development of marine resources. This study estimate fishing capacity and capacity utilization (CU) for the multi-species small- scale trawlers in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Data were collected through a survey of 65 small-scale trawler owners in two years 2005 and 2006. Using a mathematical progr...

  16. Lensing dispersion of SNIa and small scales of the primordial power spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-dayan, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Probing the primordial power spectrum at small scales is crucial for discerning inflationary models, especially if BICEP2 results are confirmed. We demonstrate this necessity by briefly reviewing single small field models that give a detectable gravitational waves signal, thus being degenerate with large field models on CMB scales. A distinct prediction of these small field models is an enhancement of the power spectrum at small scales, lifting up the degeneracy. We propose ...

  17. Women's occupational health working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, S.

    2011-01-01

    In developing economies women’s contributions are in agriculture. Trends indicate that women’s participation in small-scale agriculture is increasing. On the Makhatini Flats in northern KwaZulu-Natal intensive small-scale farming takes place with > 4 000 women involved. A cross-sectional study on the Irrigation Scheme and Drylands areas of the Makhatini Flats described and compared occupational activities, crop production, pesticide use and adverse health outcomes among women working in s...

  18. Performance limitations and improvements of small-scale free-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hottinen, Tero

    2004-01-01

    Fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy of fuel directly into electricity and heat without combustion with flame. The range of potential applications is from small-scale portable electronics to transportation and large-scale power production. An interesting approach for small-scale applications are free-breathing fuel cells, i.e. cells that take the oxygen needed in the reactions passively from ambient air. This thesis concentrates on performance limitations c...

  19. The Opacity of the Intergalactic Medium During Reionization: Resolving Small-Scale Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Emberson, J. D.; Thomas, Rajat M.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    Early in the reionization process, the intergalactic medium (IGM) would have been quite inhomogeneous on small scales, due to the low Jeans mass in the neutral IGM and the hierarchical growth of structure in a cold dark matter Universe. This small-scale structure acted as an important sink during the epoch of reionization, impeding the progress of the ionization fronts that swept out from the first sources of ionizing radiation. Here we present results of high-resolution cos...

  20. Smallholder farmers' attitudes toward the provision of drinking water for dairy cows in Kagera, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Barbara; Kepe, Thembela

    2015-02-01

    Agriculture's large share of Tanzanian GDP and the large percentage of rural poor engaged in the sector make it a focus for many development projects that see it as an area of attention for reducing rural poverty. This paper uses a case of the Kamachumu community, where a dairy cow loan project was implemented using the heifer-in-trust (HIT) model. This study finds that productivity is limited by how the cows are being managed, particularly with many animals not having ad lib access to drinking water. The paper explores reasons why farmers do or do not provide their cows with unlimited access to drinking water. The study concludes that there are many barriers farmers face, including water accessibility, education and training, infrastructure, simple negligence, and security. These results suggest an increase in extension services and national and local livestock policies that consider the specific realities of small-scale dairy farmers. PMID:25433649

  1. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITIES AND FOOD SECURITY AMONG FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnanna M. AGWU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analysed income inequalities and food security status of farmers in South Eastern Nigeria, using Abia State. Specifically, the study accessed the income inequalities of the farmers; determine the food security status of the farmers; estimate the factors that influence food security among the farmers in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of location and 180 respondents used for the study. The study employed Gini-coefficient, food security index and multiple regressions in the analysis of the data collected. Result shows that Gini coefficient value was 0.67, showing that there was high income inequality in the study area. Majority of the respondents, constituting about 68.57 percent were food insecurity in the study area. The regression results showed that age of the household head, educational attainment of the household head and monthly income of the head were the major determinants of food security status in the study area. The study recommends that government policies targeted at farmers should be strengthened, in order to bridge the gap in farmers’ income. Government should also create opportunities for small scale businesses to flourish in ural areas. This will provide the people the much needed income, amongst other things.

  2. Farm, household, and farmer characteristics associated with changes in management practices and technology adoption among dairy smallholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Ugoretz, Sarah Janes; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Wattiaux, Michel André

    2015-02-01

    This study explored whether technology adoption and changes in management practices were associated with farm structure, household, and farmer characteristics and to identify processes that may foster productivity and sustainability of small-scale dairy farming in the central highlands of Mexico. Factor analysis of survey data from 44 smallholders identified three factors-related to farm size, farmer's engagement, and household structure-that explained 70 % of cumulative variance. The subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis yielded three clusters. Cluster 1 included the most senior farmers with fewest years of education but greatest years of experience. Cluster 2 included farmers who reported access to extension, cooperative services, and more management changes. Cluster 2 obtained 25 and 35 % more milk than farmers in clusters 1 and 3, respectively. Cluster 3 included the youngest farmers, with most years of education and greatest availability of family labor. Access to a network and membership in a community of peers appeared as important contributors to success. Smallholders gravitated towards easy to implement technologies that have immediate benefits. Nonusers of high investment technologies found them unaffordable because of cost, insufficient farm size, and lack of knowledge or reliable electricity. Multivariate analysis may be a useful tool in planning extension activities and organizing channels of communication to effectively target farmers with varying needs, constraints, and motivations for change and in identifying farmers who may exemplify models of change for others who manage farms that are structurally similar but performing at a lower level. PMID:25404038

  3. Technology Awareness and Farmers Perception in Adoption of Wheat Production Technologies: Case Study in Njoro and Rongai Divisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in Kenya but its production has not been able to meet high demand, since production is only fifty percent. The shortfall is supplemented by importation. The purpose of this study was to assess and describe farmers' perception on adoption of wheat production technologies in Njoro and Rongai divisions. One hundred and fifty (150) wheat farmers were randomly selected using stratified proportional random sampling technique. The data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. farmers perception in wheat production is favourable with 80.2% agreeing that it access to credits by farmers. This was only possible to 7.3% of the farmers. above 90% of the farmers in the two divisions exist. Farmers' perception for small-scale 3.25% as higher than 2.75% for large-scale wheat farmers with t-test-2.21 at ?=0.05 for pest and disease control.s Education level and farm size significantly affected adoption, while gender and age were not significant

  4. Healthy Eyes, Healthy Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyes and body healthy. How to Use the Curriculum The first chapter of this curriculum is an ... to the eye and health. Who is this Curriculum For? This curriculum is designed for multiple uses, ...

  5. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  6. The combined effect of plate motions and small-scale convection on mantle stirring efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    samuel, H.; King, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth's mantle convection generates large scale, vigorous motions often thought to be the primary mechanism of mantle mixing. However, additional thermal instabilities may progressively develop below the lithospheric plates, leading to smaller scale convective motions. While there is a growing body of evidence supporting the presence of small-scale convective motions in the Earth's mantle, little is known about its contribution to the stirring of mantle heterogeneities. We therefore investigated the influence of small-scale convection on mantle stirring efficiency using numerical models of infinite Prandtl number convection with imposed surface ridge motion. We measured stirring efficiency using Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents, and we systematically varied the aspect ratio of the convective domain, and the plate Péclet number, Pe, which expresses the ridge half-spreading rate. For moderate Pe numbers, small-scale convection is well developed. However, at larger Pe numbers the development of small-scale convection is gradually inhibited. Mantle motion is closely related to its stirring efficiency. The coupled contribution of small scale convection and plate-driven flow to the efficiency of stirring leads to a non-monotone relationship between ridge spreading rates and mantle stirring efficiency, a more complex relationship than previously considered. Stirring efficiency first decreases with increasing ridge spreading rate until small-scale convection ceases completely. Beyond this point, a further increase in ridge spreading rate progressively enhances stirring efficiency via pure plate-driven flow. Our results indicate that: (i) both small scale convection and large scale flow contribute significantly to mantle stirring efficiency, (ii) mantle stirring efficiency may spatially vary significantly due to the local magnitude of plate velocity and plate age, (iii) the relationship between mantle stirring efficiency and large scale convective motions may be more complex than previously thought. These experiments provide an alternative to the interpretation of MORB isotopic variability, and may reconcile the apparent discrepancy of slow spreading ridges associated with small isotopic variability, as observed, for example, along the South West Indian Ridge.

  7. Seropositivity and risk factors for Brucella in dairy cows in urban and peri-urban small-scale farming in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Sattori, Izzatullo; Magnusson, Ulf

    2014-03-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we assessed and mapped the seroprevalence of brucellosis in small-scale dairy farming in an urban and peri-urban area of Tajikistan and investigated factors associated with seropositivity. As urban and peri-urban farming is both an opportunity to improve the livelihood for small-scale farmers and a potential public health hazard, studies are warranted to reveal possible peculiarities in the epidemiology of brucellosis in this type of dairy farming. In total, 904 cows of breeding age belonging to 443 herds in 32 villages were serologically tested with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and positive samples confirmed with competitive ELISA. Two logistic regression models were used to investigate an association between seropositivity and risk factors at herd and individual level. The herd and individual seroprevalences were 4.1 and 2.0 %, respectively. Herds with a history of abortions were found to be associated with seropositivity [odds ratio (OR)?=?5.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.3-21.3]. Large herds with more than eight cattle were more likely to be seropositive compared to smaller herds with one to two cattle (OR?=?13.9; 95 % CI, 1.6-119). The number of calves produced per cow (indicating age) was found to be associated with seropositivity. Younger cows with one to two produced calves were less likely to be seropositive compared to older cows with more than six produced calves (OR?=?0.24; 95 % CI, 0.06-1.0). Neither introduction of new cattle to the herd nor communal grazing was associated with seropositivity. This study shows that infection with Brucella (1) is present in small-scale urban and peri-urban dairy farming in Tajikistan and (2) has significant negative effects on reproductive performance in this farming system and (3) that some previously known risk factors for seropositivity in rural farming system were absent here. PMID:24414248

  8. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in Iringa district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Monrad, J; Kassuku, A A

    2005-02-28

    A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the prevalence, distribution and intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy cattle farms in Iringa district, Southern highlands of Tanzania. Coprological examination of cohorts for GI nematode eggs in faeces, tracer worm counts and pasture larval counts were performed monthly for 1 year. Results indicated that the type of management, especially the grazing habit has a significant influence on the prevalence and intensity of GI nematodes. The predominant nematodes were Cooperia spp. (51.6%), Oesophagostomum radiatum (35.7%) and Haemonchus placei (10.2%). The worm burden in tracers was mainly composed of Cooperia spp. (83%) in large-scale dairy farms, while O. radiatum was dominant (60.8%) in traditional farms. Faecal egg counts (FEC) and tracer worm counts were generally low and FEC peaked only in calves and weaners/yearlings. Adults and all age groups in small-scale dairy farms had very low FEC throughout the year. Pasture larval counts, FEC and tracer worm counts peaked towards the end of the rainy season. Based on conditions of the study area, farmers could save substantial amount of money through strategic treatments as opposed to the previous routine of treating the whole herd at least four times a year. Strategic treatments are recommended in calves and weaners only in traditional and large-scale dairy farms. Strategic treatment of adults and small-scale dairy cattle might be not necessary. Strategic treatments at the end of the rainy/early dry season (May/June) and at the end of the dry/early rainy season (November/December) are recommended in the district. An additional treatment against GI nematodes in calves during the mid rainy season (February/March) might be important. PMID:15710529

  9. The Old Farmer's Almanac

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the advent and proliferation of the Internet and Web access, a multitude of information has become immediately accessible to anyone with a computer and a phone line. Providing home-spun wisdom and advice has been a hallmark of The Old Farmers Almanac since 1792, and their site features quite a bit of free information that will be useful to new visitors and familiar to long-time fans of the publication. Divided into sections similar to those in the regular publication, material can be located by topic, including Weather, which includes an article on "How To Predict the Weather Using a Pig Spleen," and Food, which has hundreds of recipes divided by dish type, courses, dietary requirements, and preparation style. Additionally, the Question of the Day feature provides helpful information on such topics as "How can I get makeup out of rugs?" with previous questions and answers located in an archive. For those looking for helpful household information, the Almanac is a good place to start.

  10. Small scale effects on the mechanical behaviors of protein microtubules based on the nonlocal elasticity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the nonlocal elastic theory, small scale effects are considered in the investigation of the mechanical properties of protein microtubules. A new prediction formula for the persistence lengths of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect is presented. Subsequently, the buckling of microtubules is studied based on a nonlocal elastic beam model. The predicted results of our model indicate that the length-dependence of persistence length is related not only to the shear terms, but also to the small scale effect. The Eular beam model, which is always considered unable to explain the length-dependence of microtubules, can capture the length-dependence of the persistence length of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect. The elastic buckling behaviors of microtubules in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm are also considered using the nonlocal Timoshenko beam model in this paper, and the results indicate that the small scale effect of microtubules also plays an important role in the buckling of microtubules.

  11. GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50 small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significantly different from male. For female small scale enterprise owners, marital status (64% Age of Children (68%, Role Model/ advisors (58% were significant factors that affect their business performance. For male small-scale enterprise owners, Friends (70%, a lack of Government support (80%, inability to display innovativeness (78% and Risk-Taking (84% were significant for male. Lack of availability of capital and finances were significant for the two. Other factors that affect performance include friends, inadequate training and business location. Adequate knowledge of factors that affect gender enterprise performance will go a long way in alleviating these problems. Small-scale enterprises should be supported for poverty alleviation, especially among women and for the nation’s economic development

  12. Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is the SFMNP? The Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) awards grants to States, United States Territories, and federally-recognized Indian tribal governments to provide low-income seniors ...

  13. Auto Farmer Using Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    TANAY CHOWDHURY; DAYARAM GORA; VIKASH YADAV; Suryawanshi, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    AUTO FARMER is one of the mean machine project. In the world of increasing population the demand for increase in growth of the food increases, this demands greater productivity with greater quality. The aim of AUTO FARMER USING RENEWABLE ENERGY is to provide automation and create a imprint in the field of agriculture. Today the farming underwent many difficulties like depending on rain, the restless manual work and the efforts .

  14. IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-azeez ibraheem adegoke

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of socio-economic characteristics on the performance of small-scale enterprises in the study area. It also identified the salient impacts of socio-economic traits on the development and expansion of small-scale enterprises in the country; established the productive prospects of progressive small-scale enterprises in the study area. The study was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria where copies of structured questionnaire were purposively administered on selected respondents. Evidence from the study shows that socio-economic characteristics of small scale entrepreneurs tend to influence the performance and productivity of Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria.Further analysis shows that gender, age and educational qualification had significant influence on the performance of the selected small-scale enterprises in the study area . The paper suggests integrated approach to the development of individual entrepreneurial capacity and promotion of sustainable small-scale enterprises.

  15. Proceedings of a workshop on agroforestry tree seeds for farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LillesØ, Jens-Peter Barnekow

    2007-01-01

    Forest & Landscape Denmark, ICRAF and National Tree Seed Centres in three African countries implement an innovative twinning project. The project seeks to identify the major constraints and opportunities for improving seed/seedling production and distribution to small-scale tree-planting farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. The project analyses existing production and distribution systems in three countries (Malawi, Uganda and Burkina Faso) and will test innovations on seed systems in pilot projects. A situation analysis of the Malawi tree seed sub sector carried out by this project has been prepared. This report presents the findings from the workshop. It provides information on workshop presentations and discussions as well as findings by working groups.

  16. Responding to the challenge of artisanal and small-scale mining. How can knowledge networks help?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buxton, Abbi

    2013-02-15

    This paper reviews what is known about the problems and structural challenges facing the 20-30 million artisanal and small-scale miners and their communities worldwide. Better understanding of these structural challenges is needed to improve policies and policy implementation to further sustainable development opportunities for the sector. The paper explores the current gaps in knowledge to achieve policy change from researchers, practitioners and artisanal and small-scale miners themselves. It explores how a 'knowledge intermediary', which acts to link knowledge with policy, could address these gaps and includes case studies of IIED’s work on knowledge networks and programmes. The paper concludes by proposing a way forward for designing a knowledge programme to meet the particular needs of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector, and by inviting ASM sector stakeholders to share their views on the options outlined.

  17. Reducing cosmological small scale structure via a large dark matter-neutrino interaction: constraints and consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoni, Bridget; McKeen, David; Nelson, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    Cold dark matter explains a wide range of data on cosmological scales. However, there has been a steady accumulation of evidence for discrepancies between simulations and observations at scales smaller than galaxy clusters. Solutions to these small scale structure problems may indicate that simulations need to improve how they include feedback from baryonic matter, or may imply that dark matter properties differ from the standard cold, noninteracting scenario. One promising way to affect structure formation on small scales is a relatively strong coupling of dark matter to neutrinos. We construct an experimentally viable, simple, renormalizable, model with new interactions between neutrinos and dark matter. We show that addressing the small scale structure problems requires dark matter with a mass that is tens of MeV, and a present-day density determined by an initial particle-antiparticle asymmetry in the dark sector. Generating a sufficiently large dark matter-neutrino coupling requires a new heavy neutrino ...

  18. Small Scale Effect on Thermal Vibration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Nonlocal Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a single beam model has been developed to analyze the thermal vibration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT. The nonlocal elasticity takes into account the effect of small size into the formulation and the boundary condition. With exact solution of the dynamic governing equations, the thermal-vibrational characteristics of a cantilever SWCNT are obtained. Influence of nonlocal small scale effects, temperature change and vibration modes of the CNT on the frequency are investigated. The present study shows that the additional boundary conditions from small scale do not change natural frequencies at different temperature change. Thus for simplicity, one can apply the local boundary condition to replace the small scale boundary condition.

  19. Lensing dispersion of SNIa and small scales of the primordial power spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Dayan, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Probing the primordial power spectrum at small scales is crucial for discerning inflationary models, especially if BICEP2 results are confirmed. We demonstrate this necessity by briefly reviewing single small field models that give a detectable gravitational waves signal, thus being degenerate with large field models on CMB scales. A distinct prediction of these small field models is an enhancement of the power spectrum at small scales, lifting up the degeneracy. We propose a way to detect this enhancement, and more generally, different features in the power spectrum at small scales $1\\lesssim k \\lesssim 10^2-10^3 \\,\\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$ by considering the existing data of lensing dispersion in Type Ia supernovae. We show that for various deviations from the simplest $n_s\\simeq 0.96$ the lensing dispersion cuts considerably into the allowed parameter space by PLANCK and constrains the spectrum to smaller scales beyond the reach of other current data sets.

  20. Air emissions of small-scale (< 10 MW) biomass boilers. Review of three field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives of greenhouse gases emission reduction, which encourages bio-energy development for heat purposes, are compatible with air-quality policies if the concept of clean biomass combustion is applied. This paper presents actual emission levels of atmospheric pollutants of small-scale (2, NOx, fine particulate matters, metallic compounds. Installation design (power, flue-gas cleaning techno logy) also has a major impact on organic pollutants and fine particulate matter emissions. A large majority of boilers have very low emission levels. Guidelines are finally stated to keep on promoting small-scale biomass boilers in order to be air-quality compatible and efficient to fight climate change. (author)

  1. A Survey of Small-scale Layer Production Systems in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Badubi, S. S.; Ravindran, V.

    2004-01-01

    A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to investigate small-scale layer production systems in Botswana. The survey covered layer farms in the districts of Francistown and Letlhakane in the eastern part of Botswana, and examined aspects of productivity parameters, housing, management and diseases. The average hen day production in small-scale layer farms was 71.7% and the average daily feed intake was 108.1 g per hen. An average of 1 740 g feed was required to produce one dozen eggs. Hens ...

  2. Small-scale biomass CHP using gasa turbines: a scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various options for small-scale (up to 250 KWe) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants evaluated in this scoping study. Plants using small gas turbines, and able to use biomass fuels when available are included. Three detailed case studies of small-scale biomass CHP plants are compared to match specific technical options with customer requirements. The commercial development of such biomass-fired CHP units, using gas turbines, is shown to be economically viable depending on fuel costs and the continuation of existing financial incentives. (UK)

  3. Development of small-scale directly gas-fired integrated HVAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small-scale directly gas-fired integrated HVAC system is being investigated. The main principle is to use the waste heat of a CHP plant, possibly in conjunction with solar energy, for dehumidification of ambient air. Driving a small-scale absorption chiller is not feasible because of the high waste heat temperature required and the high cost of an absorption chiller. The required cooling capacity of the mechanically / electrically driven compression-type chiller is reduced drastically since no further dehumidification by condensation is necessary. In contrast to Desiccant Cooling Systems no water is required. (author)

  4. Cocoa Farmer Field School Graduate Farmers Perceived Benefits of FFS Training in Ondo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ebewore, S. O.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the perceived benefits of Farmer Field School graduate farmers as a result of their participation in FFS training. The specific objectives were to: describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, identify major cocoa farmers’ perceived benefit items; determine the level of benefit; compare cocoa FFS farmers performance in terms of benefits/costs with non-FFS cocoa farmers. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in composing 77 FFS graduate farmers and 7...

  5. Comparison of Improved Sugarcane Genotypes on Farmer`s Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Bahadar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of five sugarcane varieties viz. Bannu-1, Naurang-98, COL-75, S-86-US-422 and PAS-132 was evaluated at 39 locations on farmer`s field in Bannu division for four consecutive years. The study revealed that varieties Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 out yielded other varieties during the entire period of investigation. However, amongst these, Naurang-98 exhibited better sugar recovery. Variety S-86-US-422 possessed higher sugar contents as compared to PAS-132 and COL-75. On the basis of results obtained, sugarcane varieties Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 were recommended for general cultivation in the area.

  6. Comparison of Improved Sugarcane Genotypes on Farmer`s Field

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Bahadar; Muhammad Jamal; Muhammad Safdar Baloch; Hamdullah Azim

    2000-01-01

    Performance of five sugarcane varieties viz. Bannu-1, Naurang-98, COL-75, S-86-US-422 and PAS-132 was evaluated at 39 locations on farmer`s field in Bannu division for four consecutive years. The study revealed that varieties Bannu-1 and Naurang-98 out yielded other varieties during the entire period of investigation. However, amongst these, Naurang-98 exhibited better sugar recovery. Variety S-86-US-422 possessed higher sugar contents as compared to PAS-132 and COL-75. On the basis of result...

  7. Analysis of Stability, Response and LQR Controller Design of a Small Scale Helicopter Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmayanda, Hardian Reza; Lee, Young Jae; Sung, Sangkyung

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents how to use feedback controller with helicopter dynamics state space model. A simplified analysis is presented for controller design using LQR of small scale helicopters for axial and forward flights. Our approach is simple and gives the basic understanding about how to develop controller for solving the stability of linear helicopter flight dynamics.

  8. The Rural Landscapes and Small-Scale Agricultural Practices in the Transylvanian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae BACIU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the relationships between small-scale agricultural practices and cultural landscape of Transylvanian Plain. The geographical position of Transylvanian Plain in central part of Romania shows with relevance its favourability for sustainable agriculture and developing assumptions. Despite of this, the region was kept outside of the major infrastructural and economic trends. We could, also, include the Transylvanian Plain into a typical rural “central isolation space” relating on this historical-political tendencies, concluding on different types of rural and agricultural landscapes. In this context, small-scale agriculture practices are alternatives to factory farming or more broadly, intensive agriculture or unsustainable farming methods. Sustainable agriculture is not only a package of prescribed methods but is a pre-requisite for territorial development of rural areas. Small scale agriculture include a number of sustainable farm practices such as: organic farming, which removes all chemical pesticides, herbicides and fertilizer from agriculture; permaculture, which provides a holistic methodology for farm design; arable land use that is used for growing crops; non-arable land use; pastoral land use etc. Generally speaking, the small-scale agricultural practices are oriented to: produce enough food; produce safe food; take care of the environment; build thriving and strong rural communities.

  9. Evaluation of real-time operating system for small-scale embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the performance of some real-time operating systems for small-scale embedded systems are evaluated based on some criteria. The evaluation is performed qualitatively and quantitatively. The evaluation results based on a case study on an engineering application will be presented. (author)

  10. Atomistic Simulations of Small-scale Materials Tests of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chan Sun; Jin, Hyung Ha; Kwon, Jun Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Degradation of materials properties under neutron irradiation is one of the key issues affecting the lifetime of nuclear reactors. Evaluating the property changes of materials due to irradiations and understanding the role of microstructural changes on mechanical properties are required for ensuring reliable and safe operation of a nuclear reactor. However, high dose of neuron irradiation capabilities are rather limited and it is difficult to discriminate various factors affecting the property changes of materials. Ion beam irradiation can be used to investigate radiation damage to materials in a controlled way, but has the main limitation of small penetration depth in the length scale of micro meters. Over the past decade, the interest in the investigations of size-dependent mechanical properties has promoted the development of various small-scale materials tests, e.g. nanoindentation and micro/nano-pillar compression tests. Small-scale materials tests can address the issue of the limitation of small penetration depth of ion irradiation. In this paper, we present small-scale materials tests (experiments and simulation) which are applied to study the size and irradiation effects on mechanical properties. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation and nanopillar compression tests. These atomistic simulations are expected to significantly contribute to the investigation of the fundamental deformation mechanism of small scale irradiated materials

  11. SOCIO ECONOMICS CONDITIONS OF INDUSTRIAL LABOURS IN SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES A CASE STUDY OF RAICHUR DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadeesh

    2014-01-01

    At 1800, India had a significant presence in the world as a manufacturing country. Possibly about 15-20 per cent of its working population, or 15-20 million persons were employed in industry at that time. All of it was small-scale artisanal industry, and the great majority of the production units were family-labour oriented or 'households'.

  12. Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, James

    2010-01-01

    There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

  13. Fostering sustainable small-scale investments: lessons from experience and ideas for intervention and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents lessons from experience pertinent to implementing small-scale natural resource and related investment projects in developing countries. It outlines ideas for intervention and innovation to foster such investments. Particular emphasis is placed on private-sector participation in these investments. Following a brief presentation of the economic development and other arguments that support intervention and innovation in support of such small-scale natural resource investments, the article discusses many of the lessons learned from experience. These lessons reinforce those touched upon in the investment-specific discussions in the previous articles. The experience and associated lessons that are examined include experiences in both developing and developed countries and encompass nor just lessons from natural resource investments, but also small-scale investments in other sectors. Financing and other innovations which facilitate meeting the challenges are drawn from relevant experience where barriers to investment have been surmounted. Options for programme and project interventions to increase market penetration of small-scale investments and achieve the associated development linkages and synergies are suggested. These suggestions are aimed especially at governments and bilateral and multilateral development finance and development assistance entities. It is those players who might support such interventions in collaboration with local financial ins in collaboration with local financial institutions and other market players. (author)

  14. Air pollution and economics: Alternate use of fuels in small scale industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries the problem of air pollution was recognized earlier, however, it has acquired a greater dimension due to the conventional use of low grade fuels like coal, baggase, rice husk, etc. having high sulphur and ash content. The industrial sources contribute about 30--40% of the total emissions. In India, the small scale industries (low investment group) contribute about 60--80% of the total industrial emissions. These industries are characterized with various environmental pollution problems due to cluster of small scale industries located in sensitive area; use of low grade fuel, primitive processing techniques without emission abatement facilities etc., thus leading to enormous pollution in an confined region. Acute need was felt to reduce the pollution problem associated with small scale industries by use of cleaner fuel so as to reduce the localized problem. The paper presents the emissions associated with use of coal/coke, natural gas, LPG, and propane along with the fuel cost for small scale industrial sector of Agra, Firozabad and Mathura region. The studies carried out would find applicability to meet the air pollution standards based on shift in fuel and associated cost

  15. Measurement of Small-Scale CMB Anisotropy with the Viper Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, G.; Peterson, J.; Newcomb, M.; Alvarez, D.; Cantalupo, C.; Morgan, D.; Vincent, M.; Miller, K.

    1998-05-01

    Viper is a 2-meter off-axis telescope designed to measure small-scale anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The spatial sensitivity of this instrument (50 < l < 800) was chosen to provide maximum discrimination between competing cosmological models. We present data taken with a 40 GHz HEMT receiver at Amundsen-Scott Station, Antarctica, and discuss future applications of the instrument.

  16. A Small-Scale Pilot Study into Language Difficulties in Children Who Offend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Fran; Curran, Anita; Porter, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale pilot research project investigates the prevalence of Speech Language and Communication Difficulties in a sample of children attending a Youth Offending Service in the UK. Using the CELF-4, approximately 90% of the sample displayed some form of language difficulty and, overall, this population displayed mild to moderate…

  17. Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Njeri Gathura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text books and factory publications. The target population was over 700,000 small-scale coffee producers in Kenya out of which the accessible population of 10,000 producers drawn from Githunguri District in Kiambu County was selected which a sample size of 120 respondents was sampled. Stratified sampling technique was employed to compare views among coffee producers from the various coffee societies in the area. Data analysis was both qualitative and quantitative using descriptive statistics. Data presentation was in form of tables to help interpret findings and generate conclusions that aided solutions to identified problems. The research established that marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources greatly affected coffee production. The study recommended that the government should encourage coffee production by formulating favorable marketing factors and other policies and provide finances to small scale coffee producers. Producers on the other hand should strive to provide conducive working environment to their workers so as to sustain them in their farms. This will help to improve coffee yields and quality.

  18. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its? product?s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products? samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product ?telemea?. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers? products and their reliability for the consumers.

  19. New framework for analyzing the effects of small scale inhomogeneities in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our approach is an adaptation of Burnett's formulation of the shortwave approximation, which we generalize to analyze the effects of matter inhomogeneities as well as gravitational radiation. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric, but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the dynamics of the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and has positive energy density-corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Under various assumptions concerning the absence of gravitational radiation and the nonrelativistic behavior of the matter, we argue that the behavior of the matter, we argue that the short-wavelength deviations of the metric from the background metric near a point x should be accurately described by Newtonian gravity, taking into account only the matter lying within a homogeneity length scale of x. Finally, we argue that our framework should provide an accurate description of the actual universe.

  20. Low and High Potentials of Entrepreneurial Development within the Framework of Indigenious Small Scale Management in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Eniola Sule

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work looked at the potentials of entrepreneurship development within the framework of indigenous small scale management. It also show those potentials that are inherent in entrepreneurs of small scale business both low and high potentials and possibly expose some of the problems or drawbacks of entrepreneur of small scale business in Africa. The writer try to show what small scale business is like and possibly other scholars’ assumptions of what small scale business is all about. Finally, some suggestions were proffered by the writer based on the personal experiences on how to enhance the potentials of entrepreneurs of small scale business in Nigeria and possibly, the entire continent of Africa; talking about how to cope with, both internal and external environmental forces of the business.

  1. Conversion of fracture toughness testing values from small scale three point bending test specimens to small scale yielding state (SSY) by elastic-plastic stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the work performed for achieving readiness to calculate fracture toughness dependence on dimension effects and loading conditions in fracture test specimens and real structures. In the report two- and three-dimensional computer codes developed and calculational methods applied are described. One of the main goals is to converse fracture toughness from small scale three point bending test specimens to case of a depth crack in plane strain i.e. to small scale yielding state (SSY) by numerical elastic-plastic stress analysis. Thickness effect of a test specimens and effect of a crack depth are separately investigated. Tests of three point bending specimens with and without sidegrooves and curved crack front are numerically simulated and experimental and computed results are compared. J-integral is calculated along crack front and also from force-deflection dependence of the beam. For the analyses the computing system was thoroughly automatized. Measuring capacity of three point bending test specimens was tried to evaluate. (orig.) (7 refs., 54 figs.)

  2. FARMERS SUICIDE IN INDIA: A ANALYTICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baburao Bhaurao Pawade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main view of this research paper is to understand the reasons of Farmer’s Suicide and Analysis of Farmer’s Suicide in India with state-wise. Suicide among farmers is now a universal phenomenon. Studies across the globe have identified farming as one of the most dangerous industries. Farming environments are characterized by a broad and changeable range of physical, biological and chemical hazards that are similar across all cultures. Thus, it is important to view the issue of farmers' suicide from a global perspective.

  3. Farmers’ Perception of Precision Farming Technology among Hungarian Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enik? Lencsés

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many technologies have appeared in agriculture to reduce the harmful effects of chemical use. One of these technologies is precision farming technology. Precision farming technology should not be considered as only the latest plant production technology or only a new agro-management tool. It is achieved only when the results of electronics and IT equipment are realized in the variable rate treatments zone-by-zone. The advantages and disadvantages of this technology highly depend on the heterogeneity of soil, the knowledge and attitude of the manager and the staff. This is the reason why opinions about the technology effects are so wide. This paper shows the results of the investigation based on interviews about the adoption and knowledge of precision farming technology among Hungarian crop producers. This technology is mostly used by farms over 300 hectares with young farmers. The most characteristic elements were precision fertilization and tractor guidance. The survey examined three groups of farmers with respect to whether they apply precision farming elements or not. We refer to them as “users”, “planners” and “non-users”. According to the survey, the opinions of the “user” and the “non-user” groups of farmers are not significantly different regarding the impacts of precision farming technology (the main advantages were the change in yield quantity, chemical usage and income. Furthermore, the opinions of the farmers regarding the changes in variable costs resulting from the adoption of precision farming technology were also examined (measured in percent. Box-plot analysis was used for this examination. According to the opinion of the “user” group of farmers, the highest cost savings occurred in fertilizer and herbicide costs.

  4. Farmer experience of pluralistic agricultural extension, Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi’s current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers’ experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a case study approach, two villages were purposively selected for in-depth qualitative analysis of available services and farmers’ experiences....

  5. Energy transfers and magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Rohit; Samtaney, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    In this letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo by studying energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers. We perform dynamo simulation for magnetic Prandtl number $\\mathrm{Pm}=20$ on $1024^3$ grid using pseudospectral method. We demonstrate using flux and shell-to-shell energy transfer computations that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large scale velocity field to small scale magnetic field. The energy transfers $U2U$ (velocity to velocity) and $B2B$ (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. We also show that the magnetic energy grows exponentially with time, and it tends to have equipartition with kinetic energy.

  6. Destruction of small-scale dark matter clumps in the hierarchical structures and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mass function of small-scale dark matter clumps is calculated in the standard cosmological scenario with an inflationary-produced primordial fluctuation spectrum and with a hierarchical clustering. We take into account the tidal destruction of clumps at early stages of structure formation starting from a time of clump detachment from the Universe expansion. Only a small fraction of these clumps, ?0.1%-0.5%, in each logarithmic mass interval ?logM?1 survives the stage of hierarchical clustering. The surviving clumps can be disrupted further in the galaxies by tidal interactions with stars. We performed the detailed calculations of the tidal destruction of clumps by stars in the Galactic bulge and halo and by the Galactic disk itself. It is shown that the Galactic disc provides the dominant contribution to the tidal destruction of small-scale clumps outside the bulge. The results obtained are crucial for calculations of the dark matter annihilation signal in the Galaxy

  7. Flow visualization and velocity measurement in a small-scale open channel using an electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present note describes a method for use in conjunction with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that has been developed to visualize a liquid flow under a high-level vacuum and to measure a velocity field in a small-scale flow through an open channel. In general, liquid cannot be observed via a SEM, because liquid evaporates under the high-vacuum environment of the SEM. As such, ionic liquid and room temperature molten salt having a vapor pressure of nearly zero is used in the present study. We use ionic liquid containing Au-coated tracer particles to visualize a small-scale flow under a SEM. Furthermore, the velocity distribution in the open channel is obtained by particle tracking velocimetry measurement and a parabolic profile is confirmed. (technical design note)

  8. Prevalence of Small-scale Jets from the Networks of the Solar Transition Region and Chromosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, H; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W

    2014-01-01

    As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80-250 km/s from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20-80 seconds and widths of 300 km or less. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with ~20 km/s amplitudes. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~100000 K and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind.

  9. Small-scale disequilibrium in a magmatic inclusion and its more silicic host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jon P.; Holden, Peter; Halliday, Alex N.; De Silva, Shanaka L.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of small-scale isotopic, compositional, and mineralogical variation across the interface of a basaltic-andesite inclusion and its dacitic host from Cerro-Chascon, a Holocene dome in northern Chile, is discussed. Serial sectioning across the interface of the inclusion and its host dacite, complemented by microdrill sampling and detailed microprobe work, has enabled an examination of the scale of mixing and chemical disequilibrium. The composition of the inclusion is found to be relatively homogeneous; the dacite host is heterogeneous on a small scale; the isotopic composition in the marginal zone shows the highest Sr-87/Sr-86 and lowest Nd-143/Nd-144; the large plagioclase crystals in the inclusions and host are xenocrystic. These differences are reconciled with a model of magma evolution in a crustal magma chamber.

  10. Small-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation and scattering by cloudy plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Peebles, P J E

    1998-01-01

    If the first stars formed soon after decoupling of baryons from the thermal cosmic background radiation (CBR), the radiation may have been last scattered in a cloudy plasma. We discuss the resulting small-scale anisotropy of the CBR in the limit where the plasma clouds are small compared to the mean distance between clouds along a line of sight. This complements the perturbative analysis valid for mildly nonlinear departures from homogeneity at last scattering. We conclude that reasonable choices for the cloud parameters imply CBR anisotropy consistent with the present experimental limits, in agreement with the perturbative approach. This means the remarkable isotropy of the CBR need not contradict the early small-scale structure formation predicted in some cosmogonies.

  11. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

  12. Small-scale patterning methods for digital image correlation under scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a powerful, length-scale-independent methodology for examining full-field surface deformations. Recently, it has become possible to combine DIC with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), enabling the investigation of small-scale deformation mechanisms such as the strains accommodated within grains in polycrystalline metals, or around micro-scale constituents in composite materials. However, there exist significant challenges that need to be surmounted before the combination of DIC and SEM (here termed SEM-DIC) can be fully exploited. One of the primary challenges is the ability to pattern specimens at microstructural length scales with a random, isotropic and high contrast pattern needed for DIC. This paper provides a thorough survey of small-scale patterning methods for SEM-DIC and discusses their advantages and disadvantages for different applications

  13. The Very Small Scale Clustering of SDSS-II and SDSS-III Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscionere, Jennifer; Berlind, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The very small scale clustering of galaxies can tell us about their spatial distribution within dark matter halos. To study the local universe, we measure the very small-scale angular clustering of galaxies in volume-limited luminosity samples drawn from the SDSS DR7. These angular scales correspond to 20 to 500 kpc at the median redshift of the Mr Occupation Distribution (HOD) framework, assuming a flexible density profile of satellite galaxies within halos. We find that luminous galaxies have a steeper correlation function, and are thus more centrally concentrated in halos than the underlying dark matter. Lower luminosity galaxies, however, have a density profile that is consistent with that of dark matter. In order to see if this trend continues to higher redshift, we also measure the projected correlation function of SDSS-III BOSS CMASS galaxies on similar scales.

  14. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  15. Several small-scale vector array performance analysis and simulation of DOA estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yinzhen

    2011-10-01

    To research the application and estimate performance in some small-scale vector sensor array by traditional direction of arrival estimate , we derivate the time delay expression of four small-scale non-uniform vector sensor array, the array direction vector is given, and the MUSIC algorithm is applied successfully to non-uniform vector array for direction of arrival(DOA) estimate, select the better performance of each array element setting method, and compare of beam forming, the probability of success and the mean square error, this shows that the performance of line array is best, followed by L-array and circular array, the performance of cross-array is worst.

  16. Magnetic field tunable small-scale mechanical properties of nickel single crystals measured by nanoindentation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

    2014-01-01

    Nano- and micromagnetic materials have been extensively employed in micro-functional devices. However, measuring small-scale mechanical and magnetomechanical properties is challenging, which restricts the design of new products and the performance of smart devices. A new magnetomechanical nanoindentation technique is developed and tested on a nickel single crystal in the absence and presence of a saturated magnetic field. Small-scale parameters such as Young's modulus, indentation hardness, and plastic index are dependent on the applied magnetic field, which differ greatly from their macroscale counterparts. Possible mechanisms that induced 31% increase in modulus and 7% reduction in hardness (i.e., the flexomagnetic effect and the interaction between dislocations and magnetic field, respectively) are analyzed and discussed. Results could be useful in the microminiaturization of applications, such as tunable mechanical resonators and magnetic field sensors. PMID:24695002

  17. Financing Energy Services for Small-scale Energy-users - project FINESSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the FINESSE (Financing Energy Services for Small-scale Energy users) launched in 1989 by World Bank 's Energy Sector Assistance Program (ESMAP) in association with the US Department of Energy and the Netherlands Ministry for Development Cooperation, whose purpose is to address financial, institutional and policy issues related to enhancing energy services for residential and commercial energy consumers in the Developing World. It describes the related technology benefits of renewable energy and energy efficiency, as well as a technology overview and outlines the strategies for financing alternatives in the Developing World. It concludes with a description of successful experiences in small-scale energy services, especially in Asia. (TEC). 8 figs

  18. Active damping control unit using a small scale proof mass electrodynamic actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Díaz, Cristóbal; Paulitsch, Christoph; Gardonio, Paolo

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents a study on the design and use of a small scale proof mass electrodynamic actuator, with a low mounting resonance frequency, for velocity feedback control on a thin rectangular panel. A stability-performance formula is derived, which can be effectively used to assess the down scaling effects on the stability and control performance of the feedback loop. The design and tests of a velocity feedback loop with a prototype small scale proof mass actuator are also presented. When a feedback control having a gain margin of about 6 dB is implemented, so that there is little control spillover effect around the fundamental resonance of the actuator, reductions of vibration between 5 dB and 10 dB in the frequency band between 80 Hz and 250 Hz have been measured at the control position. PMID:18681581

  19. Mesogranulation and small-scale dynamo action in the quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bushby, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Regions of quiet Sun generally exhibit a complex distribution of small-scale magnetic field structures, which interact with the near-surface turbulent convective motions. Furthermore, it is probable that some of these magnetic fields are generated locally by a convective dynamo mechanism. In addition to the well-known granular and supergranular convective scales, various observations have indicated that there is an intermediate scale of convection, known as mesogranulation, with vertical magnetic flux concentrations accumulating preferentially at mesogranular boundaries. Our aim is to investigate the small-scale dynamo properties of a convective flow that exhibits both granulation and mesogranulation, comparing our findings with solar observations. Adopting an idealised model for a localised region of quiet Sun, we use numerical simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamics, in a 3D Cartesian domain, to investigate the parametric dependence of this system (focusing particularly upon the effects of varying ...

  20. The Small-Scale Dynamo and Non-Ideal MHD in Primordial Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schober, Jennifer; Federrath, Christoph; Glover, Simon; Klessen, Ralf; Banerjee, Robi

    2012-01-01

    We study the amplification of magnetic fields during the formation of primordial halos. The turbulence generated by gravitational infall motions during the formation of the first stars and galaxies can amplify magnetic fields very efficiently and on short timescales up to dynamically significant values. Using the Kazantsev theory, which describes the so-called small-scale dynamo - a magnetohydrodynamical process converting kinetic energy from turbulence into magnetic energy - we can then calculate the growth rate of the small-scale magnetic field. Our calculations are based on a detailed chemical network and we include non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical effects such as ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation. We follow the evolution of the magnetic field up to larger scales until saturation occurs on the Jeans scale. Assuming a weak magnetic seed field generated by the Biermann battery process, both Burgers and Kolmogorov turbulence lead to saturation within a rather small density range. Such fields are likely...

  1. Small-scale simulation of vapor discharges into subcooled liquid pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology proposed by Sonin [Nucl. Eng. Des. 65 (1981) 17-21] for small-scale modeling of high-flux vapor discharges into subcooled pools is verified experimentally using sonic steam discharges into water. Small-scale simulation is used to show that the dynamic pressures induced by sonic steam discharges into water increase with decreasing subcooling when the subcooling is high, reach a maximum at a pool subcooling of 20-30 K or greater, and then decrease with further reductions in subcooling, becoming very low as the subcooling approaches zero. Condensation remains complete to very low subcooling. Data are presented for both straight pipe discharges and model devices simulating a BWR quencher. (orig.)

  2. Small scale magnetic field evolution in the first objects formed in the universe

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandra, Kandus; Reuven, Opher; Saulo M. R., Barros.

    1651-16-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Large scale magnetic fields in galaxies are thought to be generated, by a mean field dynamo. In order to have generated the fields observed, the dynamo would have had to have operated for a sufficiently long period of time. However, magnetic fields of similar intensities to the one in our galaxy, ar [...] e observed in high redshift galaxies, where a mean field dynamo would not have had time to produce the observed fields. MHD turbulence produces small scale magnetic fields at a faster rate than it does mean fields, which can diffuse toward larger scales. If the turbulence is helical, magnetic fields generated at small scales can become correlated over large scales. We study the evolution of magnetic field correlations in the first objects formed in the universe, due to the action of a turbulent, helical, stochastic dynamo, for redshifts 5

  3. The average carbon-stock approach for small-scale CDM AR projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Quijano, J.F.; Muys, B. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape Research, Leuven (Belgium); Schlamadinger, B. [Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Institute for Energy Research, Graz (Austria); Emmer, I. [Face Foundation, Arnhem (Netherlands); Somogyi, Z. [Forest Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Bird, D.N. [Woodrising Consulting Inc., Belfountain, Ontario (Canada)

    2004-06-15

    In many afforestation and reforestation (AR) projects harvesting with stand regeneration forms an integral part of the silvicultural system and satisfies local timber and/or fuelwood demand. Especially clear-cut harvesting will lead to an abrupt and significant reduction of carbon stocks. The smaller the project, the more significant the fluctuations of the carbon stocks may be. In the extreme case a small-scale project could consist of a single forest stand. In such case, all accounted carbon may be removed during a harvesting operation and the time-path of carbon stocks will typically look as in the hypothetical example presented in the report. For the aggregate of many such small-scale projects there will be a constant benefit to the atmosphere during the projects, due to averaging effects.

  4. Small-scale piezoelectric energy harvesting devices using low-energy-density sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade, small-scale energy harvesting devices that can power household electronic systems have experienced rapid development in both the research and the industrial fields. However, the large majority of work done in this domain still focuses on high-energy-density sources, which are not always available in the vicinity of the device. In that case, it is, therefore, important to use other sources, which, nevertheless, present lower energy densities. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate such harvesting methods, highlighting their differences with classical techniques that rely on high-density energy resources. Additionally, the present study also aims at reviewing existing techniques for small-scale energy harvesting using piezoelectric devices, as well as presenting new designs when dealing with low energy density sources, with a particular focus on wind and rain.

  5. Small-scale piezoelectric energy harvesting devices using low-energy-density sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallart, Mickael; Priya, Shashank; Bressers, Scott; Inman, Daniel [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Over the last decade, small-scale energy harvesting devices that can power household electronic systems have experienced rapid development in both the research and the industrial fields. However, the large majority of work done in this domain still focuses on high-energy-density sources, which are not always available in the vicinity of the device. In that case, it is, therefore, important to use other sources, which, nevertheless, present lower energy densities. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate such harvesting methods, highlighting their differences with classical techniques that rely on high-density energy resources. Additionally, the present study also aims at reviewing existing techniques for small-scale energy harvesting using piezoelectric devices, as well as presenting new designs when dealing with low energy density sources, with a particular focus on wind and rain.

  6. Numerical simulation of the interaction between solar granules and small-scale magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Atroshchenko, I N

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out numerical simulation based on the equations of radiation magnetohydrodynamics to study the interaction of solar granules and small-scale magnetic fields in photospheric regions with various magnetic fluxes. Four sequences of 2D time-dependent models were calculated for photospheric regions with average vertical magnetic fluxes of 0, 10, 20, and 30 mT. The models exhibit no substantial variations in their temperature structure with varying average field strength, while the density and gas pressure profiles display gross changes. The solar granulation brightness field also varies substantially with magnetic flux. The contribution of the small-scale component to the intensity power spectrum increases with average field strength, whereas the large-scale component (of about a granule size) contributes less, the total rms intensity fluctuations being approximately the same. Thus the observed decrease in rms intensity fluctuations with growing average magnetic flux can be interpreted as smoothing...

  7. ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE WITH REFERENCE TO RURAL SMALL SCALE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY IN PUNE DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Jagdale

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial Leadership is a significant concept in entrepreneurship literature. Different leadership styles effect on effectiveness and performance of the organizations. Present research investigates the impact ofEntrepreneurial Leadership style onOrganizational Performance with reference to Rural Small Scale Engineering Industry in Pune District of India. A ten items scale developed by (Boltan 2012 was used to find leadership styles. The data werecollected from one hundred and forty four (144 entrepreneursfrom Rural Small Scale Engineering Industryof 13 tehsils of in Pune District of India. For statistical analysis Mean, Standard Deviation, T-Test, and Chi-square test were used. Study concludes that there is no significant association between leadership styles and organizational performance.

  8. Constraints on small-scale cosmological perturbations from gamma-ray searches for dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Pat; Akrami, Yashar

    2012-01-01

    Events like inflation or phase transitions can produce large density perturbations on very small scales in the early Universe. Probes of small scales are therefore useful for e.g. discriminating between inflationary models. Until recently, the only such constraint came from non-observation of primordial black holes (PBHs), associated with the largest perturbations. Moderate-amplitude perturbations can collapse shortly after matter-radiation equality to form ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs) of dark matter, in far greater abundance than PBHs. If dark matter self-annihilates, UCMHs become excellent targets for indirect detection. Here we discuss the gamma-ray fluxes expected from UCMHs, the prospects of observing them with gamma-ray telescopes, and limits upon the primordial power spectrum derived from their non-observation by the Fermi Large Area Space Telescope.

  9. Constraints on small-scale cosmological perturbations from gamma-ray searches for dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Events like inflation or phase transitions can produce large density perturbations on very small scales in the early Universe. Probes of small scales are therefore useful for e.g. discriminating between inflationary models. Until recently, the only such constraint came from non-observation of primordial black holes (PBHs), associated with the largest perturbations. Moderate-amplitude perturbations can collapse shortly after matter-radiation equality to form ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs) of dark matter, in far greater abundance than PBHs. If dark matter self-annihilates, UCMHs become excellent targets for indirect detection. Here we discuss the gamma-ray fluxes expected from UCMHs, the prospects of observing them with gamma-ray telescopes, and limits upon the primordial power spectrum derived from their non-observation by the Fermi Large Area Space Telescope.

  10. Constraints on small-scale cosmological perturbations from gamma-ray searches for dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Pat; Bringmann, Torsten; Akrami, Yashar

    2012-07-01

    Events like inflation or phase transitions can produce large density perturbations on very small scales in the early Universe. Probes of small scales are therefore useful for e.g. discriminating between inflationary models. Until recently, the only such constraint came from non-observation of primordial black holes (PBHs), associated with the largest perturbations. Moderate-amplitude perturbations can collapse shortly after matter-radiation equality to form ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs) of dark matter, in far greater abundance than PBHs. If dark matter self-annihilates, UCMHs become excellent targets for indirect detection. Here we discuss the gamma-ray fluxes expected from UCMHs, the prospects of observing them with gamma-ray telescopes, and limits upon the primordial power spectrum derived from their non-observation by the Fermi Large Area Space Telescope.

  11. Probing small-scale non-Gaussianity from anisotropies in acoustic reheating

    CERN Document Server

    Naruko, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2015-01-01

    We give new constraints on small-scale non-Gaussianity of primordial curvature perturbations by the use of anisotropies in acoustic reheating. Mixing of local thermal or local kinetic equilibrium systems with different temperatures yields a locally averaged temperature rise, which is proportional to the square of temperature perturbations damping in the photon diffusion scale. Such secondary temperature perturbations are indistinguishable from the standard temperature perturbations linearly coming from primordial curvature perturbations and hence should be subdominant compared to the standard ones. We show that small-scale higher order correlation functions (connected non-Gaussian and disconnected Gaussian parts) of primordial curvature perturbations can be probed by investigating auto power spectrum of the generated secondary perturbations and the cross power spectrum with the standard perturbations. This is simply because these power spectra come from higher order correlation functions of primordial curvatu...

  12. Designing small-scale tests: A simulation study of parameter recovery with the 1-PL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Svetina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This simulation study investigated the recovery of item and person parameters of the one-parameter logistic model for short tests administered to small samples. A potential problem with such small scale testing is the mismatch between item and person location parameter distributions. In our study, we manipulated the match of these distributions as well as test length, sample size, and item discrimination. Results showed the degree of mismatch likely to occur in practice has a relatively modest effect on parameter recovery. As expected, accuracy in parameter estimation decreased as sample size and test length decreased. Nevertheless, researchers investigating small scale tests are likely to view parameter recovery as acceptable if a study has at least 100 subjects and 8 items.

  13. Farmer Experience of Pluralistic Agricultural Extension, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowa, Clodina; Garforth, Chris; Cardey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Malawi's current extension policy supports pluralism and advocates responsiveness to farmer demand. We investigate whether smallholder farmers' experience supports the assumption that access to multiple service providers leads to extension and advisory services that respond to the needs of farmers. Design/methodology/approach: Within a…

  14. SRP radioactive glass studies: small-scale process development and product performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small-scale joule-heated ceramic melter contained in the Shielded Cells Facility has demonstrated the vitrification process for actual Savannah River Plant radioactive waste. Losses of radionuclides due to volatility are low and easily treated, and the glass produced is of comparable quality to laboratory-prepared simulated glass. Future work will include studies with wastes from other tanks, using new frit compositions. Leaching tests will continue, with emphasis being placed on long-term tests under anticipated repository conditions

  15. Effects of Immersed Surfaces on the Combustor Efficiency of Small-Scale Fluidized Beds

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdil Eskin; Afsin Gungor

    2005-01-01

    In this study, effects of the different types of heat exchanger surfaces on the second law efficiency of a small-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor are analyzed and the results are compared with the bubbling fluidized bed coal combustor effectiveness values. Using a previously developed simulation program, combustor efficiency and entropy generation values are obtained at different operation velocities at different height and volume ratios of the immersed surfaces, both for circu...

  16. Small-Scale Spatial Variation in Population Dynamics and Fishermen Response in a Coastal Marine Fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jono R.; Kay, Matthew C.; Colgate, John; Qi, Roy; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge for small-scale fisheries management is high spatial variability in the demography and life history characteristics of target species. Implementation of local management actions that can reduce overfishing and maximize yields requires quantifying ecological heterogeneity at small spatial scales and is therefore limited by available resources and data. Collaborative fisheries research (CFR) is an effective means to collect essential fishery information at local scales, and to...

  17. Harmonic Propagation and Interaction Evaluation between Small-Scale Wind Farms and Nonlinear Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Xiong Mao; Yan Li; Bu-Han Zhang; Guang-Long Xie

    2013-01-01

    Distributed generation is a flexible and effective way to utilize renewable energy. The dispersed generators are quite close to the load, and pose some power quality problems such as harmonic current emissions. This paper focuses on the harmonic propagation and interaction between a small-scale wind farm and nonlinear loads in the distribution grid. Firstly, by setting the wind turbines as P – Q(V) nodes, the paper discusses the expanding Newton-Raphson power flow method for the wind farm. ...

  18. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix

  19. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ''Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log'' provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix

  20. Fractographic study of high-density polyethylene gas pipe following Small Scale Steady State test

    OpenAIRE

    Pusz, A.; Michalik, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present work attempts to examine the failure performance of high density polyethylene [HDPE] gas pipe through a fractographic study of the fracture morphology following Small Scale Steady State test (S4). Failure mechanisms are discussed based on the fracture morphologies resulting from these tests. There are many instances where the rapid propagation of cracks is the result of fluid pressure acting on piping structures. This problem is recognized as one of the most important iss...

  1. Effects of halo triaxiality, anisotropy and small scale clumping on WIMP direct detection exclusion limits

    CERN Document Server

    Green, A M

    2002-01-01

    Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) direct detection experiments are closing in on the region of parameter space where neutralinos may constitute the Galactic halo dark matter. Numerical simulations and observations of galaxy halos indicate that the standard Maxwellian halo model is likely to be a poor approximation to the dark matter distribution. We examine how halo models with triaxiality and/or velocity anisotropy affect exclusion limits, before discussing the consequences of the possible survival of small scale clumps.

  2. Future Prospects of Small Scale Industrial Sector Of Punjab: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    SANJEEV GUPTA

    2009-01-01

    Present study seeks the generation of forecasts of number of units, employment, capital formation and production of small scale industrial sector of Punjab for ensuing decade till 2019-20.Forecasts have been generated for the lead time of thirteen years by using Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model, based on identifying the pattern followed by past values of a each variable and then extrapolating the pattern in the past for short period. The analysis of forecasted figures h...

  3. Need assessment of electricity in Namibia : Prerequisites for implementation of a small scale wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Martin; Uman, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Namibia is one of the most sparsely populated countries and with a total area of 825 000 km 2. There are still many residents in the country without access to electricity and a rapid technological development the need for electricity is increasing constantly. However, the expansion of the electricity grid is slow and costly, resulting in that many cannot afford to be connected and therefore have a need at small scale production have been identified. For this reason it was chosen to investigat...

  4. Coronal hole boundaries at small scales: III. EIS and SUMER views

    OpenAIRE

    Madjarska, M. S.; Huang, Z.; Doyle, J. G.; Subramanian, S.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the plasma properties of small-scale transient events identified in the quiet Sun, coronal holes and their boundaries. We use spectroscopic co-observations from SUMER/SoHO and EIS/Hinode combined with high cadence imaging data from XRT/Hinode. We measure Doppler shifts using single and multiple Gauss fits of transition region and coronal lines as well as electron densities and temperatures. We combine co-temporal imaging and spectroscopy to separate brightenin...

  5. The small-scale structure of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with large magnetic Prandtl numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Schekochihin, Aa; Maron, Jl; Cowley, Sc; Mcwilliams, Jc

    2002-01-01

    We study the intermittency and field-line structure of the MHD turbulence in plasmas with very large magnetic Prandtl numbers. In this regime, which is realized in the interstellar medium, some accretion disks, protogalaxies, galaxy-cluster gas, the early universe, etc., magnetic fluctuations can be excited at scales below the viscous cutoff. The salient feature of the resulting small-scale magnetic turbulence is the folded structure of the fields. It is characterized by very rapid transverse...

  6. Choice of turbines to small-scale power plants; Valg av turbiner for smaakraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Hermod

    2009-07-01

    Small scale power plants developer might save considerable amounts through increased revenues by choosing right turbines. Even though the costs of installing a Pelton turbine is higher then that of a Francis turbine, in many cases this will be profitable because of increased efficiency, specially during winter with low flow of water and higher power prices. It is essential to choose a consult who is able to take the right considerations. (AG) 3.figs., ill

  7. Large- and small-scale turbulent spectra in MHD and atmospheric flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Chkhetiani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present review we discuss certain studies of large- and small-scale turbulent spectra in MHD and atmospheric flows performed by S. S. Moiseev and his co-authors during the last years of his life and continued by his co-authors after he passed away. It is shown that many ideas developed in these works have not lost their novelty and urgency until now, and can form the basis of future studies in this field.

  8. Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James O' Brien

    2012-09-01

    This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during January–August 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

  9. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  10. High-temperature thermoelectric transport at small scales: Thermal generation, transport and recombination of minority carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakan, Gokhan; Khan, Niaz; Silva, Helena; Gokirmak, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Thermoelectric transport in semiconductors is usually considered under small thermal gradients and when it is dominated by the role of the majority carriers. Not much is known about effects that arise under the large thermal gradients that can be established in high-temperature, small-scale electronic devices. Here, we report a surprisingly large asymmetry in self-heating of symmetric highly doped silicon microwires with the hottest region shifted along the direction of minority carrier flow....

  11. Role of small-scale independent providers in water and sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Small-scale independent providers (SSIPs) and households are good for 10–69% of the household water supply and sometimes up to 95% of the sanitation solutions in cities in developing countries. Different types of SSIP can be distinguished. They could be allowed to make a more important contribution to drinking water and sanitation in a situation where many governments cannot be the only one to supply drinking water and sanitary services. Theoretical and practical arguments are used to expla...

  12. Optimization Study of Small-Scale Solar Membrane Distillation Desalination Systems (s-SMDDS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hsuan Chang; Cheng-Liang Chang; Chen-Yu Hung; Tung-Wen Cheng; Chii-Dong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD), which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS) is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS) is an attractive and viable option for the production of fresh water for small communities in remote arid areas. The minimum cost design and operation of s-SMDDS are determin...

  13. Innovation among small-scale food producers in Fjellregionen - the case of Rørosmat

    OpenAIRE

    Stuen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines the determinants behind innovation processes among small-scale food producers in Fjellregionen. The case study employed is Rørosmat and its member producers are investigated through qualitative research methods and in-depth interviews. The investigation is motivated by the transformation taking place in the Norwegian agricultural sector, and explores how a small mountain area deals with the changes threatening their business structure and how the producers receive appro...

  14. Distribution of trematodes in snails in ponds at integrated small-scale aquaculture farms

    OpenAIRE

    Boerlage, A. S.; Graat, E. A. M.; Verreth, J. A. J.; Jong, M. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    In integrated small-scale aquaculture farming, animal and human excreta maybe used as fish feed and pond fertilizer, thereby enhancing transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) from final hosts, like humans, pigs and chickens, to snails. Areas within a pond could vary in trematode egg-load due to the immediate bordering land, and this might provide implications for control of these trematodes or sampling in field studies measuring FZT prevalence in snails. We therefore estimated t...

  15. Checklist Model to Improve Work Practices in Small-Scale Demolition Operations with Silica Dust Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Succop; Richard Niemeier; James Lockey; Thomas Lentz; Custodio Muianga; Carol Rice

    2012-01-01

    A systematic approach was developed to review, revise and adapt existing exposure control guidance used in developed countries for use in developing countries. One-page employee and multiple-page supervisor guidance sheets were adapted from existing documents using a logic framework and workers were trained to use the information to improve work practices. Interactive, hands-on training was delivered to 26 workers at five small-scale demolition projects in Maputo City, Mozambique, and evaluat...

  16. Small-scale bioenergy projects in rural China: Lessons to be learnt

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A. P. J.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Large amounts of small-scale bioenergy projects were carried out in China's rural areas in light of its national renewable energy policies. These projects applied pyrolysis gasification as the main technology, which turns biomass waste at low costs into biogas. This paper selects seven bioenergy projects in Shandong Province as a case and assesses these projects in terms of economy, technological performance and effectiveness. Results show that these projects have not achieved a satisfying pe...

  17. Small-scale health-related indicator acquisition using secondary data spatial interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson Mary E; Law Jane; Meng Gang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to the lack of small-scale neighbourhood-level health related indicators, the analysis of social and spatial determinants of health often encounter difficulties in assessing the interrelations of neighbourhood and health. Although secondary data sources are now becoming increasingly available, they usually cannot be directly utilized for analysis in other than the designed study due to sampling issues. This paper aims to develop data handling and spatial interpolation ...

  18. Ionization-Induced Small-Scaled Plasma Structures in Tightly Focused Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser-matter interaction via optical-field ionization of a medium in a tightly focused ultrashort laser pulse is investigated by finite-difference-time-domain modeling of Maxwell's equations. We show that, unlike in the case of the conventional quasioptical approach, the regime of interaction changes drastically above a certain critical angle of laser beam focusing, resulting in the generation of small-scaled plasma structures which strongly influence the local field distribution and scattering characteristics

  19. Small-scale dissipative structures of diffuse ISM turbulence: I- CO diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Hily-blant, Pierre; Pety, Jerome; Falgarone, Edith

    2007-01-01

    Observations of translucent molecular gas in $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO emission lines, at high spectral and spatial resolutions, evidence different kinds of structures at small scales: (1) optically thin $^{12}$CO emission, (2) optically thick $^{12}$CO emission, visible in $^{13}$CO(1-0), and (3) regions of largest velocity shear in the field, found from a statistical analysis. They are all elongated with high aspect ratio, preferentially aligned with the plane-of-the-sky pro...

  20. Boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion in CO2 small scale experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerketvedt, Dag; Egeberg, Kjersti; Ke, Wei; Gaathaug, Andre Vagner; Va?gsæther, Knut; Nilsen, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage systems require handling large volumes of high pressure CO2. Having thorough knowledge of the related hazards is essential, as is knowing how to prevent, detect, control and mitigate accidents. This paper gives a short description of CO2 Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosions (BLEVEs) and presents results from preliminary, small scale experiments with CO2 BLEVEs. The mechanism of superheated liquid CO2 boiling is not fully understood. Analogies can be made betwe...

  1. Phenomenological modeling of the triggering phase of small-scale steam explosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past few years, over 300 small-scale experiments have been performed by Nelson at Sandia National Laboratories, investigating the triggering of steam explosions between water and molten light water reactor (LWR) materials over a variety of initial conditions. The primary purpose of this paper is to present the results of phenomenological modeling and analyses that may explain the experimental observations. Three major conclusions are suggested by the analysis. 24 refs

  2. A 3-D Force and Moment Motor for Small-Scale Biomechanics Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, J. H.; Puria, S.

    2009-01-01

    The inability to identify 3-D force and moment components for actuators and sensors is a major limiting factor in the study of 3-D force interactions with small-scale biological structures. While recent advances have been made in the measurement of stimulating forces using load cells and atomic-force microscopy in experimental preparations of biological structures such as mammalian temporal bones, these techniques have mostly been limited to one or two dimensions. In this paper, a method is d...

  3. Small signal gain measurements in a small scale HF overtone laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, C.F.; Hewett, K.B.; Manke, G.C. II; Hager, G.D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States); Crowell, P.G. [Northrup Grumman Information Technology, Science and Technology Operating Unit, Advanced Technology Division, P.O. Box 9377, Albuquerque, NM 87119-9377 (United States); Truman, C.R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The overtone gain medium of a small-scale HF overtone laser was probed using a sub-Doppler tunable diode laser. Two-dimensional spatially resolved small signal gain and temperature maps were generated for several ro-vibrational transitions in the HF (v=2{yields}v=0) overtone band. Our results compare well with previous measurements of the overtone gain in a similar HF laser device. (orig.)

  4. Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedamzik, Karsten [Laboratoire de Univers et Particules, UMR5299-CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Abel, Tom, E-mail: karsten.jedamzik@um2.fr, E-mail: tabel@slac.stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC/Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B ? 10{sup ?11} Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations.

  5. The Rural Landscapes and Small-Scale Agricultural Practices in the Transylvanian Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Baciu, Nicolae; Malos?, Cristian; Ros?ian, Gheorghe; Mures?ianu, Mircea; Schuster, Eduard; Barta, Andras; Sta?nescu, Carmen; Muntean, Octavian-liviu; Miha?iescu, Radu

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on the relationships between small-scale agricultural practices and cultural landscape of Transylvanian Plain. The geographical position of Transylvanian Plain in central part of Romania shows with relevance its favourability for sustainable agriculture and developing assumptions. Despite of this, the region was kept outside of the major infrastructural and economic trends. We could, also, include the Transylvanian Plain into a typical rural “central isolation space”...

  6. Probing the inflaton: Small-scale power spectrum constraints from measurements of the CMB energy spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Chluba, Jens; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ben-dayan, Ido

    2012-01-01

    In the early Universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk-damping, a process that inevitably generates mu- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k < 10^4 Mpc^{-1}. Here we study constraints on the primordial power spectrum derived from COBE/FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that me...

  7. Feasibility of small-scale gas engine-based residential cogeneration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays all countries are developing their own policies to promote cogeneration in the small-scale residential sector. In this paper the feasibility of small-scale gas engine-based residential cogeneration plants under the current Spanish regulation is studied. A unitary thermal load profile is obtained to characterised the thermal demand of residential applications in Spain. This unitary profile is used to analyse the potential of cogeneration in the small-scale range of powers (100-1000 kW). A complete characterisation of the gas fuelled engines in the market is performed and subsequently used to evaluate the economic feasibility within the selected range by means of a self-tailored simulation model. It is underlined how the thermal storage is a crucial element that should be suitably included in a residential cogeneration plant and the distortions that the actual pricing system adds to the profitability of residential plants of different sizes. Finally a sensibility study is carried out in order to evaluate how the Spanish regulation is able to deal with future variations in the energy prices. It is shown that a rise in the price of the natural gas increases the current feasibility of a plant while a decrease descends the profitability. - Highlights: ? Profitability is obtained within the whole small-scale range of powers. ? The stepped structure of prices strongly affect the feasibility of the projects. ? The inclusion of thermal storage notably affects the thermal storage notably affects the profitability of the plant. ? Big chance for increase the feasibility exists in retrofitting old installations. ? The system of tariff updating balances the future variations in the price of fuels.

  8. First Results from Viper: Detection of Small-Scale Anisotropy at 40 GHZ

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, J. B.; Griffin, G. S.; Newcomb, M. G.; Alvarez, D. L.; Cantalupo, C. M.; Morgan, D.; Miller, K. W.; Ganga, K.; Pernic, D.; Thoma, M.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a search for small-scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are presented. Observations were made at the South Pole using the Viper telescope, with a .26 degree (FWHM) beam and a passband centered at 40 GHz. Anisotropy band-power measurements in bands centered at l = 108, 173, 237, 263, 422 and 589 are reported. Statistically significant anisotropy is detected in all bands.

  9. The Viper Telescope : an Instrument to Measure Primary and Secondary CMB Anisotropy at Small Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, G.; Peterson, J.; Romer, K.; Alvarez, D.; Cantalupo, C.; Morgan, D.; Newcomb, M.; Vincent, M.; Miller, K.; Novak, G.; Dragovan, M.; Crone, B.

    1998-05-01

    Viper is a 2-meter off-axis telescope designed to measure small-scale anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. It is currently deployed at the South Pole, operating with a 40 GHz HEMT receiver. We are attempting to measure primary anisotropy in addition to secondary anistropy from the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (S-Z) effect. Preliminary data will be presented, along with a description of plans for future cosmological and non-cosmological observations.

  10. First Results from Viper Detection of Small-Scale Anisotropy at 40 GHZ

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, J B; Newcomb, M G; Alvarez, D L; Cantaloupo, C; Morgan, D; Miller, K W; Ganga, K; Pernic, D; Thoma, M H

    1999-01-01

    Results of a search for small-scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are presented. Observations were made at the South Pole using the Viper telescope, with a .26 degree (FWHM) beam and a passband centered at 40 GHz. Anisotropy band-power measurements in bands centered at l = 108, 173, 237, 263, 422 and 589 are reported. Statistically significant anisotropy is detected in all bands.

  11. Environmental changes, agricultural crisis and small-scale fishing development in the Casamance region, Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Cormier Salem, Marie-christine

    1994-01-01

    Senegal is a West African country where the fishing industry is one of the most important sources of economic development. However, Senegal is currently experiencing a deep political and economic crisis, partly linked to the Sahel drought. In this context, international interventions have been necessary to sustain economy, in particular to ensure the survival of small-scale fisheries. The last 15 years have seen an increasing number of development projects in Casamance, the Southern region of...

  12. Assessment of biosecurity practices of small-scale broiler producers in central Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro-Calduch, E; Elfadaly, S; Tibbo, M; Ankers, P; Bailey, E

    2013-06-01

    In the current situation of endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Egypt, improving the biosecurity of poultry production has become essential to the progressive reduction the incidence of the disease. A significant proportion of the Egyptian commercial poultry system consists of small-scale poultry producers operating with low to minimal biosecurity measures. An investigation was conducted into the level of adoption of standard biosecurity measures of the small-scale commercial chicken growers, including both farm- and home-based commercial production, input suppliers and other actors along the meat chicken value chain in Fayoum, Egypt. The study which used direct observations and group discussions of nearly 160 participants and structured interviews with 463 respondents, assessed biosecurity implementation to improve management practices and ultimately to control and prevent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The survey found that overall, biosecurity measures are rarely implemented in small-scale commercial poultry production units. Compliance with recommended biosecurity practices did not greatly vary from home-based to farm-based commercial production. Furthermore, serious risk practices were identified, such as unsafe disposal of poultry carcasses and potential disease spread posed by poor biosecurity measures implemented during vaccination. HPAI control measures have been ineffective due to limited cooperation between public and private sector, aggravated by the unpopular measures taken in the event of outbreaks and no compensation paid for incurred losses. Outreach and biosecurity awareness raising initiatives should be specifically developed for small-scale producers with the objective of improving general poultry management and thus preventing HPAI and other poultry diseases. PMID:23218658

  13. Assessing the Sustainability of Different Small-Scale Livestock Production Systems in the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Atanga, Ngufor L.; Treydte, Anna C.; Regina Birner

    2013-01-01

    Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P), agro-pastoral (AP), and landless intensive (LI) small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quanti...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SMALL- SCALE WOOD INDUSTRIES IN IKOT EKPENE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Akpan, Michael; Okwara, Obasi Udo

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the environmental impactsassociated with Small Scale Wood Industries (SSWl) inIkot Expene town, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three (3)industrial locations, namely sawmill (SM), Furniture (F)and Wood Carving (WC), including a Control (C) wererandomly sampled for the study. Data were collected withthe aid of measurements, using standard instruments,and compared with those of National (FMENV) andInternational (WHO) regulatory limits. Analysis ofVariance (ANOVA) statistics was us...

  15. Small scale aspects of flows in proximity of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface

    OpenAIRE

    Holzner, M.; Liberzon, A.; Nikitin, N.; Kinzelbach, W.; Tsinober, A.

    2007-01-01

    The work reported below is a first of its kind study of the properties of turbulent flow without strong mean shear in a Newtonian fluid in proximity of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface, with emphasis on the small scale aspects. The main tools used are a three-dimensional particle tracking system (3D-PTV) allowing to measure and follow in a Lagrangian manner the field of velocity derivatives and direct numerical simulations (DNS). The comparison of flow properties in the...

  16. Self-motion and wind velocity estimation for small-scale UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Zachariah, Dave; Jansson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    For small-scale Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to operate indoor, in urban canyons or other scenarios where signals from global navigation satellite systems are denied or impaired, alternative estimation and control strategies must be applied. In this paper a system is proposed that estimates the self-motion and wind velocity by fusing information from airspeed sensors, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a monocular camera. Such estimates can be used in control systems for managing wind d...

  17. The small-scale dynamo: breaking universality at high Mach numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Schober, Jennifer; Federrath, Christoph; Bovino, Stefano; Schmidt, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    The small-scale dynamo plays a substantial role in magnetizing the Universe under a large range of conditions, including subsonic turbulence at low Mach numbers, highly supersonic turbulence at high Mach numbers and a large range of magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, i.e. the ratio of kinetic viscosity to magnetic resistivity. Low Mach numbers may, in particular, lead to the well-known, incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence, while for high Mach numbers, we are in the highly compressible regime, thus...

  18. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AND STATUS OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR'S IN SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika M. K; Siddappa, B.

    2014-01-01

    Women entrepreneurship in small scale industries play very important role in economy. Entrepreneurship amongst women has been a recent concern. Women have become aware of their existence their rights and their work situation. However, women are not too eager to alter their role in fear of social backlash. The progress is more visible among men families in society. This paper focuses on women entrepreneur. Any understanding of Indian women, of their identity, and especially...

  19. Impacts of Climate Variability on Latin American Small-scale Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Defeo; Mauricio Castrejón; Leonardo Ortega; Kuhn, Angela M.; Gutie?rrez, Nicola?s L.; Juan Carlos Castilla

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) are social-ecological systems that play a critical role in terms of food security and poverty alleviation in Latin America. These fisheries are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic and climatic drivers acting at multiple scales. We review the effects of climate variability on Latin American SSFs, and discuss the combined effects of two additional human drivers: globalization of markets and governance. We show drastic long-term and large-scale effects of climat...

  20. HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT OF SMALL SCALE HEAT SINKS USING VIBRATING PIN FIN

    OpenAIRE

    Suabsakul Gururatana; Xianchang Li

    2013-01-01

    Heat sinks are widely adopted in electronics cooling together with different technologies to enhance the cooling process. For the small electronics application, the small scale pin fins heat sinks are extensively used to dissipate heat in electronics devices. Due to the limit of space in the small devices, it is impossible to increase heat transfer area. In order to improve the heat transfer performance, the applying the forced vibration is one of challenging method. This study applies the vi...

  1. ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE WITH REFERENCE TO RURAL SMALL SCALE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY IN PUNE DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Dilip Jagdale; Sarang Shankar Bhola

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurial Leadership is a significant concept in entrepreneurship literature. Different leadership styles effect on effectiveness and performance of the organizations. Present research investigates the impact ofEntrepreneurial Leadership style onOrganizational Performance with reference to Rural Small Scale Engineering Industry in Pune District of India. A ten items scale developed by (Boltan 2012) was used to find leadership styles. The data werecollected from one h...

  2. Poverty Measurements in Small-scale Fisheries of Ghana: A Step towards Poverty Eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Berchie Asiedu; Nunoo, Francis K. E.; Ofori-danson, Patrick K.; Sarpong, Daniel B.; Sumaila, Ussif R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined measurements of poverty in small-scale fishing communities of Ghana using FGT techniques and the Sumaila Relative Poverty Indices. Findings show that poverty head-count index was between 35.5% and 50% using the Local Poverty line and up to 80% using the International Poverty line. In terms of vulnerability, irrespective of the main fishing activity, community (rural or urban) and habitat of fishery resources (freshwater or marine), fishers were facing identical sources of ...

  3. Low Discounting Behavior among Small-Scale Fishers in Fiji and Sabah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Louise S. L.; Teh, Lydia C. L.; Rashid Sumaila, U.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the socio-economic factors that are associated with fishers’ willingness to delay gratification may be useful for designing appropriate fisheries management and conservation policies. We aim to identify the predictors of low discounting behaviour among fishers, which is analogous to having a longer-term outlook. We base our empirical study on two small-scale tropical reef fisheries in Sabah, Malaysia, and Fiji. We use an experimental approach to identify fishers with low disco...

  4. To Improve Productivity By Using Work Study & Design A Fixture In Small Scale Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mayank Dev Singh; Shah Saurabh K; Patel Sachin B; Patel Rahul B; Pansuria Ankit P

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve production capabilities for small scale industry and this research focused on the company, which produce Stay vane of Francis turbine. This research used work study technique to improve work process in company, and the research objectives towards accomplished this study is to identify problems in the production work process and improved it in terms of production time, number of process and production rate by proposing an efficient work process to com...

  5. Mercury-Free Gold Extraction Using Borax for Small-Scale Gold Miners

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wiltje Uitterdijk Appel; Leoncio Degay Na-Oy

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale gold mining is the largest anthropogenic contributor of mercury pollution on planet Earth. The miners grind gold ore together with mercury in order to recover the fine gold grains. The gold amalgam is burned whereby the mercury evaporates and gold is left behind. This processing extracts only a fraction of the gold in the ore and the released mercury causes serious global health and environmental problems. However, a mercury-free method described below has p...

  6. Model-based energy optimisation of a small-scale decentralised membrane bioreactor for urban reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Verrecht, Bart; Maere, Thomas; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Nopens, Ingmar; Judd, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    The energy consumption of a small-scale membrane bioreactor, treating high strength domestic wastewater for community level wastewater recycling, has been optimised using a dynamic model of the plant. ASM2d was chosen as biological process model to account for the presence of phosphate accumulating organisms. A tracer test was carried out to determine the hydraulic behaviour of the plant. To realistically simulate the aeration demand, a dedicated aeration model was used incorporating the depe...

  7. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 2 (Glycolic Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory- and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory melter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives A chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5, includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data in parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

  8. Small-Scale High Temperature Melter-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package. Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.L.

    1996-03-01

    This appendix provides the data for Alternate HTM Flowsheet 1 (No Reductant Addition, Nitric Acid) melter feed preparation activities in both the laboratory and small-scale testing. The first section provides an outline of this appendix. The melter feed preparation data are presented in the next two main sections, laboratory welter feed preparation data and small-scale melter feed preparation data. Section 3.0 provides the laboratory data which is discussed in the main body of the Small-Scale High Temperature-1 (SSHTM-1) Data Package, milestone C95-02.02Y. Section 3.1 gives the flowsheet in outline form as used in the laboratory-scale tests. This section also includes the ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` which gives a chronological account of the test in terms of time, temperature, slurry pH, and specific observations about slurry appearance, acid addition rates, and samples taken. The ``Laboratory Melter Feed Preparation Activity Log`` provides a road map to the reader by which all the activity and data from the laboratory can be easily accessed. A summary of analytical data is presented next, section 3.2, which covers starting materials and progresses to the analysis of the melter feed. The next section, 3.3, characterizes the off-gas generation that occurs during the slurry processing. The following section, 3.4, provides the rheology data gathered including gram waste oxide loading information for the various slurries tested. The final section, 3.5. includes data from standard crucible redox testing. Section 4.0 provides the small-scale data tn parallel form to section 3.0. Section 5.0 concludes with the references for this appendix.

  9. Transient small-scale structure in the main auroral emission at Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmaerts, B.; Radioti, A.; Grodent, D.; Chané, E.; Bonfond, B.

    2014-04-01

    The main auroral emission at Jupiter is associated with the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system generated by the corotation breakdown of Iogenic plasma in the current sheet. The morphology and brightness of the main auroral emission are generally suggested to be stable during time intervals of the order of an hour. Here we identify for the first time a small-scale dynamic feature whose brightness is growing or decreasing over timescales of an hour. An example of this transient feature is given in Figure 1 which shows four polar projections of FUV images of the north pole of Jupiter obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The brightness of the transient feature indicated by the yellow arrows continuously increases during the 30-minute observation. The dynamic evolution of this small-scale structure is investigated in both hemispheres on the basis of HST observations between 1997 and 2007. A statistical analysis reveals the properties of this small-scale structure whose equatorial source region is fixed in magnetic local time, around noon. Additionally, we present global MHD simulations of the Jovian magnetosphere for different solar wind conditions, using the model developed by Chané et al. (2013) [1]. The model predicts the formation of a localized small-scale feature around noon in the auroral region, compatible with the observed transient auroral structure. According to the simulations, a negative plasma radial velocity region is created in the current sheet close to magnetic noon. We suggest that the shearing motions occurring at the boundary of this region lead to a localized enhancement of the upward field aligned current density.

  10. Bronchial provocation studies in farmers with positive RAST to the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hage-Hamsten, M; Ihre, E; Zetterström, O; Johansson, S G

    1988-11-01

    Bronchial provocation studies with L. destructor (L. des.) extract were made on 12 farmers with asthma who were exposed daily to stored hay and grain and had positive radio-allergo-sorbent test (RAST) to L. des. All 12 farmers developed more than a 20% fall in FEV1 to the extract. None of the symptomatic farmers who were also RAST positive to the L. des. culture medium developed an asthmatic reaction to the medium extract. Neither four healthy farmers nor two patients with asthma caused by D. pteronyssinus (D. pt.) responded to L. des. or the L. des. culture medium. Challenges with D. pt. extract were negative in two symptomatic farmers who were RAST positive to L. des. and negative to D. pt. The present study further supports our previous hypothesis that there is an IgE-mediated immunological mechanism behind L. des.-induced asthma in farmers and that atopic farmers are liable to develop occupational asthma caused by allergy to L. des.. PMID:3207179

  11. Modeling small-scale dairy farms in central Mexico using multi-criteria programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Arreola, D; Kebreab, E; France, J

    2006-05-01

    Milk supply from Mexican dairy farms does not meet demand and small-scale farms can contribute toward closing the gap. Two multi-criteria programming techniques, goal programming and compromise programming, were used in a study of small-scale dairy farms in central Mexico. To build the goal and compromise programming models, 4 ordinary linear programming models were also developed, which had objective functions to maximize metabolizable energy for milk production, to maximize margin of income over feed costs, to maximize metabolizable protein for milk production, and to minimize purchased feedstuffs. Neither multi-criteria approach was significantly better than the other; however, by applying both models it was possible to perform a more comprehensive analysis of these small-scale dairy systems. The multi-criteria programming models affirm findings from previous work and suggest that a forage strategy based on alfalfa, ryegrass, and corn silage would meet nutrient requirements of the herd. Both models suggested that there is an economic advantage in rescheduling the calving season to the second and third calendar quarters to better synchronize higher demand for nutrients with the period of high forage availability. PMID:16606736

  12. Lessons for resource conservation from two contrasting small-scale fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Hampus; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Purcell, Steven W; Olsson, Per

    2015-04-01

    Small-scale fisheries present challenges to management due to fishers' dependency on resources and the adaptability of management systems. We compared social-ecological processes in the sea cucumber fisheries of Zanzibar and Mayotte, Western Indian Ocean, to better understand the reasons for resource conservation or collapse. Commercial value of wild stocks was at least 30 times higher in Mayotte than in Zanzibar owing to lower fishing pressure. Zanzibar fishers were financially reliant on the fishery and increased fishing effort as stocks declined. This behavioral response occurred without adaptive management and reinforced an unsustainable fishery. In contrast, resource managers in Mayotte adapted to changing fishing effort and stock abundance by implementing a precautionary fishery closure before crossing critical thresholds. Fishery closure may be a necessary measure in small-scale fisheries to preserve vulnerable resources until reliable management systems are devised. Our comparison highlighted four poignant lessons for managing small-scale fisheries: (1) diagnose the fishery regularly, (2) enable an adaptive management system, (3) constrain exploitation within ecological limits, and (4) share management responsibility. PMID:25238980

  13. Onset of small-scale turbulent dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schekochihin, A A; Brandenburg, A; Cowley, S C; Maron, J L; McWilliams, J C

    2004-01-01

    We study numerically the dependence of the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_c for the turbulent small-scale dynamo on the hydrodynamic Reynolds number Re. We are interested in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl number Pm=Rm/Reconst as Re->infinity (small-scale dynamo exists at low Pm) or Rmc/Re=Pm_c->const as Re->infinity (no small-scale dynamo at low Pm). Results obtained in two independent sets of simulations of MHD turbulence using two different codes are brought together and found to be in quantitative agreement. We find that, at currently accessible resolutions, Rm_c grows with Re with no sign of approaching a constant limit. We reach the maximum value of Rm_c~500$ for Re~3000. By comparing simulations with Laplacian viscosity, 4th- to 8th-order hyperviscosity, and Smagorinsky large-eddy viscosity, we find that Rm_c is not sensitive to the particular form of the viscous cutoff. This work represents a significant extension of the studies previously published in Schekochihin et al. 2004, PRL 92, 054502...

  14. Resolving the Paradox of Oceanic Large-Scale Balance and Small-Scale Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, R.; Pouquet, A.; Rosenberg, D.

    2015-03-01

    A puzzle of oceanic dynamics is the contrast between the observed geostrophic balance, involving gravity, pressure gradient, and Coriolis forces, and the necessary turbulent transport: in the former case, energy flows to large scales, leading to spectral condensation, whereas in the latter, it is transferred to small scales, where dissipation prevails. The known bidirectional constant-flux energy cascade maintaining both geostrophic balance and mixing tends towards flux equilibration as turbulence strengthens, contradicting models and recent observations which find a dominant large-scale flux. Analyzing a large ensemble of high-resolution direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations in the presence of rotation and no salinity, we show that the ratio of the dual energy flux to large and to small scales agrees with observations, and we predict that it scales with the inverse of the Froude and Rossby numbers when stratification is (realistically) stronger than rotation. Furthermore, we show that the kinetic and potential energies separately undergo a bidirectional transfer to larger and smaller scales. Altogether, this allows for small-scale mixing which drives the global oceanic circulation and will thus potentially lead to more accurate modeling of climate dynamics.

  15. Small scale aspects of warm dark matter: Power spectra and acoustic oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a semianalytic derivation of approximate evolution equations for density perturbations of warm dark matter candidates that decoupled while relativistic with arbitrary distribution functions, their solutions at small scales, and a simple numerical implementation that yields their transfer functions and power spectra. Density perturbations evolve through three stages: radiation domination when the particle is relativistic and nonrelativistic and matter domination. An early integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect during the first stage leads to an enhancement of density perturbations and a plateau in the transfer function for k fs, the free-streaming wave vector. An effective fluid description emerges at small scales which includes the effects of free streaming in initial conditions and inhomogeneities. The transfer function features warm dark matter acoustic oscillations at scales k > or approx. 2kfs. A simple analytic interpolation of the power spectra between large and small scales and a numerical implementation valid for arbitrary distribution functions is provided. As an application we study the power spectra for two models of sterile neutrinos with m?keV produced nonresonantly and compare our results to those obtained from Boltzmann codes.

  16. Wind-water tunnel simulation of small-scale ocean-atomsphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coantic, Michel; Ramamonjiarisoa, Alfred; Mestayer, Patrice; Resch, FrançOis; Favre, Alexandre

    1981-07-01

    Various results obtained at the Institut de Mecanique Statistique de la Turbulence wind-water facility, where small-scale dynamic and thermodynamic air-sea exchange processes can be partially simulated, during the past 10 years are reviewed in the light of present ideas on ocean-atmosphere interactions. The object here is to draw conclusions on both the validity and the usefulness of such laboratory studies. Large- and small-scale turbulent velocity and temperature fields exhibit good similarity and general agreement with surface layer observations but also exhibit interesting departures from local isotropy. The spectral characteristics of waves in the laboratory are quite similar to short-fetch field data. An inherently nonlinear `dominant wave' is found to have a major influence upon properties and upon the dispersion relation of wind waves in the laboratory and in the field. Wind-wave coupling is observed and investigated through linear and nonlinear methods. Turbulent heat and mass transfer processes, studied through different techniques, show that evaporation rates and diffusive sublayer thicknesses compare well with other estimates. Observed density stratification effects can be interpreted in terms of the accepted description for atmospheric surface layer. These data as a whole demonstrate that laboratory studies on small-scales air-sea interaction mechanisms can provide an insight into the naturally occurring physical processes.

  17. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Small-scale technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following techniques for small-scale production have been selected to be studied more carefully, Fuel cells, Photovoltaics, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), and Wave power. Of the four selected technologies, fuel cells, solar cells, ORC are appropriate for use in so-called distributed generation, to be used close to a consumer, and possibly also for the production of electricity. Wave power is more like the wind in nature and is probably better suited to be used by power companies for direct input to the transmission grid. None of these technologies are now competitive against buying electricity from the Swedish grid. However, there are opportunities for all to reduce production costs so that they can become competitive alternatives in the future, depending largely on the general development of electricity prices, taxes, delivery reliability, etc. The four different technologies have different development stages and requirements that affect their possibility for a commercial breakthrough. These technologies will probably not all get a breakthrough in Sweden. Small-scale technologies will in the time period up to 2030 not be able to compete with the large-scale technologies that exist in today's power grid. In the longer term the situation may be different. The power system might be reduced in importance if the small scale technologies become cheap, reliable and easy to use. Electricity can then be produced locally, directly related to user needslated to user needs

  18. Evaluation of Small-Scale Laterally Loaded Non-Slender Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Thomassen, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    In current design of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopiles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated, e.g. the diameter effect on the soil response. In this paper the diameter effect on laterally loaded non-slender piles in sand is evaluated by means of results from six small-scale laboratory tests, numerical modelling of the same test setup and existing theory. From the numerical models p-y curves are conducted and compared to current design regulations. It is found that the recommendations in API (1993) and DNV (1992) are in poor agreement with the numerically obtained p-y curves. The initial stiffness, Epy*, of the p-y curves, is found to be dependent on the pile diameter, i.e. the initial stiffness increases with increasing pile diameter. Further, the dependency is found to be in agreement with the suggestions in Sørensen et al. (2010). It is found that considerable uncertainties are related to small-scale testing, and the different evaluations clearly indicate that the accuracy of small-scale testing is increased when increasing the pile diameter and applying overburden pressure.

  19. [Water-borne outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica O8 due to a small scale water system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Junko; Kimata, Keiko; Shimizu, Miwako; Kanatani, Jun-ichi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Watahiki, Masanori

    2014-11-01

    A water-borne outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 associated with a small-scale water system occurred during July-August 2011 in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. Escherichia coli was not detected in tap water from the small-scale water system. However, the maximum concentration of viable bacteria in the tap water was 700CFU/mL, which exceeds the legal standard for purity of tap water (100CFU/mL). Furthermore, Y. enterocolitica O8 was isolated from the tap water with the use of immunomagnetic beads prepared with anti-Y. enterocolitica O8 antibodies. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis identified 3 isolates from tap water and 5 isolates from 4 patient stool specimens as belonging to the outbreak strain. An epidemiological investigation revealed improper management of the residual chlorine concentration in the tap water. This is the first report of an outbreak of Y. enterocolitica due to tap water from a small-scale water system in Japan. PMID:25764804

  20. Resolving the problem of galaxy clustering on small scales: any new physics needed?

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy clustering sets strong constraints on the physics governing galaxy formation and evolution. However, most current models fail to reproduce the clustering of low-mass galaxies on small scales ($r<1Mpc/h$). In this paper we study the galaxy clusterings predicted from a few semi-analytical models. We firstly compare two Munich versions, Guo et al. (2011, Guo11) and De Lucia \\& Blazoit (2007, DLB07). The Guo11 model well reproduces the galaxy stellar mass function, but over-predicts the clustering of low-mass galaxies on small scales. The DLB07 model provides a better fit to the clustering on small scales, but over-predicts the stellar mass function. These seem to be puzzling. We find that there is slightly more fraction of satellite galaxies residing in massive haloes in the Guo11 model, which is the dominant contribution to the clustering discrepancy between the two models. However, both models still over-predict the clustering at $0.1Mpc/h

  1. Low cost, small scale processing technologies for production applications in various environments: Mass produced factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramsiepe, C; Sievers, S; Seifert, T; Stefanidis, G D; Vlachos, Dion G.; Schnitzer, H; Muster, B; Brunner, C; Sanders, J P.M.; Bruins, M E; Schembecker, G

    2012-01-01

    The requirements for chemical and food production technologies will change in the future as a result of shorter time to market and increasing market volatility. Especially the rising use of renewable resources will require the implementation of flexible and fast to install small-scale production technologies. The increasing number of necessary apparatuses and their distributed operation, however, will constitute major challenges, both economically and procedurally. The proposed solution to face the economic challenge is modularization and standardization. For food production, dewatering represents a key issue. Thus, biomass processing should first be divided into small-scale water separation steps and then into further large-scale processing steps. As dewatering usually happens thermally and heat exchangers often benefit from the economies of scale, heat supply and energy consumption or heat transfer with little capital investment are further issues. Therefore, temperature levels should be decreased and the use of solar heat increased. For the production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass, process integration and process simplification are proposed to improve the efficacy of production equipment and processes. Choosing raw materials with molecular structures, similar to the desired chemical building block, will lower the need for heat exchange and make small-scale manufacturing of fuels and chemicals possible.

  2. Evaluation of external heat loss from a small-scale expander used in organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the scaling down of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), the engine shaft power is not only determined by the enthalpy drop in the expansion process but also the external heat loss from the expander. Theoretical and experimental support in evaluating small-scale expander heat loss is rare. This paper presents a quantitative study on the convection, radiation, and conduction heat transfer from a kW-scale expander. A mathematical model is built and validated. The results show that the external radiative or convective heat loss coefficient was about 3.2 or 7.0 W/K.m2 when the ORC operated around 100 oC. Radiative and convective heat loss coefficients increased as the expander operation temperature increased. Conductive heat loss due to the connection between the expander and the support accounted for a large proportion of the total heat loss. The fitting relationships between heat loss and mean temperature difference were established. It is suggested that low conductivity material be embodied in the support of expander. Mattress insulation for compact expander could be eliminated when the operation temperature is around 100 oC. - Highlights: ? A close examination of external heat loss from a small expander is presented. ? Theoretical analysis and experimental test were conducted. ? The established formulas can be applied to other small ORC expanders. ? The results are useful in further research of small-scale ORC.f small-scale ORC.

  3. 2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balk, Thomas

    2012-07-27

    The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

  4. Magnetic field amplification by the small-scale dynamo in the early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Jacques M.; Banerjee, Robi; Schleicher, Dominik; Sigl, Günter

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we show that the Universe is already strongly magnetized at very early epochs during cosmic evolution. Our calculations are based on the efficient amplification of weak magnetic seed fields, which are unavoidably present in the early Universe, by the turbulent small-scale dynamo. We identify two mechanisms for the generation of turbulence in the radiation dominated epoch where velocity fluctuations are produced by the primordial density perturbation and by possible first-order phase transitions at the electroweak or QCD scales. We show that all the necessities for the small-scale dynamo to work are fulfilled. Hence, this mechanism, operating due to primordial density perturbations, guarantees fields with comoving field strength B0˜10-6?1/2 nG on scales up to ?c˜0.1 pc, where ? is the saturation efficiency. The amplification of magnetic seed fields could be even larger if there are first-order phase transitions in the early Universe. Where, on scales up to ?c˜100 pc, the comoving field strength due to this mechanism will be B0˜10-3?1/2 nG at the present time. Such fields, albeit on small scales, can play an important role in structure formation and could provide an explanation to the apparently observed magnetic fields in the voids of the large-scale structure.

  5. An Attempt of Formalizing the Selection Parameters for Settlements Generalization in Small-Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsznia, Izabela

    2014-12-01

    The paper covers one of the most important problems concerning context-sensitive settlement selection for the purpose of the small-scale maps. So far, no formal parameters for small-scale settlements generalization have been specified, hence the problem seems to be an important and innovative challenge. It is also crucial from the practical point of view as it is necessary to develop appropriate generalization algorithms for the purpose of the General Geographic Objects Database generalization which is the essential Spatial Data Infrastructure component in Poland. The author proposes and verifies quantitative generalization parameters for the purpose of the settlement selection process in small-scale maps. The selection of settlements was carried out in two research areas - in Lower Silesia and ?ód? Province. Based on the conducted analysis appropriate contextual-sensitive settlements selection parameters have been defined. Particular effort has been made to develop a methodology of quantitative settlements selection which would be useful in the automation processes and that would make it possible to keep specifics of generalized objects unchanged.

  6. Observational Signatures of the Small-Scale Dynamo in the Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramenko, V.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Goode, P. R.

    2012-05-01

    The generation and diffusion of the magnetic field on the Sun is a key mechanism responsible for solar activity on all spatial and temporal scales—from the solar cycle down to the evolution of small-scale magnetic elements in the quiet Sun. The solar dynamo operates as a non-linear dynamical process and is thought to be manifest in two types: as a global dynamo responsible for the solar cycle periodicity, and as a small-scale turbulent dynamo responsible for the formation of the magnetic carpet in the quiet Sun. Numerous MHD simulations of solar turbulence did not yet reach a consensus as to the existence of a turbulent dynamo on the Sun. At the same time, high-resolution observations of the quiet Sun from Hinode instruments suggest possibilities for the turbulent dynamo. Analysis of characteristics of turbulence derived from observations would be beneficial in tackling the problem. We analyze magnetic and velocity energy spectra as derived from Hinode/SOT, SOHO/MDI, SDO/HMI and the New Solar Telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) to explore the possibilities for the small-scale turbulent dynamo in the quiet Sun.

  7. Coronal hole boundaries evolution at small scales: I. EIT 195 A and TRACE 171 A view

    CERN Document Server

    Madjarska, M S

    2009-01-01

    We aim at studying the small-scale evolution at the boundaries of an equatorial coronal hole connected with a channel of open magnetic flux with the polar region and an `isolated' one in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range. We intend to determine the spatial and temporal scale of these changes. Imager data from TRACE in the Fe IX/X 171 A passband and EIT on-board Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in the Fe XII 195 A passband were analysed. We found that small-scale loops known as bright points play an essential role in coronal holes boundaries evolution at small scales. Their emergence and disappearance continuously expand or contract coronal holes. The changes appear to be random on a time scale comparable with the lifetime of the loops seen at these temperatures. No signature was found for a major energy release during the evolution of the loops. Although coronal holes seem to maintain their general shape during a few solar rotations, a closer look at their day-by-day and even hour-by-hour evolution dem...

  8. The Opacity of the Intergalactic Medium During Reionization: Resolving Small-Scale Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Emberson, J D; Alvarez, Marcelo A

    2013-01-01

    Early in the reionization process, the intergalactic medium (IGM) would have been quite inhomogeneous on small scales, due to the low Jeans mass in the neutral IGM and the hierarchical growth of structure in a cold dark matter Universe. This small-scale structure acted as an important sink during the epoch of reionization, impeding the progress of the ionization fronts that swept out from the first sources of ionizing radiation. Here we present results of high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations that resolve the cosmological Jeans mass of the neutral IGM in representative volumes several Mpc across. The adiabatic hydrodynamics we follow are appropriate in an unheated IGM, before the gas has had a chance to respond to the photoionization heating. Our focus is determination of the resolution required in cosmological simulations in order to sufficiently sample and resolve small-scale structure regulating the opacity of an unheated IGM. We find that a dark matter particle mass of m_dm 1 Mpc are req...

  9. Experimental approach for deep proteome measurements from small-scale microbial biomass samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Melissa R; Chourey, Karuna; Froelich, Jennifer M; Erickson, Brian K; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert L

    2008-12-15

    Many methods of microbial proteome characterizations require large quantities of cellular biomass (>1-2 g) for sample preparation and protein identification. Our experimental approach differs from traditional techniques by providing the ability to identify the proteomic state of a microbe from a few milligrams of starting cellular material. The small-scale, guanidine lysis method minimizes sample loss by achieving cellular lysis and protein digestion in a single-tube experiment. For this experimental approach, the freshwater microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA0010 were used as model organisms for technology development and evaluation. A 2-D LC-MS/MS comparison between a standard sonication lysis method and the small-scale guanidine lysis techniques demonstrates that the guanidine lysis method is more efficient with smaller sample amounts of cell pellet (i.e., down to 1 mg). The described methodology enables deeper proteome measurements from a few milliliters of confluent bacterial cultures. We also report a new protocol for efficient lysis from small amounts of natural biofilm samples for deep proteome measurements, which should greatly enhance the emerging field of environmental microbial community proteomics. This straightforward sample boiling protocol is complementary to the small-scale guanidine lysis technique, is amenable for small sample quantities, and requires no special reagents that might complicate the MS measurements. PMID:19072265

  10. Experimental Approach for Deep Proteome Measurements from Small-Scale Microbial Biomass Samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Melissa R [ORNL; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Froelich, Jennifer M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Erickson, Brian K [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Many methods of microbial proteome characterizations require large quantities of cellular biomass (> 1-2 g) for sample preparation and protein identification. Our experimental approach differs from traditional techniques by providing the ability to identify the proteomic state of a microbe from a few milligrams of starting cellular material. The small-scale, guanidine-lysis method minimizes sample loss by achieving cellular lysis and protein digestion in a single tube experiment. For this experimental approach, the freshwater microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA0010 were used as model organisms for technology development and evaluation. A 2-D LC-MS/MS comparison between a standard sonication lysis method and the small-scale guanidine-lysis techniques demonstrates that the guanidine-lysis method is more efficient with smaller sample amounts of cell pellet (i.e. down to 1 mg). The described methodology would enable deep proteome measurements from a few milliliters of confluent bacterial cultures. We also report a new protocol for efficient lysis from small amounts of natural biofilm samples for deep proteome measurements, which should greatly enhance the emerging field of microbial community proteomics. This straightforward sample boiling protocol is complementary to the small-scale guanidine-lysis technique, is amenable for small sample quantities, and requires no special reagents that might complicate the MS measurements.

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of Escherichia coli from neighboring small-scale dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Castillo, Jesús Andrei; Vázquez-Garcidueñas, Ma Soledad; Alvarez-Hernández, Hugo; Chassin-Noria, Omar; Varela-Murillo, Alba Irene; Zavala-Páramo, María Guadalupe; Cano-Camacho, Horacio; Vázquez-Marrufo, Gerardo

    2011-10-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Escherichia coli isolates from small-scale dairy farms were used to assess the ability of E. coli to spread within the farm environment and between neighboring farms. A total of 164 E. coli isolates were obtained from bovine feces, bedding, cow teats and milk from 6 small-scale dairy farms. Ward's clustering grouped the isolates into 54 different random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) types at 95% similarity, regardless of either the sample type or the farm of isolation. This suggests that RAPD types are shared between bovine feces, bedding, cow teats, and milk. In addition, transmission of RAPD types between the studied farms was suggested by the Ward grouping pattern of the isolates, Nei's and AMOVA population analyses, and genetic landscape shape analysis. For the first time, the latter analytical tool was used to assess the ability of E. coli to disseminate between small-scale dairy farms within the same producing region. Although a number of dispersal mechanisms could exist between farms, the genetic landscape shape analysis associated the flow of E. coli RAPD types with the movement of forage and milking staff between farms. This study will aid in planning disease prevention strategies and optimizing husbandry practices. PMID:22068484

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic Kink Waves in Nonuniform Solar Flux Tubes: Phase Mixing and Energy Cascade to Small Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. The propagation and damping of these waves may play relevant roles in the transport and dissipation of energy in the solar atmospheric medium. However, in the atmospheric plasma dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy by viscosity or resistivity needs very small spatial scales to be efficient. Here, we theoretically investigate the generation of small scales in nonuniform solar magnetic flux tubes due to phase mixing of MHD kink waves. We go beyond the usual approach based on the existence of a global quasi-mode that is damped in time due to resonant absorption. Instead, we use a modal expansion to express the MHD kink wave as a superposition of Alfvén continuum modes that are phase mixed as time evolves. The comparison of the two techniques evidences that the modal analysis is more physically transparent and describes both the damping of global kink motions and the building up of small scales due to phase mixing. In addition, we discuss that the processes of resonant absorption and phase mixing are closely linked. They represent two aspects of the same underlying physical mechanism: the energy cascade from large scales to small scales due to naturally occurring plasma and/or magnetic field inhomogeneities. This process may provide the necessary scenario for efficient dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy in the solar atmospheric plasma.

  13. Mixing at mid-ocean ridges controlled by small-scale convection and plate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Henri; King, Scott D.

    2014-08-01

    Oceanic lavas are thought to be derived from different sources within the Earth’s mantle, each with a distinct composition. Large-scale plate motions provide the primary mechanism for mixing these sources, yet the geochemical signature of lavas erupted at different mid-ocean ridges can still vary significantly. Geochemical variability is low where plate spreading rates are high, consistent with plate-scale mixing. However, slow-spreading centres, such as the Southwest Indian Ridge in the Indian Ocean, are also geochemically homogeneous, which is inconsistent with plate-scale mixing. Here we use numerical simulations of mantle flow to study mantle mixing at mid-ocean ridges, under conditions with variable plate length and spreading rate. Our simulations reveal that small-scale convection in the mantle contributes significantly to mantle mixing at slow spreading rates; faster plate velocities and smaller plates inhibit small-scale convection. We conclude that whereas fast-spreading ridge lavas are well mixed by plate-scale flow, slow-spreading ridge lavas are mixed by small-scale convection.

  14. Is There Observational Evidence Indicating a Small-Scale Solar Dynamo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lites, B. W.

    2012-05-01

    Observations from the Hinode/SOT spectro-polarimeter are examined with the aim of identifying diagnostics for the presence (or absence) of a self-sustained small-scale turbulent dynamo in the upper solar convection zone. We examine 45 Hinode data sets obtained during 2007. We find much smaller net flux imbalance within regions of the quiet Sun having very weak flux compared to the imbalance averaged over each data set. Further, there is no correlation of the average net unsigned flux of regions having very weak flux relative to the average unsigned flux of the entire region. If internetwork fields were to arise from dispersal of flux from active regions, one would expect both measures to show significant correlation, so this analysis strongly supports the small-scale dynamo scenario. We also find that the average of the longitudinal apparent flux density increases slightly toward the limb for the very weakest observed flux elements. This behavior is likely the result of the dominance of horizontal fields higher in the photosphere. From data with very high signal-to-noise ratio, the distribution of magnetic field strength indicates that the magnetic energy of the quiet Sun is dominated by the small fraction of field elements having kG strengths. These strong-field elements are responsible for most of the imbalance of magnetic flux measured in each region, so it is suggested that they arise primarily from dispersal of flux from active regions, not from a small-scale dynamo.

  15. Nonlinear evolution of convecting plasma enhancements in the auroral ionosphere, 2. Small scale irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using analytical numerical simulation techniques, the linear stability and nonlinear evolution of small scale (approx.0.1--1 km) density irregularities in local unstable regions of large scale convecting auroral plasma enhancements have been studied. Our results show that these small scale size irregularities are driven unstable primarily by the effects of convection through the E x B gradient drift instability. We find that the density irregularities, in the nonlinear regime, in a plane nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field resemble steepened striation-like structures (elongated in the north-south direction for equatorward convection) that can form and cascade from kilometer to tens of meter scale sizes on the order of half an hour. The one-dimensional spatial power spectra of the density irregularities in the north-south P(k/sub y/)proportionalk/sup -n//sub y/ and east-west P(k/sub x/proportionalk/sub x//sup -n/ can be described by inverse power laws with napprox. =2--3. Finally, we propose and demonstrate, using a crude model, that a two-step process, in which small scale irregularities can grow on longer wavelength nonlinear structures, can account for the experimentally observed L shell aligned nature of the irregularities

  16. The Role of Accounting Information in the Survival of Small Scale Businesses in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoh, L. O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Small scale enterprises play a vital role in the economic development of any country. In Nigeria, the management of these enterprises have been constrained by lack of knowledge of accounting by the stakeholders. This study aimed at examining the roles of accounting information in the survival of small businesses in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria. The study spotlighted the importance of small scale enterprises in the development of Nigerian economy, problems that pose a threat to the survival of small scale businesses and the relevance of accounting information to the operations of a business/organization. Structured questionnaire was employed in the course of gathering relevant data for the study. 100 employees from twenty small scale enterprises in Warri, Delta State were randomly selected for the study. While chi-square statistical technique was used in data analysis. The results indicated among others that the success of small scale business enterprises in Nigeria depends greatly but not solely in accounting information; that most small scale businesses do not keep accounting records due to ignorance about accounting information. The study therefore concluded that for small scale businesses to function successfully, adequate accounting information is necessary therefore managers of small businesses should employ and utilize the services of professional accountants who perform expert and useful accounting services to small scale firms in order to improve on their operational performance.

  17. SMALL SCALE SYSTEM FOR THE MASS PRODUCTION OF ROTIFERS USING MICROALGAE PASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotifers such as Brachionus plicatilis are a dominant zooplankton preferred as first food by small fish larvae and are often mass cultured by fish farmers by using foods including live and dried microalgae, yeast and bacteria concentrates. Fecundity, population growth rate and yield of rotifers gro...

  18. Quiet Sun coronal heating analyzing large scale magnetic structures driven by different small-scale uniform sources

    CERN Document Server

    Podladchikova, O; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Lefebvre, B

    2002-01-01

    Recent measurements of quiet Sun heating events by Krucker and Benz (1998) give strong support to Parker's (1988) hypothesis that small scale dissipative events make the main contribution to the quiet heating. Moreover, combining their observations with the analysis by Priest et al. (2000), it can be concluded that the sources driving these dissipative events are also small scale sources, typically of the order of (or smaller than) 2000 km and the resolution of modern instruments. Thus arises the question of how these small scale events participate into the larger scale observable phenomena, and how the information about small scales can be extracted from observations. This problem is treated in the framework of a simple phenomenological model introduced in Krasnoselskikh et al. (2001), which allows to switch between various small scale sources and dissipative processes. The large scale structure of the magnetic field is studied by means of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and a derived entropy, techniques ...

  19. An Evaluation of Farmers’ Participation in Afforestation Programme in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.J. Saliu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extensive deforestation has reduced the 65 million hectares of intact forest cover of 1897 in Nigeria to thepresent 4 million hectares. The consequences of this unhealthy development have resulted to environmentaldegradation and accelerated wind and water erosion of the fertile land that has also left Nigerian soil too poor forsustainable agricultural production. Reforestation through small-scale village based farmers’ participation nowform one of the strategies embarked upon by several agencies in Nigeria including Kogi afforestation project.This study attempts to evaluate farmers’ participation in afforestation project in Kogi State. Structuredquestionnaire was used to interview 120 participants. Descriptive statistics, adoption index and sigma methodwere used to describe socio-economic characteristics, participation methods and to measure the level of adoptionwhile chi-square was used to find differences between income generated from adoption of the variousafforestation technologies. Findings reveal that 67 percent of the farmers had little or no formal education, morethan 30 percent of the farmers underwent passive participation in afforestation while adoption of improvedseedlings, exotic trees and pure stand technologies received high score of 4.90, 4.74 and 4.44 respectively. Seedscarification and harvesting by chipping technologies received the least adoption score of 2.61 and 2.94. Thechi-square test adjudged that there was a significant difference between income generated and type of technologyadopted. This study recommends that more pragmatic interactive participation method that will give room forjoint analysis of action plan and formation of local institutions should be put in place.

  20. Dry season feeding for Smallholder Dairy Farmers: Making Silage in Polythene tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milk production in Kenya follows the annual climatic seasonal patterns consisting of dry and wet seasonal patterns consisting of dry and wet seasons being times of over supply of milk and dry seasons being periods of acute shortages. This paper argues that appropriate silage making techniques need to be developed as a way of addressing the dry season feeding problem to which these fluctuations in milk production and pricing are attributed. Furthermore, the conventional silage making techniques that are available currently are to a large extent, only suitable for large scale farmers and those in the developed world where most of the technology was developed. Not much work has been done on silage making for smallholder farmers and those in Kenya and the few recommendations that have been put forward have not been adopted. The paper emphasizes the need to work with farmers in developing suitable techniques for small scale silage making that will be adoptable. A technique for making silage in plastic tubes, which is currently being tested with hundreds of smallholder farmers is described in the paper

  1. Sustainable development in Darjeeling Hills, India : ecological and socio-economic aspects for small-scale farmers with supportive observations from Kanagawa, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Shilpi

    2005-01-01

    Organic farming means a holistic application of agricultural land-use, hence, this study aimed to assess ecological and socio-economic aspects that show benefits of the strategy and achievements of organic farming in comparison to conventional farming in Darjeeling District, State of West Bengal, India and Kanagawa Prefecture/Kanto in Central Japan. The objective of this study has been empirically analysed on aspects of crop diversity, yield, income and sales prices in the two study regions, ...

  2. Alternative marketing options for small-scale farmers in the wake of changing agri-food supply chains in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Louw, Andre; Jordaan, D.; Ndanga, Leah Z. B.; Kirsten, Johann F.

    2008-01-01

    With South Africa’s urban population approaching 60%, supermarkets and fast food chains have become important players in the South African food system. These large players in the food sector have systematically modified their procurement practices especially with regard to fresh fruit and vegetables and are now circumventing spot markets in favour of sourcing via in-house sourcing companies who mainly procure from preferred supplier producers. This paper draws extensively from a glob...

  3. Assessing the Contribution of Small Scale Water Resources Development Project on Agricultural and Social Advancement in Bangladesh: a Case Study for Haizda Embankment Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mujibur Rahman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was made on the Haizda Embankment project in the Haor area of Netrokona district to evaluate the goals and objectives of the project. Data collected from 50 farmers, 20 project staff, local government officials and expert through a structured questionnaire. Both pre-project and post-project situations were taken into consideration. The agricultural and social development were appraised on land use, use of seed variety, fertilizer use, water management, labour employment, yearly income of the farmers, land ownership, use of insecticides, transportation facility and educational changes. The pre-project and post-project scenario in the above mentioned aspects were statistically compared by means of t-test. Significant improvements in almost all the aspects were found at the post-project condition. On the other hand analyzing highest water levels of the area, it was found that the water level significantly increased outside the embankment after the project construction, which also increased the vulnerability of livelihood. At the same time fish production in Mohanganj Thana significantly decreased after the embankment construction and also decreasing rate is continuing. The fisheries ecology have been changed in the poldered area because of (i free entrance of water is prevented at low flood level, (ii the requirement and spawning ground of major fish species have been interrupted and (iii decreased the opportunity of capture fishing in the project area. So, planners should consider the related adverse effects on nature and environment and its remedial measures during the planning of this type of small-scale water resources development project.

  4. Impact of small-scale distribution of basal pressure for subglacial hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeuvre, Pierre-Marie; Jackson, Miriam; Lappegard, Gaute; Ove Hagen, Jon

    2013-04-01

    With the ongoing development of 2D subglacial hydrological models, new challenges to simulate the geometry of the drainage system arise notably as their resolution becomes finer. Indeed, the influence of small-scale ice mechanics and small-scale bed topography on subglacial water and ice flow is more likely to take over large-scale forcing. At the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory (SSL - 200 m below the ice surface), we investigate the importance of basal normal pressure on constraining water flow path over different time scale and hypothesise its importance for water transfer from a channelized drainage system to a distributed one. Twenty years of field observations of normal basal pressure reveal short-lived pressure events, which are assumed to be related to the seasonal development of the hydrological system. We analyse their frequency and amplitude in relation to subglacial runoff measured close to a subglacial tunnel intake located 600-500m above the glacier snout. These events are characterised by a drop in pressure of as much as 1 MPa in a matter of several hours and a sudden rise reaching more than twice the overburden pressure. The cause of this phenomenon seems to be the melting/migration of subglacial channels. Their occurrence is linked to periods of melt and rainfall, when the high capacity drainage system is pressurized above the ice overburden pressure. Then, as water pressure becomes lower than the ice flotation level, the centre part of channels is decoupled from the glacier bed. This decrease in contact area between the ice and the bed produces stresses greater than the mean ice overburden pressure around the channel sides. As a consequence, the flooded area surrounding the high capacity drainage system is sealed off by this large increase in pressure, creating local storage as mentioned in other studies. This water retention can be a highly significant feedback for ice dynamics creating large areas of high pressure that can be reactivated during speed-up events or a surge. In this study, we provide a long-term analysis of the occurrence of those events and infer their significance for maintaining areas of high water pressure over different time-scales (days, months and years) as well as for the basal drag. Finally, we discuss the importance of small-scale observations in the light of measurements showing very strong spatial disparities in normal pressure for two pairs of sensors located less than a meter apart. Discharge measurements provide further insights into the overall behaviour of the subglacial system. Strong correlation with subglacial normal pressure demonstrates the existence of rare global events. In contrast, locally independent events are more frequent suggesting very variable water flow paths and a more distributed drainage system. These last observations suggest periods of water flow controlled mainly by small-scale pressure distribution and small-scale topography. These results highlight the importance of the transition between high and low pressurised drainage system regarding local water storage and its possible impact on ice dynamics. As the resolution of models increases, new small-scale processes will have to be included.

  5. BINARY QUASARS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: EVIDENCE FOR EXCESS CLUSTERING ON SMALL SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennawi, J F; Strauss, M A; Oguri, M; Inada, N; Richards, G T; Pindor, B; Schneider, D P; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Hall, P B; Johnston, D E; Fan, X; Burles, S; Schlegel, D J; Gunn, J E; Lupton, R; Bahcall, N A; Brunner, R J; Brinkman, J

    2005-11-10

    We present a sample of 218 new quasar pairs with proper transverse separations R{sub prop} < 1 h{sup -1} Mpc over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 3.0, discovered from an extensive follow up campaign to find companions around the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 2dF Quasar Redshift Survey quasars. This sample includes 26 new binary quasars with separations R{sub prop} < 50 h{sup -1} kpc ({theta} < 10''), more than doubling the number of such systems known. We define a statistical sample of binaries selected with homogeneous criteria and compute its selection function, taking into account sources of incompleteness. The first measurement of the quasar correlation function on scales 10 h{sup -1} kpc < R{sub prop} < 400 h{sup -1} kpc is presented. For R{sub prop} {approx}< 40 h{sup -1} kpc, we detect an order of magnitude excess clustering over the expectation from the large scale (R{sub prop} {approx}> 3 h{sup -1} Mpc) quasar correlation function, extrapolated down as a power law to the separations probed by our binaries. The excess grows to {approx}30 at R{sub prop} {approx} 10 h{sup -1} kpc, and provides compelling evidence that the quasar autocorrelation function gets progressively steeper on sub-Mpc scales. This small scale excess can likely be attributed to dissipative interaction events which trigger quasar activity in rich environments. Recent small scale measurements of galaxy clustering and quasar-galaxy clustering are reviewed and discussed in relation to our measurement of small scale quasar clustering.

  6. THE OPACITY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM DURING REIONIZATION: RESOLVING SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emberson, J. D.; Thomas, Rajat M.; Alvarez, Marcelo A., E-mail: emberson@astro.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2013-02-15

    Early in the reionization process, the intergalactic medium (IGM) would have been quite inhomogeneous on small scales, due to the low Jeans mass in the neutral IGM and the hierarchical growth of structure in a cold dark matter universe. This small-scale structure acted as an important sink during the epoch of reionization, impeding the progress of the ionization fronts that swept out from the first sources of ionizing radiation. Here we present results of high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations that resolve the cosmological Jeans mass of the neutral IGM in representative volumes several Mpc across. The adiabatic hydrodynamics we follow are appropriate in an unheated IGM, before the gas has had a chance to respond to the photoionization heating. Our focus is determination of the resolution required in cosmological simulations in order to sufficiently sample and resolve small-scale structure regulating the opacity of an unheated IGM. We find that a dark matter particle mass of m {sub dm} {approx}< 50 M {sub Sun} and box size of L {approx}> 1 Mpc are required. With our converged results we show how the mean free path of ionizing radiation and clumping factor of ionized hydrogen depend on the ultraviolet background flux and redshift. We find, for example at z = 10, clumping factors typically of 10-20 for an ionization rate of {Gamma} {approx} (0.3-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} s{sup -1}, with corresponding mean free paths of {approx}3-15 Mpc, extending previous work on the evolving mean free path to considerably smaller scales and earlier times.

  7. Small-scale Structuring of Ellerman Bombs at the Solar Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. J.; Scullion, E. M.; Doyle, J. G.; Freij, N.; Erdélyi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) have been widely studied in recent years due to their dynamic, explosive nature and apparent links to the underlying photospheric magnetic field implying that they may be formed by magnetic reconnection in the photosphere. Despite a plethora of researches discussing the morphologies of EBs, there has been a limited investigation of how these events appear at the limb, specifically, whether they manifest as vertical extensions away from the disk. In this article, we make use of high-resolution, high-cadence observations of an Active Region at the solar limb, collected by the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) instrument, to identify EBs and infer their physical properties. The upper atmosphere is also probed using the Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). We analyze 22 EB events evident within these data, finding that 20 appear to follow a parabolic path away from the solar surface at an average speed of 9 km s-1, extending away from their source by 580 km, before retreating back at a similar speed. These results show strong evidence of vertical motions associated with EBs, possibly explaining the dynamical "flaring" (changing in area and intensity) observed in on-disk events. Two in-depth case studies are also presented that highlight the unique dynamical nature of EBs within the lower solar atmosphere. The viewing angle of these observations allows for a direct linkage between these EBs and other small-scale events in the H? line wings, including a potential flux emergence scenario. The findings presented here suggest that EBs could have a wider-reaching influence on the solar atmosphere than previously thought, as we reveal a direct linkage between EBs and an emerging small-scale loop, and other near-by small-scale explosive events. However, as previous research found, these extensions do not appear to impact upon the H? line core, and are not observed by the SDO/AIA EUV filters.

  8. Fabrication and analysis of small-scale thermal energy storage with conductivity enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Useful thermal conductivity envelope established for small scale TES. • Paraffin conductivity enhanced from .5 to 3.8 W/m K via low-cost copper insert. • Conductivity increase beyond 5 W/m K shows diminished returns. • Storage with increased conductivity lengthened thermoelectric output up to 247 s. - Abstract: The operation and useful operating parameters of a small-scale Thermal Energy Storage (TES) device that collects and stores heat in a Phase Change Material (PCM) is explored. The PCM utilized is an icosane wax. A physical device is constructed on the millimeter scale to examine specific effects of low-cost thermal conductivity enhancements that include copper foams and other metallic inserts. Numerical methods are utilized to establish useful operating range of small-scale TES devices in general, and the limits of thermal conductivity enhancement on thermoelectric operation specifically. Specific attention is paid to the manufacturability of the various constructs as well as the resulting thermal conductivity enhancement. A maximum thermal conductivity of 3.8 W/m K is achieved in experimental testing via copper foam enhancement. A simplified copper matrix achieves conductivity of 3.7 W/m K and allows significantly reduced fabrication effort. These results compare favorably to baseline wax conductivity of .5 W/m K. Power absorption is recorded of about 900 W/m2. Modeling reveals diminishing returns beyond 4–6 W/m K for devices on this scale. Results show the system capable of extending thermoelectric operation several minutes through the use of thermal energy storage techniques within the effective conductivity ranges

  9. A Practical Method to Estimate the Aerodynamic Coefficients of a Small-Scale Paramotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan-Viorel MIHAI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few aircraft other than lighter-than-air vehicles that have the payload carrying capability, short field take-off, and slow speed ranges afforded by a powered parafoil. One very interesting aspect of the powered parafoils or paramotors, is their tendency to fly at a constant airspeed whether it is climbing, descending, or flying straight-and-level. Not only are the aircraft speed stable, but they have pendulum stability as well, due to the mass of the airframe suspended significantly below the canopy. This allows the aircraft to maintain a safe roll attitude and effectively turn in a coordinated manner when the steering pedals are deflected. One of the challenges of flying these aircraft is the necessity of controlling altitude with thrust, and direction with asymmetric drag. The paper presents a practical method to estimate the aerodynamic coefficients of a small-scale paramotor in order to obtain a suitable mathematical model for the aerial vehicle. Thus, a reduced state linear model based on a simplified nonlinear six degree-of-freedom model (6 DOF is described. The autonomous control relies on the paramotor dynamics. And those equations depend on the aerodynamic coefficients. The task in this paper is to record the data of steady state flight regime, and to process it offline. Therefore, the system identification of the small-scale aerial vehicle can be done using the Two-Step Method, resulting an efficient six degree-of-freedom mini-paramotor model. The current work will permit the implementation of the control architecture in order to achieve the autonomous control of the small-scale paramotor through waypoints.

  10. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  11. On Spatial Resolution in Habitat Models: Can Small-scale Forest Structure Explain Capercaillie Numbers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Storch

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of spatial resolution on the performance and applicability of habitat models in wildlife management and conservation. A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model for the Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus in the Bavarian Alps, Germany, is presented. The model was exclusively built on non-spatial, small-scale variables of forest structure and without any consideration of landscape patterns. The main goal was to assess whether a HSI model developed from small-scale habitat preferences can explain differences in population abundance at larger scales. To validate the model, habitat variables and indirect sign of Capercaillie use (such as feathers or feces were mapped in six study areas based on a total of 2901 20 m radius (for habitat variables and 5 m radius sample plots (for Capercaillie sign. First, the model’s representation of Capercaillie habitat preferences was assessed. Habitat selection, as expressed by Ivlev’s electivity index, was closely related to HSI scores, increased from poor to excellent habitat suitability, and was consistent across all study areas. Then, habitat use was related to HSI scores at different spatial scales. Capercaillie use was best predicted from HSI scores at the small scale. Lowering the spatial resolution of the model stepwise to 36-ha, 100-ha, 400-ha, and 2000-ha areas and relating Capercaillie use to aggregated HSI scores resulted in a deterioration of fit at larger scales. Most importantly, there were pronounced differences in Capercaillie abundance at the scale of study areas, which could not be explained by the HSI model. The results illustrate that even if a habitat model correctly reflects a species’ smaller scale habitat preferences, its potential to predict population abundance at larger scales may remain limited.

  12. Synthesis of underreported small-scale fisheries catch in Pacific island waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, D.; Harper, S.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D.

    2015-03-01

    We synthesize fisheries catch reconstruction studies for 25 Pacific island countries, states and territories, which compare estimates of total domestic catches with officially reported catch data. We exclude data for the large-scale tuna fleets, which have largely foreign beneficial ownership, even when flying Pacific flags. However, we recognize the considerable financial contributions derived from foreign access or charter fees for Pacific host countries. The reconstructions for the 25 entities from 1950 to 2010 suggested that total domestic catches were 2.5 times the data reported to FAO. This discrepancy was largest in early periods (1950: 6.4 times), while for 2010, total catches were 1.7 times the reported data. There was a significant difference in trend between reported and reconstructed catches since 2000, with reconstructed catches declining strongly since their peak in 2000. Total catches increased from 110,000 t yr-1 in 1950 (of which 17,400 t were reported) to a peak of over 250,000 t yr-1 in 2000, before declining to around 200,000 t yr-1 by 2010. This decrease is driven by a declining artisanal (small-scale commercial) catch, which was not compensated for by increasing domestic industrial (large-scale commercial) catches. The artisanal fisheries appear to be declining from a peak of 97,000 t yr-1 in 1992 to less than 50,000 t yr-1 by 2010. However, total catches were dominated by subsistence (small-scale, non-commercial) fisheries, which accounted for 69 % of total catches, with the majority missing from the reported data. Artisanal catches accounted for 22 %, while truly domestic industrial fisheries accounted for only 6 % of total catches. The smallest component is the recreational (small-scale, non-commercial and largely for leisure) sector (2 %), which, although small in catch, is likely of economic importance in some areas due to its direct link to tourism income.

  13. A small scale cell culture system to analyze mechanobiology using reporter gene constructs and polyurethane dishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Wilke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical forces are translated into biochemical signals and contribute to cell differentiation and phenotype maintenance. Mesenchymal stem cells and their tissue-specific offspring, as osteoblasts and chondrocytes, cells of cardiovascular tissues and lung cells are sensitive to mechanical loading but molecules and mechanisms involved have to be unraveled. It is well established that cellular mechanotransduction is mediated e.g. by activation of the transcription factor SP1 and by kinase signaling cascades resulting in the activation of the AP1 complex. To investigate cellular mechanisms involved in mechanotransduction and to analyze substances, which modulate cellular mechanosensitivity reporter gene constructs, which can be transfected into cells of interest might be helpful. Suitable small-scale bioreactor systems and mechanosensitive reporter gene constructs are lacking. To analyze the molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction and its crosstalk with biochemically induced signal transduction, AP1 and SP1 luciferase reporter gene constructs were cloned and transfected into various cell lines and primary cells. A newly developed bioreactor and small-scale 24-well polyurethane dishes were used to apply cyclic stretching to the transfected cells. 1 Hz cyclic stretching for 30 min in this system resulted in a significant stimulation of AP1 and SP1 mediated luciferase activity compared to unstimulated cells. In summary we describe a small-scale cell culture/bioreactor system capable of analyzing subcellular crosstalk mechanisms in mechanotransduction, mechanosensitivity of primary cells and of screening the activity of putative mechanosensitizers as new targets, e.g. for the treatment of bone loss caused by both disuse and signal transduction related alterations of mechanotransduction.

  14. THE OPACITY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM DURING REIONIZATION: RESOLVING SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early in the reionization process, the intergalactic medium (IGM) would have been quite inhomogeneous on small scales, due to the low Jeans mass in the neutral IGM and the hierarchical growth of structure in a cold dark matter universe. This small-scale structure acted as an important sink during the epoch of reionization, impeding the progress of the ionization fronts that swept out from the first sources of ionizing radiation. Here we present results of high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations that resolve the cosmological Jeans mass of the neutral IGM in representative volumes several Mpc across. The adiabatic hydrodynamics we follow are appropriate in an unheated IGM, before the gas has had a chance to respond to the photoionization heating. Our focus is determination of the resolution required in cosmological simulations in order to sufficiently sample and resolve small-scale structure regulating the opacity of an unheated IGM. We find that a dark matter particle mass of m dm ?? and box size of L ?> 1 Mpc are required. With our converged results we show how the mean free path of ionizing radiation and clumping factor of ionized hydrogen depend on the ultraviolet background flux and redshift. We find, for example at z = 10, clumping factors typically of 10-20 for an ionization rate of ? ? (0.3-3) × 10–12 s–1, with corresponding mean free paths of ?3-15 Mpc, extending previous work on xtending previous work on the evolving mean free path to considerably smaller scales and earlier times.

  15. Small-scale Microwave Bursts in Long-duration Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Baolin

    2013-08-01

    Solar small-scale microwave bursts (SMBs), including microwave dot, spike, and narrow-band type III bursts, are characterized by very short timescales, narrow frequency bandwidth, and very high brightness temperatures. Based on observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou with superhigh cadence and frequency resolution, this work presents an intensive investigation of SMBs in several flares that occurred in active region NOAA 10720 during 2005 January 14-21. Especially for long-duration flares, the SMBs occurred not only in the early rising and impulsive phase, but also in the flare decay phase and even after the end of the flare. These SMBs are strong bursts with inferred brightness temperatures of at least 8.18 × 1011-1.92 × 1013 K, very short lifetimes of 5-18 ms, relative frequency bandwidths of 0.7%-3.5%, and superhigh frequency drifting rates. Together with their obviously different polarizations from background emission (the quiet Sun, and the underlying flaring broadband continuum), such SMBs should be individual, independent strong coherent bursts related to some non-thermal energy release and the production of energetic particles in a small-scale source region. These facts show the existence of small-scale strong non-thermal energy releasing activities after the flare maxima, which is meaningful for predicting space weather. Physical analysis indicates that a plasma mechanism may be the most favorable candidate for the formation of SMBs. From the plasma mechanism, the velocities and kinetic energy of fast electrons can be deduced and the region of electron acceleration can also be tracked.

  16. Increased power to heat ratio of small scale CHP plants using biomass fuels and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a systematic study of process changes for increased power production in 1-20 MWe combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The changes are simulated, and their economic feasibility evaluated by using existing small scale CHP case plants. Increasing power production in decentralised CHP plants that operate according to a certain heat demand could reduce the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions per power unit produced and improve the feasibility of CHP plant investments. The CHP plant process changes were simulated under design and off design conditions and an analysis of power and heat production, investment costs and CO2 emissions was performed over the whole annual heat demand. The results show that using biomass fuels, there are profitable possibilities to increase the current power to heat ratios, 0.23-0.48, of the small scale CHP plants up to 0.26-0.56, depending on the size of the plant. The profitable changes were a two stage district heat exchanger and the addition of a steam reheater and a feed water preheater. If natural gas is used as an additional fuel, the power to heat ratio may be increased up to 0.35-0.65 by integrating a gas engine into the process. If the CO2 savings from the changes are also taken into account, the economic feasibility of the changes increases. The results of this work offer useful performance simulation and investment cost knowledge for the development of more efficientedge for the development of more efficient and economically feasible small scale CHP processes

  17. Small farmers and deforestation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondízio, Eduardo S.; Cak, Anthony; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Mena, Carlos; Bilsborrow, Richard; Futemma, Celia T.; Ludewigs, Thomas; Moran, Emilio F.; Batistella, Mateus

    This chapter discusses the relationship between small farmers' land use and deforestation, with particular attention paid to the past 30 years of Amazonian colonization in Brazil and Ecuador. Our analysis calls attention to common features uniting different social groups as small farmers (e.g., social identity, access to land and resources, technology, market, and credit), as well as the variability between small farmers in terms of time in the region (from native populations to recent colonists), contribution to regional deforestation, types of land use systems. At a regional level, small farmers contribute to the majority of deforestation events, but are responsible for only a fraction of the total deforested area in Amazonia. We discuss three misconceptions that have been used to define small farmers and their contribution to the regional economy, development, and deforestation: (1) small farmers have backward land use systems associated with low productivity and extensive deforestation and subsistence production, (2) small farmers contribute to Amazonian deforestation as much as large farmers, and (3) small farmers, particularly colonist farmers, follow an inexorable path of deforestation unless curbed by government action. We conclude the chapter discussing their growing regional importance and the need for more inclusive public policies concerning infrastructure and services and valorization of resources produced in rural areas of Amazonia.

  18. Small-scale structure of nonlinearly interacting species advected by chaotic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-García, E; Neufeld, Z; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Lopez, Cristobal; Neufeld, Zoltan

    2001-01-01

    We study the spatial patterns formed by interacting biological populations or reacting chemicals under the influence of chaotic flows. Multiple species and nonlinear interactions are explicitly considered, as well as cases of smooth and nonsmooth forcing sources. The small-scale structure can be obtained in terms of characteristic Lyapunov exponents of the flow and of the chemical dynamics. Different kinds of morphological transitions are identified. Numerical results from a three-component plankton dynamics model support the theory, and they serve also to illustrate the influence of asymmetric couplings.

  19. Biallelic Mutation-Drift Diffusion in the Limit of Small Scaled Mutation Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the allelic proportion $x$ of a biallelic locus subject to the forces of mutation and drift is investigated in a diffusion model, assuming small scaled mutation rates. The overall scaled mutation rate is parametrized with $\\theta=(\\mu_1+\\mu_0)N$ and the ratio of mutation rates with $\\alpha=\\mu_1/(\\mu_1+\\mu_0)=1-\\beta$. The equilibrium density of this process is beta with parameters $\\alpha\\theta$ and $\\beta\\theta$. Away from equilibrium, the transition densi...

  20. The EU HT test programme of ITER primary wall small scale mock ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the main results obtained so far in the frame of the EU Home Team test programme of ITER primary wall small scale mock ups. It describes briefly the fabrication method of the mock ups, the test conditions and the main results obtained with high heat flux and thermal fatigue tests of Cu alloy/stainless steel and beryllium/Cu alloy/stainless steel mock ups. The results obtained so far show good thermal fatigue performance and operation margin of the ITER primary first wall concept. (author)