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Sample records for small bowel diverticular

  1. Small bowel tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xynopoulos D.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Small intestinal neoplasms are uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. Small intestinal neoplasms may occur sporadically, or in association with genetic diseases such as familial adenomatous polyposis coli or Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, or in association with chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn?s disease or celiac sprue. Benign small intestinal tumors such as leiomyoma, lipoma, hamartoma or desmoid tumor, are usually asymptomatic but may present with intussception. Primary malignancies of the small intestine, including adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, carcinoid, and lymphoma, may present with intestinal obstruction, jaundice, bleeding, or pain. Extraintestinal neoplasms may involve the intestine via contiguous spread or peritoneal metastasis. Hematogenous metastases to the intestine from an extraintestinal primary are unusual and are most typical of melanoma. Because the small intestine is relatively inaccessible to routine endoscopy, diagnosis of small intestinal neoplasms is often delayed for months after onset of symptoms. When the diagnosis is suspected, enteroclysis is the most useful imaging study. Small bowel endoscopy (enteroscopy is increasingly widely available and may permit earlier, non-operative diagnosis.

  2. Scintigraphic pattern of small bowel bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Small intestine is the longest part of gastrointestinal tract. Intra-luminal haemorrhage occurring anywhere in its long and tortuous course is difficult to trace. It is relatively inaccessible to endoscopic evaluation. Upper GI endoscopy can see only up to distal duodenum, whereas colonoscope can view maximum of 30 centimeters of terminal ileum after negotiating the scope through ileo-caecal valve. Hence, localization of bleeding source from small bowel remains a difficult clinical problem. This group of patients can be evaluated with scintigraphy for localizing the site of bleeding before undergoing either angiography or surgery. To our best of knowledge, there is no study, which has utilized scintigraphy for evaluation of small bowel bleed exclusively. The present study has been designed to know the efficacy of 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy in detecting small bowel bleed and to know whether it can differentiate between jejunal and ileal bleeding ? Materials and methods: Thirteen patients presenting with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (malena) were enrolled for the study. In all cases, upper GI endoscopy (UGIE) was unremarkable. Colonoscopic examination was either negative or suspected bleeding occurring proximal to ileo-caecal valve. Thus, in these patients, it is presumed clinically that bleeding is originating from small bowel. Barium meal follow through (BMFT) studies, however, could not delineate any etiological lesion in these patients. There were 8 menlesion in these patients. There were 8 men and 5 women (mean age 48 years). All patients were anemic (Hb- 6 gm%) and mean 3 units of blood were transfused.These patients were subjected to Tc-99m labeled red blood cells scintigraphy (15 mci, in-vivo method) for localization of source of bleeding. The scintiscan was acquired in two phases. A first pass phase acquired at a rate of 2 seconds per frame for 60 seconds followed by acquisition of static abdominal images (500 K, 256 x 256 matrix) at 5 minutes intervals up to 90 minutes on LFOV gamma camera fitted with LEAP collimator. Delayed imaging up to 6 hours was optional and was undertaken only when first 90 minutes images did not reveal any site of bleeding. Two nuclear physicians reviewed the sequential static images for 1) First appearance of focus of activity in a particular quadrant/region of abdomen and 2) looking for its migration pattern. Scintigraphic results were prospectively compared with surgical outcome in 10 patients. Results: Tc-99m RBC Scan localized site of bleeding in 10 of 13 patient evaluated (77%). Ten scan positive patients underwent exploratory laprotomy. On surgical exploration, five culprit lesions were identified in jejunum and as many number of lesions were detected in ileum. Etiological lesions were mainly inflammatory or ulcerative (n=5) followed by neoplastic and vascular ectasias in 2 patients each. One patient showed diverticular disease of jejunum as the source of haemorrhage.Tc-99m RBC Scan was able to distinguish between proximal (jejunal) and distal (ileal) small bowel bleeding in 8 of 10 scan positive cases (80%). Scintigraphy correctly localized bleeding in jejunum and ileum in 3 and 5 patients respectively. In majority of patients (7/10, 70%), scan became positive within 3 hours. Six types of scan patterns were noticed in thirteen patients evaluated with Tc-99m RBCs scan. Five scintigraphic patterns were representative of small bowel bleeding. A serpentine appearance of bowel loops in mid abdomen, focal tracer appearance in right iliac region with subsequent outlining of ascending colon on delayed images, and a focus of activity showing distal extension in circular fashion on sequential static images were characteristic of ileal bleeding. Visualization of fixed loop in left flank region corroborated with jejunal lesion (Leiomyoma) in our series. An abnormal blush and early localization of diffuse activity in left upper quadrant followed by its centripetal extension/movement, was seen in patient with jejunitis. Scintigraphy was false negative in cases of systemic diseases

  3. Imaging of the Small Bowel

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    Wiarda, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Visualization of the small bowel is a clinical challenge due to its length, motility, shape, and central location distal to the stomach and proximal to the coecum. During the last decade, several new techniques have been introduced for visualizing the small bowel. Radiologists and clinicians are now faced with a dilemma in deciding which technique to use in two common groups of adult patients: those with known or suspected Crohn’s disease, and those with obscure gastrointesti...

  4. CT enteroclysis in small bowel Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease has changed dramatically over the last decade. The introduction of wireless capsule endoscopy, double balloon endoscopy and the introduction of newer therapeutic agents have changed the role of imaging in the small bowel. Additionally, advances in multidetector CT technology have further changed how radiologic investigations are utilized in the diagnosis and management of small bowel Crohn's disease. This article describes how we perform CT enteroclysis in the investigation of small bowel Crohn's disease and discusses the role of CT enteroclysis in the current management of small bowel Crohn's disease.

  5. Imaging the small bowel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-03-01

    Radiologic investigations continue to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the small intestine despite enhancement of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy. Imaging techniques continue to evolve and new techniques in MRI in particular, are being developed.

  6. Small bowel intubation using guide wire: use in decompression of small bowel obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small bowel intubation is a useful method in the non-operative decompression of small bowel obstruction and enteral hyperalimentation in malnourished patients. We have tried small bowel intubation with Ventrol tube guided by small bowel enteroclysis guide wire (Bilbao-Dotter wire) in 12 patients. Ten cases were successfully intubated. In 11 cases of bowel obstruction, 9 cases were intubated and 8 cases were effectively drained. One malnourished patient was improved in nutritional state after enteral hyperalimentation through the intubated tube. We believe this method is an easy and time-saving method in the small bowel decompression

  7. CT findings in acute small bowel diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small bowel diverticulitis is a rare cause of an acute abdomen. Originating from acquired diverticula of the jejunum, less often of the ileum, or Meckel diverticulum, the symptoms are non-specific, simulating other acute inflammatory disorders, such as appendicitis, cholecystitis or colonic diverticulitis. The diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis is solely based on radiologic findings, with computed tomography (CT) regarded as the method of choice. In recent years, a number of case reports have described the spectrum of the CT features in acute small bowel diverticulitis and its dependence on the severity of the inflammatory process. Typical findings are an inflamed diverticulum, inflammatory mesenteric infiltration, extraluminal gas collection and mural edema of adjacent small bowel loops with resultant separation of bowel loops. An enterolith is rarely found in an inflamed diverticulum. Complications include abscesses, fistulae, small bowel obstruction and free perforation with peritonitis. Small bowel diverticulitis can be a diagnostic problem if it involves the terminal ileum or Meckel's diverticulum. For preoperative confirmation of the presumed diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis on CT, an enteroclysis for acquired diverticula or a technetium scan for Meckel's diverticulum should be performed. We present the CT findings in three patients of acute small bowel diverticulitis, two affecting the jejunum and one a Meckel's diverticulum. (orig.)el's diverticulum. (orig.)

  8. Jejunal diverticular disease complicated by enteroliths: Report of two different presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chugay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticula are quite rare. Furthermore, small bowel diverticular disease resulting in enteroliths can lead to complications necessitating surgical intervention. In this manuscript, we report two presentations of jejunal diverticulum with complications from enteroliths followed by a review of the literature. The first case was that of a 79-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain and was found, on computed tomography (CT scan, to have evidence of intestinal perforation. A laparotomy showed that he had perforated jejunal diverticulitis. The second case was that of an 89-year-old female who presented with recurrent episodes of bowel obstruction. A laparotomy showed that she had an enterolith impacted in her jejunum in the presence of significant diverticular disease. Although a rare entity, familiarity with jejunal diverticular disease, its complications, and its management, should be part of every surgeon’ s base of knowledge when considering abdominal pathology.

  9. Radiopathological review of small bowel carcinoid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Small bowel carcinoid tumours are endocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. This pictorial essay will review the pathology, clinical features, treatment and prognosis and illustrate the radiographic, computed tomographic, sonographic, magnetic resonance and nuclear medicine appearances of small bowel carcinoid tumours.

  10. Semitransparent peroral small bowel imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    171 follow-through examinations of the small bowel performed in children and adolescents with a large contrast medium meal and the high voltage-low density barium technique (10 to 25 g BaSO4/100 ml, depending on age), are described. A ready made suspension, diluted with water, proved unsatisfactory. Coating properties and stability of the diluted, weak suspension were then greatly improved by hydroxyethylcellulose as a thickening agent and in addition by premedication of the patient with cimetidine. Pure cellulose solution instead of the last portion of barium prevented thickening in the ileum. The procedure has the well known advantages of a large contrast medium meal without the problem of overly dense superpositions. (orig.)

  11. Disturbances in small bowel motility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the small intestine has become the focus of investigation as a potential site of dysmotility in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number of motor abnormalities have been defined in some studies, and include \\'clustered\\' contractions, exaggerated post-prandial motor response and disturbances in intestinal transit. The significance of these findings remains unclear. The interpretation of available studies is complicated by differences in subject selection, the direct influence of certain symptoms, such as diarrhoea and constipation, and the interference of compounding factors, such as stress and psychopathology. Dysmotility could also reflect autonomic dysfunction, disturbed CNS control and the response to heightened visceral sensation or central perception. While motor abnormalities may not explain all symptoms in IBS, sensorimotor interactions may be important in symptom pathogenesis and deserve further study.

  12. Minimization of small bowel volume within treatment fields using customized small bowel displacement system (SBDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors designed a customized Small Bowel Displacement System(SBDS) to displace the small bowel from the pelvic radiation fields and minimize treatment-related bowel morbidities. From August 1995 to May 1996, 55 consecutive patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with the SBDS were included in this study. The SBDS consists of a customized styrofoam compression device which can displace the small bowel from the radiation fields and an individualized immobilization abdominal board for easy daily setup in prone position. After opacifying the small bowel with Barium, the patients were laid prone and posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) simulation films were taken with and without the SBDS. The areas of the small bowel included in the radiation fields with and without the SBDS were compared. Using the SBDS, the mean small bowel area was reduced by 59% on PA and 51% on LAT films (P=0.0001). In six patients (6/55, 11%), it was possible that no small bowel was included within the treatment fields. The mean upward displacement of the most caudal small bowel was 4.8 cm using the SBDS. Only 15% (8/55) of patients treated with the SBDS manifested diarrhea requiring medication. The SBDS is a novel method that can be used to displace the small bowel away from the treatment portal effectively and reduce the radiation therapy morbidities. Compliance with setup is excellent when the SBDS is used. (author)

  13. Diverticulosis of the small bowel with Diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case report of diverticulosis of the small bowel complicated by diverticulitis. Radiography is the method of choice to demonstrate this finding preoperatively. This entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of right lower quadrant abdominal pecin. (orig.)

  14. Effect of small bowel preparation with simethicone on capsule endoscopy*

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, You-hong; Chen, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Bing-ling

    2009-01-01

    Background: Capsule endoscopy is a novel non-invasive method for visualization of the entire small bowel. The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy depends on the quality of visualization of the small bowel mucosa and its complete passage through the small bowel. To date, there is no standardized protocol for bowel preparation before capsule endoscopy. The addition of simethicone in the bowel preparation for the purpose of reducing air bubbles in the intestinal lumen had only been studied by ...

  15. Computed tomography features of small bowel volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small bowel volvulus is a cause of acute abdomen and commonly occurs in neonates and young infants. Although it is rare in adults in the Western world,' it is a relatively common surgical emergency in the Middle East, India and Central Africa. It is associated with a mortality rate of 10-67% and, hence, it is important to make an early diagnosis to expedite surgical intervention. Computed tomography has become an important imaging modality in diagnosis and a number of signs have been recognized in a handful of documented case reports. We describe a case of small bowel volvulus that illustrates these important CT signs. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Effectiveness of MR enterography for the assessment of small-bowel diseases beyond Crohn disease.

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    Amzallag-Bellenger, Elisa; Oudjit, Ammar; Ruiz, Ana; Cadiot, Guillaume; Soyer, Philippe A; Hoeffel, Christine C

    2012-01-01

    The use of cross-sectional imaging techniques for the noninvasive evaluation of small-bowel disorders is increasing. The effectiveness of magnetic resonance (MR) enterography for the evaluation of Crohn disease, in particular, is well described in the literature. In addition, MR enterography has an evolving though less well documented role to play in the evaluation of other small-bowel diseases, including various benign and malignant neoplasms arising in isolation or in polyposis syndromes such as Peutz-Jeghers, inflammatory conditions such as vasculitis and treatment-induced enteritis, infectious processes, celiac disease, diverticular disease, systemic sclerosis, and bowel duplication. MR enterography may be useful also for the evaluation of intermittent and low-grade small-bowel obstructions. Advantages of MR imaging over computed tomography (CT) for enterographic evaluations include superb contrast resolution, lack of associated exposure to ionizing radiation, ability to acquire multiplanar primary image datasets, ability to acquire sequential image series over a long acquisition time, multiphasic imaging capability, and use of intravenous contrast media with better safety profiles. MR enterography also allows dynamic evaluations of small-bowel peristalsis and distensibility of areas of luminal narrowing and intraluminal masses by repeating sequences at different intervals after administering an additional amount of the oral contrast medium. Limitations of MR enterography in comparison with CT include higher cost, less availability, more variable image quality, and lower spatial resolution. The advantages and disadvantages of MR enterography performed with ingestion of the oral contrast medium relative to MR enteroclysis performed with infusion of the oral contrast medium through a nasoenteric tube are less certain. PMID:22977028

  17. Acute abdomen due to small bowel anisakiasis.

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    Pellegrini, M; Occhini, R; Tordini, G; Vindigni, C; Russo, S; Marzocca, G

    2005-01-01

    The popularity in Western countries of dishes based on raw fish has led to an increased incidence of anisakiasis, a human parasitic disease caused by the ingestion of live anisakid larvae. The entire digestive tract may be involved, but the stomach and the small intestine are the most frequently affected sites. We report a case of acute abdomen due to Anisakis simplex infection that caused small bowel obstruction. PMID:15702863

  18. Relationship of small bowel motility to ileoanal reservoir function.

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    Groom, J. S.; Kamm, M. A.; Nicholls, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Some patients with an ileoanal reservoir have a high defecation frequency, despite a good anatomical result and the absence of pouchitis. This study aimed to determine whether variation in function is related to a difference in small bowel motility proximal to the reservoir and if small bowel motility is propagated into the reservoir. Ambulatory small bowel and reservoir motility was studied for 24 hours in five patients with good function (median bowel frequency 4 per day, range 3-6) and sev...

  19. Unusual causes of mechanical small bowel obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We herein report our experience regarding unusual causes of bowel obstruction to increase the awareness of surgeons regarding this disease. From 1991 to 2003, we had experience at the University affiliated hospitals, northern Jordan with 24 patients with small bowel obstruction resulting from unusual causes. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these patients with regards to the mode of presentation, cause of obstruction, radiological and operative findings, management and outcome. We recorded 15 patients who underwent previous abdominal surgery. Preoperative diagnosis was correct in only one patient with an internal hernia, but the abdominal CT scan suggested the diagnosis in 5 of the 9 patients who had the scan. The final diagnosis was internal hernias in 11 patients, foreign bodies in 5, ischemic strictures in 3, carcinoid tumors in 2, endometriosis in 2, and metastatic deposit from interstitial bladder carcinoma in one patient. Nine of the 12 patients with recurrent obstruction had either short course or recurrence obstruction during the same hospital admission. W carried out bowel resections in 15 patients (5 resections were due to bowel strangulation). Post operative death occurred in 4 patients. Awareness of these rare causes of intestinal obstruction even in patients with previous abdominal operation might improve the outcome. The tentative diagnosis of adhesion obstruction in patients with unusual obstructive etiology might lead to a higher ratective etiology might lead to a higher rate of gangrenous complications. Rigorous preoperative evaluation including careful history and early abdominal CT may show the obstructive cause. (author)

  20. Transplante de intestino delgado / Small bowel transplantation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Antonio Arruda, Pécora; André Ibrahim, David; André Dong, Lee; Flávio Henrique, Galvão; Ruy Jorge, Cruz-Junior; Luiz Augusto Carneiro, D' Albuquerque.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado, em razão de sua complexidade, apresentou evolução mais lenta que os demais órgãos sólidos. Diversos avanços permitiram sua aplicação clínica. OBJETIVO: Revisão da evolução do transplante de intestino delgado e seu estado atual. MÉTODO: levantamento bib [...] liográfico nas bases de dados MEDLINE e ScIELO. Os termos usados como descritores foram: intestinal failure, intestinal transplant, small bowel transplant, multivisceral transplant. Foram analisados dados sobre evolução histórica, centros, indicações, tipos de enxertos, seleção e captação de órgãos, manejo pós-operatório, complicações e resultados. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de desenvolvimento mais lento, o transplante intestinal é hoje a terapia para pacientes portadores de falência intestinal irreversível que apresentam complicações da nutrição parenteral. Envolve algumas modalidades: intestino delgado isolado, fígado-intestino, multivisceral e multivisceral modificado. Atualmente a sobrevida é semelhante aos demais órgãos sólidos. A maioria dos pacientes fica livre da nutrição parenteral. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Small bowel transplantation evolution, because of its complexity, was slower than other solid organs. Several advances have enabled its clinical application. AIM: To review intestinal transplantation evolution and its current status. METHOD: Search in MEDLINE and ScIELO literature. The t [...] erms used as descriptors were: intestinal failure, intestinal transplantation, small bowel transplantation, multivisceral transplantation. Were analyzed data on historical evolution, centers experience, indications, types of grafts, selection and organ procurement, postoperative management, complications and results. CONCLUSION: Despite a slower evolution, intestinal transplantation is currently the standard therapy for patients with intestinal failure and life-threatening parenteral nutrition complications. It involves some modalities: small bowel transplantation, liver-intestinal transplantation, multivisceral transplantation and modified multivisceral transplantation. Currently, survival rate is similar to other solid organs. Most of the patients become free of parenteral nutrition.

  1. Small Bowel Transplantation In Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fengchun; Kang, Sang-mo

    2007-01-01

    Since 1990, the development of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression and improved surgical techniques, the increased array of potent immunosuppressive medications, infection prophylaxis, and suitable patient selection helped improve actuarial graft and patient survival rates for all types of intestine transplantation. Patients with irreversible intestinal failure and complications of parenteral nutrition should now be routinely considered for small intestine transplantation. However, Survival ra...

  2. Small bowel obstruction caused by secondary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Efraim; Kashtan, Hanoch; Mavor, Eli; Brenner, Baruch

    2006-07-01

    Small bowel obstruction in an oncology patient is a common and serious medical problem which is associated with diagnostic as well as therapeutic dilemmas. While the condition is most commonly caused by postoperative adhesions and peritoneal carcinomatosis, other causes have been reported [Cormier WJ, Gaffey TA, Welch JM, et al. Linitis plastica caused by metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast. Mayo Clinical Proceedings 1980;55:747-53; Clavien P-A, Laffer U, Torhos J, et al. Gastrointestinal metastases as first clinical manifestation of the dissemination of a breast cancer. European Journal of Surgical Oncology 1990;16:121-6; Bender GN, Maglinte DD, McLarney JH, et al. Malignant melanoma: patterns of metastasis to the small bowel, reliability of imaging studies, and clinical relevance. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2001;96:2392-400; Gatsoulis N, Roukounakis N, Kafetzis I, et al. Small bowel intussusception due to metastatic malignant melanoma. A case report. Technical Coloproctology 2004;8:141-3; Hung GY, Chiou T, Hsieh YL, et al. Intestinal metastasis causing intussusception in a patient treated for osteosarcoma with history of multiple metastases: a case report. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 2001;31(4):165-7; Chen TF, Eardley I, Doyle PT, Bullock KN. Rectal obstruction secondary to carcinoma of the prostate treated by transanal resection of the prostate. British Journal of Urology 1992;70(6):643-7; Kamal HS, Farah RE, Hamzi HA, et al. Unusual presentation of rectal adenocarcinoma. Roman Journal of Gastroenterology 2003;12(1):47-50; Hofflander R, Beckes D, Kapre S, et al. A case of jejunal intussusception with gastrointestinal bleeding caused by metastatic testicular germ cell cancer. Digestive Surgery 1999;16(5):439-40]. One of these, reported thus far in only very few patients, is obstruction caused by secondary tumors, i.e. metastases from other organs to the small bowel wall. As cancer patients live longer with improved therapy, physicians are more likely to cope with rare phenomena of neoplasms, such as small bowel obstruction caused by secondary tumors. We hereby present a review of the relevant medical literature. The goal of this article is to define current knowledge on this phenomenon, with emphasis on its epidemiology and clinical characteristics, and to increase the awareness of the clinician treating cancer patients of such possibility. PMID:16905310

  3. The radiolesions of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of the pelvic abdominal cancers extends beyond the centre of the tumour and may induce actinic digestive lesions. The bowel and more rarely the small bowel -which is the subject-matter of our study- are concerned by those radiolesions that are favoured by therapeutic overdose, post-operative adhesions fastening the bows, radio-surgical or chemicostatic associations, and lastly by vascular or nutritive deficiencies. One may distinguish between two kinds of lesions, depending on the lapse of time before their coming out and on the symptoms. The early or acute types are characterized by a radio-mucitis and give an exsudative enteropathy with anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of weight, of which the diagnosis is easy because it occurs during the irradiation and lessens at the end of the treatment. The late radiolesions of the small bowel are characterized by sclerosis and chronic endarteritis and, after a longlasting period of latency, give varied symptoms: disordered intestinal transit which sometimes is irreversible, perforation, fistula, syndrome of malabsorption, giving often rise to be mistaken for a recurrence of the cancer. The treatment varies whether the lesion is segmental or diffuse. In the first case, the failure of the medical means accounts for the surgical cutting away or the internal derivation; in the second case, the digestive mutilation which would result from an enlargement of the lesion commands to be more cautious and to call formmands to be more cautious and to call for the methods of parenteral feeding and digestive setting to rest

  4. Small bowel angiodysplasia and novel disease associations: a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holleran, Grainne

    2013-04-01

    Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias recurrently bleed, accounting for 3-5% of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The advent of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has led to an increased recognition of small bowel angiodysplasias (SBAs) but little is known about their etiology. Previous small cohorts and case reports suggest an equal gender incidence and associations with cardiovascular disease, renal impairment, and coagulopathies.

  5. An immunoglobulin G-4 related sclerosing disease of the small bowel: CT and small bowel series findings

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    Ko, Young Hwan; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Min, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ji Young; Kim, Jeong Won; Hong, Hye Sook; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul [Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease is rare and is known to involve various organs. We present a case of histologically proven IgG4-related sclerosing disease of the small bowel with imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and small bowel series. CT showed irregular wall thickening, loss of mural stratification and aneurysmal dilatation of the distal ileum. Small bowel series showed aneurysmal dilatations, interloop adhesion with traction and abrupt angulation.

  6. Monocontrast-distension examination of the small bowel. A comparison to the small bowel follow-through and the enteroclysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Development of a new monocontrast examination of the small bowel. Material und Methods: The new examination was applied to 20 patients with suspected bowel obstruction or inflammatory bowel disease. A contrast mixture, containing gelatine, a water-soluble contrast medium (Peritrast trademark) and water (GPW-mixture) was given over an intestinal tube. The viscosity of the new contrast mixture was measured by rotation and flow viscosimetry. The diagnostic value and the degree of small bowel distension were determined independently by 3 examiners. By comparison 20 randomized selected small bowel follow-through examinations (SBFT) and 20 small bowel enemas were examined. Special questionnaires were used to determine subjective compatibility and discomfort. Results: Due to the viscosity of the new contrast medium and the administration over an intestinal tube, a good bowel distension was achieved with the GPW mixture. The bowel distension (p: <0.01) and the diagnostic value (p: <0.01) of the new examination in comparison to the SBFT was characterized as being significantly better (p: 0.31-1.0). The diagnostic value of the small bowel enema was characterized as significantly better by one of the three examiners in comparison to the new monocontrast-distenson examination (p-level<0.01). Conclusion: The monocontrast-distension examination is a potential alternative in patients in whom a small bowel enema with barium sulfate is contraindicated. (orig.)m sulfate is contraindicated. (orig.)

  7. Perfuração de intestino delgado por doença diverticular jejunal / Intestinal perforation in consequence of small intestine's diverticulitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vilmar Moura, Leal; Ana Paula Santos de, Andrade; Cléciton Braga, Tavares; Kelson James Silva de, Almeida.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Small Intestine's diverticulosis is an uncommon pathology of intestine. It's more evident at jejune and can be complicated by intestinal perforation, obstruction or diverticulitis, increasing the mortality. We describe a forty years old female patient that arrived at emergency service complained of [...] diffuse abdominal pain. There aren't signals of peritonitis and the radiological evaluation showed small intestine's distension. Surgical intervention was performed revealing multiples diverticulums at jejune and intestinal perforation. The aim of this article is present a case of Small Intestine's diverticulosis and its complications that had precise intervention resulting in a favorable resolution.

  8. Colonic diverticular disease: pathophysiology and clinical picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Blanco, Adolfo

    2006-01-01

    Colonic diverticulosis is the most frequent structural abnormality of the large bowel, although it was a rarity before the 20th century. Lifestyle changes in westernized societies with reduced fiber diet are supposed to be the main cause for its high prevalence nowadays. In African countries, where staple diet is rich in fiber, diverticulosis remains very infrequent. Prevalence increases with ageing too. A fiber-deficient diet and subsequent reduction in bowel content volume would lead to increased intraluminal pressures and colonic segmentation, thus promoting diverticula formation. Animal and human studies have shown increased intracolonic pressures in patients with diverticulosis. Alterations in colonic muscle properties, collagen metabolism and in the interactions of the extracellular matrix components may play a role in remodelling the gut wall in diverticular disease. At least one fourth of patients with diverticulosis will develop symptoms, sometimes overlapping with irritable bowel syndrome, but 10-25% will suffer diverticulitis and 3-5% diverticular bleeding. Conservative medical management is usually sufficient in the first episode of diverticulitis, but surgical treatment is generally advocated in recurrences. Diverticular bleeding is a major cause of lower digestive haemorrhage, but generally self-limited. With the application of therapeutic endoscopic and angiographic methods, emergency surgery can often be avoided. PMID:16498252

  9. Small bowel motility in functional chronic constipation.

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    Seidl, H; Gundling, F; Pehl, C; Pfeiffer, A; Schepp, W; Schmidt, T

    2009-12-01

    In functional constipation, three pathophysiological subgroups have been identified: slow-transit constipation (STC); normal-transit constipation (NTC) and outlet delay (OD). Extracolonic manifestations, especially disturbed small bowel motility, are well known to occur in STC, but have rarely been studied in NTC and OD. To perform 24-h-ambulatory jejunal manometry in a large prospective series of clinical patients with chronic constipation of all subtypes. A total of 61 consecutive patients, referred to our tertiary gastroenterologic centre for chronic constipation (48 female, 13 male; mean age 57 (range 20-87) years), underwent jejunal 24-h-ambulatory manometry (standardized meal) after a transit-time study (radio-opaque markers), anorectal manometry, defecography and colonoscopy. Computerized and visual analysis by two independent observers was compared with the normal range of manometric variables, defined by data previously obtained in 50 healthy subjects (Gut 1996;38:859). Five patients were excluded from the study because of coexistence of OD and STC. No patient with OD (n = 8), but all patients with STC (n = 32) and 94% of patients with NTC (n = 16) showed small bowel motor abnormalities; both in postprandial response and fasting motility. The abnormal findings ranged from severe disturbances with complete loss of MMC to subtle changes of contraction parameters that could only be assessed by computerized analysis. No significant differences between STC- and NTC-patients were found. Most findings pointed to an underlying enteric neuropathy. Intestinal prolonged-ambulatory manometry adds valuable information to the pathophysiologic understanding of functional chronic constipation of STC- and NTC-type, however there are no distinct manometric features to differentiate between both. PMID:19614887

  10. Imaging differentiation of phytobezoar and small-bowel faeces: CT characteristics with quantitative analysis in patients with small- bowel obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to use multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to differentiate phytobezoar impaction and small-bowel faeces in patients with small-bowel obstruction (SBO). We retrospectively reviewed 91 consecutive SBO patients with surgically proven phytobezoars (n = 31) or adhesion with small-bowel faeces (n = 60). Two readers blinded to the diagnosis recorded the following MDCT features: degree of obstruction, transition point, mesenteric fatty stranding, intraperitoneal fluid, air-fluid level, pneumatosis intestinalis, and portal venous gas. MDCT measurements of the food debris length, attenuation, luminal diameter, and wall thickness of the obstructed bowel were also compared. A higher grade of obstruction with an absence of mesenteric fatty stranding and intraperitoneal fluid was more commonly seen in the phytobezoar group than in the small-bowel faeces group (p < 0.01). The food debris length (phytobezoar, 5.7 ± 2.8 cm; small-bowel feces, 20.3 ± 7.9 cm, p < 0.01) and mean attenuation (phytobezoar, -59.6 ± 43.3 Hounsfield units (HU); small-bowel faeces, 8.5 ± 7.7 HU, p <0.01) were significantly different between the two groups. The ROC curve showed that food debris length <9.5 cm and mean attenuation value < -11.75 HU predicted phytobezoar impaction. MDCT features with measurements of the food debris length and mean attenuation assist the differentiation of phytobezoar impaction and small-bowel faeces. (orig.)

  11. Imaging differentiation of phytobezoar and small-bowel faeces: CT characteristics with quantitative analysis in patients with small- bowel obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ya-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Hsien; Hsu, Hsian-He; Yu, Chih-Yung [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Wang, Hong-Hau [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital Songshan Branch, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Fan, Hsiu-Lung [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Chen, Ran-Chou [Taipei City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming Univeristy, Department of Biochemical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Chang, Wei-Chou [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming Univeristy, Department of Biochemical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China)

    2015-04-01

    The objective is to use multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to differentiate phytobezoar impaction and small-bowel faeces in patients with small-bowel obstruction (SBO). We retrospectively reviewed 91 consecutive SBO patients with surgically proven phytobezoars (n = 31) or adhesion with small-bowel faeces (n = 60). Two readers blinded to the diagnosis recorded the following MDCT features: degree of obstruction, transition point, mesenteric fatty stranding, intraperitoneal fluid, air-fluid level, pneumatosis intestinalis, and portal venous gas. MDCT measurements of the food debris length, attenuation, luminal diameter, and wall thickness of the obstructed bowel were also compared. A higher grade of obstruction with an absence of mesenteric fatty stranding and intraperitoneal fluid was more commonly seen in the phytobezoar group than in the small-bowel faeces group (p < 0.01). The food debris length (phytobezoar, 5.7 ± 2.8 cm; small-bowel feces, 20.3 ± 7.9 cm, p < 0.01) and mean attenuation (phytobezoar, -59.6 ± 43.3 Hounsfield units (HU); small-bowel faeces, 8.5 ± 7.7 HU, p <0.01) were significantly different between the two groups. The ROC curve showed that food debris length <9.5 cm and mean attenuation value < -11.75 HU predicted phytobezoar impaction. MDCT features with measurements of the food debris length and mean attenuation assist the differentiation of phytobezoar impaction and small-bowel faeces. (orig.)

  12. CT enteroclysis in the diagnostics of small bowel diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The role of CT enteroclysis is gaining on importance in the diagnostics of small bowel diseases. The aim of the study was to present own experiences in CT enteroclysis application, with the use of a 64-detector CT unit. Material/Methods: CT enteroclyses were performed in 60 patients: 53 with the suspicion of the Crohns disease, 2 suspected for carcinoid, 1 with suspicion of the fistula between the small bowel and the bladder, 2 suspected for the tumor of the ileo-caecal region, and in 1 case, the aim of examination was to carry out an evaluation of the postsurgical state of the bowel-bowel anastomosis. We used own endoscopic technique of catheter insertion into the bowel, which shortens the examination time and improves patients comfort. Results: The catheter was correctly introduced into the small bowel in 58 patients (endoscopy had to be repeated in 4 cases). Only 2 examinations failed, because patients refused repeated endoscopy. Radiological signs of the Crohns disease were found in 50 out of 53 patients. In the 3 remaining patients, the appearance of the small bowel was normal. In 5 non-Crohns disease patients, CT enteroclysis enabled a good visualization of the pathology (tumors, fistula). Conclusions: CT enteroclysis with the use of the 64-detector CT unit is a valuable method in the diagnostics of small bowel diseases. It could supplement or precede capsule endoscopy. (authors)

  13. Transient small-bowel intussusception in children on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency and significance of small-bowel intussusception identified in children on CT. All abdomen CT reports between July 1995 and April 2002 were reviewed to identify patients with small-bowel intussusception. Intussusceptions were identified as an intraluminal mass with a characteristic layered appearance and/or continuity with adjacent mesenteric fat. Ileocolic intussusceptions and intussusceptions related to feeding tubes were excluded. Imaging studies and medical records were reviewed. Twenty-five pediatric patients (16 boys, 9 girls; mean age 11.2 years) were identified with small-bowel intussusception on CT. No patient had a persistent intussusception requiring surgery. Fourteen had limited immediate repeat CT images as part of the same examination, ten of which demonstrated resolution of the CT abnormality. Follow-up CT [n=13 (6 within 24 h)], ultrasound (n=3), small-bowel follow-through (n=4) and surgery (n=3) showed no intussusception. In four patients with persistent symptoms, underlying pathology was identified requiring treatment (giardiasis, 2; small-bowel inflammation/strictures, 1; abscess and partial small-bowel obstruction after perforated appendicitis, 1). In 21 other patients, direct correlation of symptoms to CT abnormality was absent or questionable, no treatment was required, and there was no clinical or imaging evidence of persistence or recurrence. Most small-bowel intussusceptions identified in children by CT are transient dentified in children by CT are transient and of no clinical significance. (orig.)

  14. Aspects on diverticular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hjern, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this thesis were to evaluate the influence of ethnicity and other sociodemographic factors on the rate of diverticular disease (DD) (Paper I), to compare findings specific for DD and acceptance of CT Colonography (CTC) and conventional Colonoscopy (CC) in patients examined after diverticulitis (AD) (Paper II), to evaluate the value of antibiotics in conservative treatment of patients with mild AD (Paper III) and to study patients with diverticular fist...

  15. Small bowel enteroclysis using a hemodialysis blood pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to describe the usefulness of small bowel enteroclysis using a hemodialysis blood pump. Over 1 16 month period, 135 double contrast small bowel enteroclysis examinations were performed in 132 patients using a hemodialysis blood pump. Following incubation of the proximal jejunum, barium at a dilution of 50 % and 0.5 %-methylcellulose were infused at a constant rate using a hemodialysis blood pump and multiple spot films of the small intestine were obtained. Success rate, quality of radiographs, positive findings, fluoroscopic time and complications were evaluated. It spite of the long fluoroscopic time and invasiveness, double contrast small bowel enteroclysis is useful for the evaluation of small bowel disease. The infusion of barium and methylcellulose using a hemodialysis blood pump give radiographs of good quality. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  16. Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C.; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Debatin, Joerg F.; Lauenstein, Thomas C. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122, Essen (Germany); Schneemann, Hubert [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance. (orig.)

  17. CT diagnosis of small bowel obstruction in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate CT in the diagnosis of small bowel obstruction in children. Methods: Thirty-one cases with small bowel obstruction manifestations on CT and plain radiograph were analysed. The age ranged from 9 months to 14 years, male 17 cases, female 14 cases. There were 29 acute small bowel obstructions, and 2 chronic obstruction. Seven cases had history of previous abdominal operation. Results: Cored diagnosis was made in 19 cases and 29 cases respectively by plain film and CT. The accurate etiologic diagnosis could be made by CT in 18 cases, including small bowel stone 4 cases, intussusception, 5 localized infection and adhesion 6 intraluminal bowel duplication, 1 congenital umbilical hernia, congenital malrotation of the intestine 1 case. Combined with history of abdominal operation the accurate CT etiologic diagnosis increased to 25 cases. There were 4 CT false-negative cases and 2 plain film false negative cases. Conclusion: The CT is obviously superior to plain radiograph in detecting strangulation and gas in bowel wall, better delineating the transitional segment of bowel stenosis thereby demonstrating the case of obstruction which is very helpful for clinical management

  18. Unique Presentation of Intra-Abdominal Testis: Small Bowel Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Bassiouny, Ibrahim E.; Abbas, Tariq O.; Alansari, Amani N.; Ali, Mansour A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe here a two-year-old male who required urgent laparotomy to relieve a strangulated small bowel caused by internal herniation around an intra-abdominal testis. This clinical presentation has not been reported previously.

  19. Metastatic choriocarcinoma in the small bowel: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yousefi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: In abnormal postpartum hemorrhage, we should consider the possibility of choriocarcinoma. Although, it is important to note rare manifestations of metastatic choriocarcinoma of small bowel in massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

  20. Venous Small Bowel Infarction: Intraoperative Laser Doppler Flowmetry Discriminates Critical Blood Supply and Spares Bowel Length

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Käser; Glauser, P. M.; Maurer, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In mesenteric infarction due to arterial occlusion, laser Doppler flowmetry and spectrometry are known reliable noninvasive methods for measuring microvascular blood flow and oxygen utilisation. Case Presentation. As an innovation we used these methods in a patient with acute extensive mesenteric infarction due to venous occlusion, occurring after radical right hemicolectomy. Aiming to avoid short bowel syndrome, we spared additional 110?cm of small bowel, instead of leaving onl...

  1. Pylephlebitis secondary to strangulated umbilical hernia with small bowel ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Valentino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pylephlebitis is a septic thrombophlebitis of the portal venous system that infrequently complicates small bowel infarction. We present a case of pylephlebitis with portomesenteric vein gas bubbles secondary to small bowel ischemia caused by a strangulated umbilical hernia, diagnosed on computed tomography (CT and confirmed in the operating theater. This case is an example of the usefulness of CT in early recognition of suggestive radiologic findings of pylephlebitis associated with intestinal ischemia for prompt treatment of the patient.

  2. SMALL BOWEL LAPAROSCOPIC RESECTION FOR STRANGULATED UMBILICAL HERNIA

    OpenAIRE

    R. Moldovanu

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic small bowel resection is a general accepted technique for small bowel tumors and diverticulum. However, the laparoscopic approach for intestinal resection for strangulated hernias is still controversial. This video presents the case of a 49 years old woman admitted for strangulated umbilical hernia. The patient was diagnosed with morbid obesity with a BMI of 51.3 kg/m2. A laparoscopic approach was performed; the exploration confirmed the strangulated umbilical hernia containing s...

  3. Diverticular disease: A therapeutic overview

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Tursi

    2010-01-01

    Formation of colonic diverticula, via herniation of the colonic wall, is responsible for the development of diverticulosis. When diverticulosis becomes symptomatic, it becomes diverticular disease. Diverticular disease is common in Western and industrialized countries, and it is associated with numerous abdominal symptoms (including pain, bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and constipation). Standard medical therapies with antibiotics are currently recommended for patients affected by diverticular d...

  4. Transient small bowel angioedema due to intravenous iodinated contrast media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Hua Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of transient proximal small bowel angioedema induced by intravenous administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media (CM are presented. Computed tomography (CT images in the venous phase displayed the proximal small bowel with circumferential thickening of the wall including the duodenum and proximal segment of the jejunum. The bowel wall was normal in non-enhanced images, and normal or inconspicuous in arterial phase enhanced images. In one of the three cases, the bowel wall was thickened in venous phase but disappeared in the 40 s delayed phase images. No filling defect was seen in the lumen of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. No peritoneal effusion or mesentery abnormality was found. Each of these patients reported only mild abdominal discomfort and recovered without specific treatment within a short time. Only one patient suffered mild diarrhea after scanning which had resolved by the following day. The transient anaphylactic small bowel angioedema due to intravenous iodinated contrast media was easily diagnosed based on its characteristic CT findings and clinical symptoms. Differential diagnosis may include inflammatory and ischemic bowel disease, as well as neoplasms. A three-phase CT protocol and good understanding of this disorder are fundamentally important in the diagnosis of this condition. The supposed etiology behind the transient anaphylactic reaction to intravenous administration of iodinated CM in small bowel is similar to other CM-induced hypersensitive immediate reactions. The predilection location of transient anaphylactic bowel angioedema is the small intestine, particularly the proximal segment. A speculated cause may be the richer supply of vessels in the small intestine, ample mucous folds and loose connective tissue in the duodenum and the jejunum.

  5. US features of transient small bowel intussusception in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the sonographic (US) and clinical features of spontaneously reduced small bowel intussusception, and to discuss the management options for small bowel intussusception based on US findings with clinical correlation. During a five years of period, 34 small bowel intussusceptions were diagnosed on US in 32 infants and children. The clinical presentations and imaging findings of the patients were reviewed. The clinical presentations included abdominal pain or irritability (n = 25), vomiting (n 5), diarrhea (n = 3), bloody stool (n = 1), and abdominal distension (n = 1), in combination or alone. US showed multi-layered round masses of small (mean, 1.5 ± 0.3 cm) diameters and with thin (mean, 3.5 ± 1 mm) outer rims along the course of the small bowel. The mean length was 1.8 ± 0.5 cm and peristalsis was seen on the video records. There were no visible lead points. The vascular flow signal appeared on color Doppler images in all 21 patients examined. Spontaneous reduction was confirmed by combinations of US (n = 28), small bowel series (n = 6), CT scan (n = 3), and surgical exploration (n 2). All patients discharged with improved condition. Typical US findings of the transient small bowel intussusception included 1) small size without wall swelling, 2) short segment, 3) preserved wall motion, and 4) absence of the lead point. Conservative management with US monitoring rather than an immediate operation is recommended for those patient with typical transient smthose patient with typical transient small bowel intussusceptions. Atypical US findings or clinical deterioration of the patient with persistent intussusception warrant surgical exploration

  6. Ischemic jejunitis caused by primary small bowel volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, J; Ponette, E; Baert, A L

    1997-08-01

    A case of ischemic jejunitis caused by primary small bowel volvulus is presented. The radiological signs of ischemia persisted after detorsion. Contrast examinations of the small intestine demonstrated severe jejunitis with ulcerations, segmental narrowing and fistulas. This last sign is a rather uncommon event in ischemic disorders. The radiological signs of acute ischemia of the small intestine are discussed. PMID:9351305

  7. Small bowel enteroscopy in Crohn’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tom G Moreels

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic assessment of the small bowel is difficult because of its long and tortuous anatomy. However, recent developments have greatly improved the insertion depth and diagnostic yield, by means of device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE). Therefore, DAE may be of specific interest in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. It may be of help in the diagnostic assessment of intestinal disease extent and severity and complications, with an impact on the ...

  8. Complete small bowel recovery after prolonged total venous occlusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Von Woellwarth, Julie; Zu Vilsendorf, Andreas Meyer; Schlitt, Hans J.

    2002-01-01

    Acute small bowel ischaemia is a mostly irreversible condition associated with high mortality. Here we report the case of a patient after severe abdominal trauma in whom the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) was completely occluded for more than 15 h in the absence of any collateral venous drainage. Following surgical reconstruction of the SMV and with scheduled relaparotomies for 5 days, the bowel showed slow recovery. Now the patient is well and on complete oral nutrition.

  9. Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the small bowel mesentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Yang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is an uncommon cutaneous malignant tumor that presents as a rapidly growing skin nodule on sun-exposed areas of the body. MCC is aggressive with regional nodal and distant metastases to the skin, lung, and bones. There have been no reports of metastatic MCC to the mesentery and 6 reports describing metastasis to the small intestine. We present a case of metastatic MCC to the mesentery with infiltration to the small bowel, 8 years after original tumor resection. This is the 5th metastasis and it encased the small bowel resulting in a hair-pin loop contributing to the unusual clinical presentation. Although MCC metastatic to the bowel is uncommon, it is not rare. It is important to recognize the unusual manifestations of this disease as they are becoming more common in the future. Routine radiologic surveillance and thorough review of systems are important to patient follow-up.

  10. [Imaging in the diagnosis of small bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fuhua

    2015-03-25

    There are still many difficulties in the diagnosis of small bowel diseases. Until recently, diagnosis of small bowel diseases relies primarily on imaging techniques. The traditional gastrointestinal barium meal examination and endoscopy can observe the changing of mucous membrane, but can not demonstrate the intestinal wall and the extraluminal structure. With the development and modification of CT and MR software and hardware, CT enterography(CTE) and MR enterography(MRE) are being increasingly usded in clinical practice, facilitating discrimination of mucous membrane, wall, lumen and extraluminal structure. Dynamic contrast scanning can reflect the blood supply of intestinal lesions, and CTA and MRA can reveal the vascularity and abnormality. Comprehensive analysis of imaging can provide overall and objective information and improve diagnostic accuracy of small bowel diseases. Besides, imaging features can be used as criteria in assessing the activity of Crohn's disease, which provides effective method of treatment selection and efficacy evaluation. PMID:25809321

  11. No difference in small bowel microbiota between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugosz, Aldona; Winckler, Björn; Lundin, Elin; Zakikhany, Katherina; Sandström, Gunnar; Ye, Weimin; Engstrand, Lars; Lindberg, Greger

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that colonic microbiota may exhibit important differences between patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls. Less is known about the microbiota of the small bowel. We used massive parallel sequencing to explore the composition of small bowel mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with IBS and healthy controls. We analysed capsule biopsies from the jejunum of 35 patients (26 females) with IBS aged 18-(36)-57 years and 16 healthy volunteers (11 females) aged 20-(32)-48 years. Sequences were analysed based on taxonomic classification. The phyla with the highest total abundance across all samples were: Firmicutes (43%), Proteobacteria (23%), Bacteroidetes (15%), Actinobacteria (9.3%) and Fusobacteria (7.0%). The most abundant genera were: Streptococcus (19%), Veillonella (13%), Prevotella (12%), Rothia (6.4%), Haemophilus (5.7%), Actinobacillus (5.5%), Escherichia (4.6%) and Fusobacterium (4.3%). We found no difference among major phyla or genera between patients with IBS and controls. We identified a cluster of samples in the small bowel microbiota dominated by Prevotella, which may represent a common enterotype of the upper small intestine. The remaining samples formed a gradient, dominated by Streptococcus at one end and Escherichia at the other. PMID:25687743

  12. Development of a new method for small bowel transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, most studies combine the small bowel transit examination with gastric emptying time examination. There are significant drawbacks to this method. The radiotracer does not enter the small intestine in a bolus and the starting time for transit in the duodenum is difficult to define. This makes the result unreliable. In this study, we used a commercial enteric capsule containing radioactive charcoal to solve these problems. Activated charcoal powder was mixed with Tc-99m pertechnetate and loaded to the enteric capsule which can resist gastric acid and dissolve only in the small intestine, in-vitro stability experiment was performed by immersing these capsules in a colorless phosphate buffer of variable pH which mimicked the condition in stomach and small intestine. In addition, ten healthy Chinese volunteers were included for in-vivo experiment. Anterior and posterior views of abdomen were obtained at regular 30-minute intervals until the eighth hour after administration of the radioactive enteric capsule. Small bowel transit time was calculated. The enteric capsule remained intact for at least 480 minutes in the solution mimicking gastric content (pH=3.0) and disrupted at a mean duration of 227.2 minutes at a pH of 6.8 and at a mean duration of 212.4 minutes at a pH of 7.4 in the solution mimicking pancreaticobiliary secretions. In nine of ten volunteers, the small bowel transit time was between 30 to 270 minutes with a mean transit time of 140 min. In one vola mean transit time of 140 min. In one volunteer, we failed to detect the exact time of small bowel transit because the capsule remained in the stomach throughout the study for up to 8 hours. We consider activated charcoal labeled with Tc-99m pertechnetate using an enteric capsule as the carrier to be a potential radioactive marker for small bowel transit study. (author)

  13. Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Fireman, Z; Mahajna, E; Broide, E; Shapiro, M.(Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, U.S.A.); Fich, L; Sternberg, A; Kopelman, Y; Scapa, E

    2003-01-01

    Background: The small bowel is the most commonly affected site of Crohn’s disease (CD) although it may involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The current methodologies for examining the small bowel are x ray and endoscopy.

  14. New strategies for the management of diverticular disease: insights for the clinician

    OpenAIRE

    Boynton, Wen; Floch, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Diverticulosis is one of the most common gastrointestinal conditions affecting the general population in the Western world. It is estimated that over 2.5 million people are affected by diverticular disease in the United States. The spectrum of clinical manifestations of diverticulosis ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to complicated diverticulitis. Treatment for symptomatic diverticular disease is largely based on symptoms. Traditional therapy includes fiber, bowel rest, antibiotics, pa...

  15. Small bowel ultrasound in patients with celiac disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Celiac disease (CD) is a common, lifelong disease with small bowel malabsorption based on genetically conditioned gluten intolerance. The clinical manifestation could be very heterogeneous. The proof of celiac disease is now based mainly on clinical and laboratory (antibodies and enterobiopsy) signs, which are in some cases problematic and inconvenient. Materials and methods: In our study we have examined 250 patients with suspection or with proven celiac disease and we evaluated specific ultrasound small bowel changes in this group. In the next step, we chose 59 patients with laboratory proved celiac disease and we statistically compared ultrasound, other laboratory and clinical findings in different forms and stages of the disease. Results: Specific small bowel pathologies in patients with celiac disease (like changes of intestinal villi in different parts of small bowel, abnormal peristalsis and mesenterial lymphadenopathy) can be well visualized by ultrasound and in combination with clinical and laboratory signs ultrasound examination could have an important role in screening, determination of diagnosis and monitoring of patients with different forms of celiac disease

  16. Small bowel ultrasound in patients with celiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartusek, D. [Department of Radiology, Masaryk University hospital Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: dbartusek@fnbrno.cz; Valek, V. [Department of Radiology, Masaryk University hospital Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: v.valek@fnbrno.cz; Husty, J. [Department of Radiology, Masaryk University hospital Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: jhusty@fnbrno.cz; Uteseny, J. [Department of Pediatric Internal Medicine, Masaryk University hospital Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: juteseny@fnbrno.cz

    2007-08-15

    Objective: Celiac disease (CD) is a common, lifelong disease with small bowel malabsorption based on genetically conditioned gluten intolerance. The clinical manifestation could be very heterogeneous. The proof of celiac disease is now based mainly on clinical and laboratory (antibodies and enterobiopsy) signs, which are in some cases problematic and inconvenient. Materials and methods: In our study we have examined 250 patients with suspection or with proven celiac disease and we evaluated specific ultrasound small bowel changes in this group. In the next step, we chose 59 patients with laboratory proved celiac disease and we statistically compared ultrasound, other laboratory and clinical findings in different forms and stages of the disease. Results: Specific small bowel pathologies in patients with celiac disease (like changes of intestinal villi in different parts of small bowel, abnormal peristalsis and mesenterial lymphadenopathy) can be well visualized by ultrasound and in combination with clinical and laboratory signs ultrasound examination could have an important role in screening, determination of diagnosis and monitoring of patients with different forms of celiac disease.

  17. Calcifiying Fibrous Pseudotumor of the Small Bowel Mesentery – Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszkiewicz Izabela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcifiyng fibrous pseudotumor (CFPT is a benign mesenchymal tumor diagnosed in children and young adults, located in the subcutaneous tissue of the trunk and limbs. Its intraabdominal localization is a unique rarity. The Authors of the study presented a case of a 48-year old female patient with an accidentally diagnosed small bowel mesentery tumor during surgery

  18. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Metastatic to Small Bowel Mucosa Causing Polyposis and Intussuseption

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Mcgrath; Brooks, John J.; Kraybill, William B.; Allan Litwin; Gibbs, John F.; Sabel, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    A report of alveolar soft part sarcoma metastatic to the small bowel is presented. Hematogenous metastases to the small bowel from primary tumors outside the abdominal cavity are uncommon, and most remain asymptomatic and are not discovered until autopsy. However, small bowel metastases can lead to intestinal obstruction, intussuseption or even perforation. While metastases to the small bowel have been described for other tumor types, including melanoma and lung cancer, this is ex...

  19. MR imaging of the small bowel in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR and CT techniques optimized for small bowel imaging are playing an increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel disorders. Several studies have shown the advantage of these techniques over tradition barium fluoroscopic examinations secondary to improvements in spatial and temporal resolution combined with improved bowel distending agents. The preference of MR vs. CT has been geographical and based on expertise and public policy. With the increasing awareness of radiation exposure, there has been a more global interest in implementing techniques that either reduce or eliminate radiation exposure [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. This is especially important in patients with chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease who may require multiple studies over a lifetime or in studies that require sequential imaging time points such as in assessment of gastrointestinal motility [Froehlich JM, Patak MA, von Weymarn C, Juli CF, Zollikofer CL, Wentz KU. Small bowel motility assessment with magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2005;21:370-75]. A recent study showed that certain subgroups of patients with Crohn's disease may be exposed to higher doses of radiation; those diagnosed at an early age, those with upper tract inflammation, penetrating disease, requirement of intravenous steroids, infliximab or multiple surgeries [Desmond AN, O'Regan K, Curran C, et al. Crohn'snd AN, O'Regan K, Curran C, et al. Crohn's disease: factors associated with exposure to high levels of diagnostic radiation. Gut 2008;57:1524-29]. Therefore it has been suggested that techniques that can reduce or eliminate radiation exposure should be considered for imaging [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. Owing to the excellent softtissue contrast, direct multiplanar imaging capabilities, new ultrafast breath-holding pulse sequences, lack of ionizing radiation and availability of a variety of oral contrast agents, MR is well suited to play a critical role in the imaging of small bowel disorders. In this article we will review the technical issues related to the performance of MR enterography and enteroclysis and discuss the role and controversies of using MR in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  20. Oral purgative and simethicone before small bowel capsule endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Joel Ferreira Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate small bowel cleansing quality, diagnostic yield and transit time, comparing three cleansing protocols prior to capsule endoscopy. METHODS: Sixty patients were prospectively enrolled and randomized to one of the following cleansing protocols: patients in Group A underwent a 24 h liquid diet and overnight fasting; patients in Group B followed protocol A and subsequently were administered 2 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG the evening before the procedure; patients in Group C followed protocol B and were additionally administered 100 mg of simethicone 30 min prior to capsule ingestion. Small bowel cleansing was independently assessed by two experienced endoscopists and classified as poor, fair, good or excellent according to the proportion of small bowel mucosa under perfect conditions for visualization. When there was no agreement between the two endoscopists, the images were reviewed and discussed until a consensus was reached. The preparation was considered acceptable if > 50% or adequate if > 75% of the mucosa was in perfect cleansing condition. The amount of bubbles was assessed independently and it was considered significant if it prevented a correct interpretation of the images. Positive endoscopic findings, gastric emptying time (GET and small bowel transit time (SBTT were recorded for each examination. RESULTS: There was a trend favoring Group B in achieving an acceptable (including fair, good or excellent level of cleansing (Group A: 65%; Group B: 83.3%; Group C: 68.4% [P = not significant (NS] and favoring Group C in attaining an excellent level of cleansing (Group A: 10%; Group B: 16.7%; Group C: 21.1% (P = NS. The number of patients with an adequate cleansing of the small bowel, corresponding to an excellent or good classification, was 5 (25% in Group A, 5 (27.8% in Group B and 4 (21.1% in Group C (P = 0.892. Conversely, 7 patients (35% in Group A, 3 patients (16.7% in Group B and 6 patients (31.6% in Group C were considered to have poor small bowel cleansing (P = 0.417, with significant fluid or debris such that the examination was unreliable. The proportion of patients with a significant amount of bubbles was 50% in Group A, 27.8% in Group B and 15.8% in Group C (P = 0.065. This was significantly lower in Group C when compared to Group A (P = 0.026. The mean GET was 27.8 min for Group A, 27.2 min for Group B and 40.7 min for Group C (P = 0.381. The mean SBTT was 256.4 min for Group A, 256.1 min for Group B and 258.1 min for Group C (P = 0.998. Regarding to the rate of complete examinations, the capsule reached the cecum in 20 patients (100% in Group A, 16 patients (88.9% in Group B and 17 patients (89.5% in Group C (P = 0.312. A definite diagnosis based on relevant small bowel endoscopic lesions was established in 60% of the patients in Group A (12 patients, 44.4% in Group B (8 patients and 57.8% in Group C (11 patients (P = 0.587. CONCLUSION: Preparation with 2 L of PEG before small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE may improve small bowel cleansing and the quality of visualization. Simethicone may further reduce intraluminal bubbles. No significant differences were found regarding GET, SBTT and the proportion of complete exploration or diagnostic yield among the three different cleansing protocols.

  1. Large Intraluminal Ileal Hematoma Presenting as Small Bowel Obstruction in a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yun Jung; Nam, So Hyun; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Intraluminal small bowel hematoma has been rarely reported in children, as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. We present a case of an intraluminal ileal hematoma presenting as small bowel obstruction in a child. Computed Tomography (CT) indicated a large intraluminal hyperdense lesion in the distal ileum as the cause of small bowel obstruction. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) showed an echogenic mass-like lesion with multiple septa in the distal ileum. Small bowel obstruction due to a complicated cystic mass was provisionally diagnosed. Histopathologic examination of the resected mass suggested a submucosal ileal hematoma. Although intraluminal small bowel hematoma is rare in children, it can present as an intraluminal cystic mass and should be considered as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. The US and CT findings of submucosal ileal hematoma could be useful for the diagnosis of such cases in the future. PMID:25901264

  2. Oral purgative and simethicone before small bowel capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Joel Ferreira Rosa; Mara Barbosa; Joana Magalhães; Ana Rebelo; Moreira, Maria Jo Xe O.; José Cotter

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate small bowel cleansing quality, diagnostic yield and transit time, comparing three cleansing protocols prior to capsule endoscopy. METHODS: Sixty patients were prospectively enrolled and randomized to one of the following cleansing protocols: patients in Group A underwent a 24 h liquid diet and overnight fasting; patients in Group B followed protocol A and subsequently were administered 2 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG) the evening before the procedure; patients in Group C foll...

  3. Small Bowel Perforation due to Gossypiboma Caused Acute Abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Dag; Ozgur Turkmenoglu; Tolga Olmez; Tahsin Colak

    2013-01-01

    Gossypiboma, an infrequent surgical complication, is a mass lesion due to a retained surgical sponge surrounded by foreign body reaction. In this case report, we describe gossypiboma in the abdominal cavity which was detected 14 months after the hysterectomy due to acute abdominal pain. Gossypiboma was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). The CT findings were a rounded mass with a dense central part and an enhancing wall. In explorative laparotomy, small bowel loops were seen to be perforat...

  4. Blind bedside insertion of small bowel feeding tubes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, S

    2009-12-01

    The use of Naso-Jejunal (NJ) feeding is limited by difficulty in feeding tube placement. Patients have traditionally required transfer to Endoscopy or Radiology for insertion of small bowel feeding tubes, with clear resource implications. We hypothesised that the adoption of a simple bedside procedure would be effective and reduce cost. Clinical nutrition and nurse specialist personnel were trained in the 10\\/10\\/10 method of blind bedside NJ insertion.

  5. Small Bowel Crohn's disease MRI pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this article includes revision of normal small bowel anatomy on sequences performed at our institution, with advantages and disadvantages; brief summary of the disease; appearance of acute active disease; usefulness of ancillary findings of active disease; appearance of chronic disease both active and inactive; complications of Crohn's disease; pitfalls and limitations of interpretation; and clinically relevant reporting through clinician feedback.

  6. Finding the solution for incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether the use of real time viewer (RTV) and administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule could reduce the rate of incomplete examinations (IE) and improve the diagnostic yield of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE). METHODS: Prospective single center interventional study, from June 2012 to February 2013. Capsule location was systematically checked one hour after ingestion using RTV. If it remained in the stomach, the patient rec...

  7. Abnormalities of mucosal folds of the small intestine: a guide in interpretation of small bowel series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal small intestinal folds are less than 2mm in thickness and criss-cross in appearance. Many diseases of the small intestine produce an abnormality in mucosal folds, namely thickening and parallel (perpendicular to the bowel lumen) arrangement of folds, nodularity, destruction, and ulcer. Diseases causing submucosal edema produce regular smooth thickening whereas diseases producing submucosal hemorrhage produce regular spiky thickening. Inflammatory bowel diseases and lymphoma produce irregular (in width, or distorted or bent at peculiar angles to the bowel lumen) thickening nodularity of the mucosa. Severe inflammatory processes as well as malignant tumors produce mucosal destruction and ulcer. Proposed here is an approach to narrow the category of disease processes based on mucosal fold abnormality. This approach with sufficient clinical history is invaluable in the interpretation of small bowel series

  8. Small Bowel Stent-in-Stent Placement for Malignant Small Bowel Obstruction Using a Balloon-Assisted Overtube Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Daniel; Ramesh, Jayapal; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, C Mel; Mönkemüller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Self-expanding metal stents are a useful therapy to palliate malignant and benign luminal gastrointestinal obstruction. Self-expanding metal stents has been widely reported for colonic, esophageal, and gastric obstruction. However, endoscopic delivery and placement to the small bowel is more challenging and difficult. This case illustrates the usefulness and technical advantages of the balloon-overtube and enteroscopy technique for the palliative treatment of neoplastic stenosis affecting the...

  9. Laparoscopic treatment for acute diverticular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pignata Giusto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon involves more than 50% of population over 60 years, and much more in people older than 80 years. Most patients remain asymptomatic, but, about 10-20% develop complications requiring surgery. Colonic diverticulitis represents an acute bowel inflammation, in many cases, confined only to the sigmoid and descending colon. Recurrent attacks and complications of diverticulitis require surgical procedure, although most cases can be managed medically. The cause of acute diverticulitis remains obscure. It has been speculated that obstruction at the mouth of the diverticulum results in diverticulitis, similar to appendicitis, but this is no longer the accepted theory, and some feel that chronic inflammation precedes clinical diverticulitis. .

  10. Direct diverticular inguinal hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen patients with direct diverticular inguinal hernia (DDIH) were examined with herniography and surgically explored. A lump medially in the groin and pain were the prominent clinical manifestations in 18 patients. Physical examination indicated the presence of a DDIH in 6 patients. In 16 patients herniography revealed hernial sacs protruding from the supravesical fossa in 5 and from the medial inguinal fossa in 11. At operation a circumscribed defect was found in the transverse fascia laterally and cranially to the pubic tubercle in all patients. In 16 patients peritoneal hernial sacs were demonstrated at surgery while in 3 only lipomas (fatty hernia) were contained within the defect. In our opinion DDIH is a specific variety of inguinal hernia with a fairly typical clinical presentation and radiographic appearance but probably often overlooked at surgery. (orig.)

  11. Closed loop obstruction of the small bowel: CT and sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyun Ju; Kim, Ki Whang; Lee, Chan Wha; Lee, Yeon Hee [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    Closed loop obstruction represent a surgical emergency, because this lesion leads to small bowel infraction, perforation, and peritonitis if not treated in time. We analyzed the CT and ultrasonographic findings of 4 patients prospectively and 2 patients retrospectively with surgically proven closed loop obstruction of the small bowel to evaluate the characteristic findings, the cause of the closed loop obstruction and predictive criteria for the viability of the involved bowel loop. The characteristic CT and sonographic features of the closed loop obstruction of the small bowel included; dilated fluid-filled bowel loops, the thickened bowel wall, absence of peristalsis, and ascites. In one case, closed loop obstruction originating from umbilical hernia was documented by CT and sonography. The possible criteria for the gangrenous changes could be the maximal thickness of bowel more than 7mm, and infiltration in the mesentery/omentum.

  12. Delayed Presentation of Trichobezoar with Small Bowel Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soofia Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel obstruction is a common surgical emergency but trichobezoar as an etiology, rarely reported. A seven year old school going female child presented with acute intestinal obstruction with a palpable and mobile mass in the abdomen. At exploration, a 10 cm long trichobezoar was found in the distal ileum which was removed through enterotomy. Postoperative course remained uneventful. Further probing revealed that child used to eat her own scalp hairs at the age of 2 years and the habit persisted for about 18 months which resulted in alopecia at that time. Later on she started showing normal behavior.

  13. Changing incidence of diverticular disease of the colon in the Koreans: a radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diverticular disease of the colon is the commonest pathological process in the large bowel in the aged caucasians, but this is rare in oriental races.In Korea, diverticular disease of the colon was known to be rare as reported by Kim in 1964. Since then, however, we have had an impression that the diverticular disease of the colon is not so rare as was reported by Kim previously from our department. The present study has been undertaken to substantiate our impression. We received 1,143 consecutive cases of double-contrast barium performed at the Department of radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the past 7 years to analyzed diverticular disease patterns of the colon in the Koreans. 1. The present study revealed 29 patients of diverticular disease of the colon, an incidence of 2.5%. The age distribution was shown in Table 1. 2. The mean number of diverticular were 9 and the mean size as follows: the cecum, 6.4 mm; the proximal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 5.6 mm, The mid 1/3 of ascending colon, 4.9 mm; and the distal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 4.4 mm. 3. The average age of patients with diverticular disease of the colon was 49.5 years. Chief complaints were change of bowel habit (31.6%), abdominal pain (28.9%) and indigestion (18.4%). 4. The associated radiological findings of diverticular disease of the colon were: (1) spasm in 16 cases (46%); (2) a marginal irregularity in 16 cases (25%); and (3) asymmetrical haustra in 16 cases (30%). In 1ymmetrical haustra in 16 cases (30%). In 13 cases no associated signs seen. We have found that incidence of the diverticular disease of the colon in the present series is very significantly higher than that of the previous report from our department (Kim, 1964). We postulate that the possible factors operational in such increase in the incidence of the clonic diverticular disease in the last decade are: (1) changing dietary pattern characterized by high-protein and high refined-sugar consumption, and (2) routine use of the double contrast technique which permitted us to see more diverticular outpouchings of the colon compared to the conventional simple barium enema study.

  14. Intestinal anisakiasis as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Gotaro; Usuki, Shinichiro; Mizokami, Ken; Tanabe, Marianne; Machi, Junji

    2013-09-01

    Anisakiasis, a parasitic infection by larvae of the nematode Anisakis found in raw or undercooked saltwater fish, mostly involves stomach but rarely small intestine. We report a rare case of a 61-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain and developed small bowel obstruction caused by intestinal anisakiasis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed segmental edema of the intestinal wall with proximal dilatation. The patient underwent urgent laparotomy because strangulated small bowel obstruction was suspected. A localized portion of the intestine around jejunoileal junction was found to be erythematous, edematous, and hardened, which was resected. The resected specimen showed a linear whitish worm, Anisakis simplex, penetrating into the intestinal mucosa. It is often clinically challenging to consider intestinal anisakiasis in the differential diagnosis because of its nonspecific abdominal symptoms and findings. Although gastrointestinal anisakiasis is still rare in the United States, the incidence is expected to rise given the growing popularity of Japanese cuisine such as sushi or sashimi. Anisakiasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in patients with nonspecific abdominal symptoms after consumption of raw or undercooked fish. PMID:23786678

  15. Small bowel adenocarcinoma mimicking a large adrenal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivovi? Miomira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel is a rare gastrointestinal neoplasm usually affecting the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum. Because of their rarity and poorly defined abdominal symptoms, a correct diagnosis is often delayed. Case Outline. We present a 43-year-old woman admitted at the Clinic for Endocrinology due to a large tumor (over 7 cm of the left adrenal gland. The tumor was detected by ultrasound and confirmed by CT scan. The patient complained of abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant, fatigue and septic fever. Normal urinary catecholamines excluded pheochromocytoma. The endocrine evaluations revealed laboratory signs of subclinical hypercorticism: midnight cortisol 235 nmol/L, post 1 mg - overnight Dexamethasone suppression test for cortisol 95.5 nmol/L and basal ACTH 4.2 pg/mL. Plasma rennin activity and aldosterone were within the normal range. Surgery was performed. Intraoperative findings showed signs of acute peritonitis and a small ulceration of the jejunum below at 70 cm on the anal side from the Treitz’s ligament. Adrenal glands were not enlarged. Patohistology and immunochemistry identified adenocarcinoma of the jejunum without infiltration of the lymphatic nodules. The extensive jejunal resection and lavage of the peritoneum were performed. Due to complications of massive peritonitis, the patient died seven days after surgery. Conclusion. Poorly defined symptoms and a low incidence make the diagnosis of small bowel carcinoma, particularly of the jejunal region, very difficult in spite of the new endoscopic techniques.

  16. Small bowel volvulus in a primigravida woman: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atossa Mahdavi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Volvulus of the small bowel, although being rare, carries a high risk of strangulation and ischemic necrosis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and may be complicated by pregnancy, labor and the post-cesarean-section state. Delay in diagnosis and surgical intervention increases morbidity and mortality rates.We present a 20- year- old primigravida woman (GA=10 weeks with massive intestinal necrosis. Her initial symptoms were abdominal pain and nausea. Her complaints were attributed to pregnancy and she came with acute surgical abdomen. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Gangrenous, distended loops of small intestine passed through a defect in the mesentery were resected. Primary end to end anastomosis of jejunum and ileum was done and the defect causing volvulus was repaired. It is concluded that surgical acute abdomen must be considered in differential diagnosis of abdominal discomfort in pregnancy. In the case of small bowel volvulus early surgery is mandatory to reduce the risk of gangrene, which is known as doubling the mortality rate.

  17. Small bowel transplantation promotes bacterial overgrowth and translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, B J; Johnson, C P; Edmiston, C E; Hlava, M A; Moore, G H; Roza, A M; Telford, G L; Adams, M B

    1991-12-01

    Alterations in the symbiotic relationship between immunocompromised hosts and their resident gut microflora may lead to serious complications following small bowel transplantation (SBT). This study examined the effects of SBT and cyclosporine (CsA) immunosuppression on gut bacterial populations and translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Sixty adult male meat-fed Lewis rats were divided into six groups: normal controls, CsA alone (24 mg/kg im qod), CsA carrier vehicle alone, isografts, isografts given CsA, and allografts given CsA. Rats were killed after 3 weeks and segments of small bowel and colon were harvested for quantitative tissue culture. Mesenteric lymph nodes and blood were cultured to identify translocation. Transplantation alone led to an increase in gram-negative aerobes from 2.6 to 4.6 colony forming units/100 mg tissue (P less than 0.05) in the distal ileum (transplanted segment). Eighty-four percent of transplanted animals receiving CsA had bacteria recovered from their mesenteric lymph nodes compared to none in controls (P less than 0.001) and 20% in isografts not receiving CsA (P less than 0.02). Intestinal transplantation alone appears to promote gram-negative overgrowth while the addition of CsA therapy facilitates translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes and may predispose to gut-associated sepsis following SBT. PMID:1943089

  18. Technical quality of CT colonography in relation with diverticular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of the study is to explore how the technical quality of the examination was affected by diverticular disease. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated a consecutive series of 78 subjects who underwent CTC for screening (n = 58) or staging (n = 20) colorectal cancer, 38 of them (49%) after an incomplete optical colonoscopy. Patients were administered a mild laxative and a iodinated contrast material for fecal tagging. We scored both the bowel preparation and the overall colon distension as poor, good, or optimal and measured the mean sigmoid colon diameter. We counted the number of diverticula and classified patients as having or not a severe diverticular disease (SDD). The number of the prompts of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) per patient was also considered. Mann–Whitney U and ?2 tests were performed. Results: No CTC complications occurred. The bowel cleansing was poor in 8 (10%) patients, good in 29 (37%) and optimal in 41 (53%); colon distension was poor in 7 (9%) patients, good in 38 (49%), and optimal in 33 (42%). Fifty-four (69%) showed diverticula and 30 (38%) had an SDD. Bowel cleansing and distension were not significantly impaired by neither diverticula (p > 0.590) nor the SDD (p > 0.110). Mean sigmoid colon diameter was reduced in presence of diverticula (28 mm versus 23 mm, p = 0.009) or SDD (26 mm versus 22 mm, p = 0.016). The mean number of CAD prompts per patient was not significantly increased by the presenc significantly increased by the presence of SDD (p = 0.829). Conclusions: Bowel cleansing and distension at CTC were not influenced by the presence of diverticular disease.

  19. Peritoneal Adhesions as a Cause of Mechanical Small Bowel Obstruction Based on Own Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morawski Bart?omiej

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bowel obstruction is a condition which has been known for many years. As time goes by, the problem is still often encountered at surgical emergency rooms. More than 20% of emergency surgical interventions are performed because of symptoms of digestive tract obstruction with the disease mostly situated in the small bowel. Rates of causative factors of the disease have changed over recent years and there have been increasingly more cases of small bowel obstruction caused by peritoneal adhesions, i.e., adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO.

  20. Laparoscopy for Treating a Small Bowel Obstruction Due to a Meckel's Diverticulum

    OpenAIRE

    Tashjian, David B.; Moriarty, Kevin P.

    2003-01-01

    A Meckel's diverticulum is one cause of small bowel obstruction in the virgin abdomen. A 17-year-old female presented with a 24-hour history of lower abdominal pain and emesis. Radiological imaging studies revealed a high-grade partial small bowel obstruction. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed revealing a bowel obstruction secondary to a Meckel's diverticulum. The diverticulum was resected using an endovascular GIA stapler. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 3, tolerating a ...

  1. Small bowel obstruction in children: usefulness of CT for diagnosis and localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Cheol; Kim, Young Tong; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of CT for the diagnosis of the cause and localization of small bowel obstruction. Out of a group of children who underwent a CT examination for a suspected small bowel obstruction, 19 patients with confirmed underlying disorders were identified and included in the study. Neonates and patients with duodenal obstruction were excluded from the study. The CT findings were analyzed for the location of obstruction site, abnormalities of the mesentery and mesenteric vessels, bowel wall thickening, closed loop obstruction, and strangulation. The obstruction site was divided into five parts. The preoperative CT diagnosis was compared with the final diagnosis. Causes of small bowel obstruction were intussusception (n = 6), appendiceal perforation (n = 4), transmesenteric internal hernia (n = 2), postoperative bands (n = 1), idiopathic multiple bands (n = 1), a foreign body (n = 1), a small bowel adenocarcinoma (n = 1), Meckel's diverticulitis (n = 1), tuberculous peritonitis (n = 1) and Salmonella enteritis with bowel perforation (n = 1). The CT findings showed mesenteric vascular prominence (n = 13), omental or mesenteric infiltration (n = 10), localized bowel wall thickening (n = 7) closed loops obstruction (n = 3) and strangulation (n = 1). The obstruction site was identified in all cases. The causes of obstruction could be diagnosed preoperatively in 14 cases, but a preoperative diagnosis was difficult in 5 cases. The causes of small bowel obstruction in children are variable, and CT is useful for evaluating the cause and localization of small bowel obstruction.

  2. Utility of CT in the diagnosis and management of small-bowel obstruction in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiuyan; Chavhan, Govind B. [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Babyn, Paul S. [Royal University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon (Canada); Tomlinson, George [Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Public Health Sciences, Toronto (Canada); Langer, Jacob C. [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Division of General and Thoracic Surgery, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    CT is often used in the diagnosis and management of small-bowel obstruction in children. To determine sensitivity of CT in delineating presence, site and cause of small-bowel obstruction in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 47 children with surgically proven small-bowel obstruction. We noted any findings of obstruction and the site and cause of obstruction. Presence, absence or equivocal findings of bowel obstruction on abdominal radiographs performed prior to CT were also noted. We reviewed patient charts for clinical details and surgical findings, including bowel resection. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher exact test to determine which CT findings might predict bowel resection. CT correctly diagnosed small-bowel obstruction in 43/47 (91.5%) cases. CT correctly indicated site of obstruction in 37/47 (78.7%) cases and cause of obstruction in 32/47 (68.1%) cases. Small-bowel feces sign was significantly associated with bowel resection at surgery (P = 0.0091). No other CT finding was predictive of bowel resection. Out of 41 children who had abdominal radiographs before CT, 29 (70.7%) showed unequivocal obstruction, six (14.6%) showed equivocal findings and six (14.6%) were unremarkable. CT is highly sensitive in diagnosing small-bowel obstruction in children and is helpful in determining the presence of small-bowel obstruction in many clinically suspected cases with equivocal or normal plain radiographs. CT also helps to determine the site and cause of the obstruction with good sensitivity. (orig.)

  3. Removal of a phytobezoar through exploratory laparoscopy: a case of small bowel obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Nguyen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Brian Nguyen1, Andrew Barleben2, Brian S Buchberg2, Michael J Stamos2, Steven Mills21Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of California, Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Small bowel obstruction due to bezoars occurs rarely. Traditionally, laparotomy has been the preferred approach to obstruction secondary to bezoars. We report on an 81-year-old female who presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain and vomiting. Computed tomography (CT scan showed evidence of a small bowel obstruction and laparoscopic exploration of the transition point found on CT revealed a phytobezoar. The small bowel obstruction was managed with laparoscopy and a small access site for specimen removal. In select patients with small bowel obstruction, laparoscopy may be used as a diagnostic and possibly therapeutic technique.Keywords: laparoscopy, phytobezoar, small bowel obstruction, laparotomy

  4. Inter-observer agreement for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease with capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Dam; Nathan, Torben

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Compared to other modalities, capsule endoscopy (CE) has a high diagnostic yield for diagnosing small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to determine the inter-observer agreement for detection of small bowel CD with predefined diagnostic criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty patients with suspected or known CD were included in the study. Observers were blind to patient histories, the results of ileo-colonoscopies, and small bowel examinations. More than three ulcerations (aphthous lesions or ulcers) or the presence of stenosis caused by inflammation or fibrosis was diagnostic of small bowel CD. Three observers with experience in gastrointestinal endoscopy and CE participated in the study. RESULTS: The presence or absence of small bowel CD was determined with complete agreement in 23 patients, nine patients with and 14 without small bowel CD. The inter-observer agreement was substantial for the diagnosis (kappa = 0.68) and moderate for the localization of CD (kappa = 0.44). Aphthous lesions were detected with only fair agreement (kappa = 0.38). The time intervals to passage of the pylorus and ileo-caecal valve were detected with excellent intra-class correlation. CONCLUSIONS: CE is performed with substantial inter-observer agreement for detection of small bowel CD. In the majority of patients, the presence or absence of small bowel CD is unequivocal. However, in patients with few or minor lesions, the diagnosis is observer dependent.

  5. Multiple singing magnet ingestion leading to pressure necrosis of the small bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, M Bilal; Bux, Nabi; Talat, Nabila; Saleem, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Magnet ingestion may cause a number of sinister complications. We report a case of multiple singing magnets ingestion by a 2-year-old girl resulting in intestinal obstruction and pressure necrosis of the small bowel. A bunch of seven magnets present in the small bowel was removed operatively. PMID:25829675

  6. Multiple singing magnet ingestion leading to pressure necrosis of the small bowel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, M. Bilal; Bux, Nabi; Talat, Nabila; Saleem, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Magnet ingestion may cause a number of sinister complications. We report a case of multiple singing magnets ingestion by a 2-year-old girl resulting in intestinal obstruction and pressure necrosis of the small bowel. A bunch of seven magnets present in the small bowel was removed operatively. PMID:25829675

  7. Small bowel diverticulitis with severe anemia and abdominal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Minicis, Samuele; Antonini, Filippo; Belfiori, Valerio; Lo Cascio, Massimiliano; Marraccini, Barbara; Piergallini, Simona; Mosca, Piergiorgio; Macarri, Giampiero

    2015-01-01

    The current case report is related to a male patient with diabetes, obesity [body mass index (BMI) 33], hypertension and recurrence of anemia associated to melena and deep asthenia. M.P., a 60-year-old obese individual, was referred to our department by the primary care unit (PCU) of our hospital for severe anemia (Hemoglobin 6.5 g/dL) associated to episodes of melena and abdominal pain. In the past 5 mo the patient referred to the local hospital 3 times for episodes of melena (hemoglobin levels showed anemia 9.8 g/dL) but the main gastroenterological exams were completely negative (colonoscopy and gastroscopy). The PCU of our Hospital, after stabilization of the main parameters and blood transfusion for the low levels of hemoglobin, referred the patient to gastroenterologists: the patient was subjected to both colonoscopy and gastroscopy that were negative. Due to the condition of acute severe hemorrhage the patient, during the first 3 h from the access to the PCU, was subjected to arteriography that did not reveal any hemorrhagic foci or vascular alterations. The video capsule for the study of the small bowel showed the presence of blood beginning from the third portion of duodenum but deep gastroscopy did not reveal it. The patient was then subjected to double balloon endoscopy that revealed a severe diverticulosis of the small bowel with blood from the diverticula. The entero-tomografia computerizzata confirmed the diagnosis and revealed an extension of the diverticula for almost the entire small bowel (no diverticula in the colon). The patient was subjected to wide spectrum antibiotic therapy with resolution of the symptoms and stabilization of hemoglobin levels. The surgeon suggests no indication to surgery for the wide area involved from the disease and potential high risk of complication due to the high BMI. At home, the patient started a monthly therapy with rifaximin and probiotics associated to mesalazine. At present, after 12 mo from the last episode of hemorrhage, the patient is in good clinical condition, reduced his body weight of about 7 kg and the hemoglobin levels appear in slow progressive increase (last measurement 13.2 g/dL). PMID:25984521

  8. Small bowel diverticulitis with severe anemia and abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Minicis, Samuele; Antonini, Filippo; Belfiori, Valerio; Lo Cascio, Massimiliano; Marraccini, Barbara; Piergallini, Simona; Mosca, Piergiorgio; Macarri, Giampiero

    2015-05-16

    The current case report is related to a male patient with diabetes, obesity [body mass index (BMI) 33], hypertension and recurrence of anemia associated to melena and deep asthenia. M.P., a 60-year-old obese individual, was referred to our department by the primary care unit (PCU) of our hospital for severe anemia (Hemoglobin 6.5 g/dL) associated to episodes of melena and abdominal pain. In the past 5 mo the patient referred to the local hospital 3 times for episodes of melena (hemoglobin levels showed anemia 9.8 g/dL) but the main gastroenterological exams were completely negative (colonoscopy and gastroscopy). The PCU of our Hospital, after stabilization of the main parameters and blood transfusion for the low levels of hemoglobin, referred the patient to gastroenterologists: the patient was subjected to both colonoscopy and gastroscopy that were negative. Due to the condition of acute severe hemorrhage the patient, during the first 3 h from the access to the PCU, was subjected to arteriography that did not reveal any hemorrhagic foci or vascular alterations. The video capsule for the study of the small bowel showed the presence of blood beginning from the third portion of duodenum but deep gastroscopy did not reveal it. The patient was then subjected to double balloon endoscopy that revealed a severe diverticulosis of the small bowel with blood from the diverticula. The entero-tomografia computerizzata confirmed the diagnosis and revealed an extension of the diverticula for almost the entire small bowel (no diverticula in the colon). The patient was subjected to wide spectrum antibiotic therapy with resolution of the symptoms and stabilization of hemoglobin levels. The surgeon suggests no indication to surgery for the wide area involved from the disease and potential high risk of complication due to the high BMI. At home, the patient started a monthly therapy with rifaximin and probiotics associated to mesalazine. At present, after 12 mo from the last episode of hemorrhage, the patient is in good clinical condition, reduced his body weight of about 7 kg and the hemoglobin levels appear in slow progressive increase (last measurement 13.2 g/dL). PMID:25984521

  9. Modern concepts in diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Danielle; Winter, Des C

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a striking shift in our understanding of the epidemiology, pathology, and management of diverticular disease. Indeed, many of the guidelines published in the late nineties and early 2000s are now redundant. High-fiber diets, avoidance of nuts and seeds, antibiotic treatment for mild diverticulitis, elective resection after 2 attacks of diverticulitis, Hartmann's procedure (HP), and aggressive management of young patients are all open to question. The more we challenge our understanding of diverticulitis it becomes apparent how little we know about this disease entity. This review aims update the reader on current hypotheses and evidencebased modern management strategies in diverticular disease. PMID:25811113

  10. [A Case of Small Bowel Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Mimicking Crohn's Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Tae Hyoung; Choi, Won Jong; Han, Seung Hee; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Jong Hun

    2015-04-25

    A 66-year-old male with dyspepsia and weight loss was referred to our hospital for evaluation. On laboratory examination, anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA)-IgA was positive and iron deficiency anemia was present. PET/CT and abdominal CT scan images showed multiple small bowel segmental wall thickening and inflammation. Capsule endoscopy images showed multiple small bowel ulcerative lesions with exudates. Based on laboratory test results and imaging studies, the patient was diagnosed with Crohn's disease and treated with prednisolone and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). However, the patient underwent second operation due to small bowel perforation within 2 month after initiation of treatment. Pathology report of the resected specimen was compatible to primary small bowel diffuse large B cell lymphoma and pertinent treatment was given to the patient after recovery. Herein, we describe a case of primary small bowel diffuse large B cell lymphoma that was mistaken for Crohn's disease. PMID:25896159

  11. Small-bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel disorders: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Clinical Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Marco; Spada, Cristiano; Eliakim, Rami; Keuchel, Martin; May, Andrea; Mulder, Chris J; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Adler, Samuel N; Albert, Joerg; Baltes, Peter; Barbaro, Federico; Cellier, Christophe; Charton, Jean Pierre; Delvaux, Michel; Despott, Edward J; Domagk, Dirk; Klein, Amir; McAlindon, Mark; Rosa, Bruno; Rowse, Georgina; Sanders, David S; Saurin, Jean Christophe; Sidhu, Reena; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Hassan, Cesare; Gralnek, Ian M

    2015-04-01

    This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). The Guideline was also reviewed and endorsed by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG). It addresses the roles of small-bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment of small-bowel disorders. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends small-bowel video capsule endoscopy as the first-line investigation in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 2 In patients with overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, ESGE recommends performing small-bowel capsule endoscopy as soon as possible after the bleeding episode, optimally within 14 days, in order to maximize the diagnostic yield (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). 3 ESGE does not recommend the routine performance of second-look endoscopy prior to small-bowel capsule endoscopy; however whether to perform second-look endoscopy before capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding or iron-deficiency anaemia should be decided on a case-by-case basis (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 4 In patients with positive findings at small-bowel capsule endoscopy, ESGE recommends device-assisted enteroscopy to confirm and possibly treat lesions identified by capsule endoscopy (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). 5 ESGE recommends ileocolonoscopy as the first endoscopic examination for investigating patients with suspected Crohn's disease (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). In patients with suspected Crohn's disease and negative ileocolonoscopy findings, ESGE recommends small-bowel capsule endoscopy as the initial diagnostic modality for investigating the small bowel, in the absence of obstructive symptoms or known stenosis (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence).ESGE does not recommend routine small-bowel imaging or the use of the PillCam patency capsule prior to capsule endoscopy in these patients (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). In the presence of obstructive symptoms or known stenosis, ESGE recommends that dedicated small bowel cross-sectional imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance enterography/enteroclysis or computed tomography enterography/enteroclysis should be used first (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 6 In patients with established Crohn's disease, based on ileocolonoscopy findings, ESGE recommends dedicated cross-sectional imaging for small-bowel evaluation since this has the potential to assess extent and location of any Crohn's disease lesions, to identify strictures, and to assess for extraluminal disease (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). In patients with unremarkable or nondiagnostic findings from such cross-sectional imaging of the small bowel, ESGE recommends small-bowel capsule endoscopy as a subsequent investigation, if deemed to influence patient management (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). When capsule endoscopy is indicated, ESGE recommends use of the PillCam patency capsule to confirm functional patency of the small bowel (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). 7 ESGE strongly recommends against the use of small-bowel capsule endoscopy for suspected coeliac disease but suggests that capsule endoscopy could be used in patients unwilling or unable to undergo conventional endoscopy (strong recommendation, low quality evidence). PMID:25826168

  12. Small Bowel Perforation due to Gossypiboma Caused Acute Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Tahsin; Olmez, Tolga; Turkmenoglu, Ozgur; Dag, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Gossypiboma, an infrequent surgical complication, is a mass lesion due to a retained surgical sponge surrounded by foreign body reaction. In this case report, we describe gossypiboma in the abdominal cavity which was detected 14 months after the hysterectomy due to acute abdominal pain. Gossypiboma was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). The CT findings were a rounded mass with a dense central part and an enhancing wall. In explorative laparotomy, small bowel loops were seen to be perforated due to inflammation of long standing gossypiboma. Jejunal resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The patient was discharged whithout complication. This case was presented to point to retained foreign body (RFB) complications and we believed that the possibility of a retained foreign body should be considered in the differential diagnosis of who had previous surgery and complained of pain, infection, or palpable mass. PMID:24288645

  13. Interobserver and intermodality agreement for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease with MR enterography and CT enterography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael D; Ormstrup, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) visualizes small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) and its complications with high accuracy. The aim of this study was to determine the interobserver and intermodality agreement for detection of small bowel CD.

  14. An unusual cause of small bowel obstruction: Gossypiboma – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inceoglu Resit

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The term "gossypiboma" denotes a mass of cotton that is retained in the body following surgery. Gossypiboma is a medico-legal problem especially for surgeons. To the best of our knowledge, the patient presented herein is the second reported patient in whom the exact site of migration of a retained surgical textile material into the intestinal lumen could be demonstrated by preoperative imaging studies. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman presented with symptoms of small bowel obstruction due to incomplete intraluminal migration of a laparotomy towel 3 years after open cholecystectomy and umbilical hernia repair. Plain abdominal radiography did not show any sign of a radio-opaque marker in the abdomen. However, contrast enhanced abdominal computerized tomography revealed a round, well-defined soft-tissue mass with a dense, enhanced wall, containing an internal high-density area with air-bubbles in the mid-abdomen. A fistula between the abscess cavity containing the suspicious mass and gastrointestinal tract was identified by upper gastrointestinal series. The presence of a foreign body was considered. It was surgically removed with a partial small bowel resection followed by anastomosis. Conclusions Although gossypiboma is rarely seen in daily clinical practice, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction in patients who underwent laparotomy previously. The best approach in the prevention of this condition can be achieved by meticulous count of surgical materials in addition to thorough exploration of surgical site at the conclusion of operations and also by routine use of surgical textile materials impregnated with a radio-opaque marker.

  15. Scintigraphic diagnosis of inflammatory small bowel stenoses in Crohn's disease using 111In-labelled leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    17 patients with known small bowel involvement in Crohn's disease (clinically active, n=14; clinically inactive, n=3) were examined within 8 days via barium enemas of the small bowel (Pansdorf's method or enteroclysma) and by 111In-oxin labelled leucocytes. From 19 radiologically diagnosed small bowel stenoses 14 were classified as inflammatory and 5 as non-inflammatory. The leucocyte scan also showed 14 inflammatory stenoses. The not inflamed stenoses could not be diagnosed scintigraphically. The barium enemas of the small bowel and the leukocyte scans both correctly diagnosed the acute inflamed segments. The inability to show non-inflamed segments (n=5) and to localise small bowel stenoses exactly is disadvantageous in the scan. The advantage of the leucocyte scan is a non invasive examination without specific bowel preparation and the possibility to diagnose additionally inflamed large bowel segments (n=4), fistulas and abscesses (n=2). The leucocyte scan offers a useful expansion of the diagnostic tools in small bowel diseases, especially in radiological problems in patients with Crohn's disease. (orig.)

  16. Goblet Cell Carcinoid Tumor of the Appendix with Small Bowel Obstruction: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Su Yeon; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Min Jeong; Koh, Sung Hye; Jeon, Eui Yong; Min, Kwang Seon; Seo, Jin Won; Park, Hyoung Chul [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Goblet cell carcinoid tumor of the appendix (GCTA) is a tumor with histological features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors. The most common clinical presentation of GCTA is acute appendicitis, although small bowel obstruction has been reported as a rare clinical symptom of GCTA. However, to the best of our knowledge, the CT feature of small bowel obstructions in patients with GCTA has not been reported to date. Here, we present a case of small bowel obstruction in a patient with GCTA caused by extensive tumor infiltration at the terminal ileum and distal ileum.

  17. Goblet Cell Carcinoid Tumor of the Appendix with Small Bowel Obstruction: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goblet cell carcinoid tumor of the appendix (GCTA) is a tumor with histological features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors. The most common clinical presentation of GCTA is acute appendicitis, although small bowel obstruction has been reported as a rare clinical symptom of GCTA. However, to the best of our knowledge, the CT feature of small bowel obstructions in patients with GCTA has not been reported to date. Here, we present a case of small bowel obstruction in a patient with GCTA caused by extensive tumor infiltration at the terminal ileum and distal ileum

  18. Fetal primary small bowel volvulus in a child without intestinal malrotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Hee; Lim, Gye-Yeon; We, Ji Sun

    2013-07-01

    Fetal primary small bowel volvulus without atresia or malrotation is an extremely rare but life-threatening surgical emergency. We report a case of primary small bowel volvulus that presented as sudden fetal distress and was diagnosed on the basis of the 'whirl-pool sign' of fetal sonography. This diagnosis led to emergency operation after birth at the third trimester with a good outcome. Although the pathogenesis of fetal primary small bowel volvulus is unclear, ganglion cell immaturity may play a role in the etiology. PMID:23895987

  19. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel in a patient with occlusive Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Drukker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old male, diagnosed with mild Crohn’s disease (CD 11 years ago but with no prior abdominal surgeries, was diagnosed with a small bowel stricture, due to ongoing abdominal pain and intolerance of enteral diet, and referred for surgical treatment. Exploratory laparoscopy revealed a white solid mass causing a near total jejunal obstruction with significant proximal dilatation. An adjacent small node was sampled for frozen biopsy, revealing a lymph node infiltrated with adenocarcinoma. Laparoscopic assisted small bowel resection and appendectomy were carried out. Final pathological results supported the initial report of diffuse small bowel adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, once a small bowel stricture associated with CD is suspected, rapid action should be considered to avoid late diagnosis of a neoplasia.

  20. Ultrasound in Crohn's disease of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this work is to prospectively evaluate high resolution ultrasonography with graded compression in the ability to detect Crohn's disease of the small bowel (CDSB) together with its complications and activity signs, compared with enteroclysis, CT and immunoscintigraphy in the mirror of the final diagnosis. Methods and material: In a series of 73 consecutive patients, who were referred for enteroclysis with suspected Crohn's disease of the small bowel computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), immunoscintigraphy with 99mTc labeled monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody (AGAb) examinations were performed within 10 days from each other. For the final evaluation the diagnosis of CDSB was based on combination of clinical and enteroclysis findings (73 cases) and in 17 cases additional surgical and pathological data were available. The results of other modalities were blinded to the radiologists performing and reading out the exams. The diagnostic values of each modality was assessed also in those 18 patients, who had early Crohn's disease. In the group of 43 patients with proven CDSB who had all the four imaging modalities, the modalities were compared in their ability to demonstrate various pathological conditions related to CD. Increased (>500 ml/min) flow measured by Doppler US in the superior mesenteric artery and increased color signs in the gut wall seen by power Doppler sonography were compared to CDAI. Results: Of the 73 patients the to CDAI. Results: Of the 73 patients the combination of enteroclysis and clinical tests demonstrated CDSB in 47. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasound were 88.4, 93.3 and 90.4%, respectively. Enteroclysis was the most accurate method. CT was more sensitive than US, but less specific. The accuracy of US, CT and scintigraphy were similar. In the group of 18 patients, who had early CDSB, the sensitivity of US decreased to only 67%, CT and scintigraphy had higher values. Intra- and perimural abscesses, and sinus tracts were also more frequently visualized by US, especially if they were small. US was superior than CT in detecting stenoses and skip lesions, but inferior to enteroclysis. US and CT detected more fistulas, than enteroclysis. Compared to CT, US detected more cases with mesenteric lymphadenopathy, equal cases with abscesses and free peritoneal fluids. In detecting mesenteric inflammatory proliferation CT, and in detecting colonic involvement CT and immunoscintigraphy were slightly superior than graded compression US. Patterns of mural stratification detected by ultrasound correlated well with the enteroclysis severity stages. There was only 59% agreement between increased superior mesenteric artery flow detected by Doppler sonography and CDAI, and 60.5% agreement between increased number of Color pixels in the gut wall measured by power Doppler and increased CDAI. Conclusion: High resolution graded compression sonography is a valuable tool for detecting small intestinal Crohn's disease. It has similar diagnostic values as CT. However in early disease the sensitivity substantially decreases. In known Crohn's disease for following disease course, evaluating relapses and extramural manifestations US is an excellent tool. Doppler and Power Doppler activity measurements do not correlate well with the more widespread clinical activity index

  1. Characteristics of the Small Bowel Lesions Detected by Capsule Endoscopy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Harunobu Kawamura; Eiji Sakai; Hiroki Endo; Leo Taniguchi; Yasuo Hata; Akiko Ezuka; Hajime Nagase; Takaomi Kessoku; Eiji Yamada; Hidenori Ohkubo; Takuma Higrashi; Yusuke Sekino; Tomoko Koide; Hiroshi Iida; Takashi Nonaka

    2013-01-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is one of the common complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially those who are on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). However, little is known about the characteristics of the small-bowel lesions in these patients, or of the factors that could predict the presence of such lesions. Therefore we enrolled a total of 42 CKD patients (including 19 HD patients and 23 non-HD patients), and compared the incidence of the small-bowel lesio...

  2. High sensitivity of quick view capsule endoscopy for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Morten Lee; Nathan, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has a high sensitivity for diagnosing small bowel Crohn's disease, but video analysis is time consuming. The quick view (qv) function is an effective tool to reduce time consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of missed small bowel ulcerations with qv-CE compared to standard view and the diagnostic accuracy of qv-CE in suspected Crohn's disease.

  3. [Small-bowel duplication, apropos of a case in a child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandaogo, A; Sano, D; Tapsoba, T L; Traore, S S; Ouiminga, R M; Sanou, A

    1998-01-01

    A pediatric case of small bowel duplication is reported. Non-specific abdominal pain was the main complain. A fixed hypogastric mass was found. Abdominal palpation under general anesthesia disclosed a movable intraperitoneal mass which proved at laparotomy to be a cystic duplication of the small bowel. The cyst was excised according to Norris procedure. Recovery was uneventful. Complications and therapeutic aspects of this rare condition are discussed. PMID:9827172

  4. Enteroclysis and small bowel series: Comparison of radiation dose and examination time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respective radiation doses and total examination and fluoroscopy times were compared for 50 patients; 25 underwent enteroclysis and 25 underwent small bowel series with (n = 17) and without (n = 8) an examination of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. For enteroclysis, the mean skin entry radiation dose (12.3 rad [123 mGy]) and mean fluoroscopy time (18.4 minutes) were almost 1 1/2 times greater than those for the small bowel series with examination of the upper GI tract (8.4 rad [84 mGy]; 11.4 minutes) and almost three times greater than those for the small bowel series without upper GI examination (4.6 rad [46 mGy]; 6.3 minutes). However, the mean total examination completion time for enteroclysis (31.2 minutes) was almost half that of the small bowel series without upper GI examination (57.5 minutes) and almost four times shorter than that of the small bowel series with upper GI examination (114 minutes). The higher radiation dose of enteroclysis should be considered along with the short examination time, the age and clinical condition of the patient, and the reported higher accuracy when deciding on the appropriate radiographic examination of the small bowel

  5. Developing a new measure of small bowel peristalsis with dynamic MR: a proof of concept study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Small bowel peristalsis is a complex of many individual motion elements. Although each element of peristalsis can be measured there is no current global measure of peristalsis. Purpose. To examine the feasibility of automated computerized assessment of global small bowel motility using simple computational methods. Material and Methods. Coronal dynamic MR images were obtained from five healthy volunteers who had fasted for 9 h and drunk 1.5 L of water. Images were taken using single breath-hold and ECG triggering. Acquisitions were repeated at 10 and 20 min after an intramuscular injection of hyoscine butylbromide. Parametric maps were generated representing the mean change in signal amplitude (MSA) per voxel for each dynamic acquisition. Two observers independently assessed thresholding for optimal segmentation of small bowel from other sources of signal. Total voxel activity (TVA) for each study was calculated as a sum of MSA per slice and whole examination and TVA profiles were generated. Results. Independent observations suggest that the automated segmentation method described usefully segments small bowel activity from other signal. Small bowel movement represented as TVA varied three-fold in the five volunteers and was inhibited by anti-muscarinic injection. Conclusion. It is possible to develop a new measure, based on automated segmentation of mean signal amplitude changes, of small bowel peristalsis using dynamic MRynamic MR

  6. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Small Bowel Metastasis from Leiomyosarcoma in the Tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Chun Chiang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel metastasis from primary bone leiomyosarcoma is very rare. Here we reporton a 50-year-old man who presented with general weakness, weight loss (six kg in twomonths and intermittent tarry stools for two months. He had undergone an above-kneeamputation for left tibia leiomyosarcoma seven years previously. No local recurrence and/ordistant metastasis developed during a seven-year period of follow-up. Subsequent imagingstudy revealed a multilobulated mass in the ileum. He received segmental resection of thesmall bowel and a multilobulated mass was noted in the submucosal layer of the ileum withmucosa ulceration. His postoperative course was uneventful. Histopathological examinationof the resected mass revealed small bowel metastatic leiomyosarcoma. No local recurrenceor distant metastases were detected during a six-month follow-up period. To the best of ourknowledge, this is the first report of small bowel metastasis from primary bone leiomyosarcomapresenting with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  7. Capsule endoscopy for the small bowel in juvenile polyposis syndrome: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postgate, A J; Will, O C; Fraser, C H; Fitzpatrick, A; Phillips, R K S; Clark, S K

    2009-11-01

    Juvenile polyposis syndrome is one of the hamartomatous polyposis syndromes and demonstrates phenotypic heterogeneity. All patients with juvenile polyposis develop colorectal polyps and are at risk of colorectal cancer. Small-bowel involvement is variably described. Small-intestinal cancer is reported but is rare and there is no evidence-based protocol for small-intestinal surveillance. This case series reports the small-bowel capsule endoscopy findings and genetic mutational analyses of ten adults (7-male; median age 39.2 years, interquartile range 37.4 - 42.0 years) with documented juvenile polyposis syndrome. Two patients had small-bowel polyps beyond the range of standard gastroscopy identified at capsule endoscopy: a 6-mm ileal polyp in one, and 10-mm and 6-mm ileal polyps in the second (histology unknown). Duodenal polyps were detected in a third patient at capsule endoscopy. Three further patients had previously documented duodenal polyps at surveillance gastroscopy. A SMAD4 mutation was identified in seven patients but there was no obvious association with gastric/small-bowel polyp burden. In conclusion, capsule endoscopy provided information additional to conventional endoscopy in patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome and was well tolerated. However, no lesions requiring clinical intervention were identified and polyp numbers were small. Capsule endoscopy may appropriately be used as a baseline investigation for the identification of patients with large or dense small-bowel polyps for whom ongoing small-bowel investigation would be recommended. Patients in whom polyps are confined to the colon are unlikely to require ongoing small-bowel review. PMID:19816839

  8. The value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease. Methods: Sixteen patients with suspected small bowel disease, but without acute inflammatory disease or bowel obstruction, received MR enteroclysis with air infusion. There were 12 males and 4 females, and their age ranged from 17 to 75 years. 10 patients had abdominal pain, 4 with melena or blood stool, and 2 with diarrhea. The longest course was 7 years, and the shortest 1 week. Before MR imaging, a nasoenteric catheter was inserted into the distal part of duodenum, and about 1000 ml of air was infused through the tube to distend the small bowel. 20 mg of IV anisodamine was given to reduce small-bowel peristalsis. All patients were imaged with fat-saturated Gd-DTPA enhanced coronal and axial T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequence and fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) sequence. Comparison between the diagnosis of MRI and the results of surgery, pathology or clinic was performed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of MRI. Results: 5 cases were normal, 6 with Crohn disease, 2 with gastric intestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and 1 each of lymphoma, tuberculosis and irritable bowel syndrome. The lumen of normal small bowel in MR enteroclysis was no signal, the wall was outlined as middle signal by intraluminal air and surrounding air-distended bowel and was between 1-3 mm thick, and the diameter of the lumen was between 17-28 mm. Crohn disease shoen was between 17-28 mm. Crohn disease showed segmental mural thickening, increased enhancement, luminal stricture, and even extraluminal inflammatory mass or fistula. Intestinal tuberculosis invaded the distal section of ileum, cecum, and the proximal ascending colon, the wall thickened and enhanced apparently, and cecum and proximal ascending colon shortened. GIST showed a mass that was iso-signal on T1WI, high signal on T2WI, and enhanced significantly after IV Gd-DTPA. 1 recurrent lymphoma of ileum showed mural thickening and increased enhancement but no stenosis. 1 irritable bowel syndrome is disfunction, so its shape and signal is normal. Except 1 Crohn disease, which showed a large mass, was misdiagnosed as lymphoma and no abnormality was found in 1 irritable bowel syndrome, the other diagnosis of MRI was correct. The sensitivity in diagnosing small intestinal disease was 100%, and the specificity was 83%. Conclusion: MR enteroclysis with air infusion is a sensitive method in diagnosing the small bowel disease, especially in Crohn disease and tumor. It can clearly display the mural thickening and the extraluminal inflammatory mass

  9. Electrosurgery ignition of a pneumoperitoneum secondary to prior spontaneous perforation of the small bowel: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G P; Willson, P D

    2012-03-01

    We describe explosive combustion of a gas filled peritoneum from a handheld electrosurgery electrode used to enter the abdomen. The pneumoperitoneum was due to small bowel perforation and peritonitis had been established for at least two days. No injury was caused to either the patient or medical staff. This rare occurrence has only been described once before. Surgeons should be aware of the possible combustion of bowel gas, whether on opening bowel or the peritoneum after bowel perforation. PMID:22391355

  10. Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Small Bowel: Comparison of Different Oral Contrast Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate several substances regarding small bowel distension and contrast on balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cine magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: Luminal contrast was evaluated in 24 volunteers after oral application of two different contrast agent groups leading to either bright lumen (pineapple, blueberry juice) or dark lumen (tap water, orange juice) on T1-weighted images. Bowel distension was evaluated in 30 patients ingesting either methylcellulose or mannitol solution for limiting intestinal absorption. Fifteen patients with duodeno-jejunal intubation served as the control. Quantitative evaluation included measurement of luminal signal intensities and diameters of four bowel segments, qualitative evaluation assessed luminal contrast and distension on a five-point scale. Results: Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the four contrast agents revealed no significant differences regarding luminal contrast on bSSFP images. Quantitative evaluation revealed significantly lower (P<0.05) small bowel distension for three out of four segments (qualitative evaluation: two out of four segments) for methylcellulose in comparison to the control. Mannitol was found to be equal to the control. Conclusion: Oral ingestion of tap water or orange juice in combination with mannitol is recommended for cine MR imaging of the small bowel regarding luminal contrast and small bowel distension on bSSFP sequencesn bSSFP sequences

  11. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Stomach and Small Bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published data suggest that the risk of moderately severe (?Grade 3) radiation-induced acute small-bowel toxicity can be predicted with a threshold model whereby for a given dose level, D, if the volume receiving that dose or greater (VD) exceeds a threshold quantity, the risk of toxicity escalates. Estimates of VD depend on the means of structure segmenting (e.g., V15 = 120 cc if individual bowel loops are outlined or V45 = 195 cc if entire peritoneal potential space of bowel is outlined). A similar predictive model of acute toxicity is not available for stomach. Late small-bowel/stomach toxicity is likely related to maximum dose and/or volume threshold parameters qualitatively similar to those related to acute toxicity risk. Concurrent chemotherapy has been associated with a higher risk of acute toxicity, and a history of abdominal surgery has been associated with a higher risk of late toxicity.

  12. Small bowel obstruction secondary to greater omental encircling band–Unusual case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinwar, Prabhu Dayal

    2015-01-01

    Background The most common cause of small-bowel obstructions in adults is postoperative adhesions. Intestinal obstruction due to omental band is very rare and only few cases are previously reported in literature. Case presentation We report a 42 year old male patient present with complaints of abdominal distention and obstipation. X-ray and ultrasound shows dilated bowel loops. On exploratory, laparotomy omental band presents encircling completely around mid ileum. Distal small bowel had multiple adhesions. Omental band resected and ileostomy formed. Multiple mesenteric lymph nodes present biopsy shows tubercular granuloma. Patient recovers uneventfully. Conclusion Intensive diagnostic investigations and early surgical intervention should be considered in any adult patients with signs and symptoms of acute SBO to avoid possible complications of bowel strangulation and gangrene. PMID:25884609

  13. Reduction of irradiated small bowel volume with Trendelenburg position in gynecologic pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Trendelenburg position in comparison to prone position on small bowel volume and treatment dose in gynecologic pelvic external beam radiotherapy using three-dimensional conformal treatment plans. Eight patients with gynecologic cancers, treated with definitive or postoperative pelvic radiotherapy were investigated. Pelvic computerized tomography (CT) scans for treatment planning were performed in prone and 25 degree Trendelenburg positions for each patient. The dose-volume histograms of small bowel within the treatment fields were obtained and compared for both positions. The clinical target volume (CTV) and the planning target volume (PTV) were also defined and evaluated in the subjects. Treatment dose was 5040 cGy to PTV with 180 cGy daily fraction doses in both techniques for all patients. The average irradiated small bowel volume was 726 cc for prone position and 458 cc for the Trendelenburg position. The average irradiated small bowel volume reduction in the Trendelenburg position was 38.0% (95% CI 19.5 ± 38%) compared with the prone position. The average small bowel percent dose was 25.4% (1280 cGy) for Trendelenburg position and 39.9% (2010 cGy) for prone position. PTV doses were similar in both techniques. The results of this dosimetric study suggest that gynecologic pelvic radiotherapy in the Trendelenburg position decreases the volume of irradiated small bowel compared to prone position and may decrease treatment related small bowel morbidity. Clinical benefit of this position should be evaluated in further clinical studies.

  14. Spectrum of imaging findings on MDCT enterography in patients with small bowel tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is the sixth most common extrapulmonary site of involvement. The sites of involvement in abdominal tuberculosis, in descending order of frequency, are lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity, and gastrointestinal tract. The radiological armamentarium for evaluating tuberculosis of the small bowel (SBTB) includes barium studies (small bowel follow-through, SBFT), CT (multidetector CT, CT enterography, and CT enteroclysis), ultrasound (sonoenteroclysis), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; enterography and enteroclysis). In this review, we illustrate the abnormalities at MDCT enterography in 20 consecutive patients with SB TB and also describe extraluminal findings in these patients. MDCT enterography allows non-invasive good-quality assessment of well-distended bowel loops and the adjacent soft tissues. It displays the thickness and enhancement of the entire bowel wall in all three planes and allows examination of all bowel loops, especially the ileal loops, which are mostly superimposed. The terminal ileum and ileocaecal junction are the most common sites of small bowel involvement in intestinal TB. The most common abnormality is short-segment strictures with symmetrical concentric mural thickening and homogeneous mural enhancement. Other findings include lymphadenopathy, ascites, enteroliths, peritoneal thickening, and enhancement. In conclusion, MDCT enterography is a comprehensive technique for the evaluation of SB TB

  15. Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, Z; Mahajna, E; Broide, E; Shapiro, M; Fich, L; Sternberg, A; Kopelman, Y; Scapa, E

    2003-01-01

    Background: The small bowel is the most commonly affected site of Crohn’s disease (CD) although it may involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The current methodologies for examining the small bowel are x ray and endoscopy. Aims: To evaluate, for the first time, the effectiveness of wireless capsule endoscopy in patients with suspected CD of the small bowel undetected by conventional modalities, and to determine the diagnostic yield of the M2A Given Capsule. Patients: Seventeen patients (eight males, mean age 40 (15) years) with suspected CD fulfilled study entry criteria: nine had iron deficiency anaemia (mean haemoglobin 10.5 (SD 1.8) g%), eight had abdominal pain, seven had diarrhoea, and three had weight loss. Small bowel x ray and upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopic findings were normal. Mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 6.3 (SD 2.2) years. Methods: Each subject swallowed an M2A Given Capsule containing a miniature video camera, batteries, a transmitter, and an antenna. Recording time was approximately eight hours. The capsule was excreted naturally in the patient’s bowel movement, and the data it contained were retrieved and interpreted the next day. Results: Of the 17 study participants, 12 (70.6%, six males, mean age 34.5 (12) years) were diagnosed as having CD of the small bowel according to the findings of the M2A Given Capsule. Conclusions: Wireless capsule endoscopy diagnosed CD of the small bowel (diagnostic yield of 71%). It was demonstrated as being an effective modality for diagnosing patients with suspected CD undetected by conventional diagnostic methodologies. PMID:12584221

  16. Clinical variables related to small bowel obstruction: comparison of patients with and without Crohn’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Szilagyi; Philip Gordon; Christina Holcroft; Awad Al Qahtani

    2012-01-01

    Small bowel obstruction is a known complication of Crohn’s disease. Determining need for operation is a demanding task. The aim of this study was to fine tune the decision-making process by evaluating standard clinical and laboratory parameters in small bowel obstruction of any cause and compare etiologies. Consecutive patients with Crohn’s disease and small bowel obstruction were selected retrospectively and compared to a randomly selected group of non Crohn’s patients with obstruction...

  17. Improvement of abnormal lactulose/rhamnose permeability in active Crohn's disease of the small bowel by an elemental diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, I. R.; Boulton, P.; Menzies, I.; Walker-smith, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Intestinal permeability to sugar has been used as an objective measure of small bowel integrity to assess the efficacy of an elemental diet as the sole treatment or Crohn's disease of the small bowel. Fourteen children aged 11-17 years with active small bowel Crohn's disease were given an elemental diet for six weeks. Investigations with iso-osmolar oral test solutions before and after this treatment showed that all 14 children had abnormally raised lactulose/L-rhamnose permeability ratios, w...

  18. Complicated diverticular disease: the changing paradigm for treatment / Doença diverticular complicada: alterando o padrão de tratamento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abe, Fingerhut; Nicolas, Veyrie.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O termo diverticulite "complicada" é reservado para a doença diverticular complicada por sangramento, abscesso, peritonite, fístula ou obstrução intestinal. A hemorragia é melhor tratada por angioembolização (radiologia intervencionista). O tratamento de diverticulite infectada evoluiu enormemente g [...] raças a: 1) ressecção laparoscópica do cólon seguida ou não (procedimento de Hartmann) pelo restabelecimento de continuidade intestinal, 2) lavado laparoscópico simples (peritonite + / - ressecção). A diverticulite (inflamação) pode ser tratada somente com antibióticos, anti-inflamatórios, combinados com repouso e medidas de higiene. O abscesso diverticular (Hinchey graus I, II) pode ser inicialmente tratado somente com antibióticos e / ou drenagem percutânea, dependendo do tamanho do abcesso. A peritonite purulenta generalizada (Hinchey III) pode ser tratada pelo clássico procedimento Hartmann, pela exteriorização da perfuração, como se fosse um estoma, pela ressecção primária com ou sem anastomose, com ou sem desvio do trânsito e, por último, a simples lavagem laparoscópica, geralmente, sem drenagem. A peritonite por fezes (Hinchey IV), uma indicação para o tradicional procedimento de Hartmann, também pode se beneficiar da ressecção primária seguida de anastomose, com ou sem desvio e lavagem laparoscópica. A obstrução aguda (inflamação local, ou aderências, formação pseudotumoral, estenoses crônicas) e fístula são, na maioria das vezes, tratadas por ressecção, preferencialmente, laparoscópica. Algoritmos terapêuticos pouco invasivos combinadas com indicações menos rigorosas para a o emprego da cirurgia radical antes de um padrão definido de recorrência, estão estabelecidos, ocasionando um número menor de ressecções e / ou estomas, reduzindo a morbidade e a mortalidade, melhorando a qualidade de vida após a intervenção, e geram uma tratamento menos dispendioso. Abstract in english The term "complicated" diverticulitis is reserved for inflamed diverticular disease complicated by bleeding, abscess, peritonitis, fistula or bowel obstruction. Hemorrhage is best treated by angioembolization (interventional radiology). Treatment of infected diverticulitis has evolved enormously tha [...] nks to: 1) laparoscopic colonic resection followed or not (Hartmann's procedure) by restoration of intestinal continuity, 2) simple laparoscopic lavage (for peritonitis +/- resection). Diverticulitis (inflammation) may be treated with antibiotics alone, anti-inflammatory drugs, combined with bed rest and hygienic measures. Diverticular abscesses (Hinchey Grades I, II) may be initially treated by antibiotics alone and/or percutaneous drainage, depending on the size of the abscess. Generalized purulent peritonitis (Hinchey III) may be treated by the classic Hartmann procedure, or exteriorization of the perforation as a stoma, primary resection with or without anastomosis, with or without diversion, and last, simple laparoscopic lavage, usually even without drainage. Feculent peritonitis (Hinchey IV), a traditional indication for Hartmann's procedure, may also benefit from primary resection followed by anastomosis, with or without diversion, and even laparoscopic lavage. Acute obstruction (nearby inflammation, or adhesions, pseudotumoral formation, chronic strictures) and fistula are most often treated by resection, ideally laparoscopic. Minimal invasive therapeutic algorithms that, combined with less strict indications for radical surgery before a definite recurrence pattern is established, has definitely lead to fewer resections and/or stomas, reducing their attendant morbidity and mortality, improved post-interventional quality of life, and less costly therapeutic policies.

  19. Complicated diverticular disease: the changing paradigm for treatment Doença diverticular complicada: alterando o padrão de tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Fingerhut

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The term "complicated" diverticulitis is reserved for inflamed diverticular disease complicated by bleeding, abscess, peritonitis, fistula or bowel obstruction. Hemorrhage is best treated by angioembolization (interventional radiology. Treatment of infected diverticulitis has evolved enormously thanks to: 1 laparoscopic colonic resection followed or not (Hartmann's procedure by restoration of intestinal continuity, 2 simple laparoscopic lavage (for peritonitis +/- resection. Diverticulitis (inflammation may be treated with antibiotics alone, anti-inflammatory drugs, combined with bed rest and hygienic measures. Diverticular abscesses (Hinchey Grades I, II may be initially treated by antibiotics alone and/or percutaneous drainage, depending on the size of the abscess. Generalized purulent peritonitis (Hinchey III may be treated by the classic Hartmann procedure, or exteriorization of the perforation as a stoma, primary resection with or without anastomosis, with or without diversion, and last, simple laparoscopic lavage, usually even without drainage. Feculent peritonitis (Hinchey IV, a traditional indication for Hartmann's procedure, may also benefit from primary resection followed by anastomosis, with or without diversion, and even laparoscopic lavage. Acute obstruction (nearby inflammation, or adhesions, pseudotumoral formation, chronic strictures and fistula are most often treated by resection, ideally laparoscopic. Minimal invasive therapeutic algorithms that, combined with less strict indications for radical surgery before a definite recurrence pattern is established, has definitely lead to fewer resections and/or stomas, reducing their attendant morbidity and mortality, improved post-interventional quality of life, and less costly therapeutic policies.O termo diverticulite "complicada" é reservado para a doença diverticular complicada por sangramento, abscesso, peritonite, fístula ou obstrução intestinal. A hemorragia é melhor tratada por angioembolização (radiologia intervencionista. O tratamento de diverticulite infectada evoluiu enormemente graças a: 1 ressecção laparoscópica do cólon seguida ou não (procedimento de Hartmann pelo restabelecimento de continuidade intestinal, 2 lavado laparoscópico simples (peritonite + / - ressecção. A diverticulite (inflamação pode ser tratada somente com antibióticos, anti-inflamatórios, combinados com repouso e medidas de higiene. O abscesso diverticular (Hinchey graus I, II pode ser inicialmente tratado somente com antibióticos e / ou drenagem percutânea, dependendo do tamanho do abcesso. A peritonite purulenta generalizada (Hinchey III pode ser tratada pelo clássico procedimento Hartmann, pela exteriorização da perfuração, como se fosse um estoma, pela ressecção primária com ou sem anastomose, com ou sem desvio do trânsito e, por último, a simples lavagem laparoscópica, geralmente, sem drenagem. A peritonite por fezes (Hinchey IV, uma indicação para o tradicional procedimento de Hartmann, também pode se beneficiar da ressecção primária seguida de anastomose, com ou sem desvio e lavagem laparoscópica. A obstrução aguda (inflamação local, ou aderências, formação pseudotumoral, estenoses crônicas e fístula são, na maioria das vezes, tratadas por ressecção, preferencialmente, laparoscópica. Algoritmos terapêuticos pouco invasivos combinadas com indicações menos rigorosas para a o emprego da cirurgia radical antes de um padrão definido de recorrência, estão estabelecidos, ocasionando um número menor de ressecções e / ou estomas, reduzindo a morbidade e a mortalidade, melhorando a qualidade de vida após a intervenção, e geram uma tratamento menos dispendioso.

  20. Lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapop Suthiwartnarueput

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangioma is a rare benign condition characterized by proliferation of lymphatic spaces. It is usually found in the head and neck of affected children. Lymphangioma of the small-bowel mesentery is rare, having been reported for less than 1% of all lymphangiomas. Importantly, it can cause fatal complications such as volvulus or involvement of the main branch of the mesenteric arteries, requiring emergency surgery. Moreover, the gross and histopathologic findings may resemble benign multicystic mesothelioma and lymphangiomyoma. Immunohistochemical study for factor VIII-related antigen, D2-40, calretinin and human melanoma black-45 (HMB-45 are essential for diagnosis. Factor VIII-related antigen and D2-40 are positive in lymphangioma but negative in benign multicystic mesothelioma. HMB-45 shows positive study in the smooth-muscle cells around the lymphatic spaces of the lymphangiomyoma. We report a case of small-bowel volvulus induced by mesenteric lymphangioma in a 2-year-and-9-mo-old boy who presented with rapid abdominal distension and vomiting. The abdominal computed tomography scan showed a multiseptated mass at the right lower quadrant with a whirl-like small-bowel dilatation, suggestive of a mesenteric cyst with midgut volvulus. The intraoperative findings revealed a huge, lobulated, yellowish pink, cystic mass measuring 20 cm × 20 cm × 10 cm, that was originated from the small bowel mesentery with small-bowel volvulus and small-bowel dilatation. Cut surface of the mass revealed multicystic spaces containing a milky white fluid. The patient underwent tumor removal with small-bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Microscopic examination revealed that the cystic walls were lined with flat endothelial cells and comprised of smooth muscle in the walls. The flat endothelial cells were positive for factor VIII-related antigen and D2-40 but negative for calretinin. HMB-45 showed negative study in the smooth-muscle cells around the lymphatic spaces. Thus, the diagnosis was lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery with associated small bowel volvulus.

  1. X-ray findings of small bowel taeniasis: A clinical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike ascariasis of the small bowel, taeniasis can be detected radiologically with much difficulty because of the basic difference between the morphological features of each helminth. However once the characteristics of tape worms are appreciated and kept in mind, radiological diagnosis is fairly accurately made. In the present study we have reported typical radiological features of the small bowel taeniasis as observed in 6 adults patients seen at the Department of Radiology of St. Mary's Hospital and Holy Family Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Tapering tape-like or ribbon -like radiolucent shadows in distal small bowel appear unique. Compression spot film study of the ileum is most important in revealing such findings. An animal experiment using the swine small intestine and parasitological specimen of evacuated worm of taenia saginata was designed to help understand radiological manifestation in vivo

  2. Characteristics of the Small Bowel Lesions Detected by Capsule Endoscopy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Harunobu; Sakai, Eiji; Endo, Hiroki; Taniguchi, Leo; Hata, Yasuo; Ezuka, Akiko; Nagase, Hajime; Kessoku, Takaomi; Yamada, Eiji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Higrashi, Takuma; Sekino, Yusuke; Koide, Tomoko; Iida, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Takashi; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Inamori, Masahiko; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is one of the common complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially those who are on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). However, little is known about the characteristics of the small-bowel lesions in these patients, or of the factors that could predict the presence of such lesions. Therefore we enrolled a total of 42 CKD patients (including 19 HD patients and 23 non-HD patients), and compared the incidence of the small-bowel lesions among two groups. Furthermore, to identify predictive factors for the presence of small-bowel lesions, we performed multivariate logistic-regression-analyses. The incidence of small-bowel vascular lesions was significantly higher in CKD patients than in age-and-sex matched non-CKD patients (P < 0.001). On the other hand, there was any significant difference of the incidence of small-bowel lesions between HD and non-HD patients. In CKD patients, past history of blood transfusion (OR 5.66; 95% CI 1.10–29.1, P = 0.04) was identified as an independent predictor of the presence of vascular lesions, and history of low-dose aspirin use (OR 6.00; 95% CI 1.13–31.9, P = 0.04) was identified as that of erosive/ulcerated lesions. This indicated that proactive CE examination would be clinically meaningful for these patients. PMID:24065987

  3. A survived case of tardive small bowel injury resulting from radiotherapy for ovarial tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a patient who underwent surgical excision of recurrent tumor of ovarian disgerminoma, small bowel injury following radiotherapy was treated by extensive excision of the small intestine followed by intravenous hyperalimentation (I.V.H.) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. From its clinical course and treatment, we concluded that 1) In small bowel complication due to radiation injury, especially perforation of the small bowel, radical excision of the diseased segment is most promising, if the general and local conditions permit. 2) I.V.H. is effective for protecting and improving postoperative malnutrition after extensive excision of the small bowel. 3) Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is very effective for postoperative paralytic ileus in the case in which surgical operation cannot be performed. 4) Zinc deficiency as a complication of prolonged I.V.H. therapy must be protected. 5) It is necessary to study pathophysiology of short bowel syndrome following the extensive excision and to continue treatment and careful long-term follow-up. (Ueda, J.)

  4. CT findings in acute small bowel diverticulitis; Computertomographie bei akuter Duenndarmdivertikulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferstl, F.J.; Obert, R. [Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinisches Zentrum (RNZ) am St. Theresienkrankenhaus Nuernberg (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    Small bowel diverticulitis is a rare cause of an acute abdomen. Originating from acquired diverticula of the jejunum, less often of the ileum, or Meckel diverticulum, the symptoms are non-specific, simulating other acute inflammatory disorders, such as appendicitis, cholecystitis or colonic diverticulitis. The diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis is solely based on radiologic findings, with computed tomography (CT) regarded as the method of choice. In recent years, a number of case reports have described the spectrum of the CT features in acute small bowel diverticulitis and its dependence on the severity of the inflammatory process. Typical findings are an inflamed diverticulum, inflammatory mesenteric infiltration, extraluminal gas collection and mural edema of adjacent small bowel loops with resultant separation of bowel loops. An enterolith is rarely found in an inflamed diverticulum. Complications include abscesses, fistulae, small bowel obstruction and free perforation with peritonitis. Small bowel diverticulitis can be a diagnostic problem if it involves the terminal ileum or Meckel's diverticulum. For preoperative confirmation of the presumed diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis on CT, an enteroclysis for acquired diverticula or a technetium scan for Meckel's diverticulum should be performed. We present the CT findings in three patients of acute small bowel diverticulitis, two affecting the jejunum and one a Meckel's diverticulum. (orig.) [German] Die akute Duenndarmdivertikulitis ist eine seltene Ursache eines akuten Abdomens. Ausgehend von den erworbenen Divertikeln des Jejunums, seltener des Ileums, oder von einem Meckel-Divertikel, manifestiert sich die Divertikulitis klinisch durch eine unspezifische Symptomatik, die zuerst an die haeufigeren, akutentzuendlichen Erkrankungen des Abdomens wie z. B. Appendizitis, Cholezystitis oder Kolondivertikulitis denken laesst. Die Duenndarmdivertikulitis kann praeoperativ nur durch radiologische Verfahren gesichert werden, wobei die CT die Methode der Wahl darstellt. Das vorwiegend in Form von Kasuistiken beschriebene Spektrum der CT-Morphologie der akuten Duenndarmdivertikulitis variiert je nach Ausmass des Entzuendungsprozesses. Als typische CT-Befunde finden sich ein entzuendetes Divertikel, peridivertikulaere Fettgewebsinfiltrationen, extraluminale Luftansammlungen als Zeichen einer gedeckten Perforation und ein Wandoedem des betroffenen Duenndarmsegmentes mit vermehrter Distanzierung der Darmschlingen. In sehr seltenen Faellen kann auch ein Enterolith in einem entzuendeten Divertikel nachweisbar sein. An Komplikationen koennen Abszesse, Fisteln, ein Ileus und eine freie Perforation mit Peritonitis auftreten. Diagnostische Probleme bereitet die Duenndarmdivertikulitis von allem bei Lokalisation im terminalen Ileum und im Meckel-Divertikel. Zur Sicherung der computertomographischen Verdachtsdiagnose einer akuten Duenndarmdivertikulitis koennen ein Enteroklysma bzw. beim Meckel-Divertikel eine 99m-Technetium-Pertechnetat-Szintigraphie eingesetzt werden. Wir beschreiben die CT-Befunde zweier Patientinnen mit akuter Jejunumdivertikulitis und eines Patienten mit Meckel-Divertikulitis und vergleichen die Ergebnisse mit den Angaben aus der Literatur. (orig.)

  5. Complete small bowel obstruction secondary to transomental herniation in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Katawala, Tasneem; Hamlyn, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    During pregnancy, abdominal pain can be caused by both obstetric and non-obstetric causes. Non-obstetric causes of severe abdominal pain during pregnancy must always be considered. Complete bowel obstruction caused by an internal hernia is rare in obstetric surgical patients. Delays in diagnosis can occur due to non-specific signs and symptoms which can be present in normal pregnancy, and a reluctance to operate on the pregnant patient. Prompt diagnosis and early surgical intervention is the ...

  6. The use of a biodegradable mesh to prevent radiation-associated small-bowel injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasmahapatra, K.S.; Swaminathan, A.P. (Comprehensive Surgical Associates, Perth Amboy, NJ (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Radiation-associated small bowel injury occurs in up to 50% of patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy following pelvic cancer surgery. We describe our experience using a biodegradable mesh that allows the small bowel to be supported above the pelvic inlet and is totally absorbed following radiation therapy. Between 1985 and 1989, 45 procedures were performed in patients with carcinoma of the rectum (anterior resection in 15 patients, abdominoperineal resection in 23 patients, pelvic exenteration in six patients, and proctocolectomy in one patient). In 30 patients a polyglycolic acid (Dexon) mesh was used, and in 15 patients a polyglactin 910 (Vicryl) mesh was used. Forty-four patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The mean (+/- SEM) dose was 56.8 +/- 18.4 Gy. There were no immediate complications related to the mesh. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 53 months (median follow-up, 34 months). With the exception of two patients who had a polyglactin 910 mesh and who developed bowel obstruction due to adhesions under the anterior abdominal wall, there has been no documented incidence of clinical radiation-associated small bowel injury. The use of the absorbable mesh may permit us to use higher doses of postoperative radiotherapy without the associated hazard of radiation-associated small bowel injury.

  7. Ileus and Small Bowel Obstruction in an Emergency Department Observation Unit: Are there Outcome Predictors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Emerman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of our study was to describe the evaluation and outcome of patients with ileus and bowel obstruction admitted to an emergency department (ED observation unit (OU and to identify predictors of successful management for such patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 129 patients admitted to a university-affiliated, urban, tertiary hospital ED OU from January 1999 through November 2004. Inclusion criteria were all adult patients admitted to the OU with an ED diagnosis of ileus, partial small bowel obstruction, or small bowel obstruction, and electronic medical records available for review. The following variables were examined: ED diagnosis, history of similar admission, number of prior abdominal surgeries, surgery in the month before, administration of opioid analgesia at any time after presentation, radiographs demonstrating air–fluid levels or dilated loops of small bowel, hypokalemia, use of nasogastric decompression, and surgical consultation. Results: Treatment failure, defined as hospital admission from the OU, occurred in 65 (50.4% of 129 patients. Only the use of a nasogastric tube was associated with OU failure (21% discharged versus 79% requiring admission, P ¼ 0.0004; odds ratio, 5.294; confidence interval, 1.982–14.14. Conclusion: Half of the patients admitted to our ED OU with ileus or varying degrees of small bowel obstruction required hospital admission. The requirement of a nasogastric tube in such patients was associated with a greater rate of observation unit failure. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:404–407.

  8. Small bowel obstruction secondary to migration of a fragment of lithobezoar: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Medani, Mekki

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Small bowel obstruction is a common world-wide condition that has a range of etiological factors. The management is largely dependent on the cause of the obstruction. Small bowel obstruction caused by foreign body ingestion is rare; many items have been reported as responsible, but there are no reports implicating polyurethane foam. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 44-year-old Irish male who presented following ingestion of polyurethane foam. He was asymptomatic on presentation but developed a small bowel obstruction shortly thereafter. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting following ingestion of polyurethane foam should be scheduled for elective laparotomy, gastrotomy, and retrieval of the cast on the next available theatre list - given that they are suitable for surgery.

  9. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group

  10. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, O.H.; Gjorup, T.; Christensen, F.N.

    1986-12-01

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group.

  11. Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Yazici

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE completion rate (CECR including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status. METHODS: We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005. Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure. CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses. After retrospective analysis, 21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction, prior gastric surgery, endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data. Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP, 70 in-patient (IP], CE indications, findings, location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU vs general medical floor (GMF] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed. Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL. Chi-square, t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams. RESULTS: The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years. Sixty-one percent of the study population was female, and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P = 0.07. The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study. Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB was significantly more common for the IP CE (P = 0.0001, while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively. Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs. The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB in 6/70 IPs and 8/264 OPs (P = 0.04. The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70 of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264 of OP examinations (P < 0.001. The mean gastric transit time (GTT was delayed in IPs compared to OPs, 98.5 ± 139.5 min vs 60.4 ± 92.6 min (P = 0.008. Minimal SB transit time was significantly prolonged in the IP compared to the OP setting [IP = 275.1 ± 111.6 min vs OP = 244.0 ± 104.3 min (P = 0.037]. CECR was also significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with OGB who had OP vs IP exams (95% vs 80% respectively, P = 0.001. The proportion of patients with incomplete exams was higher in the ICU (n = 7/13, 54% as compared to the GMF (n = 15/57, 26% (P = 0.05. There was only a single permanent SB retention case which was secondary to a previously unknown SB stricture, and the remaining incomplete SB exams were due to slow transit. Medications which affect gastrointestinal system motility were tested both individually and also in aggregate in univariate analysis in hospitalized patients (ICU and GMF and were not predictive of incomplete capsule passage (P > 0.05. Patient location (IP vs OP and GTT were independent predictors of incomplete CE exams (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSION: Incomplete CE is a multifactorial problem. Patient location and related factors such as severity of illness and sedentary status may contribute to incomplete exams.

  12. Alterations in myoelectric activity of the small bowel in rabbits after transarterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore alterations in myoelectric activity of the small bowel in rabbits after transarterial embolization and provide academic basis for assessing bowel viability and management. Methods: Twenty normal rabbits were selected and divided into three groups (2 mg group, n=10; 6 mg group, n=5; control group, n=5). Members of 2 mg group were embolized with PVA 2 mg, those of 6 mg group with PVA 6 mg, and the control group with normal saline 2 ml. After microcatherization embolization, myoelectric activity of the small bowel was recorded for 24 hr using chronically implanted electrodes in conscious rabbits. Results: In 2 mg group, the frequency and the amplitude of slow wave of proximal jejunum were significantly lower in post-embolization period than pre-embolization period [(17.83±0.55) cpm vs (11.59±0.23) cpm(P0.05) and (0.1632±0.002) mV vs (0.1606±0.003) mV (P>0.05), respectively]. ConclumV (P>0.05), respectively]. Conclusions: Embolization with PVA evokes significant and passive effect on basal electrical rhythm of small bowel. It could provide academic basis for assessing bowel viability to interventional embolization. (authors)

  13. Small bowel adenocarcinoma and Crohn's disease: Any further ahead than 50 years ago?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Caitlin; Gordon, Philip H; Petrucci, Andrea; Boutros, Marylise

    2014-01-01

    This review of the literature on small bowel carcinoma associated with Crohn’s disease specifically addresses the incidence, risk factors, and protective factors which have been identified. It also reviews the clinical presentation, the current modalities of diagnosis, the pathology, treatment, and surveillance. Finally, the prognosis and future direction are addressed. Our experience with small bowel adenocarcinoma in Crohn’s disease is reported. Readers will be provided with a better understanding of this rare and often poorly recognized complication of Crohn’s disease. PMID:25206256

  14. JEJUNAL ANGIOFIBROMA AS AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF SMALL BOWELL INTUSSUSCEPTION IN ADULT - CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Neacsu

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Adult intussusception represents only about 5% of all intussusceptions and is usually caused by a small bowel tumor acting as the apex of invagination. We report an unusual case in a 57-years-old woman with intussusception caused by a tumor located in the jejunum. We performed jejunal resection with end-to-end anastomosis. Histologically the diagnosis was angiofibroma with mixoid areas, without malign aspects. Benign tumors of the small bowell are rare clinical entities and angiofibroma is a very unusual benign tumor of the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Novel Insight in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelos J. Giamarellos Bourboulis; Michalis Tzivras

    2009-01-01

    A total of 65-84% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) presents with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO is defined as the presence of more than 105 cfu/ml of colonic type bacteria in the lumen of the small bowel. It is more common in patients with IBS and predominant bloating and diarrhea. Based on the implication of SIBO in the pathogenesis of IBS, six trials have been conducted and analyzed in this review aiming to define a role of rifaximin for the management of ...

  16. Primer trasplante de intestino en Chile: Caso clínico Small bowel transplantation: Report of a single case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Buckel G

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel transplantation is associated with a patient survival at one and five years, of 80% and 63%, respectively. We repon a 36 year-old female with short bowel syndrome, subjected to the first small bowel transplantation performed in Chile. A cadaveric gran was used. Immunosuppression was achieved by means of alemtuzumab, tacrolimus, sirolimus, micofenolate mofetil and steroids. Serial endoscopies and biopsies were performed during seven months after transplantation. The most important ¡ate complications were a drug induced renal failure, infections caused by opportunistic agents and a gastrointestinal bleedingprobably induced by drugs. After 29 months of follow up, the patient is ambulatory, on oral diet only and with no evidence of graft rejection.

  17. Primer trasplante de intestino en Chile: Caso clínico / Small bowel transplantation: Report of a single case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erwin, Buckel G; Mario, Ferrario B; Mario, Uribe M; Gloria, González G; Jorge, Godoy L; Fernando, Fluxá G; Rodrigo, Quera P; Verner, Codoceo R; Jorge, Morales B; David, Benavente M; María Teresa, Santander D; Cristina, Herzog O.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Small bowel transplantation is associated with a patient survival at one and five years, of 80% and 63%, respectively. We repon a 36 year-old female with short bowel syndrome, subjected to the first small bowel transplantation performed in Chile. A cadaveric gran was used. Immunosuppression was achi [...] eved by means of alemtuzumab, tacrolimus, sirolimus, micofenolate mofetil and steroids. Serial endoscopies and biopsies were performed during seven months after transplantation. The most important ¡ate complications were a drug induced renal failure, infections caused by opportunistic agents and a gastrointestinal bleedingprobably induced by drugs. After 29 months of follow up, the patient is ambulatory, on oral diet only and with no evidence of graft rejection.

  18. Transient small-bowel intussusceptions in adults: significance of ultrasonographic detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maconi, G. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: giovanni.maconi@unimi.it; Radice, E. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy); Greco, S. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy); Bezzio, C. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy); Bianchi Porro, G. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    Aim: To investigate the frequency, clinical significance, and outcome of small-bowel intussusceptions in adults detected using ultrasound in an outpatient setting. Patients and methods: In two different retrospective (January 2001 to April 2003) and prospective (May 2003 to June 2005) periods, 33 small-bowel intussusceptions were found in 32 patients (13 females; mean age: 38.1 years) with known or suspected intestinal disease. Patients underwent diagnostic work-up to assess any organic disease. Patients with self-limiting intussusception were submitted to clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up. Results: Of the 32 patients with small-bowel intussusception, 25 were identified in the prospective series of 4487 examinations (0.53%) and seven in the retrospective series of 5342 examinations (0.15%; p = 0.002). Four patients had persistent and 28 self-limiting intussusceptions. Self-limiting intussusceptions were idiopathic in 11 patients (39%) or associated with organic diseases in 17 (Crohn's disease in 11 patients, celiac disease in three, ulcerative colitis in one patient, and previous surgery for cancer in two). Self-limiting intussusceptions were asymptomatic in 25% of patients. Conclusion: Small-bowel intussusceptions in adults are not rare and are frequently self-limiting, idiopathic, or related to organic diseases, mainly Crohn's disease and coeliac disease.

  19. Double contrast technique of the small bowel with barium and methyl cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified technique of the small bowel enema is described. Diluted barium followed by an aqueous suspension of 0,5% methylcellulose is injected through a duodenal tube. Pathologic findings can be better recognized by the resulting double-contrast images than by other techniques. A detailed description of this method, and of our own experience, is given. (orig.)

  20. Prospective evaluation of small bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate for capsule endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Franke, Frank Hummel, Phillip Knebel, Christoph Antoni, Ulrich Böcker, Manfred V Singer, Matthias Löhr

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the effect of Prepacol®, a combination of sodium phosphate and bisacodyl, on transit and quality of capsule endoscopy (CE.METHODS: Fivety two consecutive patients were included in this prospective study. CE was performed following a 12 h fasting period. Twenty six patients were randomized for additional preparation with Prepacol®. The quality of CE was assessed separately for the proximal and the distal small bowel by 3 experienced endoscopists on the basis of a graduation which was initially developed with 20 previous CE.RESULTS: Preparation with Prepacol® accelerated small bowel transit time (262 ± 55 min vs 287 ± 97 min, but had no effect on the quality of CE. Visibility was significantly reduced in the distal compared to the proximal small bowel.CONCLUSION: The significantly reduced visibility of CE in the distal small bowel allocates the need for a good preparation. Since Prepacol® has no beneficial effect on CE the modality of preparation and the ideal time of application remains unclear. Further standardized examinations are necessary to identify sufficient preparation procedures and to determine the impact of the volume of the preparation solution.

  1. Intestinal prolapse through a persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small-bowel obstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ghislain, Pauleau; Diane, Commandeur; Christophe, Andro; Xavier, Chapellier.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent omphalomesenteric duct as a cause of small-bowel obstruction is an exceptional finding. A neonate presented with occlusion due to intestinal prolapse through a persistent omphalomesenteric duct. Remnants of the duct were successfully resected, and the postoperative course was uneventful. [...] We discuss the presentation of omphalomesenteric duct and its management.

  2. Mechanical small bowel obstruction due to an inflamed appendix wrapping around the last loop of ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, M; Ricci, G; Bartolucci, P; Modini, C

    2005-01-01

    Acute apendicitis rarely presents with a clinical picture of mechanical small-bowel obstruction. The Authors report a case of this inusual clinical occurrence, arised like a complication of a common disease, characterized by a chronically inflamed appendix (mucocele) wrapping around the last loop of ileum that produced volvolus and strangulation. The few similar cases reported in the literature are moreover reviewed. PMID:16329768

  3. Penetrating ectopic peptic ulcer in the absence of Meckel's diverticulum ultimately presenting as small bowel obstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, Hilary

    2012-02-03

    We report here how a heterotopic penetrating peptic ulcer progressed to cause small bowel obstruction in a patient with multiple previous negative investigations. The clinical presentation, radiographic features and pathological findings of this case are described, along with the salient lessons learnt. The added value of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in such circumstances is debated.

  4. Closed-loop small-bowel obstruction: diagnostic patterns by multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayes, Khaled M; Menias, Christine O; Smullen, Timothy L; Platt, Joel F

    2007-01-01

    Multidetector computed tomography is a highly accurate method in evaluating high-grade intestinal obstruction. Closed-loop obstruction is a relatively uncommon subcategory of small-bowel obstruction; however, it is associated with a high risk of vascular impairment and is, therefore, important to diagnose accurately. Closed-loop obstruction is often caused by conditions such as internal hernias, congenital bands, postoperative adhesions, and malrotation. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of closed-loop bowel obstruction and various underlying conditions. Special emphasis will be placed on the technique of multidetector computed tomography and its role in diagnosing this entity. PMID:17895779

  5. Small and large bowel volvulus: Clues to early recognition and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and large bowel volvulus are uncommon causes of bowel obstruction with nonspecific clinical manifestations which may delay the diagnosis and increase morbidity. Therefore, radiologists play an important role in promptly establishing the diagnosis, recognizing underlying congenital or acquired risk factors and detecting potentially life-threatening complications. Multidetector CT performed with intravenous contrast is currently the preferred modality for the evaluation of volvulus, which is best appreciated when imaging is perpendicular to the axis of bowel rotation, hence the benefit of multiplanar reformations. In this pictorial essay we review the pathophysiology of the different types of intestinal volvulus, discuss diagnostic criteria for prompt diagnosis of volvulus and emphasize early recognition of the complications.

  6. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection presenting as subacute small bowel obstruction following immunosuppressive chemotherapy for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Adrian Matthew; Goderya, Rashida; Atta, Mustafa; Sinha, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 59-year-old Afro-Caribbean woman who presented with symptoms of anorexia, lethargy, abdominal distension and vomiting on the background of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, treated with one cycle of cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone chemotherapy 20 days previously. A diagnosis of subacute bowel obstruction was made; however, the aetiology of the obstruction remained elusive. Common electrolyte abnormalities were excluded and a midline laparotomy revealed minimal intra-abdominal adhesions. Histological examination of a small bowel mesentery biopsy showed inflammatory cell infiltrate composed of lymphocytes, eosinophils and occasional plasma cells with a foreign body giant cell reaction suggestive of worm infection. A postoperative stool sample revealed heavy infestation with the rhabditiform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. The patient recovered following ivermectin treatment. In the absence of other causality, we attribute the subacute bowel obstruction to S stercoralis hyperinfection, triggered by immunosuppression secondary to chemotherapy and multiple myeloma. PMID:24469840

  7. Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma in a Patient with Coeliac Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Richir, Milan; Songun, Ilfet; Wientjes, Carolien; Snel, Pleun; Dwars, Boudewijn

    2010-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder which leads to chronic inflammation of the gut. Furthermore, CD is associated with upper gastrointestinal malignancies, particularly lymphoma of the small intestine. Besides lymphoma, an increased frequency of associated small bowel carcinoma has been described. Here we report the case of a 70-year-old male suffering from CD who was treated with a gluten-free diet presenting with complaints of nausea, vomiting and weight loss of about 8 kg in two...

  8. A study of diagnosis and manegement of mechanical small-bowel obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We tried to clarify the most appropriate management for simple bowel obstruction and effective methods for diagnosis of strangulated bowel obstruction. Consecutive 252 cases of mechanical small-bowel obstruction treated in the hospital from 2000 to 2005 were assessed retrospectively. There were 219 cases of simple obstructions and 33 cases of strangulated obstruction. Seventy-eight percent of simple obstruction cases were treated conservatively (fasting in 82, decompression tube treatment in 88 and operation in 49). The average duration for indwelling the decompression tube was 5.2 days and the amount of discharge from the tube decreased day by day. In the cases of operation, the operation was performed on the 4.5th day after admission on the average, and the average amount of tube discharge before the operation was more than 450 ml/day. On the other hand, strangulation was most frequently diagnosed by enhanced abdominal CT scan, followed by physical examination, and the properties of decompression tube discharge in this order, and the blood data were only used for reference. Simple small-bowel obstruction should be treated by surgical therapy if symptomatic remission could not be gained by five days after beginning of the treatment. Enhanced abdominal CT scan is the most useful method for diagnosis of strangulation in an early stage of ischemia. (author)

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages of the small bowel in patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Gunnar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune activation have repeatedly been suggested as pathogentic factors in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The driving force for immune activation in IBS remains unknown. The aim of our study was to find out if the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia could be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methods We studied 65 patients (61 females with IBS and 42 (29 females healthy controls in which IBS had been excluded. Full thickness biopsies from the jejunum and mucosa biopsies from the duodenum and the jejunum were stained with a monoclonal antibody to Chlamydia lipopolysaccharide (LPS and species-specific monoclonal antibodies to C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. We used polyclonal antibodies to chromogranin A, CD68, CD11c, and CD117 to identify enteroendocrine cells, macrophages, dendritic, and mast cells, respectively. Results Chlamydia LPS was present in 89% of patients with IBS, but in only 14% of healthy controls (p C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP. Staining for C. pneumoniae was negative in both patients and controls. Chlamydia LPS was detected in enteroendocrine cells of the mucosa in 90% of positive biopsies and in subepithelial macrophages in 69% of biopsies. Biopsies taken at different time points in 19 patients revealed persistence of Chlamydia LPS up to 11 years. The odds ratio for the association of Chlamydia LPS with presence of IBS (43.1; 95% CI: 13.2-140.7 is much higher than any previously described pathogenetic marker in IBS. Conclusions We found C. trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages in the small bowel mucosa of patients with IBS. Further studies are required to clarify if the presence of such antigens has a role in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  10. Double-balloon enteroscopy in small bowel tumors: A Chinese single-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Guo Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the clinical characteristics of small bowel tumors detected by double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE and to evaluate the diagnostic value of DBE in tumors. METHODS: Four hundred and forty consecutive DBE examinations were performed in 400 patients (250 males and 150 females, mean age 46.9 ± 16.3 years, range 14-86 years between January 2007 and April 2012. Of these, 252 patients underwent the antegrade approach, and 188 patients underwent the retrograde approach. All the patients enrolled in our study were suspected of having small bowel diseases with a negative etiological diagnosis following other routine examinations, such as upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and radiography tests. Data on tumors, such as clinical information, endoscopic findings and operation results, were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Small bowel tumors were diagnosed in 78 patients, of whom 67 were diagnosed using DBE, resulting in a diagnostic yield of 16.8% (67/400; the other 11 patients had negative DBE findings and were diagnosed through surgery or capsule endoscopy. Adenocarcinoma (29.5%, 23/78, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (24.4%, 19/78 and lymphoma (15.4%, 12/78 were the most common tumors. Among the 78 tumors, 60.3% (47/78 were located in the jejunum, and the overall number of malignant tumors was 74.4% (58/78. DBE examinations were frequently performed in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (47.4% and abdominal pain (24.4%. The positive detection rate for DBE in the 78 patients with small bowel tumors was 85.9% (67/78, which was higher than that of a computed tomography scan (72.9%, 51/70. Based on the operation results, the accuracy rates of DBE for locating small bowel neoplasms, such as adenocarcinoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor and lymphoma, were 94.4%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The positive biopsy rates for adenocarcinoma and lymphoma were 71.4% and 60%, respectively. CONCLUSION: DBE is a useful diagnostic tool with high clinical practice value and should be considered the gold standard for the investigation of small bowel tumors.

  11. 14C-oxalic acid resorption in patients with small bowel resection, jejunoileal bypass, Crohn's disease, and chronic pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enteric absorption of oxalic acid was determined with 14C-oxalic acid in patients with small bowel resection, jejunoileal bypass, Crohn's disease and chronic pancreatitis in comparison to the control group. Extreme hyperoxaluria was found in small bowel resections above 100 cm, after bypass operations and in ileocolitis Crohn with signs of clinical activity. Small bowel resections and relapses of Crohn's disease increase the absorption of oxalic acid. The significance of 14C-oxalic acid absorption test is the recognition of enteric hyperoxaluria. (author)

  12. Metastatic small bowel adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old Chinese girl

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    Y.C.L. Leung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel adenocarcinoma is a rare entity in both adult and paediatric populations. Diagnosis is usually delayed due to vague symptoms. We report a case of ileal adenocarcinoma presented with multiple metastases. A 10-year-old Chinese girl presented with recurrent right lower quadrant pain developed intestinal obstruction. Computerized tomography showed terminal ileum wall thickening, a pelvic mass and suspicious pulmonary metastases. Laparotomy showed a terminal ileal tumour causing mechanical obstruction with metastases to the left ovarian and mesenteric lymph nodes. Palliative right hemi-colectomy with double-barrel ileostomy was performed. The pathology was reported to be ileocaecal adenocarcinoma with extensive lymphovascular permeation. She was the started on palliative chemotherapy with static disease. Diagnosis of small bowel adenocarcinoma remains a challenge to surgeons as the clinical presentation is subtle in spite of the advanced clinical course. Surgery plays a role in symptomatic treatment for patients with intestinal obstruction in advanced stage.

  13. Imaging of small bowel-related complications following major abdominal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To recognize and document the small bowel reactions following major abdominal surgery is an important key for a correct diagnosis. Usually, plain abdominal radiography is the initial imaging examination requested in the immediate postoperative period, whereas gastrointestinal contrast studies are used to look for specific complications. In some countries, especially in Europe, sonography is widely employed to evaluate any acute affection of the abdomen. CT is commonly used to assess postoperative abdominal complications; in our institution also CT enteroclysis is often performed, to provide additional important informations. Radiologist should be able to diagnose less common types of obstruction, such as afferent loop, closed loop, strangulating obstruction as well as internal hernia. This knowledge may assume a critical importance for surgeons to decide on therapy. In this article, we focus our attention on the imaging (particularly CT) in small bowel complications following abdominal surgery

  14. [A clinicopathological study of 10 cases of primary small bowel adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Shunichi; Horie, Hisanaga; Kumano, Hidetoshi; Koinuma, Koji; Miyakura, Yasuyuki; Togashi, Kazutomo; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Yano, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Hironori; Sugano, Kentaro; Nagase, Michitaka

    2011-03-01

    Between 1989 and 2009, 10 patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma were treated in our hospital. These tumors appeared in the jejunum in 6 patients and in the ileum in the remaining 4 patients. All patients had some symptoms. The median size of the tumors was 50mm(30-110mm). All tumors were advanced type 2 lesion with severe stricture. Histologically there were 8 well, 1 moderately and 1 poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. There were 8 tumors invading the serosa and 2 tumors invaded other organs. Positive lymph nodes were identified in 6 cases. Liver metastasis and peritoneal dissemination were identified in 3 and 4 cases, respectively. Eight cases were diagnosed as small bowel adenocarcinoma preoperatively by double balloon endoscopy. The 4 patients with stage II tumor and 2 patients with stage III tumor underwent curative-intent surgery. The 4 patients with stage II tumor are all surviving without evidence of disease now. PMID:21389664

  15. Simultaneous culture of saliva and jejunal aspirate in the investigation of small bowel bacterial overgrowth.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, I.; Worsley, B W; Cobden, I.; Cooke, E. M.; Shoesmith, J G; Axon, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    Both saliva and jejunal aspirate were cultured from 22 patients with suspected small bowel bacterial overgrowth and from eight controls. Large numbers of organisms (greater than 10(6)/ml) were recovered from the jejunal aspirate of 16 subjects, in five of whom the same organisms were present in similar relative proportions in the saliva, suggesting contamination of the sample with saliva, while in 11 the jejunal organisms differed from those in saliva. In eight of these the jejunal flora was ...

  16. Ret heterozygous mice have enhanced intestinal adaptation after massive small bowel resection

    OpenAIRE

    Hitch, Meredith C.; Leinicke, Jennifer A.; Wakeman, Derek; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Chris R.; Rowland, Kathryn J.; Merrick, Ellen C.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.; Warner, Brad W.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal adaptation is an important compensatory response to massive small bowel resection (SBR) and occurs because of a proliferative stimulus to crypt enterocytes by poorly understood mechanisms. Recent studies suggest the enteric nervous system (ENS) influences enterocyte proliferation. We, therefore, sought to determine whether ENS dysfunction alters resection-induced adaptation responses. Ret+/? mice with abnormal ENS function and wild-type (WT) littermates underwent sham surgery or ...

  17. Spontaneous transmesenteric hernia: a rare cause of small bowel obstruction in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poras Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of spontaneous transmesenteric hernia with strangulation in an adult. Transmesenteric hernia (TMH is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction and is seldom diagnosed preoperatively, and most TMHs in adults are related to predisposing factors, such as previous surgery, abdominal trauma, and peritonitis. TMH are more likely to develop volvulus and strangulation or ischemia. A brief review of etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment is discussed.

  18. Prospective evaluation of small bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate for capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Franke, Frank Hummel, Phillip Knebel, Christoph Antoni, Ulrich Böcker, Manfred V Singer, Matthias Löhr

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of Prepacol®, a combination of sodium phosphate and bisacodyl, on transit and quality of capsule endoscopy (CE).METHODS: Fivety two consecutive patients were included in this prospective study. CE was performed following a 12 h fasting period. Twenty six patients were randomized for additional preparation with Prepacol®. The quality of CE was assessed separately for the proximal and the distal small bowel by 3 experienced endoscopists on the basis of a graduation ...

  19. Intraluminal migration of a spacer with small bowel obstruction: a case report of rare complication

    OpenAIRE

    Ogino Takayuki; Sekimoto Mitsugu; Nishimura Junichi; Takemasa Ichiro; Mizushima Tsunekazu; Ikeda Masataka; Yamamoto Hirofumi; Doki Yuichiro; Mori Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The spacer placement is a prevalent procedure to separate the surrounding normal tissues from locally recurrent rectal tumor before the application of radiotherapy. However, complications could occur due to the foreign nature of the spacer. This report describes a case of 60-year-old man who had undergone radiotherapy two years earlier for a recurrent rectal tumor and presented with small bowel obstruction. A spacer was used before radiotherapy. Radiological assessment and laparotomy...

  20. The effects of erythromycin in small-bowel follow-through

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the efficacy of erythromycin(EM), known to accelerate gastric emptying, in modified small-bowel follow-through(SBFT). We evaluated 32 normal patients who underwent modified SBFT by oral administration of methylcellulose. In the EM injection group(n=20), 500 mg EM (3 mg/kg in pediatric patients) in 100 ml saline was infused intravenously over a 15-minute period prior to the administration of a barium meal, while in the control group(n=12), EM was not infused. Gastric emptying time(GET), small-bowel transit time(SBTT) for barium and methylcellulose, small-bowel transit(SBT) during the first 15 minutes, luminal diameter and quality of image were compared between the two groups. SBT was assigned 1, 2, 3, or 4 points, depending on the extent to which the barium head reached the proximal or distal jejunum, and the proximal or distal ileum during the initial 15-minute. Three radiologists reached a consensus as to image quality. Mean GET was significantly faster in the EM injection group (18.5 mins for 150 ml barium suspension and 25.8 mins for 600 ml methylcellulose). The SBT score during the initial 15 minutes was significantly higher in the EM injection group (3.3 points) than in the control group (2.4points), but mean SBTT was not significantly different between the two groups. Luminal diameter and image quality were also higher in the EM injection group. EM does not decrease SBTT but is highly effective for shortening gastric emptying time, helping to increas gastric emptying time, helping to increase the range of fluoroscopic examination and improve image quality in modified small-bowel follow-through, especially in patients with delayed gastric emptying

  1. Evaluation of gastrointestinal injury and blood flow of small bowel during low-dose aspirin administration

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Urara; Kato, Mototsugu; Nishida, Mutsumi; Kamada, Go; Ono, Shouko; Shimizu, Yuichi; Fujimori, Shunji; Asaka, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid has been widely used. We evaluated small bowel and gastric injuries during acetylsalicylic acid administration using video capsule endoscopy and gastroduodenal endoscopy. We also investigated blood flow using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Six healthy volunteers were enrolled in this preliminary study. The subjects were administered 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin daily for 14 days. Video capsule endoscopy and gastroduodenal endoscopy were simultaneously pe...

  2. Small bowel parasitosis as cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding diagnosed by capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios K Christodoulou; Sigounas, Dimitrios E; Konstantinos H. Katsanos; Georgios Dimos; Epameinondas V. Tsianos

    2010-01-01

    Hookworm infection is a relatively common cause of anemia in endemic areas. However, it is rarely encountered in Europe. In this report we describe the case of a 24-year old patient originating from an endemic area who was admitted due to severe anemia, with an Hct of 15.6% and eosinophilia (Eosinophils: 22.4%). While both esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were non-diagnostic, capsule endoscopy revealed a large number of hookworms infesting his small bowel and withdrawing blood. The ...

  3. The magnetism of surgery: small bowel obstruction in an 8-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R; Everett, T; Watts, A; Qureshi, T

    2010-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy with Asperger's syndrome presented with right-sided abdominal pain, which was consistent with a probable appendicitis, but revisiting the history with a high index of suspicion confirmed multiple foreign body ingestion to be the cause of his symptoms. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Multiple toy magnets and other metal objects were found, which were causing small bowel obstruction with interloop fistulation. Following removal and repair, the patient made an excellent recovery. PMID:22789732

  4. The magnetism of surgery: small bowel obstruction in an 8-year-old boy

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, R.; Everett, T; Watts, A.; Qureshi, T

    2010-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy with Asperger's syndrome presented with right-sided abdominal pain, which was consistent with a probable appendicitis, but revisiting the history with a high index of suspicion confirmed multiple foreign body ingestion to be the cause of his symptoms. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Multiple toy magnets and other metal objects were found, which were causing small bowel obstruction with interloop fistulation. Following removal and repair, the patient made an excellent ...

  5. In vitro allograft irradiation prevents graft-versus-host disease in small-bowel transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In small-bowel transplantation, the transfer of large numbers of donor lymphocytes with the intestinal allograft may provoke a lethal graft-versus-host reaction. The effectiveness of allograft irradiation in vitro as a method of preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was studied in a rat model of small-bowel transplantation, with the Lewis----Lewis X Brown Norway F1 hybrid strain combination. Cold harvested small-bowel allografts were irradiated immediately prior to heterotopic or orthotopic transplantation. Animals that had received heterotopic allografts irradiated with 0, 250, or 500 rad all died of GVHD after 14.4 +/- 3.0, 15.0 +/- 1.3, and 14.2 +/- 1.9 days, respectively. None of the animals that had received allografts treated with 1000 rad developed clinical or pathologic evidence of GVHD, however, and all survived for more than 6 months (P less than 0.001). Allograft function was studied in animals that underwent orthotopic transplantation. Recipients of nonirradiated orthotopic allografts all died of GVHD after 14.0 +/- 0.7 days, whereas recipients of allografts irradiated with 1000 rad all survived for more than 5 months (P less than 0.001). After 120 days, weight gain (51.8 +/- 11.7%), serum albumin (3.9 +/- 0.7 g/dl), serum triglycerides (67.0 +/- 24.3 mg/dl), CBC, and differential in these animals were not statistically different from those in either age-matched isograft recipients or normal animals, and when the rats were sacrificed, irradiated allo the rats were sacrificed, irradiated allografts showed no changes suggestive of radiation injury. These results indicate that irradiation of small-bowel allografts in vitro prevents development of GVHD, and that this can be achieved at a dose which does not cause injury to or malfunction of the allograft

  6. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms: Experience with Rifaximin

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Peralta, Claudia Cottone, Tiziana Doveri, Piero Luigi Almasio, Antonio Craxi

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in our geographical area (Western Sicily, Italy) by means of an observational study, and to gather information on the use of locally active, non-absorbable antibiotics for treatment of SIBO.METHODS: Our survey included 115 patients fulfilling the Rome II criteria for diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); a total of 97 patients accepted to perform a breath test with lactulose (BTLact), and those who had a po...

  7. Small Bowel Evisceration Following Vaginal Hysterectomy is a General Surgical Emergency–A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Maitra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel evisceration through the vagina is a rare condition, which tends to affect post-menopausal women who have undergone vaginal hysterectomy. It is a surgical emergency with a favourable outcome if diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion. Delay in diagnosis can precipitate infarction of small bowel loops with associated morbidity and mortality. Treatment involves laparotomy, reduction of the incarcerated loops (plus/minus small bowel resection and repair of the vaginal rupture. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of small bowel evisceration through the vagina, to review the literature pertaining to this topic and to raise awareness of this condition in the general surgical community.

  8. Metastatic osteosarcoma to the small bowel with resultant intussusception: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; West, Danel C. [University of California, Davis, Department of Radiology, 4860 Y. Street, Suite 3100, 95817, Davis, CA (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Intussusception resulting from osteosarcoma metastasis to the small bowel is a rare diagnosis. This case report describes a patient with this diagnosis, demonstrates the CT appearance of this lesion, and reviews the literature. (orig.)

  9. Metastatic osteosarcoma to the small bowel with resultant intussusception: a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intussusception resulting from osteosarcoma metastasis to the small bowel is a rare diagnosis. This case report describes a patient with this diagnosis, demonstrates the CT appearance of this lesion, and reviews the literature. (orig.)

  10. Metastatic osteosarcoma to the small bowel with resultant intussusception: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; West, Danel C

    2003-12-01

    Intussusception resulting from osteosarcoma metastasis to the small bowel is a rare diagnosis. This case report describes a patient with this diagnosis, demonstrates the CT appearance of this lesion, and reviews the literature. PMID:13680015

  11. Accuracy of enteroclysis in Crohn's disease of the small bowel: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of enteroclysis in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease of the small bowel in a group of consecutive patients. From January 1992 to December 1995, 165 patients with suspected Crohn's disease of the small bowel presented to our institution for enteroclysis. In 14 patients up to three enteroclysis exams were performed. Most patients (78 %) underwent colonoscopy and retrograde ileoscopy. In the remaining patients clinical follow-up was used as gold standard. In 79 patients no radiographic abnormalities were found. Sixty-one patients (40 men and 21 women; mean age 34.2 years) had a radiological diagnosis of Crohn's disease. This involved the terminal ileum in 39 patients (64 %) either alone (n = 25) or in association with the pelvic ileum (n = 14). In 12 of these patients retrograde ileoscopy was not feasible. Twenty-one patients underwent surgery. In 4 patients pathology revealed diseases other than Crohn's. These patients had all ileocecal diseases (tuberculosis = 2; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma = 1; adenocarcinoma = 1). One false-negative result was observed. Overall, enteroclysis showed a sensitivity of 98.2 % and a positive predictive value of 93.4 %. Enteroclysis is a sensitive technique in evaluating both the extent and the severity of small bowel involvement in Crohn's disease, although the overlap of radiographic findings may hamper its accuracy when the disease is confined to the ileocecal area. (orig.)ileocecal area. (orig.)

  12. Multi-slice spiral CT evaluation in Crohn's disease of small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the value of enhanced MSCT scan for the Crohn's disease of small bowel. Methods: Fourty-five patients of small bowel Crohn's disease who were proved by multi-method were examined by two-phase enhanced scan with MSCT. The images were reformed in ADW 4.2 by MPR mainly. The CT values of the lesion segments in different phases were tested, with one way ANOVA in statistical analysis; the density difference between the lesion segments and normal segments in different phases were tested, the cases were divided according to 10 HU, and compared them with each other by ?2 test. Results: The average CT value of lesion segments was (39.3±3.7) HU in plain scan, (74.8±13.8) HU in artery phase, (90.2±12.3) HU in portal vein phase, there were sinigicant difference in them (F=258.87, P10 HU respectively in plain scan, 6 cases and 39 cases in artery phase, 2 cases and 43 cases in portal vein phase, by ?2 test, there were sinigicant difference between plain scan and artery phase (?2=32.49, P2= 39.22, P2= 1.10, P>0.05). Afterup>2= 1.10, P>0.05). After enhancement, the lesions can display clearly than plain scan, and the detectable rate was raised highly. Conclusion: Two-phase enhancement scan can diagnosis the Crohn's disease of small bowel and evaluate it overall. (authors)

  13. Pediatric Small Bowel Crohn Disease: Correlation of US and MR Enterography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Smith, Ethan A; Sanchez, Ramon J; DiPietro, Michael A; DeMatos-Maillard, Vera; Strouse, Peter J; Darge, Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Small bowel Crohn disease is commonly diagnosed during the pediatric period, and recent investigations show that its incidence is increasing in this age group. Diagnosis and follow-up of this condition are commonly based on a combination of patient history and physical examination, disease activity surveys, laboratory assessment, and endoscopy with biopsy, but imaging also plays a central role. Ultrasonography (US) is an underutilized well-tolerated imaging modality for screening and follow-up of small bowel Crohn disease in children and adolescents. US has numerous advantages over computed tomographic (CT) enterography and magnetic resonance (MR) enterography, including low cost and no required use of oral or intravenous contrast material. US also has the potential to provide images with higher spatial resolution than those obtained at CT enterography and MR enterography, allows faster examination than does MR enterography, does not involve ionizing radiation, and does not require sedation or general anesthesia. US accurately depicts small bowel and mesenteric changes related to pediatric Crohn disease, and US findings show a high correlation with MR imaging findings in this patient population. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:25839736

  14. Detected peritoneal fluid in small bowel obstruction is associated with the need for surgical intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Daly, Brendan J

    2009-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Predicting the clinical course in adhesional small bowel obstruction is difficult. There are no validated clinical or radiologic features that allow early identification of patients likely to require surgical intervention. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 100 patients consecutively admitted to a tertiary level teaching hospital over a 3-year period (2002-2004) who had acute adhesional small bowel obstruction and underwent computed tomography (CT). The primary outcomes that we assessed were conservative management or the need for surgical intervention. We investigated time to physiologic gastrointestinal function recovery as a secondary outcome. We examined independent predictors of surgical intervention in a bivariate analysis using a stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients investigated, we excluded 12. Of the 88 remaining patients, 58 (66%) were managed conservatively and 30 (34%) underwent surgery. Peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan (n = 37) was associated more frequently with surgery than conservative management (46% v. 29%, p = 0.046, chi(2)). Logistical regression identified peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan as an independent predictor of surgical intervention (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.15-7.84). CONCLUSION: The presence of peritoneal fluid on a CT scan in patients with adhesional small bowel obstruction is an independent predictor of surgical intervention and should alert the clinician that the patient is 3 times more likely to require surgery.

  15. Spontaneous sublingual and intramural small-bowel hematoma in a patient on oral anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Johnston

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous sublingual hematoma and intramural small bowel hematoma are rare and serious complications of anticoagulant therapy. Though previously reported individually, there has been no previous report of the same two complications occurring in a single patient. A 71-year-old Caucasian man, who was on warfarin for atrial fibrillation, presented with difficulty in swallowing due to a sublingual hematoma. He was observed in our intensive care unit, his warfarin was held and he recovered with conservative management. He represented two months later with a two day history of abdominal pain and distension. An abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT scan now showed small bowel obstruction due to intramural small bowel hematoma and haemorrhagic ascites. Again, this was treated expectantly with a good outcome. In conclusion, life threatening haemorrhagic complications of oral anticoagulant therapy can recur. Conservative treatment is successful in most cases, but an accurate diagnosis is mandatory to avoid unnecessary surgery. CT scan is the investigation of choice for the diagnosis of suspected haemorrhagic complications of over coagulation.

  16. An unusual cause of small bowel obstruction: Gossypiboma – case report

    OpenAIRE

    Inceoglu Resit; Gencosmanoglu Rasim

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The term "gossypiboma" denotes a mass of cotton that is retained in the body following surgery. Gossypiboma is a medico-legal problem especially for surgeons. To the best of our knowledge, the patient presented herein is the second reported patient in whom the exact site of migration of a retained surgical textile material into the intestinal lumen could be demonstrated by preoperative imaging studies. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman presented with symptoms of small ...

  17. An experimental study on radiological examination of obstructed small bowel with various contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the evaluation of the level and cause of small bowel obstruction, an oral barium study is usually chosen. When perforation is whether barium or a water-soluble contrast agent should be used, because barium causes from foreign body reactions as well as adhesions in the extraluminal tissues. Water-soluble contrast agent, on the other hand, are less satisfactory but in general have no untoward effects in the extraluminal tissues. Because of hyperosomolarity, water-soluble contrast agents attract large amounts of fluid with subsequent dilution and loss of contrast and pose a risk of pulmonary edema if aspirated. The use of the newer non-ionic and low-osmolarity water-soluble contrast will likely avoid pulmonary complications due to aspiration. The author performed this experimental study to compare the radiological efficacy of different contrast media in enteric follow-through examinations of obstructed small bowel. Rate had a ligature applied to the distal ileum via laparotomy. Four contrast media were subjected to testing by instillation via oro-gastric tube immediately after laparotomy. Radiographs were exposed at 1, 4 and 8 hours and evaluated later. After 24 hours the animals were sacrificed and the stomach and small bowels, free from mesentery and omental tissue, were weighted with contrasts. The progression in the bowel was proportionate to the osmolarity of the contrast media. After 1 hour, the observations indicated sodium diatrizoate (Gastrografin, Schering)odium diatrizoate (Gastrografin, Schering) to be the least favorable medium with respect to sharpness of the mucosal border. After 8 hours, barium gave a poorer delineation compared to Ioxaglate (Hexabric, Guerbet) and Iopromide (Ultravist, Schering). Early deaths were noted in the sodium diatrizoate and ioxaglate groups. So we conclude that when using a rather high-volume bolus, low-osmolar non-ionic contrast media seem to have significant prospects for general diagnostic use in patients with suspected intestinal obstruction

  18. Changing views on diverticular disease: impact of aging, obesity, diet, and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, R C

    2015-03-01

    The development of colonic diverticulosis is a common aging change in industrialized nations. While most patients have asymptomatic diverticulosis, around one in five develops symptomatic diverticular disease. This is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habit. Some of the pain episodes are prolonged and are due to acute diverticulitis, which itself may be complicated by abscess, perforation, fistulation, or stricture formation. Risk factors favouring the development of symptomatic diverticular disease include obesity, smoking and diets low in fiber but high in red meat and animal fat. What determines the transition from asymptomatic diverticulosis to symptomatic diverticular disease is unclear but neuromuscular changes following acute diverticulitis may be responsible in some cases. The severity of symptoms generated depends on cerebral pain processing which is influenced by psychosocial factors. These are important considerations in deciding optimal patient management. Prior theories of the cause of diverticulosis suggested that constipation was an important cause, but new data challenge this and has provoked new ideas. Underlying mechanisms causing diverticulosis include weakening of the colonic wall and/or degenerative changes in the enteric nerves. Dietary induced changes in microbiota and the host inflammatory response may underlie the subsequent development of acute/chronic diverticulitis and its sequela. PMID:25703217

  19. Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, J.P.; Bonsack, M.E.; Felemovicius, I. (Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Breathhold MRI of the small bowel in Crohn's disease after enteroklysis with oral magnetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of breathhold MRI following enteroclysis with addition of oral magnetic particles to study the extension, detection of stenoses and extraluminal manifestations in Crohn's disease. Results: Typical findings were marked bowel wall thickening with strong contrast enhancement. 95.8% of affected small bowel segments and 94.7% of stenoses were correctly detected by MRI. All four fistulas were detected and important extraluminal findings were seen in 6/18 patients. Additionally, one ileoileal and two ileosigmoidal adhesions, two extraluminal abscesses and affection of the right ureter were delineated. Conclusion: MRI in Crohn's disease offers the potential to avoid radiation exposure in this relatively young patient group. Important additional findings relevant to indication of surgery are seen in approximately one third of cases. The replacement of transduodenal intubation by oral contrast application remains to be further studied. (orig./AJ)

  1. Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Small bowel cleansing does not improve quality of wireless capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Rune; Langholz, Ebbe

    ABSTRACT: Background Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is the most important tool for investigating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in the small bowel and is superior to cross sectional imaging in detecting early and subtle inflammation of the small intestine in Crohn's Disease (CD). [1] With increasing demand of early diagnosis, WCE becomes more important. However, a drawback is the limited visualization of the mucosa in patients with poor cleansing quality. The aim of our study was to determine the benefit of preparation with Picoprep prior to examination with WCE and evaluate two different methods for cleansing quality. Methods This prospective cluster trial examined all patients from two Danish centres, who underwent WCE with PillCam SB based on either known or suspected small bowel CD or obscure bleeding from August 2013 to July 2014. Our local ethics committee waived the necessity of informed consent. Both Centres used the same instructions for preparation; the day before examination, normal breakfast and lunch was allowed until 2 pm, hereafter patients were instructed to go on a liquid diet. Only water was allowed the last two hours before the procedure. Site A, in addition to Site B, instructed patients to ingest one sachet of Picoprep powder, at 9 pm the day before examination, followed by 1.5 litres of liquid diet, as per standard of care at Site A. Patients were matched between centres based on indication, sex and age. Cleansing quality was assessed by two different methods described by Park et al. 2010 [2] with a 3 grade subjective assessment every 5 minutes and Weyenberg et al. 2011 [3] with a computer assessment of cleansing using the colour bar in the capsule reading software. Mean overall score between groups were compared using students ttest. Results We enrolled 135 consecutive patients allowing matching of 92 patients with a mean age of 45 years (16-83), 67 % women. CD was the indication in 69.6 %. Both scoring systems correlated well (rho = 0.80). Using both scoring systems, cleansing qualitydecreased significantly throughout the small bowel when comparing each third individually, p < 0.01. There were no overall difference in quality between groups. Conclusions Small bowel cleansing prior to WCE does not improve mucosal visualization of the small bowel in patients with suspected CD or obscure bleeding. References: [1] Mustafa BF, Samaan M, Langmead L, Khasraw M, (2013), Small bowel video capsule endoscopy: an overview, Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology, 323-329 [2] Park SC, Keum B, Hyun JJ et al., (2010), A novel cleansing score system for capsule endoscopy, World Journal of Gastroenterology, 875-880 [3] Van Weynberg SJB, De Leest HTJI, Mulder CJJ, (2011), Description of a novel grading system to assess the quality of bowel preparation in video capsule endoscopy., Endoscopy, 406-411

  3. Differentiation between active and chronic Crohn's disease using MRI small-bowel motility examinations — Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the influence of locally active Crohn's disease on systemic small-bowel motility in patients with chronic Crohn's disease compared to healthy individuals. Material and methods: Fifteen healthy individuals (11 men, four women; mean age 37 years) and 20 patients with histopathologically proven active (n = 15; 10 women, 5 men; mean age 45 years) or chronic (n = 5; four women, one man; mean age 48 years) Crohn's disease were included in this institutional review board-approved, retrospective study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 1.5 T) was performed after standardized preparation. Two-dimensional (2D) cine sequences for motility acquisition were performed in apnoea (27 s). Motility assessment was performed using dedicated software in three randomly chosen areas of the small-bowel outside known Crohn's disease-affected hotspots. The main quantitative characteristics (frequency, amplitude, occlusion rate) were compared using Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Three randomly chosen segments were analysed in each participant. Patients with active Crohn's disease had significantly (p < 0.05) reduced contraction frequencies (active Crohn's disease: 2.86/min; chronic: 4.14/min; healthy: 4.53/min) and luminal occlusion rates (active: 0.43; chronic: 0.70; healthy: 0.73) compared to healthy individuals and patients with chronic Crohn's disease. Contraction amplitudes were significantly reduced during active Crohn's disease (6.71 mm) compared to healthy participants (10.14 mm), but this only reached borderline significance in comparison to chronic Crohn's disease (8.87 mm). Mean bowel lumen diameter was significantly (p = 0.04) higher in patients with active Crohn's disease (16.91 mm) compared to healthy participants (14.79 mm) but not in comparison to patients with chronic Crohn's disease (13.68). Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that local inflammatory activity of small-bowel segments in patients with active Crohn's disease alters small-bowel motility in distant, non-affected segments. The motility patterns revealed reduced contraction-wave frequencies, amplitudes, and decreased luminal occlusion rates. Thus evaluation of these characteristics potentially helps to differentiate between chronic and active Crohn's disease

  4. Ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-2 increase immediately following massive small bowel resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Mitsuru; Kaji, Tatsuru; Mukai, Motoi; Nakame, Kazuhiko; Yoshioka, Takako; Tanimoto, Akihide; Matsufuji, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Children with short bowel syndrome face life-threatening complications. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a new therapy to induce effective adaptation of the remnant intestine. Adaptation occurs only during feeding. We focused on preprandial acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin, and postprandial glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), which are known to have active orexigenic and trophic actions. This study aims to clarify the secretion trends of these hormones after massive small bowel resection and to obtain basic data for developing a new treatment. Sixty-three growing male rats were used: 3 were designated as controls receiving no operation and 60 were randomized into the 80% small bowel resection (80% SBR) group and the transection and re-anastomosis group. Changes in body weight, food intake, and remnant intestine morphology were also assessed for 15 days after the operation. Acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin levels increased immediately, equivalently in both operation groups (P=0.09 and 0.70). Interestingly, in 80% SBR animals, des-acyl ghrelin peaked on day 1 and acyl ghrelin peaked on day 4 (P=0.0007 and P=0.049 vs controls). GLP-2 secretion was obvious in 80% SBR animals (P=2.25×10(-6)), which increased immediately and peaked on day 4 (P=0.009 vs. controls). Body weight and food intake in 80% SBR animals recovered to preoperative levels on day 4. Morphological adaptations were evident after day 4. Our results may suggest a management strategy to reinforce these physiological hormone secretion patterns in developing a new therapy for short bowel syndrome. PMID:23517879

  5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor causing small bowel intussusception in a patient with Crohns disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Theodoropoulos, Dimitrios Linardoutsos, Dimitrios Tsamis, Paraskevas Stamopoulos, Dimitrios Giannopoulos, Flora Zagouri, Nikolaos V Michalopoulos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of jejunoileal intussusception in a 42-year-old patient with Crohn’s disease caused by a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The patient complained of vague diffuse abdominal pain for a period of 4 mo. Intussusception was suspected at computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Segmental resection of the small intestine was performed. Pathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed a gastrointestinal stromal tumor as well as aphthous ulcerations and areas of inflammation, which were characteristic of Crohn’s disease. This is the first report of small bowel intussusception due to a gastrointestinal stromal tumor coexisting with Crohn’s disease.

  6. Occult small bowel perforation in a patient with Ehlers Danlos syndrome: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Leake, Tessa Frances; Singhal, Tarun; Chandra, Aninda; Ashcroft, Alexandra; Doddi, Sudeendra; Hussain, Abdulzahra; Smedley, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Patients who present with a co-existing connective tissue disorder add a degree of complexity to operative intervention. We present an unusual case of a 53-year-old Caucasian female patient with Ehlers Danlos syndrome who presented with an occult perforation of the distal ileum. The patient had known small bowel diverticulae yet the perforation occurred within the normal bowel wall. The pre-operative CT only showed malrotation of the large bowel and did not correlate with the intra-operative ...

  7. Morphometric and biomechanical remodelling in the intestine after small bowel resection in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Y; Lu, X

    2002-01-01

    The short-bowel syndrome is a clinical condition caused by intestinal resection. As intestinal adaptation occurs after resection, it can be used as a model for studying morphometric and biomechanical remodelling in the small intestine and to get a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the short-bowel syndrome. The resected rats had a 67% resection of jejunum and ileum. Control animals underwent no operation (nonoperated controls) or an ileal transection with subsequent end-to-end anastomosis (sham-resected controls). The animals were followed for up to 4 weeks after the operation. Changes in biomechanical properties were studied in terms of residual strain (the internal strain remaining when all external loads are removed), opening angle and stress--strain relations referenced to the zero-stress state (the cut-open state where external and internal stresses are released). The resected animals gained less weight than the controls. The intestinal length and diameter increased more in the resected groups than the control groups (P < 0.05), resulting in a larger absorptive surface. Resection induced profound gross morphometric changes and histological alterations characterized by proliferative increases in the tissue layers. The opening angle, along with residual strain at the mucosal and serosal surface, increased in the remnant small intestine (P < 0.05). All changes increased as function of postoperative time and were most prominent in the remnant ileum. However, the stress-strain relationship remained unchanged. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that resection of the majority of the small bowel results in significant remodelling in structural and residual strain properties in the remnant small intestine. The remodelling seems to be guided by the need for a greater absorptive surface area rather than for a change in the stress-strain properties.

  8. Enhanced Diagnostic Yield with Prolonged Small Bowel Transit Time during Capsule Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Buscaglia, Sumit Kapoor, John O. Clarke, Juan Carlos Bucobo, Samuel A. Giday, Priscilla Magno, Elaine Yong, Gerard E. Mullin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of small bowel transit time (SBTT on diagnostic yield during capsule endoscopy (CE has not been previously evaluated. Our study aim was to assess the effect of SBTT on the likelihood of detecting intestinal pathology during CE. Methods: We reviewed collected data on CE studies performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital from January 2006 to June 2007. In patients investigated for anemia or obscure bleeding, the following lesions were considered relevant: ulcers, erosions, AVMs, red spots, varices, vascular ectasias, and presence of blood. In patients with diarrhea or abdominal pain, ulcers, erosions, and blood were considered relevant. Age, gender, study indication, hospital status, and quality of bowel preparation were identified as candidate risk factors affecting SBTT. Univariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to study the effect of SBTT on diagnostic yield. Results: Total of 212 CE studies were analyzed; most were in outpatients (n=175, 82.9% and with excellent bowel preparation (n=177, 83.5%. Mean SBTT was 237.0min (3.9hrs. Age, gender, bowel prep, hospital status, and study indication did not significantly affect SBTT. However, increased SBTT was independently associated with increased diagnostic yield; OR=1.7 in SBTT=2-4hr (p=0.41, OR=1.8 in SBTT=4-6hrs (p=0.30, OR=9.6 in SBTT=6-8hrs (p=0.05. Conclusion: Prolonged SBTT during CE (>6 hr is associated with an increased diagnostic yield. This may be due to a positive effect on image quality during a “slower” study. The use of promotility agents may adversely affect the ability of CE to detect significant intestinal pathology.

  9. Surgically treated primary malignant tumor of small bowel: A clinical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Liang Han, Jun Cheng, Hong-Zhong Zhou, Sheng-Cong Guo, Zeng-Rong Jia, Peng-Fei Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical presentation, treatment and survival of patients with primary malignant tumor of small bowel (PMTSB.METHODS: Clinicopathologic data about 141 surgically treated PMTSB patients (91 males and 50 females at the median age of 53.5 years (range 23-79 years were retrospectively analyzed.RESULTS: The most common initial clinical features of the patients were intermittent abdominal discomfort or vague abdominal pain (67.4%, abdominal mass (31.2%, bowel obstruction (24.1%, hemotochezia (21.3%, jaundice (16.3%, fever (14.2%, coexistence of bowel perforation and peritonitis (5.7%, coexistence of gastrointestinal bleeding and shock (5.0%, and intraabdominal bleeding (1.4%. Ileum was the most common site of tumor (44.7%, followed by jejunum (30.5% and duodenum (24.8%. PMTSB had a nonspecific clinical presentation. Segmental bowel resection (n = 81 was the most common surgical procedure, followed by right hemi-colectomy (n = 15, pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 10, and others (n = 19. Twenty-seven adenocarcinoma patients and 13 malignant lymphoma patients received adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine and prednisone, respectively. Information about 120 patients was obtained during the follow-up. The median survival time of PMTSB patients was 20.3 mo. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rate was 75.0% (90/120, 40.0% (48/120 and 20.8% (25/120, respectively. Adenocarcinoma was found in 73.7% (42/57, 21.1% (12/57 and 15.8% (9/57 of the patients, respectively. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor was observed in 80.0% (20/25, 72.0% (18/25 and 36.0% (9/25 of the patients, respectively. Carcinoid was detected in 100.0% (15/15, 80.0% (12/15 and 46.7% (7/15 of the patients, respectively. Malignant lymphoma was demonstrated in 69.2% (9/13, 30.8% (4/13 and 0% (0/13 of the patients, respectively.CONCLUSION: En bloc resection is the principal therapy for most PMTSB and chemotherapy is the important treatment modality for malignant lymphoma and other malignant tumors of small bowel which cannot be radically removed.

  10. Imaging findings of midgut volvuIus associated with a large small-bowel diverticulum in an aduIt patient: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although most patients with jejunoileal diverticulum are asymptomatic, a large, small-bowel diverticulum can be associated with midgut volvulus in an adult. We present a rare case of midgut volvulus that was associated with a large, small-bowel diverticulum in a 77-year-old woman presenting with chronic recurrent abdominal pain. The CT showed the characteristic whirl sign of twisted mesentery, the small bowel loops along the superior mesenteric artery and a large sac-like small-bowel diverticulum. A small bowel series also demonstrated a corkscrew appearance of proximal jejunum, a finding suggestive of midgut volvulus, and a large jejunal diverticulum. During the laparotomy, the small bowel was seen twisted counterclockwise 270 .deg.. The mesenteric root was very shortened. A 4 cm sized diverticulum was seen on the mesenteric border of jejunum, on the portion about 40 cm distal from the Treitz ligament

  11. Management of diverticular disease: is there room for rifaximin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Claudio; Koch, Maurizio; Capurso, Lucio

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of symptomatic diverticular disease of the colon is aimed at the relief of symptoms and the prevention of major complications. The efficacy of fiber supplementation and of anticholinergic and spasmolytic agents remains controversial. Antibiotics are commonly used in the treatment of inflammatory complications of diverticular disease. Data from open labelled and randomized controlled trials do suggest the efficacy of rifaximin in obtaining symptomatic relief in patients with diverticular disease. Approximately 30% therapeutic gain compared to fiber supplementation only can be expected after one year of intermittent treatment with rifaximin. Considering the safety and tolerability of rifaximin, this drug can be recommended for patients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease. PMID:15855755

  12. Anesthetic management for small bowel enteroscopy in a World Gastroenterology Organization Endoscopy Training Center

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    Somchai Amornyotin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the anesthetic management of patients undergoing small bowel enteroscopy in the World Gastroenterology Organization (WGO Endoscopy Training Center in Thailand. METHODS: Patients who underwent small bowel enteroscopy during the period of March 2005 to March 2011 in Siriraj Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Center were retrospectively analyzed. The patients’ characteristics, pre-anesthetic problems, anesthetic techniques, anesthetic agents, anesthetic time, type and route of procedure and anesthesia-related complications were assessed. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-four patients underwent this procedure during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 57.6 ± 17.2 years, and most were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class II (53.2%. Indications for this procedure were gastrointestinal bleeding (59.7%, chronic diarrhea (14.3%, protein losing enteropathy (2.6% and others (23.4%. Hematologic disease, hypertension, heart disease and electrolyte imbalance were the most common pre-anesthetic problems. General anesthesia with endotracheal tube was the anesthetic technique mainly employed (50.6%. The main anesthetic agents administered were fentanyl, propofol and midazolam. The mean anesthetic time was 94.0 ± 50.5 min. Single balloon and oral (antegrade intubation was the most common type and route of enteroscopy. The anesthesia-related complication rate was relatively high. The overall and cardiovascular-related complication rates including hypotension in the older patient group (aged ? 60 years old were significantly higher than those in the younger group. CONCLUSION: During anesthetic management for small bowel enteroscopy, special techniques and drugs are not routinely required. However, for safety reasons anesthetic personnel need to optimize the patient’s condition.

  13. Studies of the small bowel surface by scanning electron microscopy in infants with persistent diarrhea

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    U. Fagundes-Neto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the ultrastructural abnormalities of the small bowel surface in 16 infants with persistent diarrhea. The age range of the patients was 2 to 10 months, mean 4.8 months. All patients had diarrhea lasting 14 or more days. Bacterial overgrowth of the colonic microflora in the jejunal secretion, at concentrations above 10(4 colonies/ml, was present in 11 (68.7% patients. The stool culture was positive for an enteropathogenic agent in 8 (50.0% patients: for EPEC O111 in 2, EPEC O119 in 1, EAEC in 1, and Shigella flexneri in 1; mixed infections due to EPEC O111 and EAEC in 1 patient, EPEC O119 and EAEC in 1 and EPEC O55, EPEC O111, EAEC and Shigella sonnei in 1. Morphological abnormalities in the small bowel mucosa were observed in all 16 patients, varying in intensity from moderate 9 (56.3% to severe 7 (43.7%. The scanning electron microscopic study of small bowel biopsies from these subjects showed several surface abnormalities. At low magnification (100X most of the villi showed mild to moderate stunting, but on several occasions there was subtotal villus atrophy. At higher magnification (7,500X photomicrographs showed derangement of the enterocytes; on several occasions the cell borders were not clearly defined and very often microvilli were decreased in number and height; in some areas there was a total disappearance of the microvilli. In half of the patients a mucus-fibrinoid pseudomembrane was seen partially coating the enterocytes, a finding that provides additional information on the pathophysiology of persistent diarrhea.

  14. Accelerating the transit time of barium sulphate suspensions in small bowel examinations

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    Summers, David S. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Little France, Edinburgh, Scotland EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Roger, Mark D. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Little France, Edinburgh, Scotland EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Allan, Paul L. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Little France, Edinburgh, Scotland EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Murchison, John T. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Little France, Edinburgh, Scotland EH16 4SA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: john.murchison@luht.scot.nhs.uk

    2007-04-15

    Purpose: To determine whether hyperosmolar and effervescent agents proven individually to accelerate transit time in the barium small bowel examination have an additive effect when combined, surpassing that of either agent alone. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-nine patients were randomised to four groups. Three hundred milliliters of barium sulphate alone was given to the first group. Fifteen milliliters of iodinated hyperosmolar contrast agent (Gastrografin, meglumine/sodium diatrizoate, Schering) was given in addition to barium sulphate to the second group while six packets of effervescent granules (Carbex, Ferring) were added for the third group. The final group was given a combination of both additives and barium sulphate. The time taken following ingestion for the contrast column to reach the caecum, as assessed by frequent interval fluoroscopy, was recorded. A subgroup of 32 patients were selected randomly from the four groups, 8 from each and assessed for quality of examination. Statistical assessments were made using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients were analysed after exclusions. The addition of accelerant to barium sulphate, both individually and in combination significantly reduced the small bowel transit time (p < 0.001). No significant difference existed between the additives when used with barium alone. The combined group had significantly faster transit times compared to the hyperosmolar group (p = 0.02). Differences between combined and effervescent groups tended towards significance (p = 0.09). No significant difference existed between groups when examination quality was assessed. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of combined effervescent and hyperosmolar agents to the barium suspension may significantly shorten the small bowel transit time without adversely affecting examination quality. This has implications for patient acceptability of the examination as well as potentially reducing screening time and therefore radiation dose.

  15. The Contribution of the Video Capsule Endoscopy in Establishing the Indication of Surgical Treatment in the Tumoral Pathology of the Small Bowel

    OpenAIRE

    Vere, C. C.; Streba, C. T.; Rogoveanu, I.; Georgescu, M.; Pirvu, D.; Iordache, Sevastita; Gheonea, D. I.; Saftoiu, A.; Ciurea, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims: Capsule endoscopy (CE) represents a novel method which allows safe, non-invasive and rapid exploration of the small bowel. Our aim was to determine the feasibility CE has in assessing tumoral pathology of the small bowel and aiding surgical teams in determining appropriate treatment. Material and Method Our study was conducted on 11 patients who presented tumoral pathology of the small bowel, from a total of 50 patients investigated by VCE. Malignancy was determined on th...

  16. Disruption of interstitial cells of Cajal networks after massive small bowel resection

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    Jie Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the disruptions of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC in the remaining bowel in rats after massive small bowel resection (mSBR. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats fitting entry criteria were divided randomly into three experimental groups (n = 10 each: Group A rats underwent bowel transection and re-anastomosis (sham and tissue samples were harvested at day 7 post-surgery. Group B and C rats underwent 80% small bowel resection with tissue harvested from Group B rats at day 7 post-surgery, and from Group C rats at day 14 post-surgery. The distribution of ICC at the site of the residual small bowel was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of small intestine samples. The ultrastructural changes of ICC in the remnant ileum of model rats 7 and 14 d after mSBR were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Intracellular recordings of slow wave oscillations were used to evaluate electrical pacemaking. The protein expression of c-kit, ICC phenotypic markers, and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF in intestinal smooth muscle of each group were detected by Western blotting. RESULTS: After mSBR, immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the number of c-kit-positive cells was dramatically decreased in Group B rats compared with sham tissues. Significant ultrastructural changes in ICC with associated smooth muscle hypertrophy were also observed. Disordered spontaneous rhythmic contractions with reduced amplitude (8.5 ± 1.4 mV vs 24.8 ± 1.3 mV, P = 0.037 and increased slow wave frequency (39.5 ± 2.1 cycles/min vs 33.0 ± 1.3 cycles/min, P = 0.044 were found in the residual intestinal smooth muscle 7 d post mSBR. The contractile function and electrical activity of intestinal circular smooth muscle returned to normal levels at 14 d post mSBR (amplitude, 14.9 ± 1.6 mV vs 24.8 ± 1.3 mV; frequency, 30.7 ± 1.7 cycles/min vs 33.0 ± 1.3 cycles/min. The expression of Mscf and c-kit protein was decreased at 7 d (P = 0.026, but gradually returned to normal levels at 14 d. The ICC and associated neural networks were disrupted, which was associated with the phenotype alterations of ICC. CONCLUSION: Massive small bowel resection in rats triggered damage to ICC networks and decreased the number of ICC leading to disordered intestinal rhythmicity. The mSCF/c-kit signaling pathway plays a role in the regulation and maintenance of ICC phenotypes.

  17. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia associated with small bowel injury-case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Vlad; Carâp, Alexandru; Bobic, Simona; Albu, M?d?lina; Nica, Elvira; Socea, Bogdan

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWHs) are rare. Their diagnosis is mostly clinical and can be overlooked in the setting of trauma and distracting injuries or they can be misinterpreted as parietal hematomas. Associated lesions can influence decision making regarding time of operation and surgical technique. Our case highlights the management of a high-energy TAWH that associates a small bowel traumatic lesion. Surgical repair of TAWHs should follow general hernia repair principles. Further exploration of surgical options is necessary for a consensus to be reached. PMID:25972687

  18. Kaposi's Sarcoma Presenting as Acute Small Bowel Obstruction Diagnosed on Multidetector Computed Tomography with Histopathological Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halankar, Jaydeep; Martinovic, Elaine; Hamilton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was originally described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872 as a rare form of multiple hemorrhagic skin lesions. Today it is well documented as a systemic, multifocal, steadily progressive reticuloendothelial system tumor with a predilection for skin and visceral involvement. It occasionally presents as a visceral disease without skin manifestations. We report a case of Kaposi's sarcoma of the small bowel in a seropositive patient who presented with acute right lower quadrant pain and was diagnosed with intestinal obstruction with perforation on contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The diagnosis was confirmed as Kaposi's sarcoma on postoperative histopathological analysis. PMID:25866694

  19. Evaluation of small bowel blood flow in healthy subjects receiving low-dose aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Urara Nishida, Mototsugu Kato, Mutsumi Nishida, Go Kamada, Takeshi Yoshida, Shouko Ono, Yuichi Shimizu, Masahiro Asaka

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between low-dose aspirin-induced small bowel mucosal damage and blood flow, and the effect of rebamipide.METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups: a placebo group given low-dose aspirin plus placebo and a rebamipide group given low-dose aspirin plus rebamipide for a period of 14 d. Capsule endoscopy and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were performed before and after administration of drugs. Ar...

  20. Small bowel parasitosis as cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding diagnosed by capsule endoscopy

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    Dimitrios K Christodoulou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hookworm infection is a relatively common cause of anemia in endemic areas. However, it is rarely encountered in Europe. In this report we describe the case of a 24-year old patient originating from an endemic area who was admitted due to severe anemia, with an Hct of 15.6% and eosinophilia (Eosinophils: 22.4%. While both esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were non-diagnostic, capsule endoscopy revealed a large number of hookworms infesting his small bowel and withdrawing blood. The patient was successfully treated with Albendazole. Capsule endoscopy was proven an important tool in diagnosing intestinal parasitosis.

  1. Meckel’s diverticulitis causing small bowel obstruction by a novel mechanism

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    Tay Sze Guan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Meckel’s diverticulum occurs in 2% of the general population and majority of patients remain asymptomatic. Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common presentation in the paediatric population. While asymptomatic and incidentally found Meckel’s diverticulum may be left alone, surgery is essential for treating a symptomatic patient. Despite advances in imaging and technology, pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult. We present a first report of an unusual mechanism of small bowel obstruction due to Meckel’s diverticulitis in a paediatric patient. The diagnosis was only apparent at laparotomy.

  2. Diverticular disease: changing epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razik, Roshan; Nguyen, Geoffrey C

    2015-05-01

    Diverticulosis is the most common pathological finding in routine colonoscopy. Diverticular disease comprises both diverticulitis and diverticular hemorrhage. This review examines the pathophysiological basis for disease including the importance of the elastin/collagen profile in diverticula formation. It summarizes the latest epidemiological findings with an emphasis on age- and sex-related differences. Risk factors including obesity, medications, hereditary factors, and diet are critically reviewed with the most up-to-date evidence. A detailed appraisal of therapeutic options is provided with special emphasis on 5-aminosalicylate, probiotics, mesalamine, percutaneous abscess drainage, and image-guided embolization. The role of antibiotics and surgery is discussed and compared with guideline recommendations. A more conservative approach, averting admission and even antibiotics, is explored. Finally, a careful review of the data surrounding the utility of colonoscopy in diagnosis and management is provided given the increasing number of reports citing the low incidence of colorectal neoplasia after an episode of diverticulitis. Throughout the review we focus on the older patient with diverticular disease. PMID:25893309

  3. Diet, ageing and genetic factors in the pathogenesis of diverticular disease

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    Daniel Martin Commane, Ramesh Pulendran Arasaradnam, Sarah Mills, John Cummings Mathers, Mike Bradburn

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverticular disease (DD is an age-related disorder of the large bowel which may affect half of the population over the age of 65 in the UK. This high prevalence ranks it as one of the most common bowel disorders in western nations. The majority of patients remain asymptomatic but there are associated life-threatening co-morbidities, which, given the large numbers of people with DD, translates into a considerable number of deaths per annum. Despite this public health burden, relatively little seems to be known about either the mechanisms of development or causality. In the 1970s, a model of DD formulated the concept that diverticula occur as a consequence of pressure-induced damage to the colon wall amongst those with a low intake of dietary fiber. In this review, we have examined the evidence regarding the influence of ageing, diet, inflammation and genetics on DD development. We argue that the evidence supporting the barotrauma hypothesis is largely anecdotal. We have also identified several gaps in the knowledge base which need to be filled before we can complete a model for the etiology of diverticular disease.

  4. Characteristic imaging features of carcinoid tumors of the small bowel in MR enteroclysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the value of MR enteroclysis (MRE) in the localization and characterization of primary carcinoid tumors of the small bowel and to describe typical imaging features. Twenty patients with suspicion of primary small bowel carcinoid tumors (pCT) were recruited to undergo MRE following nasojejunal intubation and small bowel filling with 2.5 l of 0.5% methylcellulose solution under MR fluoroscopic guidance. MRE was performed on a 1.5 T MR scanner including T2w SSFSE, SSFP and contrast enhanced T1w GRE sequences with fat saturation. Fifteen patients, who subsequently had surgery for resection of their pCT, were retrospectively included in the study. All MRE were analyzed as for the presence, location, number, size, multiplicity and morphologic appearance of the pCT by two board certified radiologists in consensus. The conspicuity of the tumors was rated for each sequence type separately, according to a 4-point rating scale. Signal intensity measurements were performed in tumor and muscle. The presence of desmoplastic reaction, vascular involvement and lymph node metastases was also analyzed. pCT were correctly identified and localized in 14/15 patients. Due to their hyperenhancement tumors was best detected on contrast-enhanced T1w fat saturated GRE sequences. SSFSE was clearly inferior with the tumors being either hyperintense or isointense to muscle. pCT appeared as nodular intraluminal masses in 40% of the cases, as focal wall thickening in 33.3% and in 20% wocal wall thickening in 33.3% and in 20% with both. Mean size was 25 (7-46 mm) with a tendency to smaller size for ileal tumors. MRE failed to depict superficial micronodular peritoneal spread in one patient. Desmoplastic reaction was observed in 73.3% of the cases with mesenteric masses exhibiting lower signal than the pCT due to fibrotic changes. MRE is a valuable method for the detection and localization of primary carcinoid tumors, provided that appropriate bowel distension is achieved. Various characteristic morphologic features could be identified which may contribute to characterize pCT and their loco-regional metastases. (orig.)

  5. Surgery for small bowel Crohn?s disease: Experience of a tertiary referral center

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    Al Salamah Saleh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim: The study aims to evaluate the clinical presentation and surgical management of small bowel Crohn?s disease (CD at a tertiary referral center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients with the diagnosis of small bowel CD from March 1999 up to December 2003. The records of 28 patients were reviewed for demographic data, clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, indications of surgery, surgical procedures, postoperative complications and follow-up. The final diagnosis of CD was based on paraffin section histopathology reports. Results: The mean age was 34 years, female to male ratio was 1:2.1. The medical treatment was offered to 22 patients in whom the diagnosis of CD was established after investigations or they were known to have CD before admission. Thirteen patients (46.4% responded to medical treatment, whereas 15 patients (53.6% required surgery. The indications for surgery were intestinal obstruction (seven patients, right iliac fossa mass lesion of uncertain nature (three patients, enterocutaneous fistula and pelvic collection (one patient, failure of medical treatment (two patients, and acute abdomen (two patients. The surgical procedures carried out were limited right hemicolectomy in ten patients, segmental bowel resection (two patients and stricturoplasty of the stenosed segment (three patients. Conclusion: Crohn?s disease is not uncommon in KSA. It is a disease of young patients, half of patients needed surgery at some stage. Intestinal obstruction remains the most common indication of surgery. The surgery of CD needs a good cooperation between the surgeon, radiologist and gastroenterologist

  6. Quantitative in vivo analysis of small bowel motility using MRI examinations in mice--proof of concept study.

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    Bickelhaupt, S; Wurnig, M C; Lesurtel, M; Patak, M A; Boss, A

    2015-01-01

    Small bowel motility analyses using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could reduce current invasive techniques in animal studies and comply with the 'three Rs' rule for human animal experimentation. Thus we investigated the feasibility of in vivo small bowel motility analyses in mice using dynamic MRI acquisitions. All experimental procedures were approved by the institutional animal care committee. Six C57BL/6 mice underwent MRI without additional preparation after isoflurane anaesthetization in the prone position on a 4.7 T small animal imager equipped with a linear polarized hydrogen birdcage whole-body mouse coil. Motility was assessed using a true fast imaging in a steady precession sequence in the coronal orientation (acquisition time per slice 512?ms, in-plane resolution 234?×?234?µm, matrix size 128?×?128, slice thickness 1?mm) over 30?s corresponding to 60 acquisitions. Motility was manually assessed measuring the small bowel diameter change over time. The resulting motility curves were analysed for the following parameters: contraction frequency per minute (cpm), maximal contraction amplitude (maximum to minimum [mm]), luminal diameter (mm) and luminal occlusion rate. Small bowel motility quantification was found to be possible in all animals with a mean small bowel contraction frequency of 10.67?cpm (SD?±?3.84), a mean amplitude of the contractions of 1.33?mm (SD?±?0.43) and a mean luminal diameter of 1.37?mm (SD?±?0.42). The mean luminal occlusion rate was 1.044 (SD?±?0.45%/100). The mean duration needed for a single motility assessment was 185?s (SD?±?54.02). Thus our study demonstrated the feasibility of an easy and time-sparing functional assessment for in vivo small bowel motility analyses in mice. This could improve the development of small animal models of intestinal diseases and provide a method similar to clinical MR examinations that is in concordance with the 'three Rs' for humane animal experimentation. PMID:25266965

  7. Diverticular disease of the right colon

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    Boutross-Tadross Odette

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of colonic diverticular disease varies with national origin, cultural background and diet. The frequency of this disease increases with advancing age. Right-sided diverticular disease is uncommon and reported to occur in 1-2% of surgical specimens in European and American series. In contrast the disease is more prevalent and reported in 43-50% of specimens in Asian series. Various lines of evidence suggest this variation may represent hereditary differences. The aim of the study is to report all cases of right sided diverticular disease underwent surgical resection or identified during pathological examination of right hemicoloectomy specimens Methods A retrospective review of all surgical specimens with right sided colonic diverticular disease selected from a larger database of all colonic diverticulosis and diverticulitis surgical specimen reported between January 1993 and December 2010 at the Pathology Department McMaster University Medical Centre Canada. The clinical and pathological features of these cases were reviewed Results The review identified 15 cases of right colon diverticulosis. The clinical diagnoses of these cases were appendicitis, diverticulitis or adenocarcinoma. Eight cases of single congenital perforated diverticuli were identified and seven cases were incidental multiple acquired diverticuli found in specimen resected for right side colonic carcinomas/large adenomas. Laparotomy or laparoscopic assisted haemicolectomies were done for all cases. Pathological examination showed caecal wall thickening with inflammation associated with perforated diverticuli. Histology confirmed true solitary diverticuli that exhibited in two cases thick walled vessels in the submucosa and muscular layer indicating vascular malformation/angiodysplasia. Acquired diverticuli tend to be multiple and are mostly seen in specimens resected for neoplastic right colon diseases. Conclusion Single true diverticular disease of the right colon is usually of congenital type and affects younger age group and may be associated with angiodysplasia in some cases. Multiple false diverticuli are more seen in association with caecal carcinoma or large adenomas. These are usually asymptomatic and are more seen in older patients. However this study dose not reflects the true incidence of the disease in the general population.

  8. Small bowel ischaemia and perforation as a complication of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura in a previously healthy adult

    OpenAIRE

    Locke, T. E.; Stewart, D.; Patel, K.; Takou, A.

    2012-01-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a small vessel vasculitis with multi-system manifestations that commonly affects children. We describe a case of new onset Henoch-Schönlein purpura in a previously healthy 42-year-old female who required an emergency laparotomy for small bowel perforation.

  9. Recent trends in the treatment of well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the small bowel

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    Gilles Poncet, Jean-Luc Faucheron, Thomas Walter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the small bowel are fairly rare neoplasms that present many clinical challenges. They secrete peptides and neuroamines that may cause carcinoid syndrome. However, many are clinically silent until late presentation with major effects. Initial treatment aims to control carcinoid syndrome with somatostatin analogs. Even if there is metastatic spread, surgical resection of the primitive tumor should be discussed in cases of retractile mesenteritis, small bowel ischemia or subocclusive syndrome in order to avoid any acute complication, in particular at the beginning of somatostatin analog treatment. The choice of treatment depends on the symptoms, general health of the patient, tumor burden, degree of uptake of radionuclide, histological features of the tumor, and tumor growth. Management strategies include surgery for cure (which is rarely achieved or for cytoreduction, radiological interventions (transarterial embolization or radiofrequency ablation, and chemotherapy (interferon and somatostatin analogs. New biological agent and radionuclide targeted therapies are under investigation. Diffuse and non-evolving lesions should also be simply monitored. Finally, it has to be emphasized that it is of the utmost importance to enroll these patients with a rare disease in prospective clinical trials assessing new therapeutic strategies.

  10. Segmental small bowel necrosis associated with antiphospholipid syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun-Ying; Ye, Xiao-Hua; Ding, Jin; Wu, Xiao-Kang

    2015-04-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is a multi-system disease characterized by the formation of thromboembolic complications and/or pregnancy morbidity, and with persistently increased titers of antiphospholipid antibodies. We report the case of a 50-year-old, previously healthy man who presented with fever and new-onset, dull abdominal pain. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed segmental small bowel obstruction, for which an emergency laparotomy was performed. Histopathologic examination of resected tissues revealed multiple intestinal and mesenteric thromboses of small vessels. Laboratory tests for serum antiphospholipid (anticardiolipin IgM) and anti-?2-glycoprotein I antibodies were positive. Despite proactive implementation of anticoagulation, steroid, and antibiotic therapies, the patient's condition rapidly deteriorated, and he died 22 d after admission. This case highlights that antiphospholipid syndrome should be suspected in patients with unexplainable ischemic bowel and intestinal necrosis presenting with insidious clinical features that may be secondary to the disease, as early diagnosis is critical to implement timely treatments in order to ameliorate the disease course. PMID:25852299

  11. Small bowel polypectomy by double balloon enteroscopy: Correlation with prior capsule endoscopy

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    Gabriel Rahmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the feasibility of small bowel polypectomy using double balloon enteroscopy and to evaluate the correlation with capsule endoscopy (CE. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of a single tertiary hospital. Twenty-five patients treated by enteroscopy for small bowel polyps diagnosed by CE or other imaging techniques were included. The correlation between CE and enteroscopy (correlation coefficient of Kendall for the number of polyps, intra-class coefficient for the size and coefficient of correlation kappa for the location was evaluated. RESULTS: There were 31 polypectomies and 12 endoscopic mucosal resections with limited morbidity and no mortality. Histological analysis revealed 27 hamartomas, 6 adenomas and 3 lipomas. Strong agreement between CE and optical enteroscopy was observed for both location (Kappa value: 0.90 and polyp size (Kappa value: 0.76, but only moderate agreement was found for the number of polyps (Kendall value: 0.47. CONCLUSION: Double balloon enteroscopy is safe for performing polypectomy. Previous CE is useful in selecting the endoscopic approach and to predicting the difficulty of the procedure.

  12. Evaluation of small bowel blood flow in healthy subjects receiving low-dose aspirin

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    Urara Nishida, Mototsugu Kato, Mutsumi Nishida, Go Kamada, Takeshi Yoshida, Shouko Ono, Yuichi Shimizu, Masahiro Asaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between low-dose aspirin-induced small bowel mucosal damage and blood flow, and the effect of rebamipide.METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups: a placebo group given low-dose aspirin plus placebo and a rebamipide group given low-dose aspirin plus rebamipide for a period of 14 d. Capsule endoscopy and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were performed before and after administration of drugs. Areas under the curves and peak value of time-intensity curve were calculated.RESULTS: Absolute differences in areas under the curves were -1102.5 (95% CI: -1980.3 to -224.7, P = 0.0194 in the placebo group and -152.7 (95% CI: -1604.2 to 641.6, P = 0.8172 in the rebamipide group. Peak values of time intensity curves were -148.0 (95% CI: -269.4 to -26.2, P = 0.0225 in the placebo group and 28.3 (95% CI: -269.0 to 325.6, P = 0.8343 in the rebamipide group. Capsule endoscopy showed mucosal breaks only in the placebo group.CONCLUSION: Short-term administration of low-dose aspirin is associated with small bowel injuries and blood flow.

  13. The Dose-Volume Relationship of Small Bowel Irradiation and Acute Grade 3 Diarrhea During Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Previous work has found a highly significant relationship between the irradiated small-bowel volume and development of Grade 3 small-bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer. This study tested the previously defined parameters in a much larger group of patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 96 consecutive patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy for rectal cancer had treatment planning computed tomographic scans with small-bowel contrast that allowed the small bowel to be outlined with calculation of a small-bowel dose-volume histogram for the initial intended pelvic treatment to 45 Gy. Patients with at least one parameter above the previously determined dose-volume parameters were considered high risk, whereas those with all parameters below these levels were low risk. The grade of diarrhea and presence of liquid stool was determined prospectively. Results: There was a highly significant association with small-bowel dose-volume and Grade 3 diarrhea (p ? 0.008). The high-risk and low-risk parameters were predictive with Grade 3 diarrhea in 16 of 51 high-risk patients and in 4 of 45 low-risk patients (p = 0.01). Patients who had undergone irradiation preoperatively had a lower incidence of Grade 3 diarrhea than those treated postoperatively (18% vs. 28%; p = 0.31); however, the predictive ability of the high-risk/low-risk parameters was better for preoperatively (p = 0.03) than for postoperatively treated patients (p = 0.15). Revised risk paramepatients (p = 0.15). Revised risk parameters were derived that improved the overall predictive ability (p = 0.004). Conclusions: The highly significant dose-volume relationship and validity of the high-risk and low-risk parameters were confirmed in a large group of patients. The risk parameters provided better modeling for the preoperative patients than for the postoperative patients

  14. Double-illumination photoacoustic microscopy of intestinal hemodynamics following massive small bowel resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junjie; Rowland, Kathryn J.; Wang, Lidai; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Warner, Brad W.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    Massive small bowel resection (SBR) results in villus angiogenesis and intestinal adaptation. The exact mechanism that causes intestinal villus angiogenesis remains unknown. We hypothesize that hemodynamic changes within the remnant bowel after SBR will trigger intestinal angiogenesis. To validate this, we used photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to image the microvascular system of the intestine in C57B6 mice and to measure blood flow and oxygen saturation (sO2) of a supplying artery and vein. Baseline measurements were made 6 cm proximal to the ileal-cecal junction (ICJ) prior to resection. A 50% proximal bowel resection was then performed, and measurements were again recorded at the same location immediately, 1, 3 and 7 days following resection. The results show that arterial and venous sO2 were similar prior to SBR. Immediately following SBR, the arterial and venous sO2 decreased by 14.3 +/- 2.7% and 32.7 +/- 6.6%, respectively, while the arterial and venous flow speed decreased by 62.9 +/- 17.3% and 60.0 +/- 20.1%, respectively. Such significant decreases in sO2 and blood flow indicate a hypoxic state after SBR. Within one week after SBR, both sO2 and blood flow speed had gradually recovered. By 7 days after SBR, arterial and venous sO2 had increased to 101.0 +/- 2.9% and 82.7 +/- 7.3% of the baseline values, respectively, while arterial and venous flow speed had increased to 106.0 +/- 21.4% and 150.0 +/- 29.6% of the baseline values, respectively. Such increases in sO2 and blood flow may result from angiogenesis following SBR.

  15. TRATAMIENTO LAPAROSCÓPICO DE LA OBSTRUCCIÓN INTESTINAL POR BRIDAS / Laparoscopic treatment of adhesive small bowel obstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nicolás, Quezada S; Felipe, León F; Juan de la, Llera K; Ricardo, Funke H; Mauricio, Gabrielli N; Fernando, Crovari E; Jorge, Martínez C; Camilo, Boza W; Nicolás, Jarufe C.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El tratamiento de la Obstrucción Intestinal por Bridas (OIB) incluye alternativas conservadoras y quirúrgicas, esta última tradicionalmente a través de cirugía abierta. El abordaje laparoscópico ha sido incorporado recientemente, sin embargo, existe información limitada sobre su seguri [...] dad y sus resultados varían considerablemente. Nuestro objetivo es presentar la experiencia de nuestro centro en el tratamiento laparoscópico de la OIB. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo incluyendo pacientes con el diagnóstico de OIB que fueron sometidos a cirugía laparoscópica en nuestro centro, entre junio de 2003 y abril de 2013. Análisis de variables demográficas, quirúrgicas y resultados obtenidos en términos de tasa de conversión, tiempo operatorio, tiempo de realimentación y estadía hospitalaria. Análisis estadístico con pruebas no paramétricas. Resultados: Serie de 38 pacientes, edad promedio: 51 ± 16 años, 47% sexo masculino. 53% con antecedente de cirugía abdominal previa. Resolución completa por laparoscopía fue posible en 31 pacientes (82%), con 7 conversiones a cirugía abierta. La mediana de tiempo operatorio fue de 60 m (25-180), la mediana de tiempo a la realimentación fue de 24 h (24-192) y la mediana de estadía hospitalaria de 4 (2-52) días. Dos pacientes requirieron reoperaciones durante su hospitalización; uno debido a obstrucción intestinal persistente y otro debido a colitis isquémica. No se presentaron otras complicaciones ni mortalidad en esta serie. Conclusiones: El abordaje laparoscópico en OIB es factible de realizar en pacientes seleccionados, logrando buenos resultados en caso de resolución completa por laparoscopía. Pacientes sin cirugías abdominales previas son buenos candidatos para un abordaje laparoscópico inicial. Abstract in english Background: Treatment options for adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) involve conservative and surgical management, traditionally through open adhesiolysis. Laparoscopic approach has been performed in recent years; however, limited data exist on its safety and results vary considerably. Our aim [...] is to report our experience of laparoscopic treatment for ASBO. Methods: Retrospective study including patients admitted with the diagnosis of adhesive small bowel obstruction and that were submitted to laparoscopic exploration, between June 2003 and April 2013. We analyzed demographic, surgical variables and outcomes in terms of conversion rate, operative time, re-feeding time and length of stay. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Series of 38 patients submitted to laparoscopic exploration, mean age: 51 ± 16 years, 47% male. 53% had prior intra-abdominal surgeries. Laparoscopic resolution of bowel obstruction was possible in 31 patients (82%), with 7 conversions to open surgery. Median operative time was 60 (25-180) minutes, median re-feeding time was 24 (24-192) hours and median length of stay was 4 (2-52) days. Two patients required re-intervention during their hospital stay, one due to persistent bowel obstruction and one due to ischemic colitis. There were no other complications or mortality. Conclusions: Laparoscopy in adhesive small bowel obstruction was a feasible approach in this series, with good results when laparoscopic resolution is achieved. Patients with no prior surgeries seem to be good candidates for this approach.

  16. Capsule endoscopy : a cause of late small bowel obstruction and perforation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Anders Peter; Burcharth, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Case Report. A 71-year-old man was admitted to the department of gastroenterology with diffuse abdominal pain. Through the previous 12 months, the patient had experienced episodes of vomiting and watery diarrhea of increasing intensity as well as weight loss. The patient was evaluated with ultrasound, MRI, and subsequently a capsule endoscopy. Six months later, the patient presented, and an abdominal CT-scan showed mechanical small bowel obstruction with suspicion of metallic foreign body and perforation. Laparotomy showed perforation, stenosis, and foreign body, approximately 5?cm from the ileocecal valve. A right hemicolectomy and distal ileectomy (60?cm) with an ileostomy were performed. On further inspection of resection, a capsule endoscope was found impacted in a stenosis. The ileostomy was later reversed without complications. Conclusion. It is important to be aware of the possibility of capsule retention, especially in patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease, due to the propensity of Crohn's disease to form stenosis of the bowel. In cases where a stenosis is suspected, it is warranted to perform a patency capsule swallow before subjecting the patient to a capsule endoscopy.

  17. Adenocarcinoma with adenoma in the jejunum suggesting an adenoma-carcinoma sequence in the small bowel: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yorika; Adachi, Yasushi; Okamoto, Hideki; Kiyama, Yoshiaki; Koyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Shin-Ichi; Li, Qing; Sakaida, Noriko; Uemura, Yoshiko; Ikehara, Susumu

    2014-08-01

    Other than that in the duodenum, adenocarcinoma in the small bowel is rare. The present study describes a case of adenocarcinoma with adenoma in the jejunum. A 70-year-old male was admitted to hospital due to dehydration induced by abdominal discomfort and difficulty with oral intake. Computed tomography revealed a tumor in the upper side of the jejunum, which was subsequently resected. The tumor contained adenocarcinoma and adenoma. The protein expression of p53 and Ki-67 was analyzed in the normal mucosa, adenoma and adenocarcinoma. The number of epithelial cells expressing p53 and Ki-67 was found to increase in the adenoma tissue compared with that in the normal mucosa. In the adenocarcinoma tissue, the number of cells expressing p53 and Ki-67 further increased, suggesting that an adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence may occur in the small bowel, similar to that observed in the large bowel. PMID:25009647

  18. Outcome of Jejuno-Ileal Atresia Associated with Intraoperative Finding of Volvulus of Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Sinha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the outcome of patients with jeuno-ileal atresia (JIA associated with the intraoperative finding of volvulus of small bowel (group A with that of JIA without volvulus (group B. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective observational study conducted at one of the two units of Pediatric Surgery, in a tertiary care public hospital of India, from January 2001 to December 2010. Hospital records were retrieved and analyzed. During this time period, 65 patients with JIA were operated of which 40 (61.5% had ileal atresia (IA and 25 (38.5% had jejunal atresia (JA. Eleven (16.9% patients had associated intraoperative finding of volvulus of small bowel (Group A and were studied and compared with group B- not associated with intraoperative findings of volvulus of small bowel (n=54. The demography, clinical features, operative findings, associated anomalies, anastomotic leakage, and outcome were compared. Results: Group A comprising of 6 boys and 5 girls, had 8 IA and 3 JA; one case each of Type 3b and Type 4 JIA was seen. Associated anomalies included meconium ileus (n=2, Down’s syndrome (n=1 and malrotation (n=1. Anastomotic leak rate was 75% for IA and 66.7% for JA. The mortality was 91% in Group A, 100% for IA and 67% for JA. Group B comprising of 37 boys and 17 girls, had 32 IA and 22 JA; 2 cases of Type 4 and 1 case of Type 3b JIA was seen. Associated anomalies were malrotation (n=2, meconium ileus (n=1, exomphalos (n=1, gastroschisis (n=1 and ileal duplication cyst (n=1. The anastomotic leak rate for JA was 8/21 (38.1% and IA was 3/28 (10.7%; persistent obstruction was seen in 3/21(14.3% JA and 1/28 (3.6% IA patients. In group B, overall mortality rate was 8/22 (36.4% for JA and 9/32 (28% for IA. The morbidity and mortality was significantly higher in group A when compared to group B. Conclusions: JIA associated with volvulus (without malrotation is a sinister entity with a dismal outcome in our experience.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in patients with small bowel transplantation: Single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do?an, Sait Murat; K?l?nç, Selçuk; Kebapç?, Eyüp; Tu?men, Cem; Gürkan, Alp; Baran, Ma?allah; Kurtulmu?, Yusuf; Ölmez, Mustafa; Karaca, Cezmi

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on the prevention of acute rejection and graft vs host disease following small bowel transplantation. METHODS: In our transplantation center, 6 isolated intestinal transplants have been performed with MSC therapy since 2009. The primary reasons for transplants were short gut syndrome caused by surgical intestine resection for superior mesenteric artery thrombosis (n = 4), Crohn’s disease (n = 1) and intestinal aganglionosis (n = 1). Two of the patients were children. At the time of reperfusion, the first dose of MSCs cultured from the patient’s bone marrow was passed into the transplanted intestinal artery at a dose of 1000000 cells/kg. The second and third doses of MSCs were given directly into the mesenteric artery through the arterial anastomosis using an angiography catheter on day 15 and 30 post-transplant. RESULTS: The median follow-up for these patients was 10.6 mo (min: 2 mo-max: 30 mo). Three of the patients developed severe acute rejection. One of these patients did not respond to bolus steroid therapy. Although the other two patients did respond to anti-rejection treatment, they developed severe fungal and bacterial infections. All of these patients died in the 2nd and 3rd months post-transplant due to sepsis. The remaining patients who did not have acute rejection had good quality of life with no complications observed during the follow-up period. In addition, their intestinal grafts were functioning properly in the 13th, 25th and 30th month post-transplant. The patients who survived did not encounter any problems related to MSC transplantation. CONCLUSION: Although this is a small case series and not a randomized study, it is our opinion that small bowel transplantation is an effective treatment for intestinal failure, and MSC therapy may help to prevent acute rejection and graft vs host disease following intestinal transplantation. PMID:25009395

  20. A prospective study of differences in duodenum compared to remaining small bowel motion between radiation treatments: Implications for radiation dose escalation in carcinoma of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahab Sasha H

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose As a foundation for a dose escalation trial, we sought to characterize duodenal and non-duodenal small bowel organ motion between fractions of pancreatic radiation therapy. Patients and methods Nine patients (4 women, 5 men undergoing radiation therapy were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients had up to four weekly CT scans performed during their course of radiation therapy. Pancreas, duodenum and non-duodenal small bowel were then contoured for each CT scan. On the initial scan, a four-field plan was generated to fully cover the pancreas. This plan was registered to each subsequent CT scan. Dose-volume histogram (DVH analyses were performed for the duodenum, non-duodenal small bowel, large bowel, and pancreas. Results With significant individual variation, the volume of duodenum receiving at least 80% of the prescribed dose was consistently greater than the remaining small bowel. In the patient with the largest inter-fraction variation, the fractional volume of non-duodenal small bowel irradiated to at least the 80% isodose line ranged from 1% to 20%. In the patient with the largest inter-fraction variation, the fractional volume of duodenum irradiated to at least the 80% isodose line ranged from 30% to 100%. Conclusion The volume of small bowel irradiated during four-field pancreatic radiation therapy changes substantially between fractions. This suggests dose escalation may be possible. However, dose limits to the duodenum should be stricter than for other segments of small bowel.

  1. Tumor estromal gastrointestinal de intestino delgado Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Marivaldo Benício da Silva

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (gists represent relatively rare lesions that arise from connective tissue elements located along the entire length of the gut. They were initially identified by immunohistochemical investigation, proving their origin from nondifferentiated mesenchymal cells. Only a minority of this lesions, mainly those confined to the esophagus and rectum, have been shown to correspond to mature, well-differentiated types of neoplasms such as leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. The majority of gists corresponds to a heterogeneous group of lesions that have as their common denominator an immature proliferation of epithelioid or spindle cells arising from its muscle layers, or between them, showing partial or incomplete myoide, neural, ganglionic, or mixed features of differentiation. This case report intends to show a gist of small bowel in a male, 46 years old, with a two-year of evolution.

  2. Volvulus of Small Bowel in a Case of Simple Meconium Ileus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Kayastha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Meconium ileus is one of important causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Many patients respond well to nonsurgical management with enemas, however, few patients may develop complications in the postnatal period thus requiring urgent operation. A 2 day old newborn presented with clinical features of intestinal obstruction. There was a suspicion of meconium ileus. Contrast x-ray with gastrografin enema was suggestive of unused colon with beaded appearance. Patient had to be surgery as repeated enemas did not improve the condition and progressive abdominal distension occurred. At exploration twist of the dilated, meconium filled loop of small bowel found. De-twisting of the volvulus done and Bishop Koop ileostomy fashioned. Patient made an uneventful recovery. Stoma was closed six months later.

  3. Volvulus of small bowel in a case of simple meconium ileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Kanchan; Mirza, Bilal; Sheikh, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    Meconium ileus is one of important causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Many patients respond well to nonsurgical management with enemas, however, few patients may develop complications in the postnatal period thus requiring urgent operation. A 2 day old newborn presented with clinical features of intestinal obstruction. There was a suspicion of meconium ileus. Contrast x-ray with gastrografin enema was suggestive of unused colon with beaded appearance. Patient had to be surgery as repeated enemas did not improve the condition and progressive abdominal distension occurred. At exploration twist of the dilated, meconium filled loop of small bowel found. De-twisting of the volvulus done and Bishop Koop ileostomy fashioned. Patient made an uneventful recovery. Stoma was closed six months later. PMID:22953274

  4. Massive retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma presenting with small bowel obstruction 18 years following initial diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, E M P

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Ganglioneuroma is a rare tumour of neural crest origin, which arises from maturation of a neuroblastoma. While previously considered to be non-functioning, they are now known to be frequently endocrinologically active. AIMS AND METHODS: We report a case of a massive retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma presenting with small bowel obstruction in an adult, 18 years after initial diagnosis. Urinary dopamine levels were elevated, but other catecholamines were within normal limits. This is the first report in the English-language literature of a retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma presenting with or causing intestinal obstruction. We also review the metabolic, radiological, and histological features of these tumours. Relevant publications were identified from a Medline search using the MeSH headings \\'ganglioneuroma\\

  5. Capsule endoscopy in suspected small bowel Crohns disease: Economic impact of disease diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Leighton, Ian M Gralnek, Randel E Richner, Michael J Lacey, Frank J Papatheofanis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To model clinical and economic benefits of capsule endoscopy (CE compared to ileo-colonoscopy and small bowel follow-through (SBFT for evaluation of suspected Crohn’s disease (CD.METHODS: Using decision analytic modeling, total and yearly costs of diagnostic work-up for suspected CD were calculated, including procedure-related adverse events, hospitalizations, office visits, and medications. The model compared CE to SBFT following ileo-colonoscopy and secondarily compared CE to SBFT for initial evaluation.RESULTS: Aggregate charges for newly diagnosed, medically managed patients are approximately $8295. Patients requiring aggressive medical management costs are $29?508; requiring hospitalization, $49?074. At sensitivity > 98.7% and specificity of > 86.4%, CE is less costly than SBFT.CONCLUSION: Costs of CE for diagnostic evaluation of suspected CD is comparable to SBFT and may be used immediately following ileo-colonoscopy.

  6. Acute small bowel obstruction caused by endometriosis: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Ceglie, Claudio Bilardi, Sabrina Blanchi, Massimo Picasso, Marcello Di Muzio, Alberto Trimarchi, Massimo Conio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement of endometriosis has been found in 3%-37% of menstruating women and exclusive localization on the ileum is very rare (1%-7%. Endometriosis of the distal ileum is an infrequent cause of intestinal obstruction, ranging from 7% to 23% of all cases with intestinal involvement. We report a case in which endometrial infiltration of the small bowel caused acute obstruction requiring emergency surgery, in a woman whose symptoms were not related to menses. Histology of the resected specimen showed that endometriosis was mainly prevalent in the muscularis propria and submucosa and that the mucosa was not ulcerated but had inflammation and glandular alteration. Endometrial lymph node involvement, with a cystic glandular pattern was also detected.

  7. Seatbelt injury causing small bowel devascularisation: case series and review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dowd, Vincent

    2012-01-31

    The use of seatbelts has increased significantly in the last twenty years, leading to a decrease in mortality from road traffic accidents (RTA). However, this increase in seatbelt use has also led to a change in the spectrum of injuries from RTA; abdominal injuries, particularly intestinal injuries have dramatically increased with the routine use of seatbelts. Such intestinal injuries frequently result from improper placement of the "lap belt". We present 3 cases in which passengers wearing a seatbelt sustained significant devascularisation injuries to the small bowel requiring emergency surgical intervention. A high index of suspicion is crucial in such cases to prevent delays in diagnosis that can lead to severe complications and adverse outcomes. It is evident that while advocating seatbelt use, the importance of education in correct seatbelt placement should also be a focus of public health strategies to reduce RTA morbidity and mortality.

  8. Clear cell sarcoma of the small bowel: a potential pitfall. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Girish; Quinn, Adam M; Williams, Jonathan; Hammadeh, Rasheed

    2005-10-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (soft-part melanoma) is a very rare entity with a distinctive histopathologic and molecular profile. Herein, we present the sixth reported case of a primary gastrointestinal clear cell sarcoma discovered in a 21-year-old woman. The patient underwent numerous tests prior to the diagnosis of her small bowel pathology, including the use of capsule endoscopy, which allowed for visualization and final localization of the tumour. Additionally, we discuss this rare type of sarcoma that affects young adults and has a poor prognosis characterized by the balanced chromosomal translocation t(12;22)(q13;q12) with special emphasis on the necessity for pathologists to be able to distinguish it from melanoma -- potentially a major pitfall in diagnosis. PMID:16309433

  9. MALIGNANT MELANOMA WITH MULTIPLE METASTASES ON THE SMALL BOWEL - CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Grigorean

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malignant melanomas often cause intestinal metastasis.Metastases of malignant melanoma are the most common secondary tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.The incidence of intestinal metastasis of malignant melanomas is 1.5-4.4% in clinical studies, reaching upto 35.6-58% in necroptic studies. AIM: We present a clinical case of multiple metastases to the smallbowel with point of departure right retroauricular malignant melanoma. METHODS: Patient T.I., 76years old, is admitted in our clinic with occlusion clinical features installed by approximately 2-3 days.From anamnesis we retain a subocclusion clinical feature installed by approximately 1-2 months, withgradual overheating. On clinical examination a right supraclavicular tumoral formation is found, sizing2.5-3cm, suggestive for malignant melanoma. The abdominal CT shows multiple tumoral formations inthe small bowel, with no other secondary determinations in the other organs. RESULTS: Intraoperatorywe have found six secondary lesions on the jejunum, two on the ileum and two mesenteric metastases. Itwas done partial enterectomy on the jejunal segment with latero-lateral jejuno-jejunal anastomoses andpartial enterectomy on the ileum segment with ileostoma. Postoperatory short-term outcome, at six andtwelve months was favorable. CONCLUSIONS: Small bowel metastases of malignant melanoma is thefirst suspected diagnosis in a patient with oclusive/suboclusive intestinal manifestations and clinicallesions suggestive of malignant melanoma. The patient presentes for acute complications (occlusion,intestinal perforation or chronic complications (chronic digestive bleeding, anemic syndrome. Oftennon-specific symptoms are present, which delay the diagnosis. Surgical treatment is the first therapeuticoption, even in case of multiple secondary determinations.

  10. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Novel Insight in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos J. Giamarellos Bourboulis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 65-84% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS presents with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. SIBO is defined as the presence of more than 105 cfu/ml of colonic type bacteria in the lumen of the small bowel. It is more common in patients with IBS and predominant bloating and diarrhea. Based on the implication of SIBO in the pathogenesis of IBS, six trials have been conducted and analyzed in this review aiming to define a role of rifaximin for the management of IBS. Rifaximin is an orally administered antimicrobial with limited systemic absorption and considerable potency against bacteria implicated in SIBO. In two trials patients with SIBO irrespective of the presence of IBS were enrolled. A positive effect of rifaximin was denoted in the eradication of SIBO in both.One double-blind, prospective randomized trial over placebo in patients with IBS denoted a substantial improvement of the global assessment of patients after treatment with rifaximin. Benefit remained for 10 weeks after stop of treatment. A major benefit was disclosed for bloating. Another three prospective randomized trials have been conducted in patients with both IBS and SIBO. Rifaximin significantly eradicated SIBO and improved bloating.These findings led the Task Force for IBS of the American College of Gastroenterology to appoint a grade of evidence of 1B for the administration of rifaximin in the management of IBS. The proposed oral regimen is 400 mg three times daily for 10 days. However, results of large Phase III trials are mandatory.

  11. Anaesthetic Management of a patient with Myasthenia Gravis and Small Bowel Intussusception for Jejuno-Ileal Anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting voluntary skeletal muscles. The altered sensitivity of acetylcholine receptors to muscle relaxants and concomitant treatment with anticholinesterase in these patients affect their anaesthetic management. Patients who have undergone bowel anastomosis and are on regular anticholinesterase treatment are susceptible to anastomotic leaks. We report successful anaesthetic management of class I myasthenic patient with coexisting small bowel intussusception operated for jejuno-ileal anastomoses using regional, inhalational and intravenous (i.v anaesthesia based on train of four responses, and avoiding the use of reversal (anticholinesterase.

  12. Value of CT findings to predict surgical ischemia in small bowel obstruction: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim was to assess the diagnostic performance in determining strangulation in small bowel obstruction (SBO) for five CT findings commonly considered in published small bowel obstruction (SBO) management guidelines. Medical databases were searched for ''bowel obstruction'', ''computed tomography'', ''strangulation'', and related terms. Two reviewers independently selected articles for CT findings investigated with surgical or histological reference standards for strangulation. Bivariate random-effects meta-analytical methods were used. A total of 768 patients, including 205 with strangulation from nine studies, were evaluated. The reduced bowel wall enhancement CT sign had the highest specificity (95 %, CI 75-99), with a positive LR of 11.07 (2.27-53.88) and DOR of 22.86 (4.99-104.61). The mesenteric fluid sign had the highest sensitivity (89 %, CI 75-96) with a negative LR of 0.16 (0.07-0.39) and a DOR of 13.9 (5.73-33.75). The bowel wall thickness had a sensitivity of 48 % (CI 41-54), a specificity of 83 % (CI 74-89), a positive LR of 2.84 (1.83-4.41) and a negative LR of 0.62 (0.53-0.72). The other CT findings had lower diagnostic performance. Two CT findings should be used in clinical practice: reduced enhanced bowel wall is highly predictive of ischemia, and absence of mesenteric fluid is a reliable finding to rule out strangulation. (orig.)

  13. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: are there any predictors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallum Richard W

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is a condition in which excessive levels of bacteria, mainly the colonic-type species are present in the small intestine. Recent data suggest that SIBO may contribute to the pathophysiology of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The purpose of this study was to identify potential predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Methods Adults with IBS based on Rome II criteria who had predominance of bloating and flatulence underwent a glucose breath test (GBT to determine the presence of SIBO. Breath samples were obtained at baseline and at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 50 g of glucose dissolved in 150 mL of water. Results of the glucose breath test, which measures hydrogen and methane levels in the breath, were considered positive for SIBO if 1 the hydrogen or methane peak was >20 ppm when the baseline was Results Ninety-eight patients were identified who underwent a GBT (mean age, 49 y; 78% female. Thirty-five patients (36% had a positive GBT result suggestive of SIBO. A positive GBT result was more likely in patients >55 years of age (odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-9.0 and in females (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-14.5. Hydrogen was detected more frequently in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.4-45, and methane was the main gas detected in patients with constipation-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.3-44. There was no significant correlation between the presence of SIBO and the predominant bowel pattern or concurrent use of tegaserod, proton pump inhibitors, or opiate analgesics. Conclusions Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was present in a sizeable percentage of patients with IBS with predominance of bloating and flatulence. Older age and female sex were predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Identification of possible predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS could aid in the development of successful treatment plans.

  14. Arterial hypertension due to fructose ingestion: model based on intermittent osmotic fluid trapping in the small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbel Sven

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on recently reported data that fructose ingestion is linked to arterial hypertension, a model of regulatory loops involving the colon role in maintenance of fluid and sodium homeostasis is proposed. In normal digestion of hyperosmolar fluids, also in cases of postprandial hypotension and in patients having the "dumping" syndrome after gastric surgery, any hyperosmolar intestinal content is diluted by water taken from circulation and being trapped in the bowel until reabsorption. High fructose corn sirup (HFCS soft drinks are among common hyperosmolar drinks. Fructose is slowly absorbed through passive carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion, along the entire small bowel, thus preventing absorption of the trapped water for several hours. Here presented interpretation is that ingestion of hyperosmolar HFCS drinks due to a transient fluid shift into the small bowel increases renin secretion and sympathetic activity, leading to rise in ADH and aldosterone secretions. Their actions spare water and sodium in the large bowel and kidneys. Alteration of colon absorption due to hormone exposure depends on cell renewal and takes days to develop, so the momentary capacity of sodium absorption in the colon depends on the average aldosterone and ADH exposure during few previous days. This inertia in modulation of the colon function can make an individual that often takes HFCS drinks prone to sodium retention, until a new balance is reached with an expanded ECF pool and arterial hypertension. In individuals with impaired fructose absorption, even a higher risk of arterial hypertension can be expected.

  15. Arterial hypertension due to fructose ingestion: model based on intermittent osmotic fluid trapping in the small bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Based on recently reported data that fructose ingestion is linked to arterial hypertension, a model of regulatory loops involving the colon role in maintenance of fluid and sodium homeostasis is proposed.In normal digestion of hyperosmolar fluids, also in cases of postprandial hypotension and in patients having the "dumping" syndrome after gastric surgery, any hyperosmolar intestinal content is diluted by water taken from circulation and being trapped in the bowel until reabsorption. High fructose corn sirup (HFCS) soft drinks are among common hyperosmolar drinks. Fructose is slowly absorbed through passive carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion, along the entire small bowel, thus preventing absorption of the trapped water for several hours.Here presented interpretation is that ingestion of hyperosmolar HFCS drinks due to a transient fluid shift into the small bowel increases renin secretion and sympathetic activity, leading to rise in ADH and aldosterone secretions. Their actions spare water and sodium in the large bowel and kidneys. Alteration of colon absorption due to hormone exposure depends on cell renewal and takes days to develop, so the momentary capacity of sodium absorption in the colon depends on the average aldosterone and ADH exposure during few previous days. This inertia in modulation of the colon function can make an individual that often takes HFCS drinks prone to sodium retention, until a new balance is reached with an expanded ECF pool and arterial hypertension. In individuals with impaired fructose absorption, even a higher risk of arterial hypertension can be expected. PMID:20579372

  16. The volume effect in radiation-related late small bowel complications. Results of a clinical study of the EORTC Radiotherapy Cooperative Group in patients treated for rectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the correlation between irradiated small bowel volume and late occurring small bowel complications. Methods: Small bowel volumes in the high-dose region were measured using orthogonal barium films for 203 patients treated for rectal carcinoma with pelvic postoperative radiotherapy to 50 Gy in an EORTC multicentric study. Results: The 5-year estimate of lat pelvic small bowel obstruction requiring surgery was 11%. No correlation between the irradiated small bowel volume and obstruction was detected. The actuarial 5-year estimate of chronic diarrhea varied from 31% in patients with irradiated small bowel volumes below 77 cm3 to 42% in patients with volumes over 328 cm3. This correlation was significant in the univariate and multivariate analysis (p=0.025). The type of rectal surgery significantly influenced the incidence of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption, the actuarial 5-year estimate being 49% and 26% after low anterior resection and abdominoperineal resection, respectively (p=0.04). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that there is a volume-effect in radiation-induced diarrhea atr a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. No volume-effect for small bowel obstruction was detected at this dose-level in pelvic postoperative radiotherapy. A review of the literature data on small bowel obstruction indicates that the volume effect at this dose level can only be demonstrated in patients who were treated with extende in patients who were treated with extended field radiotherapy (estimated small bowel volume 800 cm3) after intra-abdominal surgery. (author). 22 refs., 5 tabs

  17. Intestinal small bowel lymphomas - diagnosis and treatment; Primaer intestinale Lymphome - Diagnosestellung mittels CT und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessmann, H.; Reith, H.B. [Klinikum fuer Visceral-, Thorax und Gefaesschirurgie, Klinikum Konstanz (Germany); Goerlitz, T.; Beck, A. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum Konstanz (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Primary intestinal lymphomas are most common in the stomach. The mucosa associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)-lymphoma which is closely associated with helicobacter pylori is very well known. In most cases, these malignancies are from B-cells origin. Another possible point of manifestation, although not well known, is the small bowel. Both tumors have enormous capabilities to enlarge in the abdominal cave. This is responding to their often asymptomatic manifestation. The symptoms, if they occur, are widespread and unspecific. Ileus, diarrhae, abdominal pain or bleeding will be observed, in rare cases also perforation or gastrointestinal or cutaneous fistulas. Diagnostic imaging often demonstrates a tumour of massive size by then, which is echopoor in the abdominal ultrasound. Our report concerns two cases of small intestine lymphomas, which were diagnosed by CT-scanning and treated in our clinic in only a short period of time. The first case was a low malignant jejunal lymphoma which was almost asymptomatic, whereas the second case had an ileus, due to compression of the intestine because of a high malignant lymphoma of the ileocecal region. (orig.)

  18. The effect of cholecystokinin octapeptide upon the migrating myoelectric complex in the ovine small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanski Krzysztof W.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no evident and precise data regarding the effect of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC in sheep. Thus, in five rams seven bipolar platinum electrodes were implanted in the abomasal antrum and entire small intestine. The strain gauge force transducer was also attached near the duodenal electrode in three of these animals. During the experiments the myoelectric and motor activity was continuously recorded in fasted and non-fasted sheep. During the recordings two normal consecutive phases 3 of the MMC were recorded. Then, slow injections of CCK-OP of 0.02; 0.2 and 2.0 _g/kg of body weight were given intravenously during phase 1, 2a or 2b of the MMC, identified in the duodenum, until next two consecutive phases 3 MMC were recorded. The moderate dose of CCK-OP administered during phase 2a in non-fasted animals shortened the MMC cycles significantly while the highest dose of the hormone increased the cycle duration and inhibited phase 3 MMC in the duodenum. No such effect was observed in the jejunum. However, duration of phase 3 in this region was decreased mostly by the highest dose of CCK-OP. It can be concluded that CCK inhibits the MMC in ovine small bowel and its effect in the duodenum is most pronounced.

  19. Analysis of Surgical Outcomes of Diverticular Disease of the Colon

    OpenAIRE

    Miyaso,Hideaki; Iwakawa, Kazuhide; Kitada,Koji; Kimura, Yuji; Isoda,Kenta; Nishie,Manabu; Hamano, Ryosuke; Tokunaga,Naoyuki; Tsunemitsu,Yosuke; Ohtsuka,Shinya; Inagaki,Masaru; Iwagaki,Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed retrospectively the surgical outcomes of diverticular diseases of the colon at the surgical division of Fukuyama Medical Center. Data were collected from 39 patients who underwent surgery for diverticular disease at Fukuyama Medical Center. Thirty-nine patients were admitted between 2005 and 2010. The mean age of the 39 patients was 63.6 years. The collected data included patient demographics, patient history, type of surgery and complications. Patients were divided into 2 groups,...

  20. Transplante de intestino delgado: "una realidad en Colombia" Small bowel transplant: "a reality in Colombia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Juliao Baños

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2005, con previa capacitación de los integrantes del grupo en Pittsburgh (EU, y gracias al apoyo del hospital, decidimos crear la consulta de Rehabilitación Intestinal y Transplante de Intestino Delgado en el Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe de Medellín (Colombia, a donde nos remiten, desde diversos lugares del país, pacientes con dificultades para su nutrición, a los cuales, con asesoría, los tenemos controlados con nutrición enteral y en algunos casos con nutrición parenteral ambulatoria con colaboración de sus entidades prestadoras de salud. Algunos de estos pacientes presentan falla intestinal o pérdida de accesos vasculares centrales para su nutrición parenteral y se les ofrece la posibilidad de transplante de intestino delgado. El grupo de Transplante de Intestino Delgado del Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe está conformado por un equipo multidisciplinario de cirujanos de transplante, gastroenterólogos, anestesiólogos, nutricionistas, patólogos, trabajadora social, psicólogos, intensivistas y enfermeras. Desde febrero del año 2006 hemos realizado cuatro transplantes de intestino delgado aislado, a pacientes provenientes de distintas ciudades de Colombia, y hasta el momento hemos obtenido muy buenos resultados, logrando independencia nutricional, con una calidad de vida excelente que incluye retorno a su vida laboral. Todo esto ha sido posible gracias a la remisión de estos pacientes por médicos colegas de diferentes regiones del país, con el objeto de ofrecerles una opción de vida a estos individuos, que anteriormente fallecían en lamentables condiciones nutricionales y con infecciones sobreagregadas. Esperamos que en el futuro nos sigan enviando pacientes con este tipo de patologías para ofrecer con nuestro grupo multidisciplinario, esta alternativa de manejo.In 2005, with previous training of the medical team in Pittsburgh (USA and thanks to our hospital’s support, we decided to establish an Intestinal Rehabilitation and Small Bowel Transplant program at Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital in Medellin (Colombia, where people from many places of the country come with nutritional deficiencies. These patients, with the support of nutritional group, receive home enteral and total parenteral nutrition (TPN with collaboration of their health insurance services. Some of these patients have intestinal failure or difficulties with central vascular access for their TPN, and in some cases our program offers the possibility of small bowel transplantation. The Small Bowel Transplant group of Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital is integrated by multidisciplinary professionals (Transplant surgeons, gastroenterologist, anesthesiologist, pathologist, nutritionists, social work services, psychologist, intensive care physicians and nurses. Since February 2006 we have performed intestinal transplant in four adult patients, with excellent outcome, achieving nutritional independence and great quality of life. These results have been acquired thanks to early consultation and remission from our colleagues from different cities of Colombia. In the past, these patients frequently died secondary to severe malnutrition and infectious diseases. We hope in a near future to have the possibility of new cases in order to continue working with our main objective of offering an alternative to the management of these patients.

  1. Transplante de intestino delgado: "una realidad en Colombia" / Small bowel transplant: "a reality in Colombia"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabián, Juliao Baños; Carlos, Guzmán; Sergio, Hoyos; Álvaro, Mena; Carolina, Echeverri; Mario, Ruiz; Hernán, Franco; Sandra, Alzate.

    2008-06-30

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2005, con previa capacitación de los integrantes del grupo en Pittsburgh (EU), y gracias al apoyo del hospital, decidimos crear la consulta de Rehabilitación Intestinal y Transplante de Intestino Delgado en el Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe de Medellín (Colombia), a donde nos remiten, desde [...] diversos lugares del país, pacientes con dificultades para su nutrición, a los cuales, con asesoría, los tenemos controlados con nutrición enteral y en algunos casos con nutrición parenteral ambulatoria con colaboración de sus entidades prestadoras de salud. Algunos de estos pacientes presentan falla intestinal o pérdida de accesos vasculares centrales para su nutrición parenteral y se les ofrece la posibilidad de transplante de intestino delgado. El grupo de Transplante de Intestino Delgado del Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe está conformado por un equipo multidisciplinario de cirujanos de transplante, gastroenterólogos, anestesiólogos, nutricionistas, patólogos, trabajadora social, psicólogos, intensivistas y enfermeras. Desde febrero del año 2006 hemos realizado cuatro transplantes de intestino delgado aislado, a pacientes provenientes de distintas ciudades de Colombia, y hasta el momento hemos obtenido muy buenos resultados, logrando independencia nutricional, con una calidad de vida excelente que incluye retorno a su vida laboral. Todo esto ha sido posible gracias a la remisión de estos pacientes por médicos colegas de diferentes regiones del país, con el objeto de ofrecerles una opción de vida a estos individuos, que anteriormente fallecían en lamentables condiciones nutricionales y con infecciones sobreagregadas. Esperamos que en el futuro nos sigan enviando pacientes con este tipo de patologías para ofrecer con nuestro grupo multidisciplinario, esta alternativa de manejo. Abstract in english In 2005, with previous training of the medical team in Pittsburgh (USA) and thanks to our hospital’s support, we decided to establish an Intestinal Rehabilitation and Small Bowel Transplant program at Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital in Medellin (Colombia), where people from many places of the country com [...] e with nutritional deficiencies. These patients, with the support of nutritional group, receive home enteral and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with collaboration of their health insurance services. Some of these patients have intestinal failure or difficulties with central vascular access for their TPN, and in some cases our program offers the possibility of small bowel transplantation. The Small Bowel Transplant group of Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital is integrated by multidisciplinary professionals (Transplant surgeons, gastroenterologist, anesthesiologist, pathologist, nutritionists, social work services, psychologist, intensive care physicians and nurses). Since February 2006 we have performed intestinal transplant in four adult patients, with excellent outcome, achieving nutritional independence and great quality of life. These results have been acquired thanks to early consultation and remission from our colleagues from different cities of Colombia. In the past, these patients frequently died secondary to severe malnutrition and infectious diseases. We hope in a near future to have the possibility of new cases in order to continue working with our main objective of offering an alternative to the management of these patients.

  2. Comparison of upper gastrointestinal radiographic findings to histopathologic observations: a retrospective study of 41 dogs and cats with suspected small bowel infiltrative disease (1985 to 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was the intent of this study to define which, if any, radiographic observations corresponded with specific causes of diffuse infiltrative small bowel disease and if radiographic findings could differentiate inflammatory disease from neoplastic disease and either of them from normal. Bowel spasticity, luminal narrowing, and thumb printing tend to indicate the presence of tumor more often than inflammatory disease. Increased bowel gas in cats and barium adhesion in dogs and cats suggest that a component of enteritis is present. Decreased bowel gas in dogs is more often associated with obstructive disease, but is not helpful in differentiating diffuse inflammatory disease from diffuse neoplastic disease. While several observations that can foster differentiation of neoplastic from inflammatory disease were found, this study also indicated that the UGI lacks a high degree of predictive value other than to indicate the presence of infiltrative small bowel disease

  3. The scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffuse disturbance in gastrointestinal motility may be present in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To further investigate small intestinal motility in IBS patients small intestinal transit time (SITT) was determined and related to the symptom status. 11 female patients with IBS (mean age 29 years) were divided into those whose predominate symptom was diarrhea (N=6), and those with only constipation (N=5). All subjects ingested an isosmotic solution of lactulose (10 gm in 150cc of water) labeled with 99m-Tc-DTPA (Sn). The patient was studied supine under a 25 inch gamma camera with data collected at 1 frame per minute for 180 minutes or until activity appeared in the ascending colon. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the small intestinal transit time. SITT in the 5 normal females was 98.7 +- 13 min (mean +- SEM). SITT in the IBS patients with diarrhea, 67.3 +- 7 min was significantly faster (p< 0.08). SITT in the constipated IBS patients, 126 +- 12 min, was slower than normals and significantly different from diarrhea patients (p< 0.001). These studies show that IBS patients with diarrhea have significantly faster SITT than normals while constipated IBS patients have significantly slower SITT than the diarrhea subgroup. Further, this study emphasizes the need to study the various symptomatic subgroups of IBs patients independently and indicates a possible role for abnormal SITT in the pathogenesis of IBS

  4. The scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, A.R.; Caride, V.J.; Shah, R.V.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.J.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Diffuse disturbance in gastrointestinal motility may be present in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To further investigate small intestinal motility in IBS patients small intestinal transit time (SITT) was determined and related to the symptom status. 11 female patients with IBS (mean age 29 years) were divided into those whose predominate symptom was diarrhea (N=6), and those with only constipation (N=5). All subjects ingested an isosmotic solution of lactulose (10 gm in 150cc of water) labeled with 99m-Tc-DTPA (Sn). The patient was studied supine under a 25 inch gamma camera with data collected at 1 frame per minute for 180 minutes or until activity appeared in the ascending colon. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the small intestinal transit time. SITT in the 5 normal females was 98.7 +- 13 min (mean +- SEM). SITT in the IBS patients with diarrhea, 67.3 +- 7 min was significantly faster (p< 0.08). SITT in the constipated IBS patients, 126 +- 12 min, was slower than normals and significantly different from diarrhea patients (p< 0.001). These studies show that IBS patients with diarrhea have significantly faster SITT than normals while constipated IBS patients have significantly slower SITT than the diarrhea subgroup. Further, this study emphasizes the need to study the various symptomatic subgroups of IBs patients independently and indicates a possible role for abnormal SITT in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  5. A retrospective analysis comparing small bowel follow-through with wireless capsule endoscopy in the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Melanie; Dunston, Diana; Ieyoub, Jonathan; Hart, Albert; Harper, Jeannie; Burke, Mary S

    2010-01-01

    A comparative retrospective study was conducted to evaluate diagnostic findings between small bowel follow-through (SBFT) and wireless capsule endoscopy in the presence of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. A convenience sample of 31 patients with previous negative upper and lower endoscopy was included in the study. Wireless capsule endoscopy established a significant source of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding 53% of the time. The diagnostic capacity of radiographic SBFT was measured at 17% as compared with that of the wireless capsule endoscopy. The clinical findings along with the digital images obtained from the wireless capsule endoscopy was found to be the optimum diagnostic tool in the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in the small bowel. PMID:20679782

  6. Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance enterography for the detection of mesenteric small bowel tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amzallag-Bellenger, Elisa; Hoeffel, Christine [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Radiology, Reims Cedex (France); Soyer, Philippe [Hopital Lariboisiere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Barbe, Coralie [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Statistics, Reims Cedex (France); Diebold, Marie-Daniele [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Pathology, Reims Cedex (France); Cadiot, Guillaume [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Gastroenterology, Reims Cedex (France)

    2013-07-15

    To prospectively evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) enterography for detecting mesenteric small-bowel tumours (MSBTs) and assess the added value of gadolinium-chelate injection. Over a 2-year period MR enterography examinations of 75 patients (33 men, 42 women; mean age, 53.8 years; range, 19-85) with suspected MSBT were blindly analysed by two readers for the presence of MSBT. Sensitivities, specificities, predictive positive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs) and accuracies of MR enterography for the detection of MSBT were calculated on per-patient and per-lesion bases. The McNemar test was used to compare sensitivities and specificities of the unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced sets of MR enterographies. Thirty-seven MSBTs were pathologically confirmed in 26 patients. The mean tolerance score of the examinations was 0.7. On a per-patient basis, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy for detection of MSBT were 96 % [95 % CI, 89-100 %], 96 % [90-100 %], 93 % [83-100 %], 98 % [94-100 %] and 96 % [92-100 %], respectively. On a per-lesion basis, sensitivity and PPV were 70 % [56-85 %] and 93 % [83-100 %], respectively. Gadolinium injection yielded higher sensitivities on both bases (P = 0.008). MR enterography is an accurate and well-tolerated imaging modality for detecting MSBT. Intravenous administration of gadolinium-chelate improves sensitivity for MSBT detection. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of Crohn's disease activity in the small bowel with MR and conventional enteroclysis: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every single imaging finding that can be disclosed on conventional and MR enteroclysis was correlated with the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI). Nineteen consecutive patients with Crohn's disease underwent colon endoscopy and both conventional and MR enteroclysis examinations. Seventeen MR imaging findings and seven conventional enteroclysis findings were ranked on a four-point grading scale and correlated with CDAI, with a value of 150 considered as the threshold for disease activity. Six patients had active disease in the colon according to colon endoscopy. In the remaining 13 patients, the presence of deep ulcers (P=0.002), small bowel wall thickening (P=0.022) and gadolinium enhancement of mesenteric lymph nodes (P=0.014) identified on MR enteroclysis images were strongly correlated to disease activity. The product of deep ulcers and enhancement of lymph node ranks identified on MR enteroclysis were the optimum combination for discriminating active from non-active disease (F-test: 55.95, P<0.001). Additionally, the ranking of deep ulcers on conventional enteroclysis provided statistically significant differences between active and non-active patients (F-test: 14.12, P=0.004). Abnormalities strongly suggestive of active Crohn's disease can be disclosed on MR enteroclysis examinations and may provide pictorial information for local inflammatory activity. (orig.)

  8. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms: Experience with Rifaximin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Peralta, Claudia Cottone, Tiziana Doveri, Piero Luigi Almasio, Antonio Craxi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To estimate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO in our geographical area (Western Sicily, Italy by means of an observational study, and to gather information on the use of locally active, non-absorbable antibiotics for treatment of SIBO.METHODS: Our survey included 115 patients fulfilling the Rome II criteria for diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; a total of 97 patients accepted to perform a breath test with lactulose (BTLact, and those who had a positive test, received Rifaximin (Normix®, Alfa Wassermann 1200 mg/d for 7 d; 3 wk after the end of treatment, the BTLact was repeated.RESULTS: Based on the BTLact results, SIBO was present in about 56% of IBS patients, and it was responsible for some IBS-related symptoms, such as abdominal bloating and discomfort, and diarrhoea. 1-wk treatment with Rifaximin turned the BTLact to negative in about 50% of patients and significantly reduced the symptoms, especially in those patients with an alternated constipation/diarrhoea-variant IBS.CONCLUSION: SIBO should be always suspected in patients with IBS, and a differential diagnosis is done by means of a “breath test”. Rifaximin may represent a valid approach to the treatment of SIBO.

  9. Resultados de la cirugía laparoscópica en el tratamiento electivo de la enfermedad diverticular de colon / Results of laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of diverticular disease of the colon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco, López-Köstner; Alejandro, Zárate; George, Pinedo; María E, Molina; Udo, Kronberg; Javiera, Pardo.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The laparoscopic approach is an alternative for the elective treatment of diverticular colon disease (DCD). Aim: To analyze the results of patients electively operated for DCD using a laparoscopic technique. Material and Methods: Data of patients with DCD operated using laparoscopy at the Catholic U [...] niversity of Chile Clinical Hospital were prospectively recorded from January 1999 to August 2006. Indications for surgery were repetitive crises of acute diverticulitis, the persistence of the symptoms or anatomic deformity after the first crisis and complicated diverticulitis (Hinchey 1-2) that responded to the medical treatment. The laparoscopic technique used five ports and the surgical specimen was extracted through a suprapubic approach. Results: One hundred and six patients aged 32 to 82 years (49% females) were operated in the study period. Fifty five percent had a previous abdominal surgery. The mean operative time was 213 minutes (range: 135-360). Four patients were converted to open surgery (3.7%). One or more early post-operative complications were observed in five patients (4.7%). The mean time for passing gases and reinitiate liquid diet was 1.7 and 2.4 days respectively. The median post operative stay after surgery was 4 days. There was no operative mortality. Mean follow-up time was 27 months and only one patient (0.9%) had a new episode of acute diverticular disease, with a satisfactory response to medical treatment. No patient has developed bowel obstruction. Conclusions: The laparoscopic approach is a safe alternative in the elective surgical treatment of DCD

  10. Is laparoscopy equal to laparotomy in detecting and treating small bowel injuries in a porcine model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xiang Shan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopy compared with laparotomy for diagnosing and treating small bowel injuries (SBIs in a porcine model. METHODS: Twenty-eight female pigs were anesthetized and laid in the left recumbent position. The SBI model was established by shooting at the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. The pigs were then randomized into either the laparotomy group or the laparoscopy group. All pigs underwent routine exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopy to evaluate the abdominal injuries, particularly the types, sites, and numbers of SBIs. Traditional open surgery or therapeutic laparoscopy was then performed. All pigs were kept alive within the observational period (postoperative 72 h. The postoperative recovery of each pig was carefully observed. RESULTS: The vital signs of all pigs were stable within 1-2 h after shooting and none of the pigs died from gunshot wounds or SBIs immediately. The SBI model was successfully established in all pigs and definitively diagnosed with single or multiple SBIs either by exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopy. Compared with exploratory laparotomy, laparoscopy took a significantly longer time for diagnosis (41.27 ± 12.04 min vs 27.64 ± 13.32 min, P = 0.02, but the time for therapeutic laparoscopy was similar to that of open surgery. The length of incision was significantly reduced in the laparoscopy group compared with the laparotomy group (5.27 ± 1.86 cm vs 15.73 ± 1.06 cm, P < 0.01. In the final post-mortem examination 72 h after surgery, both laparotomy and laparoscopy offered a definitive diagnosis with no missed injuries. Postoperative complications occurred in four cases (three following laparotomy and one following laparoscopy, P = 0.326. The average recovery period for bowel function, vital appearance, and food re-intake after laparoscopy was 10.36 ± 4.72 h, 14.91 ± 3.14 h, and 15.00 ± 7.11 h, respectively. All of these were significantly shorter than after laparotomy (21.27 ± 10.17 h, P = 0.004; 27.82 ± 9.61 h, P < 0.001; and 24.55 ± 9.72 h, respectively, P = 0.016. CONCLUSION: Compared with laparotomy, laparoscopy offers equivalent efficacy for diagnosing and treating SBIs, and reduces postoperative complications as well as recovery period.

  11. Preoperative Helical Tomotherapy and Megavoltage Computed Tomography for Rectal Cancer: Impact on the Irradiated Volume of Small Bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy is considered to be standard of care in locally advanced rectal cancer, but is associated with significant small-bowel toxicity. The aim of this study was to explore to what extent helical tomotherapy and daily megavolt (MV) CT imaging may reduce the irradiated volume of small bowel. Methods and Materials: A 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plan with CTV-PTV margins adjusted for laser-skin marks (15, 15, and 10 mm for X, Y, and Z directions, respectively) was compared with helical tomotherapy (IMRT) using the same CTV-PTV margins, and to helical tomotherapy with margins adapted to daily MV-CT imaging (IMRT/IGRT; 8, 11, 7, and 10 mm for X, Yant, Ypost and Z resp.) for 11 consecutive patients. The planning goals were to prescribe 43.7 Gy to 95% of the PTV, while minimizing the volume of small bowel receiving more than 15 Gy (V15 SB). Results: The mean PTV was reduced from 1857.4 ± 256.6 cc to 1462.0 ± 222.3 cc, when the CTV-PTV margins were adapted from laser-skin marks to daily MV-CT imaging (p 15 SB decreased from 160.7 ± 102.9 cc to 110.9 ± 74.0 cc with IMRT and to 81.4 ± 53.9 cc with IMRT/IGRT (p < 0.01). The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for developing Grade 2+ diarrhea was reduced from 39.5% to 26.5% with IMRT and to 18.0% with IMRT/IGRT (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The combination of helical tomotherapy and daily MV-CT imaginal tomotherapy and daily MV-CT imaging significantly decreases the irradiated volume of small bowel and its NTCP.

  12. Adenocarcinoma with adenoma in the jejunum suggesting an adenoma-carcinoma sequence in the small bowel: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    NAKANO, YORIKA; Adachi, Yasushi; OKAMOTO, HIDEKI; KIYAMA, YOSHIAKI; Koyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Li, Qing; Sakaida, Noriko; Uemura, Yoshiko; IKEHARA, SUSUMU

    2014-01-01

    Other than that in the duodenum, adenocarcinoma in the small bowel is rare. The present study describes a case of adenocarcinoma with adenoma in the jejunum. A 70-year-old male was admitted to hospital due to dehydration induced by abdominal discomfort and difficulty with oral intake. Computed tomography revealed a tumor in the upper side of the jejunum, which was subsequently resected. The tumor contained adenocarcinoma and adenoma. The protein expression of p53 and Ki-67 was analyzed in the...

  13. Surveillance of FAP: a prospective blinded comparison of capsule endoscopy and other GI imaging to detect small bowel polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tescher Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is a hereditary disorder characterized by polyposis along the gastrointestinal tract. Information on adenoma status below the duodenum has previously been restricted due to its inaccessibility in vivo. Capsule Endoscopy (CE may provide a useful adjunct in screening for polyposis in the small bowel in FAP patients. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of CE in the assessment of patients with FAP, compared to other imaging modalities for the detection of small bowel polyps. Method 20 consecutive patients with previously diagnosed FAP and duodenal polyps, presenting for routine surveillance of polyps at The Royal Melbourne Hospital were recruited. Each fasted patient initially underwent a magnetic resonance image (MRI of the abdomen, and a barium small bowel follow-through study. Capsule Endoscopy was performed four weeks later on the fasted patient. An upper gastrointestinal side-viewing endoscopy was done one (1 to two (2 weeks after this. Endoscopists and investigators were blinded to results of other investigations and patient history. Results Within the stomach, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy found more polyps than other forms of imaging. SBFT and MRI generally performed poorly, identifying fewer polyps than both upper gastrointestinal and capsule endoscopy. CE was the only form of imaging that identified polyps in all segments of the small bowel as well as the only form of imaging able to provide multiple findings outside the stomach/duodenum. Conclusion CE provides important information on possible polyp development distal to the duodenum, which may lead to surgical intervention. The place of CE as an adjunct in surveillance of FAP for a specific subset needs consideration and confirmation in replication studies. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000616370

  14. The importance of smoking and medical history for development of small bowel carcinoid tumor: a European population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Teglbjaerg, Peter Stubbe

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the etiology of small bowel carcinoid tumor (SBC), but a few studies have pointed to certain medical and lifestyle factors as potential risk factors. This study aims to evaluate these findings and to identify new associations.

  15. Radiographic plain film and CT findings in lipoid pneumonia in infants following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four children developed lipoid pneumonia following ingestion of mineral oil for the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides whorl. CT of the chest showed negative Hounsfield numbers which may prove useful in diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Determining the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing small bowel volume in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this treatment planning study was to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing the irradiated volume of the small bowel. In this study 10 patients with rectal carcinoma receiving postoperative radiotherapy were included. For each of them we made two computer tomography series in prone position. In the first one the patients were lying on the flat table top, and in the second one they were lying on the belly board device which is under investigation. On both series we calculated and optimized plans according to the standing protocol of our department. From the dose-volume histograms of these plans we compared the volumes of the small bowel irradiated to three dose levels 15, 30 and 45 Gy. The results showed that the absolute irradiated volumes were significantly smaller in the plans with the belly board device. Based on these results we believe that the employment of this belly board device will reduce the acute and late small bowel toxicity. This should be verified with a clinical study.(Author)

  17. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy for a patient with an intractable small bowel injury after repeat surgeries: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeyama Hiromitsu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The management of intestinal injury can be challenging, because of the intractable nature of the condition. Surgical treatment for patients with severe adhesions sometimes results in further intestinal injury. We report a conservative management strategy using percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy for an intractable small bowel surgical injury after repeated surgeries. Case presentation A 78-year-old Japanese woman had undergone several abdominal surgeries including urinary cystectomy for bladder cancer. After this operation, she developed peritonitis as a result of a small bowel perforation thought to be due to an injury sustained during the operation, with signs consistent with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: body temperature 38.5°C, heart rate 92 beats/minute, respiratory rate 23 breaths/minute, white blood cell count 11.7 × 109/L (normal range 4-11 × 109/?L. Two further surgical interventions failed to control the leak, and our patient's clinical condition and nutritional status continued to deteriorate. We then performed percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy, and continuous suction was applied as an alternative to a third surgical intervention. With this endoscopic intervention, the intestinal leak gradually closed and oral feeding became possible. Conclusion We suggest that the technique of percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy combined with a somatostatin analog is a feasible alternative to surgical treatment for small bowel leakage, and is less invasive than a nasojejunal tube.

  18. Acute Small Bowel Hemorrhage in Three Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: Diagnosis and Management by Angiographic Intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three patients who had undergone hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease, presented with acute small bowel hemorrhage,and were treated with superselective transcatheter arterial embolization via coaxial microcatheters. In all patients pre-procedure upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and colonoscopy had failed to demonstrate the source of the hemorrhage. Selective diagnostic angiography revealed frank extravasations of contrast from the small bowel arteries (one jejunal artery and two ileal arteries). After superselection of feeding arteries with a microcatheter, transcatheter embolization using Gelfoam and microcoils was performed in all three patients. Immediate hemostasis was achieved in all patients and the patients were discharged free from symptoms 3-5 days after embolization. No evidence of intestinal ischemia or infarction was noted, with the time from procedure to last follow-up ranging from 4 to 12 months. We conclude that superselective angiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and treating acute small bowel hemorrhage inpatients with end-stage renal disease when endoscopic evaluation has failed

  19. Jejuno-jejunal intussusception secondary to small-bowel lipomatosis: A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V. S., Karthikeyan; P., Dhanasekar; Sarath Chandra, Sistla; Manwar S., Ali; G., Balasubramaniam; N., Rajkumar.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Intussusception is usually a disease of children aged between 6 months and 4 years, in which a part of a bowel telescopes into another part of the bowel. We report a case in a 60-year-old man who required resection and anastomosis. Although intussception is unusual in adults, awareness of the differ [...] ences in symptoms and causes should be borne in mind when adults present with intestinal obstruction.

  20. Radiation induced small bowel “web” formation is associated with acquired microvascular dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Hatoum, O. A.; Binion, D. G.; Phillips, S. A.; O’loughlin, C.; Komorowski, R. A.; Gutterman, D. D.; Otterson, M. F.

    2005-01-01

    Background and aims: Radiation therapy of abdominal and pelvic solid tumours results in late intestinal toxicity of a severe nature in approximately 5% of cases. These manifestations may include ischaemia and stricture formation, which may present as “webs”. These webs are likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent bowel obstruction. The mechanisms of microvascular injury to the bowel in the setting of radiation have not been defined. We hypothesised that microvascular dysfunc...

  1. The relevance of free fluid between intestinal loops detected by sonography in the clinical assessment of small bowel obstruction in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Roberto; Romano, Stefania E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; D' Amario, Fenesia; Giorgio Rossi, Antonio; Romano, Luigia; Pinto, Fabio; Di Mizio, Roberto

    2004-04-01

    Introduction: The main role of the radiologist in the management of patients with suspicion of small bowel obstruction is to help triage patients into those that need immediate surgical intervention from those that require medical therapy or delayed surgery. Ultrasound examination is usually considered not helpful in bowel obstruction because of air in the intestinal lumen that interferes the evaluation of the intestinal loops, however recently some Authors attested the increasing important role of sonography in the acute abdominal disease. Aim of our report is to demonstrate the value of free fluid detected by US in differentiating between low and high-grade small bowel obstruction. Materials and methods: The study is based on 742 consecutive patients who presented symptoms of the acute abdomen; all patients had undergone initial serial abdominal plain film and US examinations prior to any medical intervention. We reviewed the imaging findings of 150 cases in whom small bowel obstruction was clinically suspected and confirmed at surgery. We consider the following radiographic and US findings: dilatation of small bowel loops; bowel wall thickness; presence of air-fluid levels; thickness of valvulae conniventes; evidence of peristalsis; presence and echogenicity of extraluminal fluid. We looked at the value of extraluminal peritoneal fluid at US examination in differentiating low and high-grade small bowel obstruction based on the surgical outcome. Results: In 46 patients altered peristaltic activity, thin bowel walls, fluid filled loops with hyperechoic spots in the bowel segment proximal to obstruction were noted at US, whereas radiographic features were: moderate dilatation of small bowel loops, with thin bowel wall and evidence of numerous and subtle valvulae conniventes; presence of air-fluid levels was also noted. In 70 other patients, US examination revealed all the findings described in the precedent cases and also the presence of free extraluminal fluid; abdominal plain film showed an increased dilatation of small bowel loops with moderate thickened wall and air-fluid levels. In 34 other patients US examination revealed the presence of thick-walled loops, hypoperistalsis and a larger amount of free extraluminal fluid. Radiographic findings in these patients were: horizontal featured and markedly dilated small bowel loops presenting parietal thickness, presence of intraluminal fluid stasis and evidence of thickened, sparse and incomplete valvulae conniventes. At surgery etiology of small bowel obstructions was various, but most of cases related to adhesions (70 cases). The presence of extraluminal fluid were confirmed at surgery in 104 patients. Conclusions: Our experience using sonography in suspicion of SBO (small bowel obstruction) suggests the usefulness of this imaging modality to differentiate a functional or obstructive ileus, demonstrating the evidence of intestinal peristalsis. Furthermore, the presence of a large amount of fluid between dilated small bowel loops suggests worsening mechanical small bowel obstruction, that requires not a medical therapy but immediate surgery.

  2. A prospective study of differences in duodenum compared to remaining small bowel motion between radiation treatments: Implications for radiation dose escalation in carcinoma of the pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab Sasha H; Pereira Gisele C; Wu Catherine S; Deasy Joseph O; Myerson Robert J; Parikh Parag J; Low Daniel A; Tierney Ryan M; Singh Anurag K; Mutic MS Sasa; Grigsby Perry W; Hope Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Purpose As a foundation for a dose escalation trial, we sought to characterize duodenal and non-duodenal small bowel organ motion between fractions of pancreatic radiation therapy. Patients and methods Nine patients (4 women, 5 men) undergoing radiation therapy were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients had up to four weekly CT scans performed during their course of radiation therapy. Pancreas, duodenum and non-duodenal small bowel were then contoured for each CT scan. On ...

  3. A Peterson's hernia and subsequent small bowel volvulus: surgical reconstruction utilizing transverse colon as a new Roux-en-Y limb - 1 case

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Jae Seong; Shin, Dong Gue

    2013-01-01

    Peterson's hernia is an internal hernia that can occur after Roux-en-Y anastomosis. It often accompanies small bowel volvulus and is prone to strangulation. Reconstruction of intestinal continuity after massive small bowel resection in a patient who undergoes near total gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y anastomosis can be difficult. A 74-year-old man who had undergone a near total gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy for stomach cancer presented with abdominal pain. The preoperative computed t...

  4. Acute small bowel toxicity and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: Investigating dose-volume relationships and role for inverse planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The relationship between volume of irradiated small bowel (VSB) and acute toxicity in rectal cancer radiotherapy is poorly quantified, particularly in patients receiving concurrent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Using treatment planning data, we studied a series of such patients. Methods and Materials: Details of 41 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were reviewed. All received 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, 3-4 fields three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with daily 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid during Weeks 1 and 5. Toxicity was assessed prospectively in a weekly clinic. Using computed tomography planning software, the VSB was determined at 5 Gy dose intervals (V5, V1, etc.). Eight patients with maximal VSB had dosimetry and radiobiological modeling outcomes compared between inverse and conformal three-dimensional planning. Results: VSB correlated strongly with diarrheal severity at every dose level (p 5 and V15. Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists between VSB and acute diarrhea at all dose levels during preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Our constructed model may be useful in predicting toxicity, and this has been derived without the confounding influence of surgical excision on bowel function. Inverse planning can reduce calculated dose to small bowel and late NTCP, and its clinical role warrants further investigation

  5. Role of double-balloon enteroscopy in malignant small bowel tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Enrique Pérez-Cuadrado; Delgado, Pilar Esteban; Conesa, Paloma Bebia; Andrés, Blanca Martínez; Guggiana, Milivoj Franulic; Mateos, Eduardo Alcaraz; Caballero, Mariana Fernández; Agudo, José Luis Rodrigo; Martínez, Silvia Chacón; Latorre, Rafael; Soria, Federico; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel Herrerías; Martínez, Enrique Pérez-Cuadrado

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) role in malignant small bowel tumors (MSBT). METHODS: This is a retrospective descriptive study performed in a single center. All consecutive patients who underwent a DBE with final diagnosis of a malignant neoplasm from 2004 to 2014 in our referral center were included. Patient demographic and clinical pathological characteristics were recorded and reviewed. MSBT diagnosis was achieved either by DBE directed biopsy with multiple tissue sampling, endoscopic findings or histological analysis of surgical specimen. We have analyzed double-balloon enteroscopy impact in outcome and clinical course of these patients. RESULTS: Of 627 patients, 28 (4.5%) (mean age = 60 ± 17.3 years) underwent 30 procedures (25 anterograde, 5 retrograde) and were diagnosed of a malignant tumor. Patients presented with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 19, 67.9%), occlusion syndrome (n = 7, 25%) and diarrhea (n = 1, 3.6%). They were diagnosed by DBE biopsy (n = 18, 64.3%), histological analysis of surgical specimen (n = 7, 25%) and unequivocal endoscopic findings (n = 2, 7.1%). Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 8, 28.6%), adenocarcinoma (n = 7, 25%), lymphoma (n = 4, 14.3%), neuroendocrine tumor (n = 4, 14.3%), metastatic (n = 3, 10.7%) and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1, 3.6%) were identified. DBE modified outcome in 7 cases (25%), delaying or avoiding emergency surgery (n = 3), modifying surgery approach (n = 2) and indicating emergency SB partial resection instead of elective approach (n = 2). CONCLUSION: DBE may be critical in the management of MSBT providing additional information that may be decisive in the clinical course of these patients. PMID:26078833

  6. Radiation enteropathy and leucocyte-endothelial cell reactions in a refined small bowel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Nadia

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucocyte recruitment and inflammation are key features of high dose radiation-induced tissue injury. The inflammatory response in the gut may be more pronounced following radiotherapy due to its high bacterial load in comparison to the response in other organs. We designed a model to enable us to study the effects of radiation on leucocyte-endothelium interactions and on intestinal microflora in the murine ileum. This model enables us to study specifically the local effects of radiation therapy. Method A midline laparotomy was performed in male C57/Bl6 mice and a five-centimetre segment of ileum is irradiated using the chamber. Leucocyte responses (rolling and adhesion were then analysed in ileal venules 2 – 48 hours after high dose irradiation, made possible by an inverted approach using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, intestinal microflora, myeloperoxidase (MPO and cell histology were analysed. Results The highest and most reproducible increase in leucocyte rolling was exhibited 2 hours after high dose irradiation whereas leucocyte adhesion was greatest after 16 hours. Radiation reduced the intestinal microflora count compared to sham animals with a significant decrease in the aerobic count after 2 hours of radiation. Further, the total aerobic counts, Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus decreased significantly after 16 hours. In the radiation groups, the bacterial count showed a progressive increase from 2 to 24 hours after radiation. Conclusion This study presents a refinement of a previous method of examining mechanisms of radiation enteropathy, and a new approach at investigating radiation induced leucocyte responses in the ileal microcirculation. Radiation induced maximum leucocyte rolling at 2 hours and adhesion peaked at 16 hours. It also reduces the microflora count, which then starts to increase steadily afterwards. This model may be instrumental in developing strategies against pathological recruitment of leucocytes and changes in intestinal microflora in the small bowel after radiotherapy.

  7. Analysis of Surgical Outcomes of Diverticular Disease of the Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyaso,Hideaki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed retrospectively the surgical outcomes of diverticular diseases of the colon at the surgical division of Fukuyama Medical Center. Data were collected from 39 patients who underwent surgery for diverticular disease at Fukuyama Medical Center. Thirty-nine patients were admitted between 2005 and 2010. The mean age of the 39 patients was 63.6 years. The collected data included patient demographics, patient history, type of surgery and complications. Patients were divided into 2 groups, Elective vs. Emergent group, right vs. left colon group and laparotomy vs. laparoscopic approach. Multivariate analysis of the logistic model of morbidity revealed a significantly higher rate in the left colon and the Cox proportional hazards model clearly showed fewer postoperative hospital days with the laparoscopic approach. Surgical procedures should be decided in reference to the particular clinical and pathological features of diverticular disease to gain an acceptable morbidity and mortality rates.

  8. Small bowel transplantation in outbred rats / Transplante de intestino delgado em ratos não-isogênicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Reis, Waisberg; André Dong Wong, Lee; Rafael Miyashiro Nunes dos, Santos; Eduardo Kenji, Mory; Anderson Lino, Costa; Edna Frasson de Souza, Montero; Eleazar, Chaib; Luis Augusto Carneiro, D' Albuquerque; Flavio Henrique Ferreira, Galvao.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a evolução clínica do transplante de intestino delgado ortotópico em ratos não-isogênicos. MÉTODOS: Setenta e dois ratos Wistar não-isogênicos, com peso variando entre 250 e 300g, foram utilizados como doadores e receptores em 36 transplantes ortotópicos de intestino delgado sem [...] regime de imunossupressão. Os enxertos foram implantados nos receptores por meio de anastomose microvascular término-lateral aorta-aorta e porto-cava. A duração do procedimento, evolução clínica dos animais e sobrevida foram avaliados. Sobrevida menor que quatro dias foi considerada falha técnica. Os receptores foram sacrificados quando apresentaram sinais de rejeição grave do enxerto ou sobrevida maior que 120 dias. Necropsias foram realizadas em todos os receptores para avaliar alterações histopatológicas no enxerto. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio para o procedimento foi de 107 minutos. Seis receptores (16,7%) apresentaram falha técnica Vinte e sete receptores (75%) foram sacrificados por rejeição sendo dezenove (52,7%) entre o 7º e 15º dia de pós-operatório e oito (22,2%) entre o 34º e 47º. Análise histopatológica confirmou rejeição celular aguda severa nesses recipientes. Evolução sem complicações e sobrevida maior que 120 dias sem sinais de rejeição foi observada em três receptores (8,3%). CONCLUSÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado ortotópico em ratos Wistar não-isogênicos sem regime de imunossupressão apresenta evolução clínica variada. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical evolution of orthotopic small bowel transplantation in outbred rats. METHODS: Seventy-two outbred Wistar rats weighting from 250 to 300g were used as donor and recipient in 36 consecutives ortothopic small intestine transplantation without immunosuppression. The [...] graft was transplanted into the recipient using end-to-side aortic and portacaval microvascular anastomosis. Procedure duration, animal clinical course and survival were evaluated. Survival shorter than four days was considered technical failure. Recipients were sacrificed with signs of severe graft rejection or survival longer than 120 days. Necropsies were performed in all recipients to access histopathological changes in the graft. RESULTS: Median time for the procedure was 107 minutes. Six recipients (16.7%) presented technical failure. Twenty-seven recipients were sacrificed due to rejection, being nineteen (52.7%) between 7th and 15th postoperative day and eight (22.2%) between 34th and 47th postoperative day. Graft histology confirmed severe acute cellular rejection in those recipients. Uneventful evolution and survival longer than 120 days without rejection were observed in three recipients (8.3%). CONCLUSION: Intestinal transplantation in outbred rats without immunosuppressant regiment accomplishes variable clinical evolution.

  9. Serial intralesional injections of infliximab in small bowel Crohn’s strictures are feasible and might lower inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, Jakob; Karstensen, John Gásdal

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease can cause strictures throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Endoscopic balloon dilatation is a well-established treatment, but recurrence is seen in up to three out of four cases. Infliximab is playing an increasingly important role in the modern systemic treatment of severe Crohn's disease. Combining the anti-inflammatory effects of infliximab with the proven effect of endoscopic balloon dilatation could possibly improve outcome. In small studies, intralesional injections in perianal fistulas have been effective and endoscopic injection therapy in colonic strictures is feasible. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to assess whether serial intralesional injection of infliximab in small bowel strictures is feasible and reduces local inflammation. METHODS: We included six patients with Crohn's disease and inflammatory small bowel strictures. They were treated with endoscopic serial balloon dilatation. Subsequent to each dilatation, 40 mg infliximab was injected submucosally. A modified simplifiedendoscopic score for Crohn's disease was used for the involved area before the initial treatment and at the final follow-up after six months. Complications and development of symptoms were registered. RESULTS: Balloon dilatation and serial injection of infliximab were accomplished in five out of six patients. One patient completed the serial balloon dilatations and follow-up but received only one infliximab injection. The modified simplified endoscopic score for Crohn's disease decreased in all patients. There were no adverse events registered and all patients described themselves as feeling well. CONCLUSIONS: Combining balloon dilatation of strictures with serial intralesional injection of infliximab in Crohn's disease of the small bowel is feasible and seems successful in reducing inflammation.

  10. MR imaging of the small bowel with increasing concentrations of an oral osmotic agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borthne, Arne S. [Ullevaal University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Ullevaal University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Abdelnoor, Michael [Ullevaal University Hospital, Unit of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Centre of Clinical Research, Oslo (Norway); Hellund, Johan C.; Geitung, Jonn T.; Kloew, Nils-E. [Ullevaal University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Storaas, Trygve; Gjesdal, Kjell I. [Ullevaal University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Oslo (Norway)

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of MR imaging and level of adverse effects with increasing concentrations of gastrografin. This is a prospective study with 24 healthy volunteers which were randomised into four groups receiving 50%, 25%, 10% and 0% gastrografin. The endpoint was bowel image quality based on distension, signal homogeneity and wall delineation evaluated by three independent radiologists, and the maximum bowel diameter at three different levels. The subjects also scored any adverse events on a 1-5 scale. The interradiologist agreement was relatively good, with kappa values varying between 0.81 and 0.41. Improved bowel distension and image quality were achieved with increasing concentrations. But significant dose-response effects were found between increasing osmolalities and the bowel diameters and also versus the score of adverse events. The most frequent adverse reactions were diarrhea, nausea and lack of palatability. There is a gradient relationship between increasing osmolality of gastrografin and improved image quality and the score of adverse effects. The optimum concentration of gastrografin is dependent of the tolerance of the adverse events. (orig.)

  11. Small-bowel MRI in children and young adults with Crohn disease: retrospective head-to-head comparison of contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-bowel MRI based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences has been challenged by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of inflammatory bowel lesions and complications in patients with Crohn disease. To evaluate free-breathing DWI, as compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, in children, adolescents and young adults with Crohn disease. This retrospective study included 33 children and young adults with Crohn disease ages 17 ± 3 years (mean ± standard deviation) and 27 matched controls who underwent small-bowel MRI with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences and DWI at 1.5 T. The detectability of Crohn manifestations was determined. Concurrent colonoscopy as reference was available in two-thirds of the children with Crohn disease. DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI correctly identified 32 and 31 patients, respectively. All 22 small-bowel lesions and all Crohn complications were detected. False-positive findings (two on DWI, one on contrast-enhanced MRI), compared to colonoscopy, were a result of large-bowel lumen collapse. Inflammatory wall thickening was comparable on DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI. DWI was superior to contrast-enhanced MRI for detection of lesions in 27% of the assessed bowel segments and equal to contrast-enhanced MRI in 71% of segments. DWI facilitates fast, accurate and comprehensive workup in Crohn disease without the need for intravenous administration of contrast medium. Contrast-enhanced MRI is superior in terms of spatial resolution anderior in terms of spatial resolution and multiplanar acquisition. (orig.)

  12. Short bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)

  13. A pedunculated polyp-shaped small-bowel lymphangioma causing gastrointestinal bleeding and treated by double-balloon enteroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Kida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a small-bowel lymphangioma causing massive gastrointestinal (GI bleeding that we successfully diagnosed and treated using double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE. An 81-year-old woman suffering from repeated GI bleeding of unknown origin underwent a capsule endoscopy at a previous hospital. She was suspected of having bleeding from the jejunum, and was referred to our department for diagnosis and treatment. An oral DBE revealed a 20 mm × 10 mm, regularly surfaced, white to yellowish, elongated, pedunculated jejunal polyp with small erosions at 10 cm distal to the ligament of Treiz. Since no other source of bleeding was identified by endoscopy in the deep jejunum, an endoscopic polypectomy (EP was performed for this lesion. A subsequent histopathological examination of the resected polyp showed clusters of lymphatic vessels with marked cystic dilatation in the submucosa and the deep layer of the lamina propria mucosae. These characteristics are consistent with the typical features of small-bowel lymphangioma with erosions. Although clipping hemostasis was performed during EP, re-bleeding occurred. Finally, a complete hemostasis was achieved by performing an additional argon plasma coagulation.

  14. Gangrenous small bowel obstruction secondary to congenital internal herniation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y L; Alhagi, Muthu V

    2012-02-01

    Congenital internal herniation is a rare condition presenting as recurrent abdominal pain or acute intestinal obstruction. In cases in which bowel incarceration or strangulation develop, rapid progression to bowel ischemia, necrosis or perforation is inevitable. Mortality in such cases has been reported to be as high as 50%. Despite advances in imaging modalities, arriving at a pre-operative diagnosis of a congenital internal herniation remains a challenge. We report such a case where imaging was unsuccessful in determining the cause of intestinal obstruction in a 3 year old child. Congenital internal herniation may result in disastrous consequences if not addressed in a timely fashion due to its rarity. Hence a high index of clinical suspicion is needed to avoid missing this diagnosis in a child presenting with recurrent abdominal pain or acute intestinal obstruction. PMID:22582563

  15. 14C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had 14C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested 14C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption

  16. Crohn's disease at the small bowel imaging by the ultrasound-enteroclysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: Crohn's disease is more likely a systemic disease governed by a shift in the immune response, thus affecting the whole MALT system. Its treatment should be as conservative as possible and surgery is usually taking place after complications like indolent fistulations, stenoses, bleeding, or bowel perforation started. Standard radiological methods to check the extent of the disease are loaded either with certain radiation exposure (enteroclysis, CT) or lack standardization (ultrasound). The aim of this small study was to evaluate the worth of ultrasound-enteroclysis in detecting the extent and complications of the Crohn's disease in surgically treated patients. Material and methods: Since 1997, when we started with the ultrasound-enteroclysis, 246 surgical performances were involved into our study. Out of them, 181 had conventional abdominal intestinal ultrasound as well as conventional enteroclysis within 1 week. Remaining 65 cases were diagnosed by the ultrasound-enteroclysis. Intestinal ultrasound was performed on the Ultramark 3000 HDI device with autofocussable convex 5 MHz and linear 7.5 MHz probes or nowadays ATL 5000 HDI, 7-12 MHz linear probe. No contrast enhancement was used. Enteroclysis was done with the Micropaque suspension diluted 1:1 with HP-7000 300 ml with its application rate up to 75 ml/min followed by HP-7000 solution 2000 ml, application rate of 120 ml/min. The patients with ultrasound-enteroclysis were applied HP 7000 solution only (2000 were applied HP 7000 solution only (2000 ml, rate 100 ml/s) via an enteroclysis catheter. All investigations were video-recorded. Results: Consent with the per-operative finding was reached in 162 from 181 enteroclyses and in 169 of 181 ultrasounds. Ultrasound-enteroclysis was precise in 61 cases from 65. Among these, 60 patients had the recurrence during the treatment proved by clinical and laboratory results. This re-activation was clearly revealed in 38 from 43 cases by enteroclysis, 41 from 43 by US and in 16 from 17 by ultrasound-enteroclysis. From 30 patients that developed acute complication non-responding to the conservative therapy (abscesses, fistulas and intestinal obstructions) there were 18 from 20 accurately diagnosed by enteroclysis, only 12 from 20 by US and 9 from 10 by US-enteroclysis. The differences were either statistically non-significant or there were too small numbers to give sensible statistical results, but low sensitivity of ultrasound in complications (p = 0.05). Conclusion: US-enteroclysis seems to became the standard examination of patients with Crohn's disease mainly in those with unclear conventional ultrasound. The most important fact is that this examination significantly decreases the radiation load when maintaining high sensitivity. This is very important namely in patients with Crohn's disease that require life-long observation and repeated examinations. This examination is much more easy to standardize than the conventional US

  17. Ultrasonographic findings of the intestinal wall being changed by small bowel obstruction in rabbits: Correlation with histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the change of the wall of obstructed small bowel loop on ultrasonography (US), the changes of pre- and post-obstructed segments were examined by using US and correlated with histopathologic findings. Small bowel loops of seven rabbits were caused to be obstructed by surgery. One of them was sacrificed after 12 hours, and six were after 24 hours. The bowel loop of about 10 cm in length was cut and removed from obstructed site for evaluation with US and correlation with histopathologic findings. One control was also included and correlated by the same way, without bowel obstruction. After US examination, the bowel loops were opened at the mesenteric border. They were mounted into hard paper, and put in a plastic pail filled with 2 liters of physiologic saline. The specimens were imaged with 10 MHz linear array transducer with high definition zoom. After sonographic examination, the specimens were fixed with 10% formalin solution and stained by hematoxylin-eosin. The segments of small bowel showed three layers on US, which were hyperechoic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic from the mucosal surface. The total thickness of the pre-obstructed segments was 1.65 ± 0.15 mm, and of post-obstructed was 1.62 ± 0.14 mm; there was no significant difference (p>0.05). The ratio of the second hypoechoic layer to total thickness was 23% at pre-obstructed segments, 17% at post-obstructed, and 7% at the control. Under microscopic examination, the total thickness of the pre-obstron, the total thickness of the pre-obstructed segments were measured as 0.95 ± 0.12 mm, and that of the post-obstructed was measured as 0.9± 0.11 mm; there was no significant difference (p>0.05). The total thickness on US was about 0.7 mm thicker than in microscopic findings, so considering the ratio of each layers, the first hyperechoic and the second hypoechoic layers were assumed to be mucosal layer, and the third hyperechoic layer was assumed to be submucosal and muscle layers. Histopathologic findings of both pre- and post-obstructed segments revealed increased goblet cells, lymphatic dilatation of villi at the mucosal layer, fibrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and infiltration of inflammatory cells at the submucosal layer. Only in pre-obstructed segments, the muscle layer showed muscle cell hypertrophy, a decreasing of interspace between inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle layers and also among intermuscular fibers. Hemorrhage, edema,and inflammatory cells infiltration were also observed in the muscle layer. There was no increased wall thickness of the pre-observed segments, and the proportion of the second hyperechoic layer was increased. The histopathologic findings of it corresponded to the lymphatic dilatation of the mucosal layer.

  18. Small bowel capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators: Outcome analysis using telemetry review

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    Gerard A Isenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine if there were any interactions between cardiac devices and small bowel capsules secondary to electromagnetic interference (EMI in patients who have undergone small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE. METHODS: Authors conducted a chart review of 20 patients with a cardiac pacemaker (CP or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD who underwent continuous electrocardiographic monitoring during their SBCE from 2003-2008. authors searched for unexplained electrocardiogram (ECG findings, changes in CP and ICD set parameters, any abnormality in transmitted capsule data, and adverse clinical events. RESULTS: There were no adverse events or hemodynamically significant arrhythmias reported. CP and ICD set parameters were preserved. The majority of ECG abnormalities were also found in pre- or post- SBCE ECG tracings and the CP behavior during arrhythmias appeared appropriate. Two patients seemed to have episodes of undersensing by the CP. However, similar findings were documented in ECGs taken outside the time frame of the SBCE. One patient was observed to have a low signal encountered from the capsule resulting in lack of localization, but no images were lost. CONCLUSION: Capsule-induced EMI remains a possibility but is unlikely to be clinically important. CP-induced interference of SBCE is also possible, but is infrequent and does not result in loss of images transmitted by the capsule.

  19. Tuberculosis versus non-Hodgkins lymphomas involving small bowel mesentery: Evaluation with contrast-enhanced computed tomography

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    Peng Dong, Bin Wang, Quan-Ye Sun, Hui Cui

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the specific computed tomography (CT imaging criteria for differentiating tuberculosis involving the small bowel mesenteric lymph nodes from lymphomas.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the anatomic distribution, CT enhancement patterns of lymphoma in 18 patients with mesenteric tuberculosis and 22 with untreated non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL involving small bowel mesentery (SBM. Of the 18 patients with tuberculosis, 9 had purely mesenteric tuberculous lymphadenopathy (TL, and 9 had mesenteric TL accompanied with tuberculous mesenteritis (TLM.RESULTS: CT showed that tuberculosis and NHL mainly affected lymph nodes in the body and root of SBM. Homogeneously enhanced lymph nodes in the body and root of SBM were found more often in the NHL (P < 0.05. Homogeneously mixed peripheral enhanced lymph nodes in the body of SBM were found more often in mesenteric TL and TLM (P < 0.05. Peripheral enhanced lymph nodes in the root of SBM were found more often in mesenteric TL and TLM (P < 0.01. “Sandwich sign” in the root of SBM was observed more often in NHL (P < 0.05.CONCLUSION: Anatomic lymph node distribution, sandwich sign and specific enhancement patterns of lymphadenopathy in SBM on CT images can be used in differentiating between tuberculosis and untreated NHL involving SBM.

  20. Chromium-51-EDTA and technetium-99m-DTPA excretion for assessment of small bowel Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, 4 patients with radiologically documented Crohn's disease were given 100 ?Ci of Cr-51-EDTA and 5 mCi of Tc-99m-DTPA together orally in 10ml of water, and urine was collected during the following 24 hr period. Sequential imaging of the stomach and the GI tract was done with a LFOV gamma camera at 10 min intervals until the activity cleared the small bowel. The images failed to show any localization of the activity in any disease process and no extraintestinal accumulation site was observed scintigraphically. Mean 24 hr urinary excretion for Tc-99m-DTPA was 4.8 +- 2.6% comparable to that of Cr-51-EDTA in these patients. This study suggests that a comparable oral dose of Tc-99m-DTPA could be substituted for Cr-51-EDTA as a far more readily available agent for documenting small bowel Crohn's disease by quantitative assessment of its urinary excretion

  1. Prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal en pacientes apendicectomizados por apendicitis aguda Diverticular disease of the appendix in appendectomies

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    César Muñoz C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal es un hallazgo infrecuente en apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar la prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal en pacientes apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Material y Método: Diseño de estudio: Estudio de corte transversal. Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Período de estudio: enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2008. Muestreo: No probabilístico de casos consecutivos. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión de los registros clínicos y de las piezas quirúrgicas de los pacientes sometidos a apendicectomía por diagnóstico clínico de apendicitis aguda. Resultados: Se estudiaron 11.472 apendicectomías. Noventa y cuatro pacientes presentaron enfermedad diverticular del apéndice (0,8%. La mediana de edad fue 40 años y el 62,8% fue género masculino. La enfermedad se presentó como: diverticulitis apendicular (45,7%, diverticulosis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (28,7%, diverticulitis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (17,0%, diverticulosis apendicular (5,3% y pseudodiverticulosis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (3,2%. La morbilidad operatoria fue 12,7%. Un paciente presentó un adenocarcinoma del apéndice cecal asociado a la enfermedad diverticular del apéndice. Conclusión: La prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal es baja en nuestra población y con características que difieren a lo reportado por otros autores.Introduction: Diverticular disease of the appendix is an infrequent finding in the study of surgical specimens from patients operated on for clinically suspected acute appendicitis. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of diverticular disease of the appendix in patients who underwent appendectomies based on the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Material and Method: Design: Cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria: Patients who underwent appendectomies based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Studyperiod: january 2000 to december 2008. Sampling: Non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases. Methodology: A review was conducted of the clinical records and surgical specimens from patients who underwent appendectomies based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Results: Within the study period, 11.472 appendectomies were performed based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ninety-four patients presented diverticular disease of the appendix (0.8%. The median age was 40 years and 62.8% were male. The disease appeared as: appendicular diverticulitis (45.7%, appendicular diverticulosis with acute appendicitis (28.7%, appendicular diverticulitis with acute appendicitis (17.0%, appendicular diverticulosis (5.3%, and appendicular pseudodiverticulosis with acute appendicitis (3.2%. Operative morbidity was 12.7%. One patient presented an adenocarcinoma of the appendix associated with diverticular disease. Conclusion: The prevalence of diverticular disease of the appendix is low in our population and the characteristics are different to reported by other authors.

  2. Prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal en pacientes apendicectomizados por apendicitis aguda / Diverticular disease of the appendix in appendectomies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César, Muñoz C; Juan, Mansilla E; Juan Carlos, Roa S; Claudia, Heider C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal es un hallazgo infrecuente en apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar la prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal en pacientes apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de ape [...] ndicitis aguda. Material y Método: Diseño de estudio: Estudio de corte transversal. Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Período de estudio: enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2008. Muestreo: No probabilístico de casos consecutivos. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión de los registros clínicos y de las piezas quirúrgicas de los pacientes sometidos a apendicectomía por diagnóstico clínico de apendicitis aguda. Resultados: Se estudiaron 11.472 apendicectomías. Noventa y cuatro pacientes presentaron enfermedad diverticular del apéndice (0,8%). La mediana de edad fue 40 años y el 62,8% fue género masculino. La enfermedad se presentó como: diverticulitis apendicular (45,7%), diverticulosis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (28,7%), diverticulitis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (17,0%), diverticulosis apendicular (5,3%) y pseudodiverticulosis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (3,2%). La morbilidad operatoria fue 12,7%. Un paciente presentó un adenocarcinoma del apéndice cecal asociado a la enfermedad diverticular del apéndice. Conclusión: La prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal es baja en nuestra población y con características que difieren a lo reportado por otros autores. Abstract in english Introduction: Diverticular disease of the appendix is an infrequent finding in the study of surgical specimens from patients operated on for clinically suspected acute appendicitis. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of diverticular disease of the appendix in patients who underwent appendectomi [...] es based on the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Material and Method: Design: Cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria: Patients who underwent appendectomies based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Studyperiod: january 2000 to december 2008. Sampling: Non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases. Methodology: A review was conducted of the clinical records and surgical specimens from patients who underwent appendectomies based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Results: Within the study period, 11.472 appendectomies were performed based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ninety-four patients presented diverticular disease of the appendix (0.8%). The median age was 40 years and 62.8% were male. The disease appeared as: appendicular diverticulitis (45.7%), appendicular diverticulosis with acute appendicitis (28.7%), appendicular diverticulitis with acute appendicitis (17.0%), appendicular diverticulosis (5.3%), and appendicular pseudodiverticulosis with acute appendicitis (3.2%). Operative morbidity was 12.7%. One patient presented an adenocarcinoma of the appendix associated with diverticular disease. Conclusion: The prevalence of diverticular disease of the appendix is low in our population and the characteristics are different to reported by other authors.

  3. Factores predictivos de conversión en la sigmoidectomía laparoscópica para el tratamiento de la enfermedad diverticular Predictive factors of conversion in laparoscopic sigmoidectomy in patients with diverticular disease

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    ADRIÁN MURILLO Z

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La laparoscopia disminuye la morbilidad de la cirugía colorrectal. Estos beneficios se pierden con la conversión. Buscamos factores predictivos de conversión en pacientes con enfermedad diverticular. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 79 pacientes en quienes se realizó sigmoidectomía laparoscópica y se comparó los pacientes que requirieron conversión y los que no. Material y Métodos: Se hizo un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo en un hospital de tercer nivel de los pacientes a los que se realizó sigmoidectomía laparoscópica. Análisis: Se utilizó las pruebas t de Student y prueba exacta de Fisher. Se tomó como estadísticamente significativo un valor de p Laparoscopic surgery diminihes the morbidity of colorrectal surgery. These benefits are lost if the surgery is converted to an open procedure. We searched for predictive factors of conversión in patients with diverticular disease. A study of 79 patients who underwent laparoscopic sigmoid resection was performed, comparing those who underwent conversión and those who didn't. Material and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was done in a third level hospital of the patients who required laparoscopic sigmoidectomy during the last 7 years. Analysis: The t Student, test and the exact Fisher test were used. We considered p < 0.05 (95% confidence interval as statistically significant. Results: The pre operative variables of age, sex, BMI, ASA, previous abdominal surgery, complicated or uncomplicated diverticulitis, and type of surgery were considered. Post operative variables considered were operative time, bleeding, return of bowel function, and hospital stay. No factor was identified as predictive of conversión. There was a statistically significant difference between both groups when surgical time (p = 0.0030 and operative bleeding (p = 0.0272 were compared. Conclusions: We failed to identify a single factor predictive of conversión to an open procedure. We think it is more probable that a confluence of different variables lead to this result. The patients in whom the conversión was performed had more bleeding and prolonged surgical times, which makes them more prone to post operative complications.

  4. Diverticulite do intestino delgado, uma causa incomum de abdome agudo inflamatório =Diverticulitis of the small bowel, an unusual cause of inflamatory acute abdomen

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    Leão, Ari BenHur Stefani et al.

    2012-01-01

    Conclusões: A localização da doença diverticular no intestino delgado é pouco comum, e sua apresentação com complicações como perfuração, obstrução e hemorragia a tornam de grande importância clínica, pela dificuldade de se estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial com outras moléstias abdominais.

  5. Carcinoide intestinal múltiple: Análisis de un caso y revisión de la literatura / Multiple carcinoid tumors of the small bowel: Report of one case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jean Michel, Butte B; Cyntia, Escobar F; Andrés, O' Brien S; Alvaro, Zúñiga D.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Small bowel carcinoid tumors are more common in the distal ileum and they are multiple in 30% of cases. The most common clinical manifestation is abdominal pain and the treatment of choice is surgical excision. We report a 63 years old female consulting for abdominal pain. An intestinal transit by c [...] omputed axial tomography revealed multiple images compatible with small bowel carcinoid tumors. She had a surgical excision of the involved intestinal segment and the pathological study confirmed the imaging diagnosis. In the follow up, this patients has been asymptomatic

  6. Helical CT diagnosis of small bowel obstruction in the acute clinical setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, Mariano E-mail: mscaglione@tiscalinet.it; Romano, Stefania; Pinto, Fabio; Flagiello, Ferdinando; Farina, Roberto; Acampora, Ciro; Romano, Luigia

    2004-04-01

    Definite confirmation or exclusion closed loop obstruction (CLO) is one of the most difficult tasks the radiologist has to face in the clinical practice. Aim of this retrospective work was to study the value of spiral computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of closed loop obstruction complicated by intestinal ischemia. The state of the art CT signs of closed loop obstruction were taken into consideration. Serrated beaks with poor or no contrast enhancement of the bowel walls, ascites or engorgement of the mesenteric vasculature allowed the CT diagnosis of CLO complicated by ischaemia. U or C-sharped of dilated loops, radial distribution of the mesenteric vessels, beaks and whirls suggested CLO, but did not help differentiate CLO from strangulation. CLO is a dynamic entity which may regress or need laparotomy depending on the time and degree of rotation of the incarcerated loops. CT is a reliable imaging modality able to differentiate CLO from strangulation, which is rarely simple and obvious. Detection of ischemic changes in the bowel walls and/or attached mesentery on CT scans imply strangulation highlighting the need for laparotomy; if only signs of CLO are detected, the existence and/or development of strangulation cannot be predicted.

  7. Biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) after massive small bowel resection in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in organs and tissues, the morphometry of remnant intestinal mucosa and ponderal evolution in rats subjected to massive resection of the small intestine. Methods:Twenty-one Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 7 animals each. The short bowel (SB) group was subjected to massive resection of the small intestine; the control group (C) rats were not operated on, and soft intestinal handling was performed in sham rats. The animals were weighed weekly. On the 30th postoperative day, 0.1 mL of Na99mTcO4, with mean activity of 0.66 MBq was injected intravenously into the orbital plexus. After 30 minutes, the rats were killed with an overdose of anesthetic, and fragments of the liver, spleen, pancreas, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, thyroid, lung, heart, kidney, bladder, muscle, femur and brain were harvested. The biopsies were washed with 0.9% NaCl.,The radioactivity was counted using Gamma Counter WizardTM 1470, Perkin-Elmer. The percentage of radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ATI/g) was calculated. Biopsies of the remaining jejunum were analysed by HE staining to obtain mucosal thickness. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test for multiple comparisons were used, considering p99mTcO4 in the organs of the /sup>TcO4 in the organs of the groups studied (p>0.05). An increase in the weight of the SB rats was observed after the second postoperative week. The jejunal mucosal thickness of the SB rats was significantly greater than that of C and sham rats (p99mTcO4 was not affected by massive intestinal resection, suggesting that short bowel syndrome is not the cause of misleading interpretation, if an examination using this radiopharmaceutical is indicated. (author)

  8. Patients' selection for treatment of caliceal diverticular stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symptoms of caliceal diverticular stones are commonly associated with pain, recurrent urinary tract infection and hematuria. The aim of this study is to select the proper patient for the application of more successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) as a treatment of caliceal diverticular stone. 16 patients with caliceal diverticular stones were treated with ESWL, and all patients had single caliceal diverticulum. The diagnosis of caliceal diverticulum with stones was made by intraveneous pyelography to all patients. On these intravenous pyelogram, we also classified diverticular type, whether the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, diverticular site and stone number and size. All patients were followed after ESWL by plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder and interviewed. Of all patients 44% was shown stone-free completely, also 83% was rendered symptom-free. All patients whose diverticular neck connected with urinary tract patently on the intraveneous pyelogram became stone-free. Of solitary stone 60% and multiple stones (more than 2) 17% became symptom-free. The patients with infection before ESWL 75% had residual stones, of these patients 33% had slightly flank pain, and 25% of patients with stones recurred become stone-free. We propose that more successful ESWL for patients with caliceal diverticular stones select satisfactory patients including that the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, solitarected with urinary tract patently, solitary stone and no infection simultaneously

  9. Patients' selection for treatment of caliceal diverticular stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hong; Lee, Hee Jeong; Son, Soon Yong; Kang, Seong Ho; Cho, Cheong Chan; Ryu, Meung Sun [AMC, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kook [Kwang-Ju Health College, Kwang-Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    Symptoms of caliceal diverticular stones are commonly associated with pain, recurrent urinary tract infection and hematuria. The aim of this study is to select the proper patient for the application of more successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) as a treatment of caliceal diverticular stone. 16 patients with caliceal diverticular stones were treated with ESWL, and all patients had single caliceal diverticulum. The diagnosis of caliceal diverticulum with stones was made by intraveneous pyelography to all patients. On these intravenous pyelogram, we also classified diverticular type, whether the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, diverticular site and stone number and size. All patients were followed after ESWL by plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder and interviewed. Of all patients 44% was shown stone-free completely, also 83% was rendered symptom-free. All patients whose diverticular neck connected with urinary tract patently on the intraveneous pyelogram became stone-free. Of solitary stone 60% and multiple stones (more than 2) 17% became symptom-free. The patients with infection before ESWL 75% had residual stones, of these patients 33% had slightly flank pain, and 25% of patients with stones recurred become stone-free. We propose that more successful ESWL for patients with caliceal diverticular stones select satisfactory patients including that the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, solitary stone and no infection simultaneously.

  10. Megacólon chagásico associado a pneumatose cística difusa do delgado e úlcera péptica duodenal Chagasic megacolon associated to small bowel diffuse pneumatosis and duodenal peptic ulcer

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    Mitre Kalil

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse intestinal pneumatosis appears as gaseous cysts in the intestinal wall in the submucosal layer or, more frequently, sub-serous layer. It affects more the jejunum than the ileum, can be diffuse and may extend into the colon. It's diagnosis is established during a small bowel transit examination, necropsy examination or during surgical exploration of the peritoneal cavity.

  11. Accidental Bowel Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to control body functions, such as heartbeat or blood pressure. Bowels: The small and large intestines. Colon: The large intestine. Colostomy: An opening that connects the colon to a bag on the surface of the abdomen, which provides ...

  12. Indicaciones resultados alejados del tratamiento quirúrgico electivo de la enfermedad diverticular del colon sigmoides Indications and long term results of elective surgery for sigmoid diverticular disease

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    Guillermo Bannura C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no clear guidelines for the indication of elective surgery in sigmoid diverticular disease. Aim: To analyze the indications and long term results of elective surgery in sigmoid diverticular disease. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of 100 patients (age range 25-86 years, 51 male with sigmoid diverticular disease, operated in a lapse of 22 years. Sixty seven patients answered a survey about their disease at the end of follow up. Results: Among patients aged more than 70 years, there was a higher proportion of women. The main indication for surgery was recurrent diverticulitis in 54 patients, followed by diverticular fistula in 19. A sigmoidectomy was performed in 91 patients. Stapled anastomosis was performed in half of these patients. No patient died or required reoperation in the immediate postoperative period. During a follow up ranging from 8 to 280 months, 28 patients died for causes not associated with diverticular disease and five were lost. Those patients that answered the survey were free of symptoms related to diverticular disease and did not require new operations. Conclusions: In patients with sigmoid diverticular disease and recurrent diverticulitis or with fistulae, the long term results of surgery are satisfactory (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1037-42

  13. Indicaciones resultados alejados del tratamiento quirúrgico electivo de la enfermedad diverticular del colon sigmoides / Indications and long term results of elective surgery for sigmoid diverticular disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo, Bannura C; Jaime, Contreras P; Carlos, Melo L; Alejandro, Barrera E; Daniel, Soto C; Juan, Mansilla E..

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: There are no clear guidelines for the indication of elective surgery in sigmoid diverticular disease. Aim: To analyze the indications and long term results of elective surgery in sigmoid diverticular disease. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of 100 patients (age range 25-86 yea [...] rs, 51 male) with sigmoid diverticular disease, operated in a lapse of 22 years. Sixty seven patients answered a survey about their disease at the end of follow up. Results: Among patients aged more than 70 years, there was a higher proportion of women. The main indication for surgery was recurrent diverticulitis in 54 patients, followed by diverticular fistula in 19. A sigmoidectomy was performed in 91 patients. Stapled anastomosis was performed in half of these patients. No patient died or required reoperation in the immediate postoperative period. During a follow up ranging from 8 to 280 months, 28 patients died for causes not associated with diverticular disease and five were lost. Those patients that answered the survey were free of symptoms related to diverticular disease and did not require new operations. Conclusions: In patients with sigmoid diverticular disease and recurrent diverticulitis or with fistulae, the long term results of surgery are satisfactory (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1037-42)

  14. Open table-top device positioning technique to reduce small bowel obstruction. Positioning accuracy and impact on conformal radiation therapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immobilization error of patients positioned on the opern table-top device in prone prosition as well as the movement of the small bowel out of the pelvis by this positioning technique was determined. The positioning error is of special importance for the 3-dimensional treatment planning for conformal radiotherapy. The positioning error was determined by superposing 106 portal films with the corresponding simultor films from 21 patients with carcinoma of the rectum who received 3D-planned conformal radiotherapy (o-field technique with irregular blocks). The movement of the small bowel out of the pelvis was studied by comparing simulator films after barium swallow in supine and open table-top position as well with 3D-treatment plans of the same patient in both positions in 3 cases. The positioning error along the medio-lateral, dorso-ventral und cranio-caudal axis was 1.4/-0.6/1.8 mm and the standard deviation 4.4/6.8/6.3 mm, respectively. In comparison to the supine position more rotation errors in the sagittal view were observed (37% and 9% respectively) with a media of 5.1 . Six out of 22 patients showed no adhesions of the small bowel and a complete movement out of the tratment field was achieved. 14 out of 16 Patients with adhesions revealed a partial movement of the small bowel out of the treatment field. Comparing 3D-treatment plans in both positions again demonstrated a marked reduction of the irradiated small bowel volume with the use of the open table-top volume with the use of the open table-top decive. (orig.)

  15. Lubiprostone Decreases the Small Bowel Transit Time by Capsule Endoscopy: An Exploratory, Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled 3-Way Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Endo, Hiroki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Kanoshima, Kenji; Inoh, Yumi; Fujita, Yuji; Umezawa, Shotaro; Fuyuki, Akiko; Uchiyama, Shiori; Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Iida, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Takashi; Futagami, Seiji; Kusakabe, Akihiko; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of lubiprostone for bowel preparation and as a propulsive agent in small bowel endoscopy. Six healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, 3-way crossover study. The subjects received a 24 ?g tablet of lubiprostone 60 minutes prior to the capsule ingestion for capsule endoscopy (CE) and a placebo tablet 30 minutes before the capsule ingestion (L-P regimen), a placebo tablet 60 minutes prior to CE and a 24??g tablet of lubiprostone 30 minutes prior to CE (P-L regimen), or a placebo tablet 60 minutes prior to r CE and a placebo tablet again 30 minutes prior to CE (P-P regimen). The quality of the capsule endoscopic images and the amount of water in the small bowel were assessed on 5-point scale. The median SBTT was 178.5 (117–407) minutes in the P-P regimen, 122.5 (27–282) minutes in the L-P regimen, and 110.5 (11–331) minutes in the P-L regimen (P = 0.042). This study showed that the use of lubiprostone significantly decreased the SBTT. We also confirmed that lubiprostone was effective for inducing water secretion into the small bowel during CE. PMID:25614738

  16. Small bowel volvulus after transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repair due to improper use of V-Loc™ barbed absorbable wire – do we always “read the instructions first”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filser, Joerg; Reibetanz, Joachim; Krajinovic, Katica; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Dietz, Ulrich Andreas; Seyfried, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transabdominal preperitoneal endoscopic hernia repair (TAPP) is part of primary surgical health care. While both, the reported recurrence rate and procedure specific morbidity are consistently low, rare serious complications occur. Presentiation of case A 36-year-old male patient developed bowel obstruction three days after both-sided TAPP for inguinal hernia repair. A computer tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a small bowel volvulus in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen requiring urgent revisional surgery. Intraoperatively, the small bowel and its mesenterial vessels were found to be twisted around a 5 cm long V-Loc™ barbed absorbable suturing wire. After successful laparoscopic adhesiolysis, removal of the wire and detorquing of the bowel conglomerate, resection of small intestine was not necessary. The patient's further postoperative recovery was uneventful. Discussion Due to the barbed configuration of the V-Loc™ wire, a gapless continuous suturing of the peritoneum without laparoscopic knotting is easily and fast to accomplish. In this case the recommendation of the manufacturer to shorten the wire was not strictly followed and neither had the suture stump been extraperitonealized in order to avoid such rare complications. Conclusion Surgeons need to be aware of relevant “tricks and traps” of routinely performed procedures and have to know all tools and material they use very well. This case may therefore increase our attention when it comes to little things which actually do matter. PMID:25704567

  17. 14C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had 14C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested 14C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05). In Group II, the percentage reductions were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p greater than 0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption

  18. Conservative management of small bowel perforation in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Allaparthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders caused by collagen synthesis defects. EDS type IV, or vascular EDS, is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the type III pro-collagen gene (COL3A1. Common complications of EDS type IV include gastrointestinal bleeding and bowel perforations, posing diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas for both surgeons and gastroenterologists. Here, we describe a complicated case of EDS type IV in a 35-year-old caucasian female who presented with overt gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient had a prior history of spontaneous colonic perforation, and an uncomplicated upper endoscopy was performed. A careful ileoscopy was terminated early due to tachycardia and severe abdominal pain, and a subsequent computed tomography scan confirmed the diagnosis of ileal perforation. The patient was managed conservatively, and demonstrated daily improvement. At the time of hospital discharge, no further episodes of gastrointestinal blood loss had occurred. This case highlights the benefit of conservative management for EDS patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It is recommended that surgical treatment should be reserved for patients who fail conservative treatment or in cases of hemodynamic instability. Finally, this case demonstrates the necessity for a higher threshold of operative or endoscopic interventions in EDS type IV patients.

  19. Imaging of a small bowel cavernous hemangioma: report of a case with emphasis on the use of computed tomography and enteroclysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Antonella; Ingegnoli, Anna; Abelli, Pietro; De Chiara, Flavia; Mancini, Cristina; Cavestro, Giulia Martina; Fanigliulo, Libera; Di Mario, Francesco; Franzi, Angelo; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2007-08-01

    Hemangiomas of the small bowel are rare benign tumors, that are dangerous since they may cause massive or occult gastrointestinal bleeding. We describe a case of a jejunum cavernous hemangioma detected by computed tomography (CT) and barium studies. An abdominal CT scan (with intravenous contrast agent) depicted a pronounced contrast enhanced lesion arising from the front wall of a loop of the proximal ileum. Enteroclysis revealed a small intramural nodular defect. PMID:17933282

  20. Laparoscopic surgery for complicated diverticular disease: a single-centre experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Royds, J

    2012-10-01

    The role of laparoscopic surgery in the management of patients with diverticular disease is still not universally accepted. The aim of our study was to evaluate the results of laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease in a centre with a specialist interest in minimally invasive surgery.

  1. A randomised, controlled study of small intestinal motility in patients treated with sacral nerve stimulation for irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fassov, Janne; Lundby, Lilli

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is among the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. In selected patients with severe diarrhoea-predominant or mixed IBS subtypes sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) alleviates IBS-specific symptoms and improves quality of life. The mode of action, however, remains unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of SNS on small intestinal motility in IBS patients. METHODS: Twenty patients treated with SNS for severe diarrhoea-predominant or mixed IBS were included in a randomised, controlled, crossover study. The neurostimulator was turned ON or OFF for the first one month and then to the opposite setting for the next month. Gastrointestinal transit patterns were investigated with the Motility Tracking System-1 (MTS-1) at the end of each the ON and OFF period. Primary endpoint was change in the velocity of the magnetic pill within the small intestine. Statistical testing was performed with Wilcoxon's rank sum test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The median velocity of the magnetic pill through the small intestine in the fasting state was not significantly different between periods with and without SNS (Group ON-OFF: median change 0 m/h (range -1.07, 0.63), Group OFF-ON: median change 0.27 m/h (range -0.59, 1.12)) (p = 0.25). Neither, was the median velocity of the magnetic pill through the small intestine in the postprandial state significantly different between periods with and without SNS (Group ON-OFF: median change -0.13 m/h (range -0.46, 0.23), Group OFF-ON: median change 0.015 m/h (range -0.48, 0.59)) (p = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Even though SNS may reduce symptoms of diarrhoea-predominant and mixed IBS, it has no detectable effect on small intestinal transit patterns. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical.trials.gov, (NCT00919672).

  2. Radiologic contribution to the extracorporeal lithotripsy treatment of calyceal diverticular calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed the radiologic studies in 19 patients with calyceal diverticular calculi treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (EL) in order to establish criteria predicting successful outcome. Pre-EL imaging was performed to evaluate the size of calculus in relation to the diverticular cavity, and the width of the connection of the diverticulum to the adjacent calyx. Post-EL studies were performed to assess fragmentation and passage of fragments. EL fragmented calculi in 15 diverticula with cavities larger than stone volume. Complete passage of fragments was shown in five patients and partial passage in two, all with wide diverticular necks. No passage was seen in eight diverticular with fragmented calculi, five of which had narrow or nondemonstrable necks. The radiologic demonstration of large diverticular correlates well with effective EL fragmentation, and a wide neck results in satisfactory fragment passage. Calculi in tight, narrowly communicating diverticula are unlikely to respond to EL

  3. Evaluation of small-bowel transit for solid and liquid test meal in healthy men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of severe functional gastrointestinal motility disorders requires an investigation of the entire gastrointestinal tract. This should be possible with a single radionuclide imaging study. The purpose of this study was (1) to define normal values of small-bowel transit in men and women and (2) to assess a possible difference between gender or test meal, since it has been shown that women have slower gastric emptying than men, and gastric emptying of solids is slower than liquids. A standard gastric-emptying test for a solid (technetium-99m sulphur colloids, 230 Kcal) and liquid (indium-111 DTPA water) test meal was performed in 12 healthy male and 12 healthy female volunteers. After 135 min, the volunteer was place in the supine position for static imaging of the abdomen every 15 min for 6 h. Decay and crossover-corrected geometric mean gastric-emptying data were fit to a modified power exponential function to determine the 10% stomach emptying time for solids and liquids separately. An ROI was drawn around the caecum and ascending colon to determine the arrival time of at least 10% of the solid and liquid test meal. Ten percent small-bowel transit time (10% SBTT) and orocaecal transit time (OCTT) were calculated. The OCTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 294.6±18.8; 301.3±24.5; 294.6±18.8 and 301.3±24.5 min. The 10% SBTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 280.3±18.4; 280.6±24.0; 288.2±18.9 an0.3±18.4; 280.6±24.0; 288.2±18.9 and 297.4±24.4 (means±SEM) min. We observed a simultaneous transfer of solids and liquids from the terminal ileum to caecum (correlation coefficient 0.90). There is no statistically significant difference in SBTT between gender or solids and liquids. In contrast to the gastric-emptying time, the SBTT of solids and liquids were not significantly different nor was a gender difference found. Determination of the OCTT seems to be the simplest and most accurate approach to measure SBTT. Since ileocaecal transfer occurs as a bolus phenomenon, a 111In-labelled test meal can also be used for the determination of colon transit in a single imaging study protocol. (orig.)

  4. Infecção do trato urinário de repetição por fístula enterovesical secundária a doença diverticular do cólon: um relato de caso / Recurrent urinary tract infection due to enterovesical fistula secondary to colon diverticular disease: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natália Silva, Cavalcanti; Lorena Luryann Cartaxo da, Silva; Leonardo Sales da, Silva; Luiz Antonio Cavalcante da, Fonseca; Cristianne da Silva, Alexandre.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As fístulas enterovesicais (FEV) são comunicações patológicas entre a bexiga e as alças intestinais pélvicas. Trata-se de uma rara complicação decorrente de doenças inflamatórias e neoplásicas da pelve, além de casos resultantes de iatrogenia, e associa-se a altos índices de morbimortali [...] dade. RELATO DO CASO: Trata-se de um paciente de 61 anos com um quadro de dor e distensão abdominal, vômitos, parada de eliminação de fezes e flatos. APP: Hipertenso, diabético, com antecedentes de disfunção vesical e infecções do trato urinário de repetição (ITUr) nos últimos três anos. Por meio da realização de ressonância magnética de abdômen e pelve, diagnosticou-se FEV associada à doença diverticular (DDC) do sigmoide. A conduta estabelecida consistiu em colectomia parcial com rebaixamento de colo e cistectomia parcial com colocação cirúrgica de cateter duplo jota à esquerda. DISCUSSÃO: Embora consista de afecção primária do trato digestivo, normalmente o paciente com DDC associada a FEV procura atendimento médico em decorrência de queixas do trato urinário. Nesse caso, a demora no diagnóstico fez com que a queixa principal fosse do trato digestivo e com antecedentes de queixas urinárias. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de pouco frequente, a ocorrência de ITUr associada à DDC deve ser sempre considerada no diagnóstico diferencial das ITUr pela alta morbimortalidade. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Enterovesical fistula are pathological connections between the bladder and pelvic intestinal segments. It consists of a rare complication of neoplastic and inflammatory pelvic disorders, in addition to iatrogenic or traumatic injuries, and correlates with both high morbidity and mortal [...] ity indexes. CASE REPORT: Male patient, 61 years old, admitted at the hospital clinics featuring abdominal pain and distension, vomiting and fecal retention. Patient's pathological precedents include high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, vesical dysfunction and recurrent urinary tract infection on the past three years. Magnetic resonance imaging of abdomen and pelvis revealed enterovesical fistula in association with colon diverticular disease of the sigmoid. Management of choice consisted of partial colectomy with bowel lowering and partial cystectomy with surgical double-J stent insertion. DISCUSSION: Although consisting of a gastrointestinal primary affection, patients with enterovesical fistula usually search for medical help charging urinary tract features. In this particular case, our patient was admitted with gastrointestinal symptoms, reasoned by diagnostic delay, as the patient had already attended at multiple centers with urinary symptoms. CONCLUSION: Despite being an unusual affection, recurrent urinary tract infection associated with colon diverticular disease must always be considered at differential diagnosis of recurrent urinary tract infection as it concurs with high morbidity and mortality.

  5. Ganglioneuromatose intestinal difusa associada a adenocarcinomas do intestino delgado / Intestinal diffuse ganglioneuromatosis associated with small bowel adenocarcinomas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Monsanto; Paulo, Souto; Juliana, Oliveira; Júlio, Leite; Maria Augusta, Cipriano; Frederico, Carvalheiro; José, Ilharco; Hermano, Gouveia; Carlos, Sofia.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A ganglioneuromatose intestinal inclui-se dentro das síndromes não-hereditárias de polipose hamartomatosa. É uma patologia rara do sistema nervoso entérico, caracterizada por uma hiperplasia difusa dos plexos neuronais da parede intestinal. Manifesta-se habitualmente sob a forma de obstipação ou dia [...] rreia associada a dor e distensão abdominal, e ocorre frequentemente associada à neurofibromatose tipo 1 ou à síndrome de neoplasias endócrinas múltiplas tipo 2b, podendo ser a sua manifestação inicial. Pode mais raramente apresentar-se sob uma forma esporádica e isolada. Embora seja encarada como uma lesão benigna, poderá estar associada a degeneração neoplásica do epitélio intestinal. O caso aqui descrito relata uma forma de ganglioneuromatose intestinal difusa do intestino delgado associada a carcinomas, muito raramente descrita na literatura. Abstract in english Intestinal ganglioneuromatosis is included in the syndrome of non-hereditary hamartomatous polyposis. It is a rare disorder of the enteric nervous system, characterized by a diffuse hyperplasia of the neural plexus of the intestinal wall. Usually it manifests in the form of constipation or diarrhea [...] associated with abdominal distension and pain. It is often associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b and may be one of its first manifestations. More rarely it can present in a sporadic and isolated form. Although regarded as a benign lesion, it can be associated with neoplastic degeneration of the intestinal epithelium. In the present case we describe a diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis of small bowel associated with carcinomas, very rarely described in literature.

  6. Intususcepción intestinal por pólipo fibroide inflamatorio en una anciana / Small bowel intussusception and Vanek's tumor in an elderly woman

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio M., Maya; Antonio, Gallo; Mariano, Castelli; Leonardo, Paz; Juan C., Espinosa; Alejandro, Giunippero.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El pólipo fibroide inflamatorio es un tumor benigno poco frecuente del tubo digestivo, descripto por Vanek en 1949. Son lesiones de etiología desconocida, originadas en la submucosa. Están formadas por células mononucleares y mesenquimatosas con citoplasma fusocelular, con una importante proporción [...] de eosinófilos. Sus síntomas son variables, dependiendo de su localización, y son una r ara causa de intususcepción intestinal en adultos. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 82 años, que sufrió una rara intususcepción de intestino delgado, originada en un pólipo fibroide inflamatorio. Abstract in english Inflammatory fibroid polyps are non-frequent benign lesions, described by Vanek in 1949, originated in the sub mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. They have an uncertain origin and they are formed of fibroblastic and mesenchymal proliferations with an important eosinophilic proportion. Depending o [...] n where are they localized, could present different type of symptoms. The inflammatory fibroid polyps are one of the rare benign conditions causing intestinal intussusception in adults.We present the case of a 82 years old woman, who presented an intestinal intussusception due to an inflammatory fibroid polyp localized in the small bowel.

  7. CARD15 genotype-phenotype relationships in a small inflammatory bowel disease population with severe disease affection status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Nigel P S; Colliver, Daniel W; Eichenberger, M Robert; Funke, Alisa A; Kolodko, Valentina; Cobbs, Gary A; Petras, Robert E; Galandiuk, Susan

    2007-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; MIM# 266600) is subdivided on the basis of clinical findings as either Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), or indeterminate colitis (IC). Three previously described mutations within the IBD susceptibility gene CARD15 (R702W, G908R, 1007fs) increase susceptibility to CD with a terminal ileal and/or ileocolonic location and fibrostenosing behavior. We undertook an association study using 477 unrelated IBD patients (248 CD, 172 UC, 57 IC) and 104 population controls to determine whether these previously described associations could be replicated in a small, accurately phenotyped cohort. Case-control and family-based approaches were employed to analyze CARD15 mutant allele and haplotype data. Analyses were initially performed in unstratified IBD cohorts. The R702W mutant allele was associated with CD on case-control analysis (q=0.036, P=.004), and 1007fs with CD on pedigree disequilibrium testing (P=.020). All 3 CARD15 mutations increased susceptibility to a variety of CD subphenotypic manifestations, including early-onset CD in individuals with a family history of IBD, and CD complicated by extraintestinal disease. We also present evidence to suggest that R702W may predispose to a more generalized form of CD. Additionally, we confirm that CARD15 mutations are associated with terminal ileal/ileocolonic, and to a lesser extent, fibrostenosing CD. PMID:17404888

  8. Effect of the Japanese Herbal Kampo Medicine Dai-Kenchu-To on Postoperative Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction Requiring Long-Tube Decompression: A Propensity Score Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yasunaga, Hideo; Miyata, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Hideki; Matsuda , Shinya

    2011-01-01

    Adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) is an adverse consequence of abdominal surgery. Although the Kampo medicine Dai-kenchu-to is widely used in Japan for treatment of postoperative ASBO, rigorous clinical studies for its use have not been performed. In the present retrospective observational study using the Japanese diagnosis procedure combination inpatient database, we selected 288 propensity-score-matched patients with early postoperative ASBO following colorectal cancer surgery, who re...

  9. Correlation between bladder volume and irradiated dose of small bowel in CT-based planning of intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of bladder volume on the dose distribution of intracavitary brachytherapy in computed tomography-based treatment planning for cervical cancer. Ten patients with cervical cancer were treated with high-dose rate radiation brachytherapy. For the three-dimensional analysis, pelvic computed tomographic scans were obtained from patients with indwelling catheters in place and from patients who received 50, 100, 150 and 200 cc injections of sterile water into their bladders ('200 cc' was defined as a full bladder). Additionally, scans were made in the prone position with the full bladder. Bladder fullness significantly affected the dose to the small bowel and bladder. The median of maximal doses to the small bowel was significantly greater with an empty bladder in all factors of hot spot (480 vs. 256 cGy on D-2cc). Although dosimetry revealed lower doses for larger volumes of bladder (D-50 and V-25%), the median maximal dose to the bladder was significantly greater with a full bladder (420 vs. 775 cGy on D-2cc). The rectosigmoid doses were not affected by bladder distension (476 vs. 467 cGy on D-2cc). After changing to the prone position, the hot spot dose of small bowel did not change but that of the bladder significantly decreased, although this procedure was very difficult. An increase in bladder volume resulted in a significant reduction in the hot spot dose of the small bowel at the expense of an increase in that of at the expense of an increase in that of the bladder without changing the dose distribution of the rectosigmoid. (author)

  10. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms: Experience with Rifaximin

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, Sergio; Cottone, Claudia; Doveri, Tiziana; Almasio, Piero Luigi; Craxi, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in our geographical area (Western Sicily, Italy) by means of an observational study, and to gather information on the use of locally active, non-absorbable antibiotics for treatment of SIBO.

  11. Limitations of indirect methods of estimating small bowel transit in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out in healthy volunteers to explore the utility of a new [14C]lactulose breath test for measuring small intestinal transit time in man and to use this procedure to test whether two antidiarrheal agents, codeine and clonidine, alter small intestinal transit time during digestion of a liquid meal. In an initial validation study performed in 12 subjects, a liquid test meal containing 10 g [14C]lactulose was administered and the colonic entry time estimated from the time course of 14CO2 excretion in breath compared with that of H2 excretion. There was a fair correlation (r = 0.77; P less than 0.001) between results obtained by the two methods; both methods gave similar results, but 14CO2 output was delayed when compared to H2 output and was incomplete. The meal also contained xylose and [13C]glycine, permitting the duodenal entry time of the meal to be estimated by the appearance of xylose in blood and 13CO2 in breath, respectively. The same liquid meal was then used to examine the effect on small intestinal transit time (colonic entry time minus duodenal entry time) of codeine or clonidine. 99Tc-sulfur colloid was also added to the meal to permit a comparison of small intestinal transit estimated by imaging with that estimated by the 14CO2-lactulose breath test. 99Tc radioactivity appeared in tsup>99Tc radioactivity appeared in the cecum (as assessed using gamma scintigraphy) about 2 hr before 14CO2 radioactivity appeared in breath; the correlation between transit time estimated by the two methods was moderate (r = 0.61; P less than 0.05). Based on the [14C]lactulose data, small intestinal transit time ranged from less than 1 to 3 hr for a liquid meal containing 10 g lactulose; within-subject variation was considerably less than between-subject variation

  12. Gossypiboma: complete transmural migration of retained surgical sponge causing small bowel obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundiran, Temidayo; Ayandipo, Omobolaji; Adeniji-Sofoluwe, Adenike; Ogun, Gabriel; Oyewole, Olugboyega; Ademola, Adeyinka

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of recurrent intestinal obstruction due to complete transmural migration of a retained surgical sponge into the small intestine. A 41-year-old woman presented with recurrent episodes of intestinal obstruction following a previous laparotomy in a private hospital for some gynaecologic procedures. Relaparotomy revealed a mass within the ileum which was resected and, when dissected out, was found to be a completely intraluminal retained surgical sponge. Although rare in...

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids induce biochemical changes in the small bowel of rats before and after resection Efeito do ácido graxo ômega-3 no intestino delgado de ratos antes e após ressecção

    OpenAIRE

    João Carlos Nunes de Oliveira; Clarice Izumi; Sergio Zucoloto; Arony Aparecido Lopes; Camila Alves Areda; Osvaldo de Freitas

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of dietary fish oil, a highly unsaturated fat source, on the intestinal mucosa before and after proximal small bowel resection in rats was studied. Forty Wistar rats were fed defined diets containing fish oil (experimental group) or corn oil (control group). After 2 weeks, animals underwent a 50% proximal small bowel resection. Mucosal disaccharidases, alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase, protein, DNA, and TBARs levels were assessed in samples immediately bef...

  14. Treatment with a belly-board device significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated and results in low acute toxicity in adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer: results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To determine whether treatment prone on a belly-board significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated in women receiving adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer, and to prospectively study acute small bowel toxicity using an accepted recording instrument. Material and methods: Thirty-two gynecologic patients underwent simulation with CT scanning supine and prone. Small bowel was delineated on every CT slice, and treatment was prone on the belly-board using 3-5 fields-typically Anterior, Right and Left Lateral, plus or minus Lateral Boosts. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy and all treatments were delivered in 1.8 Gy fractions. Concomitant Cisplatin was administered in 13 patients with cervical carcinoma. Comparison of small bowel dose-volumes was made between supine and prone, with each subject acting as their own matched pair. Acute small bowel toxicity was prospectively measured using the Common Toxicity Criteria: Version 2.0. Results: Treatment prone on the belly-board significantly reduced the volume of small bowel receiving ?100; ?95; ?90; and ?80% of the prescribed dose, but not ?50%. This was found whether volume was defined in cubic centimeters or % of total small bowel volume. Of 29 evaluable subjects, 2 (7%) experienced 1 episode each of grade 3 diarrhoea. All other toxicity events were grade 2 or less and comprised diarrhoea (59%), abdominal pain or cramping (48%), nausea (38%), anorexia (17%), vomiting (10%), anorexia (17%), vomiting (10%). There were no Grade 4 events and no treatment days were lost due to toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment prone on a belly-board device results in significant small bowel sparing, during adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. The absence of Grade 4 events or Treatment Days Lost compares favorably with the published literature

  15. Multidetector helical CT in the evaluation of acute small bowel obstruction: Comparison of non-enhanced (no oral, rectal or IV contrast) and IV enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare accuracy of non-enhanced CT (NECT) (no oral or IV contrast) and enhanced CT (ECT) (IV enhanced only) to diagnose small bowel obstruction and evaluate reviewer's experience impact. Materials and methods: Ninety-nine adult patients underwent 105 NECT and ECT (6 patients had 2 examinations) on a four-detector CT. An abdominal radiologist, an abdominal imaging fellow, a second-year radiology resident retrospectively reviewed NECTs and ECTs separately and independently blinded to outcome. Discrepancy of diameter of proximal and distal small bowel ± a transition was considered indication of mechanical bowel obstruction. Reference standard was surgery in 26 and chart review in 79. Results: Mechanical obstruction was present in 56% (59/105). The average sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive and accuracy values for NECT were 88.1% (CI: 80-96%), 77% (CI: 65-89%), 83.0% (CI: 72-95%), 83% (CI: 74-92%), and 83% (CI: 76-90%) with no significant difference between three reviewers. The corresponding numbers for ECT were 87.6% (CI: 79-96%), 75% (CI: 63-88%), 82.6.0% (CI: 71-94%), 82.1% (CI: 73-92%), and 82% (CI: 75-90%) (p > 0.5). Area under curve (AUC) of ROC curves of three reviewers did not show significant statistical difference (p > 0.5). Conclusions: NECT and ECT have comparable accuracy to diagnose mechanical small bowel obstruction and can be interpreted by reviewers with different levels of expertise.ertise.

  16. Gossypiboma: complete transmural migration of retained surgical sponge causing small bowel obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiran, Temidayo; Ayandipo, Omobolaji; Adeniji-Sofoluwe, Adenike; Ogun, Gabriel; Oyewole, Olugboyega; Ademola, Adeyinka

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of recurrent intestinal obstruction due to complete transmural migration of a retained surgical sponge into the small intestine. A 41-year-old woman presented with recurrent episodes of intestinal obstruction following a previous laparotomy in a private hospital for some gynaecologic procedures. Relaparotomy revealed a mass within the ileum which was resected and, when dissected out, was found to be a completely intraluminal retained surgical sponge. Although rare in daily practice, a retained intraperitoneal foreign body should be remotely considered in patients who present with new abdominal symptoms complex following a history of previous laparatomy. PMID:22693191

  17. Surgical therapy of radiation-induced small-bowel lesions. Report of 34 cases with a high share of patients with combined chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operations on irradiation-injured bowel are rare, bear a high postoperative mortality, and the procedure of choice (resection vs bypass) is still controversial. Thirty-seven operations on small bowel for late effects of irradiation in 16 years were analyzed retrospectively. Fifty-one percent of the operations were performed in the last four years. Ovarian cancer treated by a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy was the most frequent underlying disease of 20 patients (58%) followed by carcinoma of the cervix (eight [24%] of the patients). The median latent period between irradiation and surgery was eight months after the combined radiotherapy/chemotherapy, and 12 months after radiotherapy alone. Thirty operations (81%) were done for small-bowel stricture, four for fistula, and three for perforation. Bypass was performed in 17 patients and resection in 16. Complications (fistula, peritonitis, perforation) occurred after 13 operations (35%). All three patients who developed peritonitis died (mortality, 8.1%): two after resection and one after bypass. Suture-associated complications occurred in three (23%) of 13 cases after single-layer and in three (35%) of 17 cases after two-layer anastomoses. Ten patients are still alive two to 76 months (median, 32 months) after operation, six of them free of tumor. All are underweight and suffer from diarrhea (four to 12 stools per day). Pernicious anemia developed in all six patients surviving more than two years surviving more than two years

  18. Occupational risk factors for small bowel carcinoid tumor: a European population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Teglbjaerg, Peter Stubbe

    2002-01-01

    Small bowel carcinoid tumor (SBC) is a rare disease of unknown etiology but with an age-, sex-, and place-specific occurrence that may indicate an occupational origin. A European multicenter population-based case-control study was conducted from 1995 through 1997. Incident SBC cases between 35 and 69 years of age (n = 101) were identified, together with 3335 controls sampled from the catchment area of the cases. Histological review performed by a reference pathologist left 99 cases for study; 84 cases and 2070 population controls were interviewed. The industries most closely associated (a twofold or more odds ratio [OR]) with SBC, taking into account a 10-year time lag after exposure were, among women, employment in wholesale industry of food and beverages (OR, 8.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 34.9]) and among men, manufacture of motor vehicle bodies (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 22.4), footwear (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 0.9 to 16.1), and metal structures (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 10.4). The identified high-risk occupations with an OR above 2 were shoemakers, structural metal preparers, construction painters and other construction workers, bookkeepers, machine fitters, and welders (men). The OR for regular occupational use of organic solvents for at least half a year was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0 to 4.2). Exposure to rust-preventive paint containing lead was suggested as another potential occupational exposure (OR, 9.1; 95% CI, 0.8 to 107). This explorative study suggests an association between certain occupational exposures and SBC, but some of these associations could be attributable to chance. All findings should be regarded as tentative.

  19. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT: differences in target volumes and improvement in clinically relevant doses to small bowel in rectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delclos Marc E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong dose-volume relationship exists between the amount of small bowel receiving low- to intermediate-doses of radiation and the rates of acute, severe gastrointestinal toxicity, principally diarrhea. There is considerable interest in the application of highly conformal treatment approaches, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, to reduce dose to adjacent organs-at-risk in the treatment of carcinoma of the rectum. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive dosimetric evaluation of IMRT compared to 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT in standard, preoperative treatment for rectal cancer. Methods Using RTOG consensus anorectal contouring guidelines, treatment volumes were generated for ten patients treated preoperatively at our institution for rectal carcinoma, with IMRT plans compared to plans derived from classic anatomic landmarks, as well as 3DCRT plans treating the RTOG consensus volume. The patients were all T3, were node-negative (N = 1 or node-positive (N = 9, and were planned to a total dose of 45-Gy. Pairwise comparisons were made between IMRT and 3DCRT plans with respect to dose-volume histogram parameters. Results IMRT plans had superior PTV coverage, dose homogeneity, and conformality in treatment of the gross disease and at-risk nodal volume, in comparison to 3DCRT. Additionally, in comparison to the 3DCRT plans, IMRT achieved a concomitant reduction in doses to the bowel (small bowel mean dose: 18.6-Gy IMRT versus 25.2-Gy 3DCRT; p = 0.005, bladder (V40Gy: 56.8% IMRT versus 75.4% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, pelvic bones (V40Gy: 47.0% IMRT versus 56.9% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, and femoral heads (V40Gy: 3.4% IMRT versus 9.1% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, with an improvement in absolute volumes of small bowel receiving dose levels known to induce clinically-relevant acute toxicity (small bowel V15Gy: 138-cc IMRT versus 157-cc 3DCRT; p = 0.005. We found that the IMRT treatment volumes were typically larger than that covered by classic bony landmark-derived fields, without incurring penalty with respect to adjacent organs-at-risk. Conclusions For rectal carcinoma, IMRT, compared to 3DCRT, yielded plans superior with respect to target coverage, homogeneity, and conformality, while lowering dose to adjacent organs-at-risk. This is achieved despite treating larger volumes, raising the possibility of a clinically-relevant improvement in the therapeutic ratio through the use of IMRT with a belly-board apparatus.

  20. Hemorragia digestiva média de causa pouco frequente / Uncommon cause of small bowel bleeding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Caldeira; Pedro, Vaz; José, Tristan; Rui, Sousa; Manuel, Mega; Eduardo, Pereira; António, Banhudo.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A endometriose consiste na presença de tecido endometrial ectópico em mulheres na idade reprodutiva. Geralmente surge em órgãos e estruturas dentro da cavidade pélvica, sendo o tubo digestivo a localização extrapélvica mais frequente. CASO CLÍNICO: Mulher, 40 anos, com antecedentes de gr [...] avidez ectópica e salpingectomia bilateral que recorreu ao Serviço de Urgência por hematoquézias. Os exames endoscópicos permitiram identificar o intestino delgado como provável origem da hemorragia digestiva. Laparoscopia exploradora com identificação de endometriose do ovário com invasão do íleon. CONCLUSÃO: A hemorragia digestiva é uma forma de apresentação da endometriose pouco frequente. Os autores alertam para a importância de considerar esta entidade clínica no diagnóstico diferencial de hemorragia digestiva de origem obscura, especialmente em mulheres jovens. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Endometriosis is the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue, and is diagnosed in childbearing women. It is more frequent in organs and structures within the pelvic cavity. Outside the pelvis, the digestive tract is the most common location. CLINICAL CASE: Woman, 40 years old, who was a [...] dmitted to our urgency complaining of hematoquezias. She had history of ectopic pregnancy and bilateral salpingectomy. The endoscopic examination identified the small intestine as probable source of gastrointestinal bleeding. Exploratory laparoscopy allowed identification of ovarian endometriosis with invasion of the ileum. CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal bleeding is an uncommon form of presentation of endometriosis. It is important to consider this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin, especially in young women.

  1. Dose-related effects of cerulein short infusions on proximal small bowel motility in sheep

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    K. W. Romanski

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cholecystokinin (CCK upon the intestinal motility has not been entirely explored in ruminants. The aim of this study was to examine the precise effects of CCK amphibian analogue, cerulein, on small-intestinal myoelectric activity in rams in the course of chronic experiments. Five rams underwent implantation of bipolar platinum electrodes to the duodenal bulb, the distal duodenum and jejunum. During continuous myoelectrical and motor recordings, 0.15 M NaCl or the various doses of cerulein were administered intravenously. Short infusions of the smallest dose of cerulein exerted a slight and mostly insignificant effect on the duodenal bulb and the duodenal myoelectric activity index (MAI values. In the duodenal bulb, the effects of cerulein on myoelectric activity were dose-dependent and closely related to the phase of the MMC. In the duodenum, the higher doses of the hormone evoked short stimulatory response followed by longer inhibitory biphasic effects on MAI. These effects were inversely related to the duration of hormone injection. Infusions of hormones at the higher doses caused a less pronounced biphasic effect. It is concluded that cerulein exerts an inhibitory effect upon the myoelectric activity of the duodenal bulb and a strong stimulatory and inhibitory (biphasic effect on duodenal motility in sheep.

  2. Dose-related effects of cerulein short infusions on proximal small bowel motility in sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K W, Romanski.

    Full Text Available The effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) upon the intestinal motility has not been entirely explored in ruminants. The aim of this study was to examine the precise effects of CCK amphibian analogue, cerulein, on small-intestinal myoelectric activity in rams in the course of chronic experiments. Five rams [...] underwent implantation of bipolar platinum electrodes to the duodenal bulb, the distal duodenum and jejunum. During continuous myoelectrical and motor recordings, 0.15 M NaCl or the various doses of cerulein were administered intravenously. Short infusions of the smallest dose of cerulein exerted a slight and mostly insignificant effect on the duodenal bulb and the duodenal myoelectric activity index (MAI) values. In the duodenal bulb, the effects of cerulein on myoelectric activity were dose-dependent and closely related to the phase of the MMC. In the duodenum, the higher doses of the hormone evoked short stimulatory response followed by longer inhibitory biphasic effects on MAI. These effects were inversely related to the duration of hormone injection. Infusions of hormones at the higher doses caused a less pronounced biphasic effect. It is concluded that cerulein exerts an inhibitory effect upon the myoelectric activity of the duodenal bulb and a strong stimulatory and inhibitory (biphasic) effect on duodenal motility in sheep.

  3. META-ANALYSIS: LONG-TERM THERAPY WITH RIFAXIMIN IN UNCOMPLICATED DIVERTICULAR DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Marco; Festa, Virginia; Moretti, Alessandra; Ciaco, Antonio; Mangone, Manuela; Tornatore, Valentina; Dezi, Angelo; Luchetti, Roberto; Pascalis, Barbara; Papi, Claudio; Koch, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Diverticular disease of the colon is a common gastrointestinal disease. Although most patients remain asymptomatic for their whole life, about 20-25% present symptoms related to “diverticular disease”. Several randomized trials verified efficacy of a poorly absorbed antibiotic, such as rifaximin-alfa(rifaximin), in soothing symptoms and preventing diverticulitis. Aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term efficacy administration of rifaximin plus fiber...

  4. Risk factors for colonic diverticular bleeding: A Westernized community based hospital study

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    Antje Jansen, Sabine Harenberg, Uwe Grenda, Christoph Elsing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the risk factors-other than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-for colonic diverticular bleeding in a westernized population.METHODS: One hundred and forty patients, treated for symptomatic diverticular disease in a community based hospital, were included. Thirty (21% had signs of diverticular bleeding. Age, gender, and the results of colonoscopy were collected and compared to a group of patients with nonbleeding symptomatic diverticulosis. Records were reviewed for comorbidities, such as obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking habits and metabolic diseases. Special emphasis was put on arterial hypertension, cardiovascular events, diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia and hypercholesterinemia.RESULTS: There was no difference between patients with diverticular hemorrhage and those with nonbleeding symptomatic diverticulosis regarding gender ratio (male/female 9/21 vs 47/63 and diverticular localisation. Bleeding patients differed in respect to age (73.4 ± 9.9 vs 67. 8 ± 13.0, P < 0.013. Significant differences were found between both groups regarding the presence of hyperuricemia and use of steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients with three concomitant metabolic diseases were also identified as being at risk of bleeding. A forward stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed steroids, hyperuricemia and the use of calcium-channel blockers as independent risk factors of bleeding.CONCLUSION: Beside nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory steroid drug use, antihypertensive medication and concomitant arteriosclerotic diseases are risk factors for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Our results support the hypothesis of an altered arteriosclerotic vessel as the source of bleeding.

  5. LAPAROSCOPIC SIGMOIDECTOMY FOR COLONIC DIVERTICULAR DISEASE – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bradea

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this presentation is to show the feasibility of resection and stappled anastomosis using laparoscopic technique. Material and method: A 48 years old male was admitted in our clinic with a colonoscopic diagnosis of diverticular disease limited to the sigmoid colon The symptoms included abdominal pain in the left lower quadrant, vomiting and flatulence lasting for a couple of months. The operation started with laparoscopic diagnosis, followed by the insertion of the additional trocars. We dissected the sigmoid mesentery using by-polar cautery, followed by transection of the recto-sigmoid junction with a linear laparoscopic stappler. Resection of the colon was completed outside the abdomen and the operation was finished using a transanal stappled colorectal anastomosis, inside the abdomen, under laparoscopic control.

  6. Danish national guidelines for treatment of diverticular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Christian; Bundgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    In order to elaborate evidence-based, national Danish guidelines for the treatment of diverticular disease the literature was reviewed concerning the epidemiology, staging, diagnosis and treatment of diverticular disease in all its aspects. The presence of colonic diverticula, which is considered to be a mucosal herniation through the intestinal muscle wall, is inversely correlated to the intake of dietary fibre. Other factors in the genesis of diverticular disease may be physical inactivity, obesity, and use of NSAIDs or acetaminophen. Diverticulosis is most common in Western countries with a prevalence of 5% in the population aged 30-39 years and 60% in the part of the population > 80 years. The incidence of hospitalization for acute diverticulitis is 71/100,000 and the incidence of complicated diverticulitis is 3.5-4/100,000. Acute diverticulitis is conveniently divided into uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis. Complicated diverticulitis is staged by the Hinchey classification 1-4 (1: mesocolic/pericolic abscess, 2: pelvic abscess, 3: purulent peritonitis, 4: faecal peritonitis). Diverticulitis is suspected in case of lower left quadrant abdominal pain and tenderness associated with fever and raised WBC and/or CRP; but the clinical diagnosis is not sufficiently precise. Abdominal CT confirms the diagnosis and enables the classification of the disease according to Hinchey. The distinction between Hinchey 3 and 4 is done by laparoscopy or, when not possible, by laparotomy. Uncomplicated diverticulitis is treated by conservative means. There is no evidence of any beneficial effect of antibiotics in uncomplicated diverticulitis, but antibiotics may be used in selected cases depending on the overall condition of the patients and the severity of the infection. Abscess formation is best treated by US- or CT-guided drainage in combination with antibiotics. When the abscess is <3 cm in diameter, drainage may be unnecessary, and only antibiotics should be instituted. The surgical treatment of acute perforated diverticulitis has interchanged between resection and non-resection strategies: The three-stage procedure dominating in the beginning of the 20th century was later replaced by the Hartmann procedure or, alternatively, resection of the sigmoid with primary anastomosis. Lately a non-resection strategy consisting of laparoscopy with peritoneal lavage and drainage has been introduced in the treatment of Hinchey stage 3 disease. Evidence so far for the lavage regime is promising, comparing favourably with resection strategies, but lacking in solid proof by randomized, controlled investigations. In recent years, morbidity has declined in complicated diverticulitis due to improved diagnostics and new treatment modalities. Recurrent diverticulitis is relatively rare and furthermore often uncomplicated than previously assumed. Elective surgery in diverticular disease should probably be limited to symptomatic cases not amenable to conservative measures, since prophylactic resection of the sigmoid, evaluated from presentevidence, confers unnecessary risks in terms of morbidity and mortality to the individual as well as unnecessary costs to society. Any recommendation for routine resection following multiple cases of diverticulitis should await results of randomized studies. Laparoscopic resection is preferred in case of need for elective surgery. When malignancy is ruled out preoperatively, a sigmoid resection with preservation of the inferior mesenteric artery, oral division of colon in soft compliant tissue and anastomosis to upper rectum is recommended. Fistulae to bladder or vagina, or stenosis of the colon may be dealt with according to symptoms and comorbidity. Resection of the diseased segment of colon is preferred when possible and safe; alternatively, a diverting stoma can be the best solution.

  7. Computed tomography findings in closed obstruction of the small bowel associated with rupture of the cecum - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closed loop obstruction of the bowel is an extremely grave condition that may lead to serious consequences and even be fatal. The authors describe a case of a patient with intestinal obstruction secondary to cancer of the sigmoid and highlight the importance of computed tomography in the analysis of the pathological changes in routine management of patients with acute abdomen. (author)

  8. Anti-Endomysial and Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase Serological Test Compared with Small Bowel Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Celiac Disease

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    Shadman, M. (MSc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Celiac is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by an immune-system-related damage in the intestinal tissue after consumption of gluten. There is not any general agreement for gold standard. The Purpose of this study was the evaluation of specificity and sensitivity of anti-endomysial (EMA and anti-tissue transglutaminase (TTG serological test compared to small-bowel biopsy. Material and Methods: In the cross sectional study, we took blood specimen from 1825 patients with gastrointestinal disease. All the samples were tested by TTG and EMA kits using ELISA. The patients were studied in two groups. First, the individuals whom their serologic test was positive but their tissue condition was normal and second, those with positive serologic test with pathologic tissue results that show they have celiac disorder. Results: The mean of EMA and TTG shows that the level of antibodies in group 2 is significantly higher than that of the first group (P ?0.001. There is positive correlation between modified marsh criteria of small-bowel biopsy and the two tests. The Sensitivity of EMA and TTG tests for celiac diagnosis is 92%. The specificity of EMA, TTG tests are 100% and 98.5%, respectively. Conclusion: EMA-IgA serology with cut-off point of more than 66 together with TTG-IgA serology with cut-off point of above 30 can be helpful to distinguish a wide range of patients who need small-bowel biopsy. Keywords: Celiac; Anti-tissue Transglutaminase (TTG; Anti-endomysial (EMAKeywords: Celiac; Anti-tissue Transglutaminase (TTG; Anti-endomysial (EMA,

  9. Invaginação Intestinal por Metástases de Melanoma: a propósito de um caso clínico / Small Bowel Intussusception Due To Melanoma Metastasis: a clinical case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rómulo, Ribeiro; Ivan, Subotin; Ana Filipa, Capelinha; Pinto da, Cruz; Filomena, Gonçalves; Aires, Teixeira.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O melanoma é a fonte extra-abdominal mais frequente de metastização do intestino delgado. Geralmente estes indivíduos apresentam sintomas obstrutivos, sobretudo por invaginação, ou hemorragia digestiva. Há uma grande controvérsia no que concerne aos melanomas do intestino delgado quando não é identi [...] ficada uma lesão primária cutânea e na classificação destes casos como melanoma maligno primário. Os autores apresentam um caso clínico de uma doente do sexo feminino, 47 anos de idade, submetida a laparotomia exploradora no contexto de oclusão intestinal. Intraoperatoriamente verificou-se a existência de lesões pigmentadas em todo o intestino delgado (algumas delas condicionando invaginação), cego, cólon transverso e ovário esquerdo. Procedeu-se a hemicolectomia direita, anexectomia esquerda e biopsia excisional de lesão do íleon. A Anatomia Patológica revelou tratar-se de metástases de melanoma maligno. Abstract in english Melanoma is the most common extra-abdominal source of small bowel metastases. Generally, patients either present with symptoms of obstruction, particularly intussusception, or bleeding. Those cases in which no primary cutaneous lesion has been identified are of greatest controversy surrounding small [...] bowel melanoma and regard the validity of classifying them as primary malignant melanomas. The authors present the clinical case of a female patient, 47 year-old, submitted to exploratory laparotomy in the context of intestinal occlusion. Intraoperatively we found numerous pigmented lesions in the small bowel (some of them causing intussusception), cecum, tranverse colon and left ovary. Patient underwent right hemicolectomy, left adnexectomy and excisional biopsy of an ileum lesion. Anatomopathological findings showed metastases of malignant melanoma.

  10. Arterial hypertension due to fructose ingestion: model based on intermittent osmotic fluid trapping in the small bowel

    OpenAIRE

    Kurbel Sven

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Based on recently reported data that fructose ingestion is linked to arterial hypertension, a model of regulatory loops involving the colon role in maintenance of fluid and sodium homeostasis is proposed. In normal digestion of hyperosmolar fluids, also in cases of postprandial hypotension and in patients having the "dumping" syndrome after gastric surgery, any hyperosmolar intestinal content is diluted by water taken from circulation and being trapped in the bowel until reabsorption...

  11. Visceral fat: A key factor in diverticular disease of the colon Obesidade visceral: factor de risco para doença diverticular do cólon

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    Miguel Afonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Diverticular disease of the colon is a common disease, representing na important health problem in Western countries. The authors aimed to study the visceral fat and parameters of obesity in the diverticular disease of the colon. Methods: Case-control study of unselected medium-risk subjects who underwent colonoscopy for screening of colorectal cancer during 1 year. Subjects were inquired by a nutritionist about nutritional habits. Anthropometric variables were evaluated. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed by ultrasound by the same gastroenterologist. Statistics: x², t test, logistic multivariate regression, odds ratio (OR. Results: Included 303 individuals, 46.9% female, mean age 60±6.6 years. Sixty-four (21% individual had diverticular disease of the colon. People with diverticula were signifi cantly older (P=0.01, had more visceral fat (P Introdução e objectivos: A doença diverticular do cólon é uma doença comum, representando um importante problema de saúde nos países ocidentais. Os autores pretenderam estudar a relação da gordura visceral e outros parâmetros de obesidade na doença diverticular do cólon. Métodos: Estudo de indivíduos não seleccionados, de médio risco que efectuaram colonoscopia para rastreio de cancro colorectal, durante um ano. Os indivíduos responderam a inquérito nutricional por nutricionista. Foram avaliadas variáveis antropométricas. A gordura visceral e subcutânea foram avaliadas através de ecografia abdominal efectuada pelo mesmo gastroenterologista. Análise estatística: x², teste t, regressão logística multivariada, odds ratio (OR. Resultados: Incluídos 303 indivíduos, 46,9% eram do sexo feminino, idade média 60 ± 6,6 anos. Sessenta e quatro (21% apresentavam doença diverticular do cólon. Os indivíduos com diverticulose eram mais idosos (p = 0,01, tinham mais gordura visceral (p 63 anos do que naqueles com menos de 56 anos (1.º tercil - OR = 3,1, IC 95% 1,5-6,5. Relativamente à gordura visceral, os indivíduos no 3.º tercil tiveram um risco duas vezes maior (OR 2,3, IC 95% 1,02-5,2 do que aqueles no 1.º tercil. Não houve diferença significativa quanto ao sexo, índice de massa corporal, gordura subcutânea ou consumo de fibra. Conclusão: A idade e a gordura visceral foram fatores de risco independentes para a ocorrência de doença diverticular do cólon

  12. Visceral fat: A key factor in diverticular disease of the colon / Obesidade visceral: factor de risco para doença diverticular do cólon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Afonso; Joana, Pinto; Ricardo, Veloso; Teresa, Freitas; João, Carvalho; José, Fraga.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introdução e objectivos: A doença diverticular do cólon é uma doença comum, representando um importante problema de saúde nos países ocidentais. Os autores pretenderam estudar a relação da gordura visceral e outros parâmetros de obesidade na doença diverticular do cólon. Métodos: Estudo de indivíduo [...] s não seleccionados, de médio risco que efectuaram colonoscopia para rastreio de cancro colorectal, durante um ano. Os indivíduos responderam a inquérito nutricional por nutricionista. Foram avaliadas variáveis antropométricas. A gordura visceral e subcutânea foram avaliadas através de ecografia abdominal efectuada pelo mesmo gastroenterologista. Análise estatística: x², teste t, regressão logística multivariada, odds ratio (OR). Resultados: Incluídos 303 indivíduos, 46,9% eram do sexo feminino, idade média 60 ± 6,6 anos. Sessenta e quatro (21%) apresentavam doença diverticular do cólon. Os indivíduos com diverticulose eram mais idosos (p = 0,01), tinham mais gordura visceral (p 63 anos) do que naqueles com menos de 56 anos (1.º tercil) - OR = 3,1, IC 95% 1,5-6,5. Relativamente à gordura visceral, os indivíduos no 3.º tercil tiveram um risco duas vezes maior (OR 2,3, IC 95% 1,02-5,2) do que aqueles no 1.º tercil. Não houve diferença significativa quanto ao sexo, índice de massa corporal, gordura subcutânea ou consumo de fibra. Conclusão: A idade e a gordura visceral foram fatores de risco independentes para a ocorrência de doença diverticular do cólon Abstract in english Background and aim: Diverticular disease of the colon is a common disease, representing na important health problem in Western countries. The authors aimed to study the visceral fat and parameters of obesity in the diverticular disease of the colon. Methods: Case-control study of unselected medium-r [...] isk subjects who underwent colonoscopy for screening of colorectal cancer during 1 year. Subjects were inquired by a nutritionist about nutritional habits. Anthropometric variables were evaluated. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed by ultrasound by the same gastroenterologist. Statistics: x², t test, logistic multivariate regression, odds ratio (OR). Results: Included 303 individuals, 46.9% female, mean age 60±6.6 years. Sixty-four (21%) individual had diverticular disease of the colon. People with diverticula were signifi cantly older (P=0.01), had more visceral fat (P

  13. Hematoma espontáneo del instestino delgado: Reporte de dos casos y revisión de la literatura / Spontaneous small-bowel hematoma: Report of two cases and literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana M, Cadavid; Juan D, Uribe; Miguel, Mesa; Sandra, Escobar; Luisa F, Sánchez.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El hematoma intramural del yeyuno es una complicación poco frecuente en los pacientes anticoagulados y puede llegar a ser un reto diagnóstico para el médico. Su presentación varía desde dolor abdominal leve y obstrucción intestinal hasta perforación de una víscera hueca. El tratamiento es médico y n [...] o se requiere intervención quirúrgica, excepto en los casos de perforación. Se presenta el caso de dos pacientes que desarrollaron dicha patología como complicación al uso de warfarina, quienes tuvieron un buen desenlace clínico y fueron tratados en forma médica. Abstract in english Spontaneous intramural small-bowel hematoma is a rare complication in patients receiving anticoagulation therapy and may represent a diagnostic challenge. Its clinical presentation varies from mild abdominal pain and intestinal obstruction to perforation. Medical treatment is indicated and surgery i [...] s required only in cases of perforation. We present the cases of two patients who developed intramural spontaneous small-bowel hematoma as a complication of warfarin therapy and who had a good outcome after medical treatment.

  14. Indications and selection of MR enterography vs. MR enteroclysis with emphasis on patients who need small bowel MRI and general anaesthesia : results of a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkzad, Michael R; Masselli, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To survey the perceived indications for magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel (MRE) by experts, when MR enteroclysis (MREc) or MR enterography (MREg) may be chosen, and to determine how the approach to MRE is modified when general anaesthesia (GA) is required. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Selected opinion leaders in MRE completed a questionnaire that included clinical indications (MREg or MREc), specifics regarding administration of enteral contrast, and how the technique is altered to accommodate GA. RESULTS: Fourteen responded. Only the diagnosis and follow-up of Crohn's disease were considered by over 80 % as a valid MRE indication. The remaining indications ranged between 35.7 % for diagnosis of caeliac disease and unknown sources of gastrointestinal bleeding to 78.6 % for motility disorders. The majority chose MREg over MREc for all indications (from 100 % for follow-up of caeliac disease to 57.7 % for tumour diagnosis). Fifty per cent of responders had needed to consider MRE under GA. The mostcommonly recommended procedural change was MRI without enteral distention. Three had experience with intubation under GA (MREc modification). CONCLUSION: Views were variable. Requests for MRE under GA are not uncommon. Presently most opinion leaders suggest standard abdominal MRI when GA is required. MAIN MESSAGES: • Experts are using MRE for various indications. • Requests for MRE under general anaesthesia are not uncommon. • Some radiologists employ MREc under general anaesthesia; others do not distend the small bowel.

  15. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12 healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance, plasma and extracellular volume, balance function, and biochemical parameters were measured. RESULTS: Bowel preparation led to a significant decrease in exercise capacity (median, 9 percent) and weight (median, 1.2 kg). Plasma osmolality was significantly increased from 287 to 290 mmol kg(-1), as well as increased phosphate and urea concentrations, whereas calcium and potassium concentrations decreased significantly afterbowel preparation. No differences in plasma or extracellular volumes were seen. Orthostatic tolerance and balance function did not change after bowel preparation. CONCLUSIONS: Bowel preparation has significant adverse physiologic effects, which may be attributed to dehydration. The majority of these findings is small and may not be of clinical relevance in otherwise healthy patients undergoing bowel preparation and following recommendations for oral fluid intake.

  16. The Different Volume Effects of Small-Bowel Toxicity During Pelvic Irradiation Between Gynecologic Patients With and Without Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Study With Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of abdominal surgery on the volume effects of small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From May 2003 through November 2006, 80 gynecologic patients without (Group I) or with (Group II) prior abdominal surgery were analyzed. We used a computed tomography (CT) planning system to measure the small-bowel volume and dosimetry. We acquired the range of small-bowel volume in 10% (V10) to 100% (V100) of dose, at 10% intervals. The onset and grade of diarrhea during whole-pelvic irradiation were recorded as small-bowel toxicity up to 39.6 Gy in 22 fractions. Results: The volume effect of Grade 2-3 diarrhea existed from V10 to V100 in Group I patients and from V60 to V100 in Group II patients on univariate analyses. The V40 of Group I and the V100 of Group II achieved most statistical significance. The mean V40 was 281 ± 27 cm3 and 489 ± 34 cm3 (p 3 and 132 ± 19 cm3 (p = 0.003). Multivariate analyses revealed that V40 (p = 0.001) and V100 (p = 0.027) were independent factors for the development of Grade 2-3 diarrhea in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Gynecologic patients without and with abdominal surgery have different volume effects on small-bowel toxicity during whocts on small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation. Low-dose volume can be used as a predictive index of Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients without abdominal surgery. Full-dose volume is more important than low-dose volume for Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients with abdominal surgery

  17. Indicaciones, técnicas y resultados del trasplante de intestino delgado / Indications, techniques and outcomes of small bowel transplant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., López Santamaría; F., Hernández Oliveros.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados más recientes del trasplante intestinal (TI), con una supervivencia inmediata al procedimiento superior al 80% de los casos, y una gran proporción de supervivientes que consiguen autonomía digestiva completa y desempeñan actividades acordes con su edad, permiten considerar el TI como [...] el tratamiento de elección en enfermos con fallo intestinal irreversible en los que es previsible una mala evolución con nutrición parenteral. El daño hepático asociado a la administración de nutrición parenteral es la indicación más frecuente de TI, especialmente en los niños, más susceptibles que los adultos a desarrollar esta complicación. Otras indicaciones aceptadas de TI son el fallo intestinal irreversible asociado a pérdida significativa de accesos venosos profundos, infecciones graves con riesgo vital asociadas al uso de catéteres centrales, y casos de fracaso intestinal que conducen habitualmente a muerte precoz, como cuadros de intestino ultracorto, diarreas intratables, y fallo intestinal asociado a elevada morbilidad y mala calidad de vida. El TI se practica en clínica humana bajo tres modalidades técnicas: trasplante de intestino aislado, trasplante combinado de hígado intestino y trasplante multivisceral. Refinamientos de las técnicas originales, que incluyen reducciones de los injertos hepáticos y/o intestinales, la opción con injerto de donante vivo, etc. permiten actualmente cubrir las diferentes necesidades, a la vez que incrementar la probabilidad de acceso al trasplante, objetivo especialmente necesario en niños muy pequeños o de muy bajo peso candidatos a trasplante hepatointestinal. Uno de los aspectos más interesantes de los programas de TI es haber permitido la evolución hacia Unidades de Rehabilitación Intestinal, que integran en un equipo multidisciplinar las tres modalidades de tratamiento: soporte nutricional, farmacoterapia y cirugía. Estas Unidades optimizan los resultados, minimizan los costes y permiten ofrecer un tratamiento individualizado y adaptado a las necesidades individuales. Abstract in english The most recent outcomes on bowel transplantation (BT), with a survival rate immediately after transplant higher than 80% and a great rate of survivors achieving complete digestive autonomy and able to carry out activities according to their age allow for considering BT as the first choice therapy i [...] n patients with irreversible intestinal failure in whom poor prognosis with parenteral nutrition is foreseen. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver damage is the most frequent indication for BT, especially in children that are more susceptible than adults to develop this complication. Other accepted indications for BT are irreversible intestinal failure in association with loss of deep venous accesses, life-threatening severe infections associated with the use of central catheters, and those cases of intestinal failure usually leading to early death, such as ultra-short bowel syndromes, refractory diarrheas, and intestinal failure associated to high morbidity and poor quality of life. BT is performed in human clinical practice under three technical modalities: isolated bowel transplant, combined liver-bowel transplant, and multi-visceral transplantation. Currently, refinements of original techniques including reduction of liver and/or intestinal grafts, grafts from living donors, etc., allow for overcoming the different needs as well as increasing the likelihood of having access to transplantation, which is a desirable goal specially in very young or very low-weighted children candidate to liver-bowel transplant. One of the most interesting issues in BT programs is having given access to the Intestinal Rehabilitation Units, which comprise the three therapeutic modalities by means of a multidisciplinary team: nutritional support, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. These Units optimize the outcomes, minimize costs, and allow for offering a management adapted to individual needs.

  18. Indicaciones, técnicas y resultados del trasplante de intestino delgado Indications, techniques and outcomes of small bowel transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. López Santamaría

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados más recientes del trasplante intestinal (TI, con una supervivencia inmediata al procedimiento superior al 80% de los casos, y una gran proporción de supervivientes que consiguen autonomía digestiva completa y desempeñan actividades acordes con su edad, permiten considerar el TI como el tratamiento de elección en enfermos con fallo intestinal irreversible en los que es previsible una mala evolución con nutrición parenteral. El daño hepático asociado a la administración de nutrición parenteral es la indicación más frecuente de TI, especialmente en los niños, más susceptibles que los adultos a desarrollar esta complicación. Otras indicaciones aceptadas de TI son el fallo intestinal irreversible asociado a pérdida significativa de accesos venosos profundos, infecciones graves con riesgo vital asociadas al uso de catéteres centrales, y casos de fracaso intestinal que conducen habitualmente a muerte precoz, como cuadros de intestino ultracorto, diarreas intratables, y fallo intestinal asociado a elevada morbilidad y mala calidad de vida. El TI se practica en clínica humana bajo tres modalidades técnicas: trasplante de intestino aislado, trasplante combinado de hígado intestino y trasplante multivisceral. Refinamientos de las técnicas originales, que incluyen reducciones de los injertos hepáticos y/o intestinales, la opción con injerto de donante vivo, etc. permiten actualmente cubrir las diferentes necesidades, a la vez que incrementar la probabilidad de acceso al trasplante, objetivo especialmente necesario en niños muy pequeños o de muy bajo peso candidatos a trasplante hepatointestinal. Uno de los aspectos más interesantes de los programas de TI es haber permitido la evolución hacia Unidades de Rehabilitación Intestinal, que integran en un equipo multidisciplinar las tres modalidades de tratamiento: soporte nutricional, farmacoterapia y cirugía. Estas Unidades optimizan los resultados, minimizan los costes y permiten ofrecer un tratamiento individualizado y adaptado a las necesidades individuales.The most recent outcomes on bowel transplantation (BT, with a survival rate immediately after transplant higher than 80% and a great rate of survivors achieving complete digestive autonomy and able to carry out activities according to their age allow for considering BT as the first choice therapy in patients with irreversible intestinal failure in whom poor prognosis with parenteral nutrition is foreseen. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver damage is the most frequent indication for BT, especially in children that are more susceptible than adults to develop this complication. Other accepted indications for BT are irreversible intestinal failure in association with loss of deep venous accesses, life-threatening severe infections associated with the use of central catheters, and those cases of intestinal failure usually leading to early death, such as ultra-short bowel syndromes, refractory diarrheas, and intestinal failure associated to high morbidity and poor quality of life. BT is performed in human clinical practice under three technical modalities: isolated bowel transplant, combined liver-bowel transplant, and multi-visceral transplantation. Currently, refinements of original techniques including reduction of liver and/or intestinal grafts, grafts from living donors, etc., allow for overcoming the different needs as well as increasing the likelihood of having access to transplantation, which is a desirable goal specially in very young or very low-weighted children candidate to liver-bowel transplant. One of the most interesting issues in BT programs is having given access to the Intestinal Rehabilitation Units, which comprise the three therapeutic modalities by means of a multidisciplinary team: nutritional support, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. These Units optimize the outcomes, minimize costs, and allow for offering a management adapted to individual needs.

  19. Enfermedad diverticular complicada: Manejo quirúrgico en el Hospital Español de Veracruz / Complicated diverticular disease: Surgical management at the Hospital Español de Veracruz

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfonso Gerardo, Pérez-Morales; Federico, Roesch-Dietlen; Silvia, Martínez-Fernández; Jaime A, Gómez Delgado; José María, Remes-Troche; Victoria Alejandra, Jiménez-García; Graciela, Romero-Sierra.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico de pacientes con enfermedad diverticular complicada en un periodo de 9 años. Sede: Hospital Español de Veracruz (tercer nivel de atención). Diseño: Observacional, descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo. Análisis estadístico: Medidas de fre [...] cuencia relativa y tendencia central. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio de 41 pacientes operados por enfermedad diverticular del colon complicada. Variables analizadas: Características sociodemográficas, factores de riesgo, indicaciones quirúrgicas, técnica quirúrgica empleada, complicaciones y evolución postoperatoria. Resultados: La edad promedio fue 66 ± 12.3 años, con predominio del género femenino (51.22%). Las principales indicaciones quirúrgicas fueron: perforación (43.90%), diverticulitis de repetición (21.95%), hemorragia (19.51%), fístula de colon a vejiga y vagina (9.76%) y obstrucción (4.88%). La obesidad fue el factor de riesgo más frecuente (24.39%). En el 56.10% de los casos la cirugía fue electiva. En el 92.69% se efectuó resección primaria con anastomosis y en 7.31% procedimiento de Hartmann. La evolución de los pacientes fue satisfactoria en el 78.05%. La mortalidad del grupo fue de 2.44%. Conclusiones: La experiencia de nuestro grupo en el manejo de la enfermedad diverticular complicada revela una elevada morbilidad, con mortalidad similar a la reportada en la literatura mundial. Es recomendable que el manejo sea realizado por cirujanos expertos y en hospitales de concentración Abstract in english Objective: To assess the results of surgical treatment of patients with complicated diverticular disease in a 9-year period. Setting: Hospital Español de Veracruz (third level health care). Design: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective study. Statistical analysis: Relative frequ [...] ency and central tendency measures. Patients and methods: We studied 41 patients with complicated colonic diverticular disease. Analyzed variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, surgical indications, surgical technique used, complications, and postoperative evolution. Results: Average age was of 66 ± 12.3 years, predominating women (51.22%). The main surgical indications were: perforation (43.90%), recurring diverticulitis (21.95%), hemorrhage (19.51%), colon fistula toward the bladder and vagina (9.76%), and obstruction (4.88%). Obesity was the most frequent risk factor (24.39%). Surgery was elective in 56.10% cases. Primary resection with anastomoses was performed in 92.69% of the cases and Hartman's procedure in 7.31%. Evolution of patients was satisfactory in 78.05%, and mortality in the group was of 2.44%. Conclusions: Our experience in the management of complicated diverticular disease reveals a high morbidity, with mortality similar to that reported in the worldwide literature. It is advisable that management be performed by experienced surgeons and at concentration hospitals

  20. Tratamiento quirúrgico para la enfermedad diverticular de colon: Experiencia en el INCMNSZ / Surgical treatment for colonic diverticular disease: Experience in the INCMNSZ

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ornar, Vergara-Fernández; Liliana, Velasco; Xeily, Zarate; José Martín, Morales-Olivera; José María, Remes; Quintín H, González; Takeshi, Takahashi-Monroy.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Aunque la mayoría de pacientes con enfermedad diverticular de colon responde al manejo conservador, algunos persisten con síntomas o presentan complicaciones que requieren cirugía. El objetivo de esta revisión fue identificar las indicaciones quirúrgicas para la enfermedad diverticular [...] de colon y evaluar los resultados en el manejo quirúrgico de la misma. Material y métodos. Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de pacientes sometidos a cirugía por enfermedad diverticular de colon de 1979 al 2000. Las indicaciones de cirugía fueron diverticulitis aguda (54%) (grupo 1), estenosis (19%), fístula (9.5%), diverticulitis recurrente (9.5%) y hemorragia (8%) (grupo 2). Resultados. Se estudiaron un total de 74 pacientes con una edad promedio de 56 años. Cincuenta y ocho por ciento fueron del sexo masculino. La morbilidad de los pacientes operados por diverticulitis aguda fue de 55% y la mortalidad de 15%. El tipo de cirugías en este grupo fueron estomas derivativos (45%), procedimientos de Hartmann (38%) y resecciones con anastomosis primaria (17%). La morbilidad y la mortalidad de las cirugías del segundo grupo fueron de 35 y 5.8%, respectivamente. Treinta y seis pacientes tuvieron dos o más operaciones, con diferencia significativa al comparar el grupo 1 con el grupo 2 (61 vs. 28%; p Abstract in english Background. Even though most patients with colonic diverticular disease respond to conservative management, some patients persist with symptoms or develop complications that require surgery. The objective of this study was to identify main surgical indications for colonic diverticular disease, and t [...] o evaluate the outcomes of surgical treatment. Materials and methods. A retrospective review of patients that underwent a surgical procedure for colonic diverticular disease from 1979 through 2000, was performed. Surgical indications were acute diverticulitis (54%) (group 1), stenosis (19%), fistula (9.5%), recurrent diverticulitis (9.5%) and bleeding (8%) (group 2). Results. Seventy-four patients with a mean age of 56 years were studied. Fifty-eight percent were male. Surgical morbidity and mortality rates of acute diverticulitis were 55%, and 15%, respectively. The surgical procedures of this group were proximal stomas (45%), Hartmann's procedures (38%) and resections with primary anastomosis (17%). Second group morbidity and mortality rates were 35 and 5.8%, respectively. Thirty-six patients underwent two or more surgical procedures with statistical significance between first and second groups (61 vs. 28%; p

  1. New trends in the management of diverticulitis and colonic diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Fernández, Francisco Javier; Díaz-Jiménez, Nélida; Gallardo-Herrera, Ana Belén; Gómez-Luque, Irene; Garcilazo-Arsimendi, Dimas Javier; Gómez-Barbadillo, José

    2015-03-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is a chronic disorder presenting with a variety of abdominal symptoms and recurrent episodes of acute diverticulitis. It is close linked to age so its prevalence has risen notably during the last decades in western countries, increasing costs related to medical attention. Recently, several works have provided evidence to a series of measures that could improve the outcomes as well as reduce expenses associated to this process.The aim of the present review is to expose a view of the new trends in the management of diverticulitis and colonic diverticular disease, based on the highest clinical evidence available. PMID:25733040

  2. Clinical imaging with indium-111 leukocytes: uptake in bowel infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leukocytes labeled with indium-111 accumulated in an area of small-bowel infarction, mimicking a paracolic abscess. Evidence of subacute bowel obstruction should alert the nuclear medicine physician to the former possibility

  3. Nutritive support in short Bowel syndrome (sbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simi? Dušica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Short bowel syndrome most commonly result after bowel resection for necrosis of the bowel. It may be caused by arterial or venous thrombosis, volvolus and in children, necrotizing enterocolitis. The other causes are Crohn,s disease intestinal atresia. The factors influencing the risk on short bowel syndrome are the remaining length of the small bowel, the age of onset, the length of the colon, the presence or absence of the ileo-coecal valve and the time after resection. Besides nutritional deficiencies there some other consequences of extensive resections of the small intestine (gastric acid hypersecretion, d-lactic acidosis, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, which must be diagnosed, treated, and if possible, prevented. With current therapy most patients with short bowel have normal body mass index and good quality of life.

  4. A new technique for early detection of portal vein and arterial thromboses. Indwelling mesenteric venous catheterization and relevance to small bowel transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamataka, A; Kawamoto, S; Ishikawa, M; Lancaster, J F; Miyano, T; Lynch, S V

    1993-09-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether, in an animal model, continuous monitoring of mesenteric venous pressure (MVP) via an indwelling mesenteric venous catheter could assist in early detection of thrombosis of the portal vein (PVT) and superior mesenteric artery (SMAT). The role of portography via the catheter was also studied in confirming these complications. An animal model of PVT and SMAT was developed in pigs. At laparotomy, a 20-cm jejunal loop was isolated and a heparin-coated catheter was inserted into a mesenteric vein of the isolated jejunum and connected to a pressure transducer. Conditions of PVT were simulated by progressive occlusion of the portal vein (PV) using a silastic tourniquet and those of SMAT by superior mesenteric artery (SMA) clamping. MVPs (mm Hg) were found to significantly increase with all degrees of PV occlusion (P SMAT and may be useful in the monitoring of the therapy for these complications after small bowel transplantation. PMID:8212141

  5. Experience with a wipe guaiac-based faecal occult blood test as an alternative test in a bowel screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, C G; McDonald, P J; Colford, L; Irvine, A; Kenicer, M; Morton, C; Birrell, J; Steele, R J C

    2010-01-01

    The format of the traditional guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT), particularly the collection technique, might cause difficulties for some. A multistage evaluation of alternative tests was performed. Firstly, four tests with different faecal collection approaches were assessed: a focus group recommended further investigation of a wipe gFOBT. Secondly, 100 faecal samples were analysed using two wipe tests and the routine gFOBT: no differences were found. Thirdly, a wipe gFOBT was introduced. Over 21 months, 400 requests were made and 311 wipe kit sets were submitted for analysis: 153 (49.2%) were negative, 21 (6.8%) positive (all 3 kits positive), 96 (30.9%) weak positive (1 or 2 positive) and 41 (13.2%) un-testable. Forty-three participants were referred for colonoscopy. Outcome data were provided on 39 participants: nine declined colonoscopy, two were judged unsuitable, two did not attend, two were already in follow-up, 13 had normal colonoscopy and two normal barium enema, two had diverticular disease, two had a metaplastic polyp, four had a low-risk adenoma and one had a high-risk adenoma. No participant had cancer. Detection of significant neoplasia was small. The use of the wipe gFOBT was ceased: it cannot be recommended as a screening test for bowel cancer. PMID:21258132

  6. Noninvasive Multidetector Computed Tomography Enterography in Patients with Small-Bowel Crohn's Disease: Is a 40-Second Delay Better than 70 Seconds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) enterography combines neutral enteric contrast with intravenously administered contrast material. The optimal intravenous (IV) contrast material protocol has still not been established. Purpose: To determine the optimal delay time to image patients with small-bowel Crohn's disease during MDCT enterography. Material and Methods: After oral administration of 1350 ml of neutral contrast medium, 26 patients with small-bowel Crohn's disease underwent MDCT enterography; scans were obtained 40 s (enteric phase) and 70 s (parenchymal phase) after IV administration of 100 ml of iodinated contrast material. Three radiologists, blinded to clinical and pathological findings, independently and retrospectively evaluated each scan in two separate reading sessions for the presence or absence of CT features of Crohn's disease activity. The interobserver agreement was evaluated, and the efficacy of each phase in detecting active disease in the terminal ileum for each reader was determined. The gold standard was pathology (n = 13), endoscopy (n = 3), and clinical evaluation (n 10). Results: No statistically significant difference was present between the enteric and the parenchymal phase for each reader in each segment regarding the presence or absence of CT features of Crohn's disease. The interobserver agreement for the presence of five main features of active Crohn's disease in the terminal ileum ranged from poor to excellent. The sileum ranged from poor to excellent. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy for active Crohn's disease in the terminal ileum ranged from 40 to 90%, 88 to 100%, 70 to 94%, 44 to 100%, and 69 to 96%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two phases for each reader. Conclusion: MDCT enterography in patients with suspected active Crohn's disease can be obtained at either 40 s or 70 s after IV contrast material

  7. UTILIDAD DE LA ENTEROCLISIS POR TOMOGRAFIA COMPUTADA (E-TC) EN LA DETECCIÓN DE TUMORES DE INTESTINO DELGADO / USEFULNESS OF THE MULTIDETECTOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHYENTEROCLYSIS (MDCT-E) IN THE DETECTION OF SMALL BOWEL NEOPLASMS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cecilia, Besa C; Andrés, O' Brien S; Juan Pablo, Cruz Q.

    Full Text Available Los tumores de intestino delgado (ID) son raros, representando aproximadamente 3-6% de las neoplasias del tubo digestivo. La E-TC es una técnica que combina las ventajas de la enteroclisis con las de la TC multicorte, con el potencial de demostrar alteraciones intraluminales, murales y extraintesti- [...] nales. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar el potencial diagnóstico de la E-TC en la detección de tumores de ID. En nuestra institución se realizaron 600 E-TC desde Enero del 2005 a Mayo del 2008. Un total de 22 pacientes (3,6 %) presentaron hallazgos tomográficos compatibles con tumores de ID, todos confirmados histológicamente. Los tumores encontrados en esta serie fueron; adenocarcinoma (n:4), linfoma (n:3), tumor carcinoide (n:3), tumor estromal gastrointestinal benigno (n:2), pólipos hamartomatosos (n: 2) y compromiso neoplásico secundario (n:8). Esta serie corrobora el valor de la E-TC como técnica de imagen de elección en la detección de tumores de ID, con la posibilidad de etapificación en el mismo procedimiento. Abstract in english Small bowel neoplasms are rare, accounting for approximately 3-6% of all priman/ malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract. MDCT-E is an imaging modality that combines the advantages of enteroclysis and helical CT, allowing the detection of small bowel diseases wherever they are located (intralumin [...] al, intramural, or extramural). The aim of our study was to assess the reliability of MDCT-E in the detection of small bowel neoplasms. In our institution, MDCT-E was used to study 600 patients admitted for suspicion of small bowel diseases, between January2005 and May 2008. A total of 22 (3, 6 %) small bowel neoplasms were identified, all confirmed by histological examination. The neoplasms found in this series were adenocarci-noma (n: 4), lymphoma (n: 3), carcinoid tumor (n: 3), benign GIST (n: 2), benign hamartomatous polyps (n: 2) and secondary small bowel tumors (n: 8). MDCT-E appears to be a reliable method in the detection of small bowel neoplasms, allowing tumor staging tobe determined during the same procedure.

  8. Characteristic imaging features of carcinoid tumors of the small bowel in MR enteroclysis; Morphologisches Erscheinungsbild neuroendokriner Tumoren des Duenndarms im MR-Enteroklysma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid-Tannwald, C.; Zech, C.J.; Panteleon, A.; Sommer, W.H.; Herrmann, K.A. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maxilimians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Auernhammer, C. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Medizinische Klinik II, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    To determine the value of MR enteroclysis (MRE) in the localization and characterization of primary carcinoid tumors of the small bowel and to describe typical imaging features. Twenty patients with suspicion of primary small bowel carcinoid tumors (pCT) were recruited to undergo MRE following nasojejunal intubation and small bowel filling with 2.5 l of 0.5% methylcellulose solution under MR fluoroscopic guidance. MRE was performed on a 1.5 T MR scanner including T2w SSFSE, SSFP and contrast enhanced T1w GRE sequences with fat saturation. Fifteen patients, who subsequently had surgery for resection of their pCT, were retrospectively included in the study. All MRE were analyzed as for the presence, location, number, size, multiplicity and morphologic appearance of the pCT by two board certified radiologists in consensus. The conspicuity of the tumors was rated for each sequence type separately, according to a 4-point rating scale. Signal intensity measurements were performed in tumor and muscle. The presence of desmoplastic reaction, vascular involvement and lymph node metastases was also analyzed. pCT were correctly identified and localized in 14/15 patients. Due to their hyperenhancement tumors was best detected on contrast-enhanced T1w fat saturated GRE sequences. SSFSE was clearly inferior with the tumors being either hyperintense or isointense to muscle. pCT appeared as nodular intraluminal masses in 40% of the cases, as focal wall thickening in 33.3% and in 20% with both. Mean size was 25 (7-46 mm) with a tendency to smaller size for ileal tumors. MRE failed to depict superficial micronodular peritoneal spread in one patient. Desmoplastic reaction was observed in 73.3% of the cases with mesenteric masses exhibiting lower signal than the pCT due to fibrotic changes. MRE is a valuable method for the detection and localization of primary carcinoid tumors, provided that appropriate bowel distension is achieved. Various characteristic morphologic features could be identified which may contribute to characterize pCT and their loco-regional metastases. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war es, den Wert des MR-Enteroklymas (MRE) bei der Lokalisierung und Charakterisierung primaerer Duenndarmkarzinoide zu ermitteln und typische Merkmale in der Bildgebung zu beschreiben. Zwanzig Patienten mit Verdacht auf ein primaeres Duenndarmkarzinoid wurden rekrutiert fuer ein MRE nach nasojejunaler Intubation und Duenndarmfuellung mit 2,5 l einer 0,5%igen Methylzelluloseloesung unter MR-fluoroskopischer Fuehrung. Das MRE wurde in einem 1,5-T-MR-Tomographen durchgefuehrt, angefertigt wurden T2-gewichtete SSFSE- und SSFP-Sequenzen sowie kontrastverstaerkte T1-gewichtete GRE-Sequenzen mit Fettsaettigung. Fuenfzehn Patienten mit anschliessender chirurgischer Resektion des primaeren Duenndarmkarzinoids wurden retrospektiv in die Studie aufgenommen. Alle MRE wurden von 2 Fachaerzten fuer Radiologie hinsichtlich folgender Aspekte beurteilt: Vorhandensein, Lokalisation, Anzahl, Groesse, Multiplizitaet und morphologisches Erscheinungsbild des Duenndarmkarzinoids. Die Sichtbarkeit der Tumoren wurde anhand einer 4-Punkte-Skala fuer jede Sequenzart einzeln beurteilt. Im Tumor- und Muskelgewebe wurden die Signalintensitaeten vermessen. Analysiert wurden auch das Vorhandensein desmoplastischer Reaktionen, Gefaessbeteiligung und Lymphknotenmetastasen. Richtig identifiziert und lokalisiert wurde ein Duenndarmkarzinoid bei 14 von 15 Patienten. Wegen des verstaerkten Enhancements wurden die Tumoren in den kontrastverstaerkten T1-gewichteten fettgesaettigten GRE-Sequenzen am besten erkannt. Auf den SSFSE-Sequenzen war dies deutlich weniger gut moeglich, die Tumoren stellten sich entweder hyperintens oder isointens zur Muskulatur dar. Die Tumoren imponierten als nodulaere intraluminale Raumforderungen in 40%, als fokale Wandverdickungen in 33,3%, in 20% der Faelle kombiniert; ihre mittlere Groesse betrug 25,2 (7-46 mm), tendenziell waren die im Ileum lokalisierten Tumoren kleiner. Bei einem Patienten wurden oberflaechliche mikronodulaere peritoneale Absiedlu

  9. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient's quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. Results: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  10. Eating and Bowel Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Let's Talk about Bowel Control Celiac Disease Awareness Campaign Bladder Control for Women We Can! Ways to Enhance Children’s Activity & Nutrition Home : Eating and Bowel Control Eating and Bowel ...

  11. Primary Extra-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST arising from mesentery of small bowel and presenting as abdominal mass: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Majority of mesenchymal tumors of gastrointestinal tract are Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST. It is, however, a rare tumor, accounting for less than 1% of primary gastrointestinal (GI neoplasms. Though, these tumors are refractory to conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy but show a good response to targeted adjuvant chemotherapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors following surgical resection. Case Report: we report here a case of primary Extra-GIST tumor arising from mesentry of small bowel near duodeno-jejunal junction in a 69 years old male patient. The patient presented with a palpable mass in upper abdomen for past 15 days. On examination, a non-tender mobile lump of size around 17 × 10 cm, with bosselated surface and firm in consistency was palpable involving epigastric, left hypochondrium and umbilical region. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen revealed a heterogenous mesentric mass. On surgical intervention a mass was found involving mesentery near dudenojejunal junction without involvement of gastrointestinal tract. Complete surgical resection of the tumor was done and adjuvant chemotherapy with Imatinib mesylate was started as HPE revealing GIST with mitotic index of >10/50 HPF and 17 × 10 cm size placed the patient in high risk category. Patient was discharged on 12th of post-operative day with advice of regular follow-up. Conclusion: GIST occurrence is not restricted to bowel but can involve unusual sites also. The mainstay of treatment remains surgical resection with adequate margin. In cases where tumour has malignant potential (high mitotic figures on histopathology adjuvent treatment with tyrosine kinase may prevent or delay relapse.

  12. Short bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2012-02-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  13. Intususcepción de intestino delgado por linfoma a células -T / Small bowel intussusception due to T-cell lymphoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moisés, Vértiz; Manuel, García; Herbert, Yabar.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de sexo femenino, de 53 años de edad, ama de casa, natural del Departamento de Amazonas, procedente de Lima, donde radicaba desde su juventud, fue admitida en Emergencia del hospital por presentar dolor abdominal tipo cólico persistente, en mesogastrio, con irradiación al hemiabdomen superi [...] or. Además, presentaba tumoración abdominal, de más o menos 8 x 5 x 5 cm, en mesogastrio, móvil, dolorosa y dolor a la descompresión en fosa iliaca derecha; posteriormente, se agregó vómitos en dos oportunidades y pérdida de peso no cuantificado. En el intraoperatorio, se encontró intususcepción del íleon terminal hacia colon ascendente y tumoración de íleon distal. La anatomía patológica de la tumoración demostró linfoma no Hodgkin, fenotipo de células T de grado alto de malignidad. Abstract in english Female patient FPM, 53 year-old, housewife, born in Amazonas, Peru, resident in Lima since teenager, was admitted at Emergency room due to colicky abdominal pain and abdominal tumour about 8 x 5 x 5 cm, in mesogastric area, mobile and painful. She had vomiting in two opportunities and lost undetermi [...] ned weight. During surgery we found terminal ileum intussuception into the ascending large bowel and a tumour mass in terminal ileum. Pathology report informed high degree of malignancy no-Hodgkin T-cell phenotype lymphoma.

  14. Colectomia eletiva laparoscópica esquerda para a doença diverticular: estudo monocêntrico sobre 205 pacientes consecutivos / Elective laparoscopic left colectomy for diverticular disease: a monocentric study on 205 consecutive patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Odilo Gonçalves, Pinto; Basmah, Fallatah; Phillipe, Espalieu; Gilles, Poncet; Alvine, Bissery; Fernando Antonio Siqueira, Pinheiro; Jean-Claude, Boulez.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O aumento da prevalência de doença diverticular tornou o seu manuseio mais adequado uma questão de debate constante. Especialmente para os casos de diverticulite, progresso considerável tem sido feito em termos de diagnóstico e tratamento. A ressecção cirúrgica do cólon envolvido é a única [...] maneira de erradicar definitivamente essa condição e, portanto, a colectomia laparoscópica eletiva surgiu como uma opção segura e interessante entre as várias formas de tratamento. OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados das colectomias laparoscópicas esquerdas para a doença diverticular realizadas durante um período de 17 anos em uma única instituição. MÉTODOS: Entre abril de 1990 e maio de 2007, um total de 205 colectomias consecutivas esquerdas laparoscópicas foram revistas retrospectivamente. Os dados obtidos incluíram o pré-operatório, indicações para a operação, os dados cirúrgicos, complicações e seguimento. Análises estatísticas univariada e multivariada foram realizadas em um esforço para identificar os fatores de risco e efeitos adversos na série. RESULTADOS: As indicações foram diverticulite aguda (80%) não-complicada, diverticulite aguda ou crônica complicada (18,05%) e sangramento na doença diverticular (1,95%). A taxa de conversão foi de 5,85% (12 casos). A mediana do tempo operatório foi de 180 minutos (100-420), com internação hospitalar de 7 (5-44) dias. O comprimento médio do espécime ressecado foi 29,12 centímetros. A maioria dos casos (88,3%) teve curso pós-operatório normal, mas complicações ocorreram em 24 (11,7%) pacientes. Em ordem de frequência foram: íleo paralítico (n = 6), coleções pélvica (n = 4), obstruções intestinais (n = 4) e fístulas (n = 2), entre outros. Re-operação foi necessária em oito casos e houve um óbito (0,48%). O seguimento mediano foi de 26,5 (1-156) meses, com resultado satisfatório em 179 (87,32%) dos pacientes. Em 18 (8,78%) casos, os sintomas persistentes de distúrbios funcionais do cólon foram anotados. Houve sete (3,41%), estenoses da anastomose e em dois precisou de re-operação. A taxa de recidiva foi de 1,95% (4 casos). Idade e complicações intra-operatórias foram identificadas como fatores de risco para a conversão. A presença de lesões associadas foi significativamente correlacionada com a persistência de sintomas funcionais do cólon durante o seguimento. CONCLUSÕES: A colectomia laparoscópica esquerda é segura e eficaz em comparação com todas as outras modalidades de tratamento da doença diverticular. Diagnóstico preciso e cuidado nas indicações são essenciais para atingir bons resultados. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The increased prevalence of diverticular disease has made its most appropriate management a matter of constant debate. Especially for the cases of diverticulitis, considerable progress has been made in terms of diagnosis and management. The surgical resection of the involved colon is the [...] only means of definitely eradicate this condition and so, the elective laparoscopic colectomy has emerged as a safe and interesting choice among the options of treatment. AIM: To analyze the outcomes of the laparoscopic left colectomy for diverticular disease performed over a 17-year period at a single institution. METHODS: Between April 1990 and May 2007, a total of 205 consecutive left laparoscopic colectomies were retrospectively reviewed. Data obtained included the pre-operative work-up, indications for surgery, operative results, complications and follow-up. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyzes were performed in an effort to identity risk factors for adverse outcomes in the series. RESULTS: Indications were for non-complicated acute diverticulitis (80%), acute or chronic complicated diverticulitis (18.05%) and bleeding diverticular disease (1.95%). The conversion rate was 5.85% (12 cases). The median operative time was 180 (100-420) min with a hospital stay of 7 (5-44) days. The mean length of the resected specimen was 29.12 (+8.2) cm. Mos

  15. Colectomia eletiva laparoscópica esquerda para a doença diverticular: estudo monocêntrico sobre 205 pacientes consecutivos Elective laparoscopic left colectomy for diverticular disease: a monocentric study on 205 consecutive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Odilo Gonçalves Pinto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O aumento da prevalência de doença diverticular tornou o seu manuseio mais adequado uma questão de debate constante. Especialmente para os casos de diverticulite, progresso considerável tem sido feito em termos de diagnóstico e tratamento. A ressecção cirúrgica do cólon envolvido é a única maneira de erradicar definitivamente essa condição e, portanto, a colectomia laparoscópica eletiva surgiu como uma opção segura e interessante entre as várias formas de tratamento. OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados das colectomias laparoscópicas esquerdas para a doença diverticular realizadas durante um período de 17 anos em uma única instituição. MÉTODOS: Entre abril de 1990 e maio de 2007, um total de 205 colectomias consecutivas esquerdas laparoscópicas foram revistas retrospectivamente. Os dados obtidos incluíram o pré-operatório, indicações para a operação, os dados cirúrgicos, complicações e seguimento. Análises estatísticas univariada e multivariada foram realizadas em um esforço para identificar os fatores de risco e efeitos adversos na série. RESULTADOS: As indicações foram diverticulite aguda (80% não-complicada, diverticulite aguda ou crônica complicada (18,05% e sangramento na doença diverticular (1,95%. A taxa de conversão foi de 5,85% (12 casos. A mediana do tempo operatório foi de 180 minutos (100-420, com internação hospitalar de 7 (5-44 dias. O comprimento médio do espécime ressecado foi 29,12 centímetros. A maioria dos casos (88,3% teve curso pós-operatório normal, mas complicações ocorreram em 24 (11,7% pacientes. Em ordem de frequência foram: íleo paralítico (n = 6, coleções pélvica (n = 4, obstruções intestinais (n = 4 e fístulas (n = 2, entre outros. Re-operação foi necessária em oito casos e houve um óbito (0,48%. O seguimento mediano foi de 26,5 (1-156 meses, com resultado satisfatório em 179 (87,32% dos pacientes. Em 18 (8,78% casos, os sintomas persistentes de distúrbios funcionais do cólon foram anotados. Houve sete (3,41%, estenoses da anastomose e em dois precisou de re-operação. A taxa de recidiva foi de 1,95% (4 casos. Idade e complicações intra-operatórias foram identificadas como fatores de risco para a conversão. A presença de lesões associadas foi significativamente correlacionada com a persistência de sintomas funcionais do cólon durante o seguimento. CONCLUSÕES: A colectomia laparoscópica esquerda é segura e eficaz em comparação com todas as outras modalidades de tratamento da doença diverticular. Diagnóstico preciso e cuidado nas indicações são essenciais para atingir bons resultados.BACKGROUND: The increased prevalence of diverticular disease has made its most appropriate management a matter of constant debate. Especially for the cases of diverticulitis, considerable progress has been made in terms of diagnosis and management. The surgical resection of the involved colon is the only means of definitely eradicate this condition and so, the elective laparoscopic colectomy has emerged as a safe and interesting choice among the options of treatment. AIM: To analyze the outcomes of the laparoscopic left colectomy for diverticular disease performed over a 17-year period at a single institution. METHODS: Between April 1990 and May 2007, a total of 205 consecutive left laparoscopic colectomies were retrospectively reviewed. Data obtained included the pre-operative work-up, indications for surgery, operative results, complications and follow-up. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyzes were performed in an effort to identity risk factors for adverse outcomes in the series. RESULTS: Indications were for non-complicated acute diverticulitis (80%, acute or chronic complicated diverticulitis (18.05% and bleeding diverticular disease (1.95%. The conversion rate was 5.85% (12 cases. The median operative time was 180 (100-420 min with a hospital stay of 7 (5-44 days. The mean length of the resected specimen was 29.12 (+8.2 cm. Most cases (88.3% had an unremarkable postoperative course bu

  16. Small bowel injury associated to allergy is triggered by platelet-activating factor, mast cells, neutrophils and protected by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewski, Fábio H; Landgraf, Richardt G; Jancar, Sonia

    2008-02-01

    Allergy to components of the diet is followed by gut inflammation which in children, sometimes progress to mucosal lesions and anaphylaxis. In newborns suffering of cow's milk allergy, bloody stools, rectal bleeding and ulcerations are found. The rat systemic anaphylaxis is a suitable model to study the intestinal lesions associated to allergy. In the present study we used this model to investigate some mechanisms involved. We found that 15 min after antigen challenge of sensitized rats, hemorrhagic lesions develop in the small intestine. The lesions were more severe in jejunum and ileum compared to duodenum. Pretreatment of the rats with a platelet-activating factor-receptor antagonist (WEB-2170) reduced the lesions whereas inhibition of endogenous nitric oxide by l-NAME, greatly increased the hemorrhagic lesions and mortality. Both, lesions and mortality were reversed by l-arginine. The hemorrhagic lesions were also significantly reduced by the mast cell stabilizers, disodium cromoglycate and ketotifen as well as by neutrophils depletion (with anti-PMN antibodies) or inhibition of selectin binding (by treatment with fucoidan). Thus, the intestinal hemorrhagic lesions in this model are dependent on platelet-activating factor, mast cell granule-derived mediators and neutrophils. Endogenous nitric oxide and supplementation with l-arginine has a protective role, reducing the lesions and preventing mortality. These results contributed to elucidate mechanisms involved in intestinal lesions which could be of relevance to human small bowel injury associated to allergy. PMID:18182253

  17. A preservação do intestino delgado para transplante: a contribuição da oxigenação hiperbárica Small bowel preservation for transplantation: the contribution of the hyperbaric oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Garcia Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Não há ainda um método que mantenha adequadamente e por tempo prolongado a qualidade e a função do intestino delgado a ser transplantado, apesar da existência de várias modalidades de preservação. Há necessidade de se desenvolver e aprimorar novas opções técnicas. OBJETIVO: Recuperar os artigos que estudaram a aplicação da oxigenação hiperbárica (OHB como técnica de preservação do intestino delgado destinado para transplante, procurando determinar qual a contribuição do método no prolongamento do tempo e qualidade dessa preservação. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a base de dados do Medline e da Scielo consultada nos sites www.pubmed.com e www.bireme.br tendo sido selecionados 58 trabalhos pertinentes. A revisão mostrou que a preservação intestinal está associada ao uso de soluções que fornecem substrato oxidativo para a célula assim como acrescentam substâncias que evitam ou reduzem a formação de espécies reativas de oxigênio. A hipotermia e a oxigenação destas soluções preservadoras é de uso corrente e consensual. Nove trabalhos ativeram-se ao uso específico da OHB. Não há consenso sobre sua utilização em trabalhos experimentais. Contudo os estudos não são comparáveis, pois utilizam metodologias diversas e diferentes tipos de avaliação. Discute-se também a complexidade e os custos da OHB. Apesar disto, há indicações que a OHB pode prevenir o edema da hipotermia, manter a oxigenação tecidual durante a preservação e impedir ou diminuir a formação de radicais livres. CONCLUSÃO: A OHB deve ser avaliada como alternativa exclusiva ou complementar às técnicas de preservação, sendo campo fértil de investigação.INTRODUCTION: In spite of the existence of several modalities of preservation, up to now a method that adequately keeps for a long time the quality and the functioning aspects of the small bowel to be transplanted is lacking. AIM: To gather articles using hyper baric oxygenation (HBO as technique of small bowel preservation for transplant and quality of the preservation. METHODS: Database Medline and Scielo were checked at www.pubmed.com and www.bireme.br, with 58 works selected. Solutions supplying oxidative substratum to the cells and adding substances to prevent or reduce the formation of reactive oxygen, is the main source of preservation. The hypothermia and solutions oxygenation are in current use. Nine papers studied the specific use of the HBO. There is no consensus on its use in experimental works. However, these papers are not comparable, due to different methodologies and types of evaluation. One also argues the complexity and the costs of the HBO. In spite of that, there are evidences that the HBO can prevent hypothermia edema, keep the tecidual oxygenation during the preservation and hinder or diminish the formation of free radicals. CONCLUSION: HBO must be considered as the unique alternative or complementary technique in the preservation of the small bowell for transplant.

  18. A preservação do intestino delgado para transplante: a contribuição da oxigenação hiperbárica / Small bowel preservation for transplantation: the contribution of the hyperbaric oxygenation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Augusto Garcia, Guimarães; Murched Omar, Taha; Djalma José, Fagundes.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Não há ainda um método que mantenha adequadamente e por tempo prolongado a qualidade e a função do intestino delgado a ser transplantado, apesar da existência de várias modalidades de preservação. Há necessidade de se desenvolver e aprimorar novas opções técnicas. OBJETIVO: Recuperar os ar [...] tigos que estudaram a aplicação da oxigenação hiperbárica (OHB) como técnica de preservação do intestino delgado destinado para transplante, procurando determinar qual a contribuição do método no prolongamento do tempo e qualidade dessa preservação. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a base de dados do Medline e da Scielo consultada nos sites www.pubmed.com e www.bireme.br tendo sido selecionados 58 trabalhos pertinentes. A revisão mostrou que a preservação intestinal está associada ao uso de soluções que fornecem substrato oxidativo para a célula assim como acrescentam substâncias que evitam ou reduzem a formação de espécies reativas de oxigênio. A hipotermia e a oxigenação destas soluções preservadoras é de uso corrente e consensual. Nove trabalhos ativeram-se ao uso específico da OHB. Não há consenso sobre sua utilização em trabalhos experimentais. Contudo os estudos não são comparáveis, pois utilizam metodologias diversas e diferentes tipos de avaliação. Discute-se também a complexidade e os custos da OHB. Apesar disto, há indicações que a OHB pode prevenir o edema da hipotermia, manter a oxigenação tecidual durante a preservação e impedir ou diminuir a formação de radicais livres. CONCLUSÃO: A OHB deve ser avaliada como alternativa exclusiva ou complementar às técnicas de preservação, sendo campo fértil de investigação. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: In spite of the existence of several modalities of preservation, up to now a method that adequately keeps for a long time the quality and the functioning aspects of the small bowel to be transplanted is lacking. AIM: To gather articles using hyper baric oxygenation (HBO) as technique o [...] f small bowel preservation for transplant and quality of the preservation. METHODS: Database Medline and Scielo were checked at www.pubmed.com and www.bireme.br, with 58 works selected. Solutions supplying oxidative substratum to the cells and adding substances to prevent or reduce the formation of reactive oxygen, is the main source of preservation. The hypothermia and solutions oxygenation are in current use. Nine papers studied the specific use of the HBO. There is no consensus on its use in experimental works. However, these papers are not comparable, due to different methodologies and types of evaluation. One also argues the complexity and the costs of the HBO. In spite of that, there are evidences that the HBO can prevent hypothermia edema, keep the tecidual oxygenation during the preservation and hinder or diminish the formation of free radicals. CONCLUSION: HBO must be considered as the unique alternative or complementary technique in the preservation of the small bowell for transplant.

  19. Usefulness of capsule endoscopy in patients with suspected small bowel disease Utilidad de la cápsula endoscópica en pacientes con sospecha de patología de intestino delgado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caunedo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the usefulness and safety of capsule endoscopy as a diagnostic tool in various small bowel disorders. Design: a retrospective analysis of a series of cases. Material and methods: between August 2001 and August 2002, 92 capsule endoscopy procedures were performed in 88 patients (53M/39F, age: 43.87 ± 16.78. Indications included: chronic diarrhea (n = 33; unknown abdominal pain (n = 29; occult gastrointestinal bleeding or iron-deficiency anemia (n = 13; abdominal discomfort in NSAID takers (n = 7; staging of gastrointestinal tumors (n = 4, and asymptomatic controls (n = 2. Previously performed gastroscopy, colonoscopy, and small-bowel follow-through were not conclusive in all patients. Results: most frequently relevant findings included: jejuno-ileal apthas and ulcerations (29 patients, vascular malformations (13 patients, and intestinal neoplasm (6 patients. The groups with a higher rate of findings related to this indication were occult gastrointestinal bleeding (76.92% and chronic diarrhea (67.85%, with the lowest rate in the abdominal pain group (34.48%. Therapeutic strategy was directly changed in 36 of 88 patients (40.90% because of capsule-endoscopic findings. The only observed complication was the failed excretion of one of the capsules because of an unknown ulcerated intestinal stricture. Conclusions: capsule endoscopy is a safe procedure which can study the entire small bowel, meaning a valuable tool for the management of patients with suggestive signs and symptoms of intestinal disorders.Objetivo: estudiar la utilidad y seguridad de la cápsula endoscópica como prueba diagnóstica en distintas patologías de intestino delgado. Diseño: análisis retrospectivo de una serie de casos. Material y métodos: entre agosto de 2001 y agosto de 2002 se realizaron 92 cápsulo-endoscopias a 88 pacientes (53H/39M, edad: 43,87± 16,78. Las indicaciones fueron: diarrea crónica (n = 33; dolor abdominal no filiado (n = 29; hemorragia digestiva de origen oscuro o anemia ferropénica (n = 13; molestias abdominales en pacientes consumidores de AINE (n = 7; estudio de extensión de tumores gastrointestinales (n = 4; y controles asintomáticos (n = 2. Todos los pacientes fueron sometidos previamente a tránsito intestinal, gastroscopia y colonoscopia, cuyos hallazgos no fueron concluyentes para el diagnóstico. Resultados: los hallazgos relevantes más frecuentemente encontrados fueron ulceraciones y aftas yeyunoileales (29 pacientes, malformaciones vasculares (13 pacientes y neoplasias intestinales (6 pacientes. Los grupos con mayor tasa de hallazgos relacionados con la indicación fueron el de hemorragia digestiva de origen oscuro (76,92% y el de diarrea crónica (67,85%, mostrando el grupo de pacientes con dolor abdominal el porcentaje más bajo (34,48%. En el 40,90% de casos (36/88 se cambió directamente la estrategia terapéutica del paciente a la luz de los resultados capsuloendoscópicos. La única complicación observada consistió en la falta de excreción de una de las cápsulas por la existencia de una estenosis ulcerada no conocida. Conclusiones: la cápsula endoscópica es una técnica segura y capaz de estudiar el intestino delgado en su totalidad, suponiendo una valiosa herramienta para el manejo de pacientes con clínica sugestiva de patología intestinal.

  20. Enterografia por tomografia computadorizada: experiência inicial na avaliação das doenças do intestino delgado / CT enterography: a preliminary experience in the evaluation of small bowel diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana, Costa-Silva; Tatiana, Martins; Maria do Carmo Friche, Passos.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é demonstrar a importância da enterografia por tomografia computadorizada (entero-TC) e como este exame pode contribuir na elucidação diagnóstica e avaliação clínica de pacientes com doenças do intestino delgado. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de 35 paci [...] entes submetidos a entero-TC realizadas em aparelho multidetector de 16 canais, entre maio de 2008 e março de 2009. Utilizou-se meio de contraste iodado venoso e oral neutro (polietilenoglicol). As principais indicações foram avaliação de doença de Crohn, diarreia de origem indeterminada e suspeita de neoplasias. RESULTADOS: Houve boa correlação dos achados à entero-TC relacionados à atividade da doença em pacientes com doença de Crohn, quando comparados com dados clínicos, laboratoriais e endoscópicos. Em 15 casos identificaram-se alterações compatíveis com doença de Crohn, 9 deles sugerindo atividade. Dos pacientes com diarreia, o exame elucidou a maioria dos casos. Identificaram-se dois casos de tumor carcinoide. CONCLUSÃO: A entero-TC é método simples e eficaz para estudo das doenças inflamatórias/neoplásicas do intestino delgado, sobretudo na avaliação da doença de Crohn, indicando atividade da doença. Uma de suas principais vantagens é a possibilidade de avaliação de alterações mesentéricas e extraintestinais associadas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at demonstrating the value of computed tomography enterography (CT enterography) and how this imaging method can be useful in the diagnostic elucidation and assessment of patients with small bowel diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of 35 [...] patients submitted to CT enterography in a 16-row multidetector CT equipment from May/2008 to March/2009. All the patients received intravenous and neutral oral iodinated contrast agents (polyethylene glycol). Main indications were: Crohn's disease, diarrhea of undetermined origin and suspicion of neoplasia. RESULTS: A good correlation was observed between CT enterography findings and clinical, laboratory and endoscopic data related to the disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease. In 15 cases alterations compatible with Crohn's disease were identified, nine of them suggesting disease activity. A diagnosis was achieved in the majority of the patients with diarrhea. Carcinoid tumors were identified in two patients. CONCLUSION: CT enterography is a simple and effective method in the evaluation of inflammatory/neoplastic small bowel diseases, particularly in cases of Crohn's disease, indicating disease activity. One of the main advantages of this method is the possibility of evaluating associated mesenteric and extraintestinal alterations.

  1. Melanoma metastático causando intussuscepção do intestino delgado: diagnóstico por 18F-FDG PET/TC / Metastatic melanoma causing small bowel intussusception: diagnosis by 18F-FDG PET/CT

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederico Ferreira de, Souza; Felipe Ferreira de, Souza; Daniel Andrade Tinoco de, Souza; Ciaran, Johnston.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma maligno é uma doença comum e agressiva que frequentemente causa metástase para o intestino delgado. Este estudo ilustra um caso de intussuscepção do intestino delgado causada por uma lesão metastática de melanoma visualizada à 18F-FDG PET/TC em uma paciente de 48 anos idade que realizou exa [...] me de reestadiamento. Abstract in english Malignant melanoma is a common and aggressive disease that frequently causes metastases to the small bowel. This study illustrates a case of small bowel intussusception secondary to metastatic melanoma visualized at 18F-FDG PET/CT in a 48-year-old woman who had this examination for restaging purpose [...] s.

  2. A case report of perforation of the small bowel in a patient with recurrence of rectal cancer during treatment with bevacizumab after pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 70-year-old male patient with rectal cancer underwent Miles' operation in April 2005. In June 2006, a computed tomography (CT) scan revealed local recurrence in the presacral region and lung metastases. In July 2006, the patient received pelvic irradiation at a total dose of 50 Gy. He also received modified FOLFOX6 chemotherapy. After a total of 28 courses, a CT scan showed that local recurrence is a stable disease (SD) while yet lung metastases being a progressive disease (PD). In April 2008, therefore, he received FOLFIRI2 instead of modified FOLFOX6 in combination with bevacizumab. There was no change (NC) during a total of 19 courses. In Mach 2009, 5 days after the last dose, the patient suddenly developed abdominal pain and a fever and visited the outpatient department. A CT scan showed gastrointestinal tract perforation. The patient was diagnosed with peritonitis and underwent emergency surgery. Since an ileal perforation was observed, the small bowel was partially resected. Drainage was performed and an artificial anus was made in the ileum. Gastrointestinal tract perforation is one of the most serious adverse events associated with bevacizumab. Risk following irradiation is known to be high and it is considered that utmost care is required at treatment. (author)

  3. Sequence-dependent toxicity and small bowel mucosal injury in neonatal mice treated with low doses of 5-azacytidine and X-irradiation at the late organogenesis stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined treatment of pregnant mice on day 12 of gestation with both azacytidine and X-irradiation in low doses induces sequence-dependent histological effects. These effects, in turn, induce different symptomatic signs if evaluated either prenatally or neonatally. In the azacytidine treatment/X-irradiation sequence the malformations of the fetal forebrain are predominant. Consequently, these dams show a high incidence in the stillbirth rate. Conversely, the X-irradiation/azacytidine treatment schedule leads only to a mild brain hypoplasia, and does not cause an increased stillbirth rate. In these offspring, however, a severe impairment of small bowel epithelial proliferation capacity was found. This is linked to an outstanding neonatal mortality within 48 h after birth. The pathogenesis of these sequence-dependent effects can be attributed to a selective vulnerability of cells in different stages of the generation cycle. This comprises a high degree of cytolethality affecting the S/G2-stage cells in azacytidine/X-irradiation treatment and the G1/S-stage cells in the reverse combinations (Schmahl 1979). The present observations show the validity of a teratological assay in providing a detailed analysis of the cell kinetic responses after combined noxious influences. (orig.)

  4. Sequence-dependent toxicity and small bowel mucosal injury in neonatal mice treated with low doses of 5-azacytidine and X-irradiation at the late organogenesis stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmahl, W.

    1983-04-01

    A combined treatment of pregnant mice on day 12 of gestation with both azacytidine and X-irradiation in low doses induces sequence-dependent histological effects. These effects, in turn, induce different symptomatic signs if evaluated either prenatally or neonatally. In the azacytidine treatment/X-irradiation sequence the malformations of the fetal forebrain are predominant. Consequently, these dams show a high incidence in the stillbirth rate. Conversely, the X-irradiation/azacytidine treatment schedule leads only to a mild brain hypoplasia, and does not cause an increased stillbirth rate. In these offspring, however, a severe impairment of small bowel epithelial proliferation capacity was found. This is linked to an outstanding neonatal mortality within 48 h after birth. The pathogenesis of these sequence-dependent effects can be attributed to a selective vulnerability of cells in different stages of the generation cycle. This comprises a high degree of cytolethality affecting the S/G/sub 2/-stage cells in azacytidine/X-irradiation treatment and the G/sub 1//S-stage cells in the reverse combinations (Schmahl 1979). The present observations show the validity of a teratological assay in providing a detailed analysis of the cell kinetic responses after combined noxious influences.

  5. Effect of the Japanese herbal kampo medicine dai-kenchu-to on postoperative adhesive small bowel obstruction requiring long-tube decompression: a propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Hideo; Miyata, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Hideki; Matsuda, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    Adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) is an adverse consequence of abdominal surgery. Although the Kampo medicine Dai-kenchu-to is widely used in Japan for treatment of postoperative ASBO, rigorous clinical studies for its use have not been performed. In the present retrospective observational study using the Japanese diagnosis procedure combination inpatient database, we selected 288 propensity-score-matched patients with early postoperative ASBO following colorectal cancer surgery, who received long-tube decompression (LTD) with or without Dai-kenchu-to administration. The success rates of LTD were not significantly different between Dai-kenchu-to users and nonusers (84.7% versus 78.5%; P = .224), while Dai-kenchu-to users showed a shorter duration of LTD (8 versus 10 days; P = .012), shorter duration between long-tube insertion and discharge (23 versus 25 days; P = .018), and lower hospital charges ($23,086 versus $26,950; P = .018) compared with Dai-kenchu-to nonusers. In conclusion, the present study suggests that Dai-kenchu-to is effective for reducing the duration of LTD and saving costs. PMID:21584269

  6. Obstrução intestinal congênita em cão por aderência de alça em osso púbico / Canine congenital intestinal obstruction due to a band of small bowel in the pubic bone

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evandro Zacché, Pereira; Ana Laura Pinto D' Amico, Fam; Marconi Rodrigues de, Farias; Ana Paula, Sarraff-Lopes.

    1797-17-01

    Full Text Available Atendeu-se uma cadela, sem raça definida, com aproximadamente cinco meses de idade, apresentando anamnese com queixa de apatia e hiporexia associadas a vômitos e emagrecimento progressivo com início incerto. Ao exame físico era evidente distensão abdominal com dilatação intestinal e aumento de peris [...] taltismo. O animal apresentava-se emaciado e subdesenvolvido, com acentuado grau de desidratação, pulso filiforme e nível de consciência reduzido. Minutos após o início do atendimento a cadela foi a óbito. À necropsia, pôde-se observar um segmento do intestino delgado atravessando o púbis e com lúmen reduzido. Tal apresentação se faz relevante por se tratar de um caso nunca antes descrito na literatura veterinária. Abstract in english A five-month-old mongrel bitch was presented with history of apathy and hyporexia in addition to vomit and progressive weight loss of uncertain beginning. At the physical examination, abdominal distention with intestinal dilatation and increased peristaltic movements was evident. The animal also was [...] emaciated, highly dehydrated, with filiform pulse and reduced conscience level. It died a few minutes after the physical exam. At the necropsy, a small bowel segment could be observed crossing the pubic bone causing obstruction due to a reduction in the lumen at the point of adhesion. This presentation has an important relevance because such case has never been reported before in the veterinary medical practice.

  7. Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor with osteoclast-like giant cells in the small bowel: further evidence for a new tumor entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Nicolaus; Testi, Maria Adele; Moiraghi, Luisa; Modena, Piergiorgio; Paggen, Ellen; Plötner, Andreas; Wiechmann, Volker; Mantovani-Löffler, Luisa; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Buettner, Reinhard; Wardelmann, Eva

    2005-10-01

    Most mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract belong to the category of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and are characterized by the immunohistochemical expression of KIT receptor. In cases without detectable KIT receptor expression several differential diagnoses have to be taken into consideration. Here, we report a case of a 41-year-old man with a tumor of the small bowel composed of large epithelioid tumor cells arranged in solid and alveolar sheets including scattered osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed strongly S-100 protein, vimentin, and to a lesser extent, bcl-2. HMB-45, melan-A, KIT receptor, desmin, smooth-muscle actin, and CD-34 were not detectable. Ki-67 index was 20%. The diagnosis was established by 2 different FISH strategies demostrating the presence of a t(12;22)(q13;q12) translocation, the diagnostic hallmark of clear cell sarcoma of soft parts. Our results provide further evidence for the existence of a new tumor entity designated gastrointestinal clear cell sarcoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. The diagnosis of this entity should be considered in the presence of S-100-positive tumors of the gastrointestinal tract containing multinucleated giant cells and can be established by FISH analysis. PMID:16273186

  8. Bowel loops and eyelid droops

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegelman, Jamie; Cescon, David W.; Friedman, Yael; Mazza, Brie V.; Austin, John W.; Rachlis, Anita; Murray, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: A patient presented with a small-bowel obstruction associated with signs and symptoms of botulism. Fecal cultures were positive for viable Clostridium botulinum. This case emphasizes the importance of a broad differential diagnosis and doing a complete examination to account for all signs and symptoms.

  9. Management of colonic diverticular disease with poorly absorbed antibiotics and other therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Sopeña, Federico; Lanas, Angel

    2011-01-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is common in Western countries and its prevalence increases with age. The large majority of patients (80–85%) will remain entirely asymptomatic throughout their life. In symptomatic cases, most patients will have diverticulosis without inflammation while the remainder will have diverticulitis with or without complications. About 1–2% will require hospitalization and 0.5% will require surgery. Factors predicting the development of symptoms remain to be identified. ...

  10. Retrograde Approach to a Diverticular Kidney Stone through a Vesicoureteral Cohen's Reimplantation: A Novel Surgical Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Fahd Khalil; Mohamed Tligui; Olivier Traxer

    2013-01-01

    Cohen's technique is the standard treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children. Its disadvantage is still the classic difficulty in subsequent retrograde ureteral access, requiring the use of percutaneous techniques in the treatment of kidney stones. We describe a novel surgical technique for retrograde catheterization of an adult ureter by a flexible ureterorenoscope, thereby facilitating the treatment of a symptomatic diverticular kidney stone. We compare our technique to other methods de...

  11. Preventing diverticular disease. Review of recent evidence on high-fibre diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Aldoori W; Ryan-Harshman M

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review recent evidence on dietary factors associated with diverticular disease (DD) with special emphasis on dietary fibre. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 2001 for articles on the relationship between dietary and other lifestyle factors and DD. Most articles either focused on dietary intervention in treating symptomatic DD or were case-control studies with inherent limitations for studying diet-disease associations. Only one large prospec...

  12. Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease: Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Human Gut Mucosa before and after Rifaximin

    OpenAIRE

    Cianci, Rossella; Frosali, Simona; Pagliari, Danilo; Cesaro, Paola; Petruzziello, Lucio; Casciano, Fabio; Landolfi, Raffaele; Costamagna, Guido; Pandolfi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. Uncomplicated diverticular disease (UDD) is a frequent condition in adults. The pathogenesis of symptoms remains unknown. Bacteria are able to interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and to induce inflammation through both innate immunity and T-cell recruitment. We investigated the pattern of TLRs 2 and 4 and the intestinal homing in patients with UDD before and after a course of Rifaximin. Methods. Forty consecutive patients with UDD and 20 healthy asymptomatic subjects were...

  13. The role of colonoscopy in managing diverticular disease of the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Diverticulosis of the colon is frequently found on routine colonoscopy, and the incidence of diverticular disease and its complications appears to be increasing. The role of colonoscopy in managing this disease is still controversial. Colonoscopy plays a key role in managing diverticular bleeding. Several techniques have been effectively used in this field, but band ligation seems to be the best in preventing rebleeding. Colonoscopy is also effective in posing a correct differential diagnosis with other forms of chronic colitis involving colon harbouring diverticula (in particular with Crohn's disease or Segmental Colitis Associated with Diverticulosis). The role of colonoscopy to confirm diagnosis of uncomplicated diverticulitis is still under debate, since the risk of advanced colonic neoplasia in patients admitted for acute uncomplicated diverticulitis is not increased as compared to the average-risk population. On the contrary, colonoscopy is mandatory if patients complain of persistent symptoms or after resolution of an episode of complicated diverticulitis. Finally, a recent endoscopic classification, called Diverticular Inflammation and Complications Assessment (DICA), has been developed and validated. This classification seems to be a promising tool for predicting the outcome of the colon harboring diverticula, but further, prospective studies have to confirm its predictive role on the outcome of the disease. PMID:25822438

  14. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeling, Aoife N. [Department of Academic Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Wang, Tim T. [Department of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology, Surgical Epidemiology and Quality Unit, Imperial College London, St. Mary' s Hospital, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Lee, Michael J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Department of Academic Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2011-02-15

    Aim: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient's quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. Results: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  15. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2012-02-01

    AIM: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient\\'s quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. RESULTS: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. CONCLUSION: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  16. Factores predictivos de conversión en la sigmoidectomía laparoscópica para el tratamiento de la enfermedad diverticular / Predictive factors of conversion in laparoscopic sigmoidectomy in patients with diverticular disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ADRIÁN, MURILLO Z; JAVIER, ROBLES C; JOSÉ A, POSADA T; PABLO D, MURAKAMI M.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La laparoscopia disminuye la morbilidad de la cirugía colorrectal. Estos beneficios se pierden con la conversión. Buscamos factores predictivos de conversión en pacientes con enfermedad diverticular. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 79 pacientes en quienes se realizó sigmoidectomía laparoscópi [...] ca y se comparó los pacientes que requirieron conversión y los que no. Material y Métodos: Se hizo un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo en un hospital de tercer nivel de los pacientes a los que se realizó sigmoidectomía laparoscópica. Análisis: Se utilizó las pruebas t de Student y prueba exacta de Fisher. Se tomó como estadísticamente significativo un valor de p Abstract in english Laparoscopic surgery diminihes the morbidity of colorrectal surgery. These benefits are lost if the surgery is converted to an open procedure. We searched for predictive factors of conversión in patients with diverticular disease. A study of 79 patients who underwent laparoscopic sigmoid resection w [...] as performed, comparing those who underwent conversión and those who didn't. Material and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was done in a third level hospital of the patients who required laparoscopic sigmoidectomy during the last 7 years. Analysis: The t Student, test and the exact Fisher test were used. We considered p

  17. Diffuse nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the small bowel associated with common variable immunodeficiency and giardiasis: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez, Sehmus; Aslan, Mehmet; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Bulut, Gulay; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (DNLH) of the intestine is an extremely rare lymphoproliferative disorder of uncertain etiology. Typically, numerous polypoid nodules composed of hyperplastic benign lymphoid tissue are present in the small and/or large intestinal mucosa. DNLH has been observed in association with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). A 38-years-old man was admitted to our clinic due to dyspeptic complaints. An upper gastrointestinal system endoscopic examination revealed DNLH in the duodenum. A biopsy specimen showed the presence of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia and a Giardia lamblia infection in the duodenum. CVID was suspected, and the diagnosis was established by demonstrating a significant reduction in the serum gamma-globulin levels. DNLH is a rare benign condition with regards to diagnosis and treatment of unknown etiology. In patients with DNLH, screening for the immune deficiencies is being important in addition to histopathological examinations. PMID:24647448

  18. Non-perforating small bowel Crohn's disease assessed by MRI enterography: Derivation and histopathological validation of an MR-based activity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To develop and validate a qualitative scoring system for enteric Crohn's disease activity using MR enterography (MRE). Methods: MRE was performed in 16 patients (mean age 33, 8 male) undergoing small bowel resection. Mural thickness, T2 signal, contrast enhancement, and perimural oedema were scored qualitatively (0–3) at 44 locations. Transmural histopathological scoring of acute inflammation (AIS) was performed at all locations (score 0–13). MRI parameters best predicting AIS were derived using multivariate analysis. The MRI activity index was applied to 26 Crohn's patients (mean age 32, range 13–69 years, 15 male) and correlated to terminal ileal biopsy scores of acute inflammation (“eAIS” score 1–6). Receiver operator characteristic curves were calculated. Results: Mural thickness (coefficient 1.34 (95% CI 0.36, 2.32)], p = 0.007) and T2 signal (coefficient 0.90 (95% CI ?0.24, 2.04) p = 0.06) best predicted AIS (AIS = 1.79 + 1.34*mural thickness + 0.94*mural T2 score [R-squared 0.52]). There was a significant correlation between the MRI index and eAIS (Kendall's tau = 0.40, 95% CI 0.11–0.64, p = 0.02). The model achieved a sensitivity of 0.81 (95% CI 0.54–0.96), specificity of 0.70 (0.35–0.93) and AUC 0.77 for predicting acute inflammation (eAIS ?2). Conclusions: A simple qualitative MRI Crohn's disease activity score appears predictive against a histopathological standard of reference

  19. Comparison of the diagnostic yield and outcomes between standard 8 h capsule endoscopy and the new 12 h capsule endoscopy for investigating small bowel pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Merajur; Akerman, Stuart; DeVito, Bethany; Miller, Larry; Akerman, Meredith; Sultan, Keith

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the completion rate and diagnostic yield of the PillCam SB2-ex in comparison to the PillCam SB2. METHODS: Two hundred cases using the 8-h PillCam SB2 were retrospectively compared to 200 cases using the 12 h PillCam SB2-ex at a tertiary academic center. Endoscopically placed capsules were excluded from the study. Demographic information, indications for capsule endoscopy, capsule type, study length, completion of exam, clinically significant findings, timestamp of most distant finding, and significant findings beyond 8 h were recorded. RESULTS: The 8 and 12 h capsule groups were well matched respectively for both age (70.90 ± 14.19 vs 71.93 ± 13.80, P = 0.46) and gender (45.5% vs 48% male, P = 0.69). The most common indications for the procedure in both groups were anemia and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. PillCam SB2-ex had a significantly higher completion rate than PillCam SB2 (88% vs 79.5%, P = 0.03). Overall, the diagnostic yield was greater for the 8 h capsule (48.5% for SB2 vs 35% for SB2-ex, P = 0.01). In 4/70 (5.7%) of abnormal SB2-ex exams the clinically significant finding was noted in the small bowel beyond the 8 h mark. CONCLUSION: In our study, we found the PillCam SB2-ex to have a significantly increased completion rate, though without any improvement in diagnostic yield compared to the PillCam SB2. PMID:25987777

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be a lifelong condition. You may be suffering from cramping and loose stools, diarrhea, ... Irritable bowel syndrome . NIH Publication No. 12-693. July 2012. ... Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC). Talley NJ. ...

  1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dramatic increase in bowel contractions in response to stress or eating. 4 Irritable Bowel Syndrome Hypersensitivity People with IBS have a lower pain threshold for bowel stretching caused by gas or stool compared ... depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder are common in people with IBS. The ...

  2. The Bowel Microbiota and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald W. Tannock

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The human bowel contains a large and biodiverse bacterial community known as the microbiota or microbiome. It seems likely that the microbiota, fractions of the microbiota, or specific species comprising the microbiota provide the antigenic fuel that drives the chronic immune inflammation of the bowel mucosa that is characteristic of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. At least twenty years of microbiological research have been expended on analysis of the composition of the bowel microbiota of inflammatory bowel disease patients in comparison to that of control subjects. Despite extensive speculations about the aetiological role of dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel diseases, knowledge that can be easily translated into effective remedies for patients has not eventuated. The causes of this failure may be due to poorly defined and executed bacteriological studies, as well as the overwhelming complexity of a biome that contains hundreds of bacterial species and trillions of bacterial cells.

  3. Procedimiento de Hartmann vs resección y anastomosis primaria en peritonitis diverticular de colon izquierdo por cirugía abierta: Revisión sistemática de la literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CARMEN, SANTANDER A; PAULA, ASTUDILLO D; CARLOS, MANTEROLA D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad diverticular del colon es una entidad frecuente, como también la diverticulitis en sus diferentes estadios de evolución. Existe incertidumbre respecto de las opciones terapéuticas que se utilizan en el tratamiento de la peritonitis diverticular de colon izquierdo (PDCI). [...] El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la mejor opción de tratamiento para pacientes con PDCI entre procedimiento de Hart-mann (PH) y resección con anastomosis primaria (RAP), en términos de mortalidad y morbilidad postoperatoria (MPO). Material y Método: Revisión sistemática de la literatura. Se analizaron estudios realizados en adultos con PDCI tratados con PH y RAP, publicados entre 1990 y 2011. Se consultó en las bases de datos TRIPDATABSE, IWO, MEDLINE, SciELO y LILACS, utilizando estrategias de búsqueda con términos MeSH, palabras libres y operadores booleanos. Los estudios seleccionados fueron analizados mediante un escore de calidad metodológica (CM). Se consideraron las variables mortalidad, MPO, estadía hospitalaria, porcentaje de reconstitución de tránsito en pacientes sometidos a PH y CM de los estudios primarios. Resultados: Se analizaron 26 estudios primarios (47 series de pacientes). No se encontraron diferencias significativas respecto de la variable mortalidad (p = 0,0805); pero sí en la variable MPO, reportada de forma incompleta (p = 0,0187). La mediana de la CM de los estudios primarios fue de 11 puntos para las series de PH y de 10 para las de RAP. Conclusión: La evidencia disponible no permite determinar la mejor alternativa terapéutica en términos de mortalidad y MPO en este tipo de pacientes. Se requieren estudios de mejor nivel de evidencia y CM para aclarar esta incertidumbre. Abstract in english Hartmann's procedure and resection with primary anastomosis in diverticular peritonitis Introduction: Colonic diverticulosis, as diverticulitis, is a frequent disease in different stages of evolution. There is uncertainty about treatment options that are used in secondary peritonitis. The aim of thi [...] s study is to determine the best treatment option for patients with peritonitis secondary to diverticulitis of the left colon in terms of postoperative morbidity (POM) and mortality, comparing Hartmann's procedure (HP) and resection with primary anastomosis (RPA). Material and Methods: Systematic review. Studies in adults with peritonitis secondary to diverticulitis of the left colon treated with HP and RPA published between 1990 and 2011 were analyzed. TRIPDATABSE, IWO, MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS databases were consulted and search strategies were applied using MeSH and free terms. Selected studies were analyzed using a score of methodological quality (MQ). The following variables were considered: mortality, POM, hospital stay, percentage of bowel transit reconstitution in patients undergoing HP and MQ of primary studies. Results: 26 primary studies were analyzed (47 series). There were no significant differences in the variable mortality (p = 0.0805), but significant difference was observed in POM (incompletely reported) (p = 0.0187). The median of MQ of the studies was 11 points for HP series and 10 for RPA series. Conclusion: The available evidence to determine the best treatment option in terms of mortality and POM in this kind of patients is insufficient. Studies with better level evidence and MQ are needed to clarify the uncertain.

  4. Rifaximin Therapy of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Hoonmo L; Saman Sabounchi; Huang, David B.; Dupont, Herbert L.

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of specific organic pathology. Although the underlying pathogenesis of IBS is not well-understood, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) or other abnormalities in the gut flora is believed to contribute to the development of a subset of IBS cases. Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed antimicrobial with activity against enteric pathogens. A number of stu...

  5. Colonic diverticular bleeding: urgent colonoscopy without purging and endoscopic treatment with epinephrine and hemoclips / Hemorragia diverticular de colon: colonoscopia urgente sin preparación y tratamiento endoscópico con hemoclips y adrenalina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ignacio, Couto-Worner; Benito, González-Conde; Emilio, Estévez-Prieto; Pedro, Alonso-Aguirre.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad diverticular en la causa más frecuente de hemorragia digestiva baja. En la mayoría de las ocasiones el sangrado cesa sin ninguna intervención, pero en un 10-20 % de los casos es necesario tratar la hemorragia. Se han descrito varias modalidades de tratamiento endoscópico tras preparar [...] el colon. Presentamos cinco casos de hemorragia diverticular severa tratados con inyección de adrenalina y hemoclips. Todas las colonoscopias se realizaron de urgencia y sin preparación del colon, con correcta visualización del punto de sangrado. Los pacientes evolucionaron favorablemente evitando otros procedimientos agresivos como una arteriografía o cirugía. Abstract in english Diverticular disease is the most frequent cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Most of the times, bleeding stops without any intervention but in 10-20 % of the cases it is necessary to treat the hemorrhage. Several modalities of endoscopic treatment have been described after purging the colon. [...] We present five cases of severe diverticular bleeding treated with injection of epinephrine and hemoclips. All the colonoscopies were performed without purging of the colon in an emergency setting, with correct visualization of the point of bleeding. Patients recovered well avoiding other aggressive procedures such as angiography or surgery.

  6. Rifaximin in irritable bowel syndrome: rationale, evidence and clinical use

    OpenAIRE

    Saadi, Mohammed; Richard W. McCallum

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional bowel disease that affects up to 15% of the US population. The majority of patients with IBS have significant bloating and gas. Recent evidence is beginning to suggest that patients with IBS may have an alteration in the gastrointestinal flora. Specifically, findings suggest that patients with IBS have excessive bacteria in the small bowel, referred to as bacterial overgrowth. Therefore there may be benefits of antibiotic-based ther...

  7. Cirugía laparoscópica electiva en enfermedad diverticular: Un estudio comparativo con la cirugía convencional Comparison of laparoscopic and operative surgery in diverticular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López K

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elective surgery in diverticular disease (DD consists classically in performing an open sigmoidectomy. Laparoscopic surgery of the colon can have results that are comparable to those of open surgery. Aim: To compare the results of laparoscopic and conventional surgery for DD. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of preoperative, operative and postoperative variables of patients operated by laparoscopic surgery between the years 2000 and 2002. These results were compared with those of patients treated with conventional surgery in the same period. Results: Thirty nine patients, mean age 59 years old, were operated via laparotomy and 18 patients, mean age 47 years old, were treated with laparoscopic surgery. Both groups were comparable in gender, amount of previous laparotomies, type of surgery performed and American Society of Anestesiologists classification. The operative time was significantly higher in the laparoscopic surgery group (230 v/s 130 min, but the opioid requirements, stay in an intensive surgical care ward, postoperative ileus and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the laparoscopic group. Eleven percent of the patients included in the laparoscopic group and 31% of the patients treated with operative surgery had complications (p=0.07. The length of the excised colon, the degree of inflammation and treatment costs were comparable. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgery in DD is feasible, safe, requires less analgesia and allows a faster recovery of post-operative ileus and a lower hospital stay (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 719-26

  8. Positive predictive values of the International Classification of Disease, 10th edition diagnoses codes for diverticular disease in the Danish National Registry of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Erichsen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rune Erichsen1, Lisa Strate2, Henrik Toft Sørensen1, John A Baron31Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark; 2Division of Gastroenterology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Departments of Medicine and of Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, NH, USAObjective: To investigate the accuracy of diagnostic coding for diverticular disease in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP.Study design and setting: At Aalborg Hospital, Denmark, with a catchment area of 640,000 inhabitants, we identified 100 patients recorded in the NRP with a diagnosis of diverticular disease (International Classification of Disease codes, 10th revision [ICD-10] K572–K579 during the 1999–2008 period. We assessed the positive predictive value (PPV as a measure of the accuracy of discharge codes for diverticular disease using information from discharge abstracts and outpatient notes as the reference standard.Results: Of the 100 patients coded with diverticular disease, 49 had complicated diverticular disease, whereas 51 had uncomplicated diverticulosis. For the overall diagnosis of diverticular disease (K57, the PPV was 0.98 (95% confidence intervals [CIs]: 0.93, 0.99. For the more detailed subgroups of diagnosis indicating the presence or absence of complications (K573–K579 the PPVs ranged from 0.67 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.99 to 0.92 (95% CI: 0.52, 1.00. The diagnosis codes did not allow accurate identification of uncomplicated disease or any specific complication. However, the combined ICD-10 codes K572, K574, and K578 had a PPV of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.99 for any complication.Conclusion: The diagnosis codes in the NRP can be used to identify patients with diverticular disease in general; however, they do not accurately discern patients with uncomplicated diverticulosis or with specific diverticular complications.Keywords: diverticulum, colon, diverticulitis, validation studies

  9. Diagnóstico diferencial de la patología del intestino delgado: un enfoque práctico: Parte 2: Enfermedad focal / A pattern approach to the differential diagnosis of small bowel disease: Part two: focal disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis H., Ros Mendoza; Fernando J., Giménez Cepero; María, Sanchez Ballestín; Manuel, Arnal Monreal; Pablo R., Ros.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En este segundo artículo sobre la patología del intestino delgado se aborda la patología de carácter local o regional, entre la que se incluyen la enfermedad de Crohn y los tumores. Consideramos como patología de carácter local o regional en el intestino delgado aquellas entidades focales o bien que [...] afecten a menos de 5 asas intestinales. Dividiremos la patología focal en inflamatoria y tumoral, poniendo especial énfasis en los hallazgos típicos de la enfermedad de Crohn y presentando estas entidades bajo un enfoque de correlación radiológico-patológica, que resulta útil para comprender los hallazgos semiológicos en las distintas técnicas de formación de imagen. Abstract in english In this second article about small bowel disease we are taking into account focal or regional entities, including Crohn´s disease and tumours. We are considering as local or regional disease those entities with focal or less than five bowel loops involvement. So, we divide regional disease in inflam [...] matory and neoplastic conditions, with special mention to radiologic findings in Crohn´s disease and tumours, presenting these entities under a radiologic-pathologic correlation approach, useful to understand the semiological findings of each imaging modality.

  10. A Case of Diverticular Perforation in a Young Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis on Methotrexate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ian; Guggenheim, Carla; Laird-Fick, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as methotrexate (MTX), are associated with gastrointestinal toxicity. MTX inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, but it is unclear if polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene predict toxicity. Case. We describe a 33-year-old male with polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis who developed sigmoid diverticular perforation while receiving methotrexate, folic acid, prednisone, and naproxen. He tested heterozygous for the C677T allele MTHFR gene. Discussion. Rheumatoid arthritis and its treatments are associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal disease. In one study, perforation was highest among individuals with concomitant exposure to NSAIDs, nonbiologic DMARDs, and glucocorticoids. Multiple mutations of the MTHFR gene have been identified, but their association with MTX toxicity is unclear. This case adds to a growing body of literature that could help inform the treatment of others in the future.

  11. Sepsis caused by endoscopic clipping for colonic diverticular bleeding: A rare complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Kume, Masahiro Yamasaki, Ichiro Yoshikawa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We herein report the rare complication of sepsis caused by endoscopic clipping for colonic diverticular bleeding. A 78-year-old man with a 12-h history of near syncope and painless hematochezia was admitted to our hospital. Following the transfusion of 4 U of blood and continued hematochezia, a colonoscopy was performed. Active bleeding was seen as continuous arterial spurting from a single diverticulum located in the middle ascending colon. This diverticulum was seamed by four endoclips. The next day, the patient became febrile with a temperature of 39.2°C. Laboratory data included a white blood cell count of 18 100/mm3 and a C-reactive protein level of 3.4 mg/dL. He was diagnosed with sepsis since Escherichia coli was detected in the blood culture. Antibiotics were started. Four days later his fever had improved and laboratory data improved 9 d later.

  12. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [Stanford University, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Koppolu, Raji; Sylvester, Karl [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Murphy, Daniel [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Department of Cardiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  13. Heterotaxy syndromes and abnormal bowel rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowel rotation abnormalities in heterotaxy are common. As more children survive cardiac surgery, the management of gastrointestinal abnormalities has become controversial. To evaluate imaging of malrotation in heterotaxy with surgical correlation and provide an algorithm for management. Imaging reports of heterotaxic children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) and/or small bowel follow-through (SBFT) were reviewed. Subsequently, fluoroscopic images were re-reviewed in conjunction with CT/MR studies. The original reports and re-reviewed images were compared and correlated with surgical findings. Nineteen of 34 children with heterotaxy underwent UGI, 13/19 also had SBFT. In 15/19 reports, bowel rotation was called abnormal: 11 malrotation, 4 non-rotation, no cases of volvulus. Re-review, including CT (10/19) and MR (2/19), designated 17/19 (90%) as abnormal, 10 malrotation (abnormal bowel arrangement, narrow or uncertain length of mesentery) and 7 non-rotation (small bowel and colon on opposite sides plus low cecum with probable broad mesentery). The most useful CT/MR findings were absence of retroperitoneal duodenum in most abnormal cases and location of bowel, especially cecum. Abnormal orientation of mesenteric vessels suggested malrotation but was not universal. Nine children had elective bowel surgery; non-rotation was found in 4/9 and malrotation was found in 5/9, with discrepancies (non-rotation at surgery, malrotation on imaging) with 4 original interpretations and 1 re-review. We recommend routine, early UGI and SBFT studies once other, urgent clinical concerns have been stabilized, with elective laparoscopic surgery in abnormal or equivocal cases. Cross-sectional imaging, usually obtained for other reasons, can contribute diagnostically. Attempting to assess mesenteric width is important in differentiating non-rotation from malrotation and more accurately identifies appropriate surgical candidates. (orig.)

  14. Diverticular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to identify the site of the bleeding. A traditional angiogram is a special kind of x ray ... NIDDK Meet the Director Offices & Divisions Staff Directory Budget & Legislative Information Strategic Plans & Reports Advisory & Coordinating Committees ...

  15. Medical influences, surgical outcomes: Role of common medications on the risk of perforation from untreated diverticular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpiero Gravante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous drugs, largely used in the wards or at home, have a significant influence on patients with untreated diverticular disease. The consequences can be disastrous, may require an emergency operation, postoperative intensive care, and overall influence the patient’s length of stay and the final outcomes. Bearing these considerations in mind the routine or chronic administration of pain-killers, steroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory should be balanced in patients with known diverticular disease as it normally happens with other conditions potentially affected by these drugs (i.e., peptic ulcer disease or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This is even more important in the old and frail patient where an eventual surgical treatment may not always be possible.

  16. Adhesive bowel obstruction? Not always

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittapalli D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old man presented acutely with features of post-surgical adhesive small bowel obstruction. Following an unsuccessful trial of conservative management, computed tomography (CT of the abdomen was performed. This revealed a mass in the ileocaecal region, for which he underwent a subsequent right hemicolectomy. Histology revealed diffuse B-cell Non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma of the terminal ileum. Confounding obstructive lesion of the intestine in patients with a history of previous laparotomy is extremely uncommon. Early high resolution imaging may predict diagnosis and consolidate clinical management plans.

  17. Advances in Pancreatic Cancer Care

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the gastroenterologist with an expertise in pancreatic disease is to help interpret the significance of radiographic ... to the right showing a bit of diverticular disease. And now we're running the small bowel ...

  18. Understanding Bowel Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the colonoscopy. F.Y.I. Bowel Prep Medications Polyethylene glycol; Electrolytes oral solution (PEG-based products) may ... In rare cases, sodium phosphate can cause kidney failure. Doctors consider this when deciding if sodium phosphate ...

  19. Prevalence of Bowel Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Are Contact Us Donate Prevalence of Bowel Incontinence What is Incontinence? “Incontinence” is the word used to describe loss ... to treat and manage the condition Prevelance of Incontinence Unless asked specifically about it, individuals often are ...

  20. Alterações morfométricas da musculatura dos músculos longitudinal e circular de ratos submetidos à criação de piloros no intestino delgado / Morfometric alterations of the longitudinal and circular muscle layers in rats who underwent pylorus construction in the small bowel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cícero de Lima, Rena; Alcino Lázaro da, Silva; Ângela Aparecida, Barra; Maria Cristina Vasconcellos, Furtado; Rachel Lopes, Rena; Rafael Lopes, Rena.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar um estudo morfométrico comparativo da musculatura longitudinal e circular do intestino delgado de ratos submetidos à construção cirúrgica de um e de dois piloros no intestino delgado utilizando-se da técnica de criação de piloros proposta por Rena et al. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 5 [...] 2 ratos Wistar machos divididos em três grupos. O Grupo A, destacado como controle, composto de 10 animas, cada um forneceu 20mm de segmento de intestino para o estudo. Os animais do Grupo B, composto de 32 animais, foram submetidos à construção de dois piloros, um a 100mm e outro a 150mm da válvula ileocecal e os animais do grupo C, composto de 10 animais, foram submetidos à construção de um piloro a 100mm da mesma. A eutanásia ocorreu no décimo dia. A morfometria das camadas musculares longitudinal e circular acima e abaixo dos piloros foi estudada com utilização do microscópico modelo "Axiostar plus" conectado à câmera "Axioncam Version 5.05.10" com objetiva X5 / 0,12 no o programa "AxioVision 3.1.2.1". RESULTADOS: As alças apresentaram aumento da espessura da camada muscular acima e abaixo do ponto da operação. O estudo morfométrico comparativo das camadas musculares longitudinal e circular mostrou aumento significativo em comparação ao controle, não demonstrando significância entre os grupos B e C. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo revelaram importante aumento de espessura das camadas musculares, porém, menos acentuados que aqueles descritos na literatura quando foram realizados em animais submetidos à estenose fixa. Esses dados indicam que a construção operatória de piloros pela técnica utilizada promove alterações musculares de menor monta, possivelmente, pela função valvular do piloro. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To undertake a morphometric comparative study of the longitudinal and circular layers of the small bowel muscularis propria in rats, whom underwent surgical construction of one and two pylorus in the small bowel, utilizing the technique of the creation of two pylorus describe [...] d by Rena et al. METHODS: 52 male Wistar rats were divided in three groups. Group A, 10 animals, was defined as the control group, and 20 mm of the bowel segment were removed for the study. Group B animals underwent construction of two pylorus, with one at 100 mm and the second at 150 mm from the ileo-cecal valve, 10 animals. Animals from group C, 32 animals, underwent construction of one pylorus at 100 mm from the ileo-cecal valve. The rats were sacrificed at ten days after the procedure. The morphometric analysis of the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscularis propria above and below the pylorus were studied with the help of a microscope Axiostar Plus model connected to the Axioncam camera version 5.05.10 with 5x/0,12 objective utilizing the software Axion Vision 3.1.2.1. RESULTS: The bowel loops demonstrated thickening of the muscular layer in segments above and below the point where the surgical procedure took place. The morphometric comparative study of the longitudinal and circular muscular layers demonstrated significant increase when compared to the control group. There were no significant differences among groups B and C. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated significant increase in muscle layers, however not to the point of the increase reported in the literature for animals that underwent fixed stenosis. These data indicates that surgical construction of the pylorus by the technic used by us promotes muscular changes of minor significance, possibly, by the valvular function of the pylorus.

  1. Alterações morfométricas da musculatura dos músculos longitudinal e circular de ratos submetidos à criação de piloros no intestino delgado Morfometric alterations of the longitudinal and circular muscle layers in rats who underwent pylorus construction in the small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero de Lima Rena

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar um estudo morfométrico comparativo da musculatura longitudinal e circular do intestino delgado de ratos submetidos à construção cirúrgica de um e de dois piloros no intestino delgado utilizando-se da técnica de criação de piloros proposta por Rena et al. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 52 ratos Wistar machos divididos em três grupos. O Grupo A, destacado como controle, composto de 10 animas, cada um forneceu 20mm de segmento de intestino para o estudo. Os animais do Grupo B, composto de 32 animais, foram submetidos à construção de dois piloros, um a 100mm e outro a 150mm da válvula ileocecal e os animais do grupo C, composto de 10 animais, foram submetidos à construção de um piloro a 100mm da mesma. A eutanásia ocorreu no décimo dia. A morfometria das camadas musculares longitudinal e circular acima e abaixo dos piloros foi estudada com utilização do microscópico modelo "Axiostar plus" conectado à câmera "Axioncam Version 5.05.10" com objetiva X5 / 0,12 no o programa "AxioVision 3.1.2.1". RESULTADOS: As alças apresentaram aumento da espessura da camada muscular acima e abaixo do ponto da operação. O estudo morfométrico comparativo das camadas musculares longitudinal e circular mostrou aumento significativo em comparação ao controle, não demonstrando significância entre os grupos B e C. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo revelaram importante aumento de espessura das camadas musculares, porém, menos acentuados que aqueles descritos na literatura quando foram realizados em animais submetidos à estenose fixa. Esses dados indicam que a construção operatória de piloros pela técnica utilizada promove alterações musculares de menor monta, possivelmente, pela função valvular do piloro.BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To undertake a morphometric comparative study of the longitudinal and circular layers of the small bowel muscularis propria in rats, whom underwent surgical construction of one and two pylorus in the small bowel, utilizing the technique of the creation of two pylorus described by Rena et al. METHODS: 52 male Wistar rats were divided in three groups. Group A, 10 animals, was defined as the control group, and 20 mm of the bowel segment were removed for the study. Group B animals underwent construction of two pylorus, with one at 100 mm and the second at 150 mm from the ileo-cecal valve, 10 animals. Animals from group C, 32 animals, underwent construction of one pylorus at 100 mm from the ileo-cecal valve. The rats were sacrificed at ten days after the procedure. The morphometric analysis of the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscularis propria above and below the pylorus were studied with the help of a microscope Axiostar Plus model connected to the Axioncam camera version 5.05.10 with 5x/0,12 objective utilizing the software Axion Vision 3.1.2.1. RESULTS: The bowel loops demonstrated thickening of the muscular layer in segments above and below the point where the surgical procedure took place. The morphometric comparative study of the longitudinal and circular muscular layers demonstrated significant increase when compared to the control group. There were no significant differences among groups B and C. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated significant increase in muscle layers, however not to the point of the increase reported in the literature for animals that underwent fixed stenosis. These data indicates that surgical construction of the pylorus by the technic used by us promotes muscular changes of minor significance, possibly, by the valvular function of the pylorus.

  2. Bowel vaginoplasty in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Yogesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe our experience with bowel vaginoplasty done in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of eight children aged 10 months to 8 years, who underwent bowel vaginoplasty over a period of 5 years (2000-2005. The indications of bowel vaginoplasty included anorectovestibular fistula (ARVF associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome (n=6 and cloaca (n=2. The bowel segment used for vaginoplasty included colon (n=3, ileum (n=2 and duplicated rectum (n=1. In two patients of ARVF associated with uterovaginal agenesis, the distal- most part of ARVF was transected at the level of peritoneal reflection and left as neovagina, whereas the proximal bowel was pulled through at the proposed neo-anal site. All the patients were advised daily home dilatation of the neo vaginal orifice with Hegar?s dilators, for a period of six weeks. RESULTS: Bowel vaginoplasty was done in eight patients. None had any significant per-operative complication. Two patients had abdominal wound dehiscence, requiring secondary suturing. Two patients had mucosal prolapse of the neovagina, which required trimming. One patient died two months after discharge, because of meningitis. Out of the eight patients, seven are in regular follow-up. Six patients have neovagina, cosmetically acceptable to the parents; all have been radiologically proven to have adequate length. One patient had unacceptable perineal appearance with nipple-like vaginal orifice and scarred perineal wound, that merits a revision. None of the patients had vaginal stenosis and excessive mucus discharge, during follow-up visits. Although post surgical results are acceptable to the parents cosmetically, the sexual and psychological outcome is yet to be assessed. Conclusions: Bowel vaginoplasty is a safe and acceptable procedure to treat the pediatric patients of uterovaginal agenesis and cloaca.

  3. The diagnostic value of small bowel wall vascularity after sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubble injection in patients with Crohn's disease. Correlation with the therapeutic effectiveness of specific anti-inflammatory treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the value of small bowel wall vascularity after microbubble contrast agent injection in evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness of specific anti-inflammatory treatment in patients with Crohn's disease. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients (7 male and 8 female; mean age ± SD, 40 years ± 6) with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of Crohn's disease - Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) > 150 (n = 12 patients) or 5 mm) were included. In each patient the terminal loop was scanned by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) after sulfur hexafluoride-filled microbubble injection before and after 6-month anti-inflammatory treatment. The vascularity of the terminal loop was quantified in gray-scale levels (0-255) by a manually drawn ROI encompassing the thickened bowel wall and it was correlated with CDAI. Result: Before the beginning of the specific treatment all patients revealed diffuse transparietal contrast enhancement after microbubble injection, except for 3 patients who revealed contrast enhancement limited to the submucosa. In 13 patients the slope of the first ascending tract and the area under the enhancement curve were significantly lower after anti-inflammatory treatment (P < 0.05; Wilcoxon test) with a significant correlation with the CDAI score (? = 0.85, P < 0.05). In 2 patients no significant vascularity changes were found even though a mild reduction of CDAI score wahough a mild reduction of CDAI score was identified (from 200 to 150 gray-scale levels). Conclusion: CEUS is a useful method to assess the therapeutic effectiveness of specific medical anti-inflammatory treatment in patients with Crohn's disease.

  4. Breathhold MRI of the small bowel in Crohn`s disease after enteroklysis with oral magnetic particles; Duenndarm-MRT mit schnellen MR-Sequenzen bei Morbus Crohn nach Enteroklysma mit oralen Eisenpartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzknecht, N.; Helmberger, T.; Gauger, J.; Faber, S.; Reiser, M. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Ritter, C. von [Medizinische Klinik 2, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of breathhold MRI following enteroclysis with addition of oral magnetic particles to study the extension, detection of stenoses and extraluminal manifestations in Crohn`s disease. Results: Typical findings were marked bowel wall thickening with strong contrast enhancement. 95.8% of affected small bowel segments and 94.7% of stenoses were correctly detected by MRI. All four fistulas were detected and important extraluminal findings were seen in 6/18 patients. Additionally, one ileoileal and two ileosigmoidal adhesions, two extraluminal abscesses and affection of the right ureter were delineated. Conclusion: MRI in Crohn`s disease offers the potential to avoid radiation exposure in this relatively young patient group. Important additional findings relevant to indication of surgery are seen in approximately one third of cases. The replacement of transduodenal intubation by oral contrast application remains to be further studied. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war der Vergleich der diagnostischen Effizienz des konventionellen Duenndarmenteroklysmas mit anschliessender MRT mit negativem oralem Kontrastmittel bezueglich der Ausdehnung, Stenoseerkennung und relevanter Zusatzinformation bei Morbus Crohn. Im Vergleich mit dem Enteroklysma konnte die MRT-Untersuchung 95,8% der befallenden Segmente und 94,7% der Stenosen identifizieren. Alle 4 Fisteln wurden detektiert und zusaetzlich relevante Befunde in 6 von 18 Patienten gesehen (eine ileoileale und 2 ileosigmoidale Adhaesionen, 2 extraluminale Abzesse und ein entzuendlicher Pseudotumor mit Einbeziehung des rechten Ureters). Das Stenosegrading zeigte keine signifikanten Unterschiede (p=0,11). Zusaetzlich wurden extraluminal eine mesenteriale Lymphadenopathie (15/18) und mesenteriale Fettgewebsproliferation (12/18) mittels MRT nachgewiesen. (orig./AJ)

  5. Hemorragia maciça do intestino grosso: o que está ao nosso alcance? Massive large bowel bleeding: what is within our reach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César M Santos Jr.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A forma de avaliar e lidar com a hemorragia aguda digestiva baixa tem sido modificado com os recentes desenvolvimentos de novas técnicas e aparelhos. O nosso objetivo, por esse manuscrito, é demonstrar com simplicidade uma forma de condução dos pacientes com hemorragia digestiva baixa aguda, sobretudo para os sangramentos que parecem mais graves, principalmente quando nos faltam os recursos das avançadas tecnologias atuais. Doenças localizadas no intestino grosso respondem por ¼ dos casos de hemorragias digestivas que são motivos para admissão hospitalar e têm como principais agentes etiológicos os divertículos, na moléstia diverticular, e as alterações vasculares, nas angiodisplasias. Na grande maioria das vezes o sangramento que pode parecer abundante cessa espontaneamente. Os distúrbios circulatórios graves não são comuns e os sinais mais frequentes são a queda do valor da hemoglobina observada na metade dos pacientes, e algumas alterações hemodinâmicas como a variação pressórica postural que pode ser vista em até 30% dos casos; a síncope em 10% e alguma forma de colapso circulatório, em 9%. Contudo, a faixa etária em que ocorre, as condições da senilidade, as doenças eventualmente associadas e a falta de recursos materiais e humanos para lidar com esse tipo de problema são os motivos que mais causam preocupação. A abordagem clínica simples com uma história bem elaborada; o exame físico com atenção e objetividade, a inclusão do exame proctológico, a obrigatória disponibilidade de aparelho para a coloscopia e os conhecimentos básicos sobre o evento formam o conjunto necessário e, na maioria das vezes, suficiente para o correto desempenho profissional na elaboração dos cuidados que devem ser dados a esses pacientes.The evaluation and management of the acute lower digestive hemorrhage has been modified with the recent development of new techniques and devices. The aim of this manuscript was to demonstrate with simplicity how to treat the patients with acute lower intestinal hemorrhage. Diseases of the large bowel account for the ¼ of the cases of digestive hemorrhages on the hospital admission and have as main etiological agents the diverticula, in the diverticular disease, and small vascular malformation, in the angiodysplasias. Sometime, it can be seen as a life-threatening condition, however, most of the times, the hemorrhage stops spontaneously. The serious circulatory disturbances are not common; the most frequent signs are the decrease in hemoglobin occurring on about one half of patients and some form of circulatory disturbance as orthostatic changes in 30%; as syncope in 10% and as cardiovascular collapse in 9%. However, the age group, the conditions of the senility, the eventually associated diseases and the lack of material and human resources to handle with that kind of problem are the reasons for concern. The simple clinical approach with a well elaborated history; the physical examination released with attention and objectivity, the inclusion of the proctologic exam, the obligatory readiness for an endoscope for colonoscopy, the basic knowledge on the event are necessary and, in most of the times, enough for the good professional acting in the elaboration of the cares that it should be given to those patient ones.

  6. Guidelines for Bowel Preparation before Video Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Joo; Moon, Jeong Seop; Do, Jae Hyuk; Cha, In Hye; Yang, Chang Hun; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2013-03-01

    The preparation for video capsule endoscopy (VCE) of the bowel suggested by manufacturers of capsule endoscopy systems consists only of a clear liquid diet and an 8-hour fast. While there is evidence for a benefit from bowel preparation for VCE, so far there is no domestic consensus on the preparation regimen in Korea. Therefore, we performed this study to recommend guidelines for bowel preparation before VCE. The guidelines on VCE were developed by the Korean Gut Image Study Group, part of the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Four key questions were selected. According to our guidelines, bowel preparation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution enhances small bowel visualization quality (SBVQ) and diagnostic yield (DY), but it has no effect on cecal completion rate (CR). Bowel preparation with 2 L of PEG solution is similar to that with 4 L of PEG in terms of the SBVQ, DY, and CR of VCE. Bowel preparation with fasting or PEG solution combined with simethicone enhances the SBVQ, but it does not affect the CR of VCE. Bowel preparation with prokinetics does not enhance the SBVQ, DY, or CR of VCE. PMID:23614124

  7. Living with Bowel Control Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Let's Talk about Bowel Control Celiac Disease Awareness Campaign Bladder Control for Women We Can! Ways to Enhance Children’s Activity & Nutrition Home : Living with Bowel Control Problems Living with ...

  8. Ostomy Surgery of the Bowel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a blockage in the bowel that prevents the flow of fluids or solids diverticulitis––a condition that occurs when ... a blockage in the bowel that prevents the flow of fluids or solids diverticulitis––a condition that occurs when ...

  9. Pregnancy and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who We Are Contact Us Donate Pregnancy and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Jump to Topic Living with IBS Relationships and ... age represent a significant portion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). There is evidence that the menstrual cycle ...

  10. Use of absorbable mesh to displace bowel and avoid radiation enteropathy, during therapy of pelvic Ewing's sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plowman, P.N.; Shand, W.S.; Jackson, D.B. (Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (UK))

    1984-06-01

    The use of absorbable polyglactin 910 mesh (Vicryl) is described in a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the pelvis. An operation was performed to hold the small bowel and colon out of the pelvis for a temporary period during which radical radiotherapy was delivered. The mesh allowed the temporary displacement of bowel and obviated bowel radiation morbidity.

  11. Preventing diverticular disease. Review of recent evidence on high-fibre diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldoori W

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review recent evidence on dietary factors associated with diverticular disease (DD with special emphasis on dietary fibre. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 2001 for articles on the relationship between dietary and other lifestyle factors and DD. Most articles either focused on dietary intervention in treating symptomatic DD or were case-control studies with inherent limitations for studying diet-disease associations. Only one large prospective study of male health professionals in the United States assessed diet at baseline and before initial diagnosis of DD. MAIN MESSAGE: A diet high in fibre mainly from fruits and vegetables and low in total fat and red meat decreases risk of DD. Evidence indicates that the insoluble component of fibre is strongly associated with lower risk of DD; this association was particularly strong for cellulose. Caffeine and alcohol do not substantially increase risk of DD, nor does obesity, but higher levels of physical activity seem to reduce risk of DD. CONCLUSION: A diet high in fibre and low in total fat and red meat and a lifestyle with more physical activity might help prevent DD.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids induce biochemical changes in the small bowel of rats before and after resection Efeito do ácido graxo ômega-3 no intestino delgado de ratos antes e após ressecção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Nunes de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of dietary fish oil, a highly unsaturated fat source, on the intestinal mucosa before and after proximal small bowel resection in rats was studied. Forty Wistar rats were fed defined diets containing fish oil (experimental group or corn oil (control group. After 2 weeks, animals underwent a 50% proximal small bowel resection. Mucosal disaccharidases, alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase, protein, DNA, and TBARs levels were assessed in samples immediately before and 6 and 12 days after surgery. Disaccharidase activities were reduced in the ileal mucosa from rats in the fish oil-fed group compared to the control group before and 12 days after surgery. The other parameters showed no significant differences. The results indicate that fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids alters the functional parameters of the normal intestinal mucosa and after intestinal resection compared to omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, suggesting that caution should be taken to use omega-3 fatty acids as adjuvants in the adaptive process after resection.No presente estudo, foi avaliado o efeito da dieta com óleo de peixe, uma fonte de ácidos graxos altamente insaturados, sobre a mucosa intestinal antes e após resecção do intestino delgado proximal em ratos. Quarenta ratos Wistar foram alimentados com dieta definida contendo óleo de peixe (grupo experimental ou óleo de milho (grupo controle. Após duas semanas, os animais foram submetidos à ressecção de 50% do intestino delgado proximal. Os níveis das dissacaridases, fosfatase alcalina, animopeptidade, proteína, DNA e TBARS foram avaliados, imediatamente antes e 6 e 12 dias após a cirurgia. As atividades das dissacaridases foram reduzidas na mucosa ileal no grupo de ratos alimentados com óleo de peixe, comparado com grupo controle antes e 12 dias após a cirurgia. Os outros parâmetros não mostraram diferenças significativas. Este resultado indica que o óleo de peixe (ácidos graxos ômega-3 altera parâmetros funcionais na mucosa intestinal normal e após resecção, comparado ao ácido graxo ômega-6, sugerindo cautela no uso de ácidos graxos ômega-3 como adjuvante no processo adaptativo após resecção.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids induce biochemical changes in the small bowel of rats before and after resection / Efeito do ácido graxo ômega-3 no intestino delgado de ratos antes e após ressecção

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Carlos Nunes de, Oliveira; Clarice, Izumi; Sergio, Zucoloto; Arony Aparecido, Lopes; Camila Alves, Areda; Osvaldo de, Freitas.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foi avaliado o efeito da dieta com óleo de peixe, uma fonte de ácidos graxos altamente insaturados, sobre a mucosa intestinal antes e após resecção do intestino delgado proximal em ratos. Quarenta ratos Wistar foram alimentados com dieta definida contendo óleo de peixe (grupo exp [...] erimental) ou óleo de milho (grupo controle). Após duas semanas, os animais foram submetidos à ressecção de 50% do intestino delgado proximal. Os níveis das dissacaridases, fosfatase alcalina, animopeptidade, proteína, DNA e TBARS foram avaliados, imediatamente antes e 6 e 12 dias após a cirurgia. As atividades das dissacaridases foram reduzidas na mucosa ileal no grupo de ratos alimentados com óleo de peixe, comparado com grupo controle antes e 12 dias após a cirurgia. Os outros parâmetros não mostraram diferenças significativas. Este resultado indica que o óleo de peixe (ácidos graxos ômega-3) altera parâmetros funcionais na mucosa intestinal normal e após resecção, comparado ao ácido graxo ômega-6, sugerindo cautela no uso de ácidos graxos ômega-3 como adjuvante no processo adaptativo após resecção. Abstract in english In the present study, the effect of dietary fish oil, a highly unsaturated fat source, on the intestinal mucosa before and after proximal small bowel resection in rats was studied. Forty Wistar rats were fed defined diets containing fish oil (experimental group) or corn oil (control group). After 2 [...] weeks, animals underwent a 50% proximal small bowel resection. Mucosal disaccharidases, alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase, protein, DNA, and TBARs levels were assessed in samples immediately before and 6 and 12 days after surgery. Disaccharidase activities were reduced in the ileal mucosa from rats in the fish oil-fed group compared to the control group before and 12 days after surgery. The other parameters showed no significant differences. The results indicate that fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids) alters the functional parameters of the normal intestinal mucosa and after intestinal resection compared to omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, suggesting that caution should be taken to use omega-3 fatty acids as adjuvants in the adaptive process after resection.

  14. Blunt abdominal trauma with small bowel injury: are isolated lesions riskier than associated lesions? / Trauma abdominal fechado com lesão de intestino delgado: lesão isolada tem mais risco de complicações do que a associada?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Pereira, Fraga; Fernando Henrique Bergo de Souza e, Silva; Nicolle Antunes de, Almeida; Jorge Carlos Machado, Curi; Mario, Mantovani.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar pacientes com lesão "isolada" de intestino delgado com pacientes com lesões abdominais "associadas" e analisar o quanto o retardo para indicação de laparotomia influenciou na evolução dos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados os prontuários de pacientes com trauma abdominal fechado [...] e lesão de intestino delgado no período de 1994 a 2005, sendo os pacientes divididos em dois grupos: lesão "isolada" e lesões abdominais "associadas". Foram analisados os métodos diagnósticos, intervalo de tempo para a cirurgia, gravidade da lesão de delgado (grau > 2), ISS e morbimortalidade dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Noventa pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão, 62 (68,9%) no grupo "isolada" e 28 (31,1%) no "associada". Pacientes do grupo "isolada" necessitaram mais de métodos diagnósticos complementares. O tempo de diagnóstico até o tratamento foi significantemente menor no grupo "associada", e estes pacientes apresentavam ISS mais elevado (média de 22,5 versus 17,2 no grupo "isolada"). A morbidade e mortalidade nos grupos foram, respectivamente, 51,6% e 16,1% no grupo "isolada", e 53,6% e 28,6% no "associada", sem diferença estatística. Demora para o diagnóstico foi comum no grupo "isolada", porém sem agravar a evolução dos pacientes. Pacientes com lesões "associadas", quantificadas pelo ISS, tiveram maior mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: A presença de lesões abdominais "associadas" significativamente interferiu no quadro clínico e momento do diagnóstico em pacientes com lesão de delgado, porém não influenciou na morbimortalidade. No grupo "isolada" a demora para tratamento cirúrgico foi freqüente, porém sem interferir nas complicações. A elevada mortalidade foi reflexo da gravidade de lesões associadas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare patients with "isolated" blunt small bowel injury (SBI) to patients with multiple intra-abdominal injuries and analyze whether delayed laparotomy affected outcome. METHODS: Medical records of patients that suffered a blunt SBI between 1994 and 2005 [...] were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: those with isolated SBI and those with other associated intra-abdominal injuries ("non-isolated"). The method of diagnosis, time to operation, small bowel Organ Injury Scale (OIS) assessment (grade > 2), injury severity score (ISS), morbidity, and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients met the inclusion criteria, including 62 (68.9%) isolated cases and 28 (31.1%) non-isolated cases. Isolated cases required more supplementary diagnostic methods than the non-isolated cases. Non-isolated cases had a shorter diagnosis to treatment period (p

  15. Hypomagnesemia in short bowel syndrome patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Chaves, Miranda; Michelle Lizzy Bandeira, Ribeiro; Eduardo, Ferriolli; Júlio Sérgio, Marchini.

    2000-11-09

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Suporte nutricional de magnésio em pacientes com ressecção de intestino curto. OBJETIVO: Analisar a incidência e tratamento de hipomagnesemia em pacientes com pequena ressecção extensiva do intestino. TIPO DE ESTUDO: Estudo retrospectivo. LOCAL: Unidade Metabólica Hospital das Clínicas da [...] Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto - Universidade de São Paulo. PACIENTES: 15 pacientes pós grande enterectomia evoluindo com Síndrome do Intestino Curto. VARIÁVEIS ESTUDADAS: Controle sérico de magnésio de pacientes com ressecção intestinal. Reposição de magnésio quando valores baixos foram encontrados. RESULTADOS: Valores séricos de magnésio iniciais [1,59 mEq/l (SD 0,43)] foram obtidos 21 a 180 dias após a cirurgia. Hipomagnesemia (magnésio sérico menor do que 1,5 mEq/l) foi detectada em 40% dos pacientes [1,19 mEq/l (SD 0,22)]. Durante o período de seguimento, 66% dos pacientes apresentaram pelo menos dois valores abaixo dos limites de referência. 40% aumentaram seus valores após terapia com magnésio. CONCLUSÃO: O controle metabólico do magnésio sérico deve ser feito após enterectomia extensa. Hipomagnesemia pode ser encontrada e deve ser controlada. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Magnesium support to small bowel resection patients. OBJECTIVE: Incidence and treatment of hypomagnesemia in patients with extensive small bowel resection. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Metabolic Unit of the University Hospital Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Pau [...] lo, Brazil. PATIENTS: Fifteen patients with extensive small bowel resection who developed short bowel syndrome. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Serum magnesium control of patients with bowel resection. Replacement of magnesium when low values were found. RESULTS: Initial serum magnesium values were obtained 21 to 180 days after surgery. Hypomagnesemia [serum magnesium below 1.5 mEq/l (SD 0.43)] was detected in 40% of the patients [1,19 mEq/l (SD 0.22)]. During the follow-up period, 66% of the patients presented at least two values below reference (1.50 mEq/l). 40% increased their serum values after magnesium therapy. CONCLUSION: Metabolic control of serum magnesium should be followed up after extensive small bowel resection. Hypomagnesemia may be found and should be controlled.

  16. Coexisting Liver Disease Is Associated with Increased Mortality After Surgery for Diverticular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montomoli, Jonathan; Erichsen, Rune

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coexistence of liver disease in patients undergoing surgery for diverticular disease (DD) may increase the risk of postoperative complications, but the evidence is limited. AIM: To investigate the impact of liver disease on mortality and reoperation rates following surgery for DD. METHODS: We performed a cohort study based on medical databases of all patients undergoing surgery for DD in Denmark during 1977-2011, categorizing them into three cohorts according to history of liver disease: patients with non-cirrhotic liver disease, those with liver cirrhosis, and those without liver disease (comparison cohort). Using the Kaplan-Meier method, we computed mortality in each cohort for 0-30, 31-60, and 61-90 days following surgery for DD. We used a Cox regression model to compute hazard ratios as measures of the relative risk (RR) of death, controlling for potential confounders, including other comorbidities. In addition, we assessed the reoperation rate within 30 days of initial surgery. RESULTS: Of14,408 patients undergoing surgery for DD, 233 (1.6 %) had non-cirrhotic liver disease and 91 (0.6 %) had liver cirrhosis. Thirty-day mortality was 9.9 % in patients without liver disease and 14.6 % in patients with non-cirrhotic liver disease [adjusted RR = 1.64 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.31)]. Among patients with liver cirrhosis, mortality was 24.2 % [adjusted RR = 2.70 (95 % CI 1.73-4.22)]. Liver cirrhosis had an impact on mortality up to 60 days after surgery for DD. The reoperation rate was approximately 10 % in each cohort. CONCLUSION: Preexisting liver disease has a major impact on postoperative mortality following surgery for DD.

  17. Graft versus host disease in a rat small bowel transplant model after T-cell depleted donor specific bone marrow infusion Reação do enxerto versus hospedeiro apos infusão de celulas T depletadas da medula ossea no transplante de intestino delgado em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Bakonyi Neto; Misiakos, Evangelos P; Tzakis, Andreas G; Mariana Behro; Phillip Ruiz; Joshua Miller; Camilo Ricordi; Bonifacio K. Takegawa

    2003-01-01

    Low cytoreductive regimen of irradiation associated to unmodified bone marrow infusion (UBM) does not prevent the occurrence of graft versus host disease (GVHD) after transplant. PURPOSE: In this study we evaluated the potential advantages of a long-term immunossupression and T-cell depleted bone marrow infusion (TCDBMI) in preventing the occurrence of GVHD after small bowel transplantation (SBTx). METHODS: Heterotopic SBTX was performed with Lewis rats as recipients and DA as donors and dist...

  18. Prospective controlled randomized trial on prevention of postoperative abdominal adhesions by Icodextrin 4% solution after laparotomic operation for small bowel obstruction caused by adherences [POPA study: Prevention of Postoperative Adhesions on behalf of the World Society of Emergency Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Alessandro Luigi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesive small intestine occlusion [ASIO] is an important cause of hospital admission placing a substantial burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Often times, ASIO is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Icodextrin 4% solution [Adept, Shire Pharmaceuticals, UK] is a high-molecular-weight a-1,4 glucose polymer that is approved in Europe for use as an intra-operative lavage and a post-operative instillate to reduce the occurrence of post-surgery intra-abdominal adhesions. There are no randomized trials on the use of this solution to prevent adhesions after ASIO operation in current medical literature. The current clinical study evaluates the safety and effectiveness of Icodextrin 4% for decreasing the incidence, extent, and severity of adhesions in patients after abdominal surgery for ASIO. Design The study project is a prospective, randomized controlled investigation performed in the Department of Transplant, General and Emergency Surgery of St. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital [Bologna, Italy]. The study is designed and conducted in compliance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice regulations. The study compares the results of Icodextrin 4% against a control group who does not receive anti-adhesion treatment. This randomized study uses a double-blind procedure to evaluate efficacy end points. In other words, designated third party individuals who are unaware of the treatment assigned to the patients to assess adhesion formation. Trial Registration Number ISRCTN22061989 Prospective controlled randomized trial on Prevention of Postoperative Abdominal Adhesions by Icodextrin 4% solution after laparotomic operation for small bowel obstruction caused by adherences [POPA study: Prevention of Postoperative Adhesions

  19. Bacterial contamination of the small bowel evaluated by breath tests, 75Se-labelled homocholic-tauro acid, and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-one patients with diarrhoea due to suspected bacterial contamination of the small intestine were investigated with the bile breath test (BABT) and 75Se-labelled homocholic-tauro acid (SeHCAT). The impact of bile acid malabsorption due to dysfunction of the terminal ileum on BABT was evaluated. The group of patients with abnormal BABT, notably the 6 h accumulated value, showed a high frequency of reduced SeHCAT values, indicating that a reliable test for bile acid malabsorption is indispensable for interpreting the BABT in the investigation of small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The results of the 14C-D-xylose breath test were compared with the outcome of the combined SeHCAT-BABT in 44 patients. In contrast to previous findings, no correlation between the two breath tests was found. On the contary, a significant negative correlation was encountered for patients in whom either breath test was abnormal. Scanning electron microscopy for demonstration of adherent microorganisms was including in the investigation. No correlations were found with the outcomes of the different breath tests. The effect of antibiotic treatment was evaluated with regard to symptoms and breath tests. The results of the investigation indicate that different tests are needed for the diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine, because of the different metabolic characteristics of the contaminating bacteria. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabsfs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Bowel Preparation: Current Status

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, James E.; Quietmeyer, Christie M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite emerging evidence from randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses questioning its use, mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) continues to hold an accepted place among surgeons. MBP has been administered to patients for over a century, and though the methods and agents used for intestinal cleansing have evolved over time, many surgeons still embrace MBP as a necessary, essential regimen. The accepted rationale for MBP includes evacuation of stool to allow visualization of the luminal ...

  1. Effect of different periods of hyperbaric oxygen on ischemia-reperfusion injury of rat small bowel / Efeitos de diferentes períodos de oxigenação hiperbárica na lesão de isquemia e reperfusão de intestino delgado de ratos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Roberto, Bertoletto; José Carlos, Chaves; Anna Tereza Negrini, Fagundes; Ricardo Santos, Simões; Celina Tizuko Fujiyama, Oshima; Manuel de Jesus, Simões; Djalma José, Fagundes.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar se a oxigenação hiperbárica (OHB) protege a mucosa do intestino delgado de ratos após isquemia e reperfusão. MÉTODOS: 32 ratos machos foram submetidos a clampeamento da artéria e da veia mesentéricas superiores durante 60 minutos (isquemia) seguido de 60 minutos de reperfusão. A [...] pós estes procedimentos os animais fora separados em quatro grupos, a saber: grupo I (GI) isquemia e reperfusão (IR); grupo II (GII) submetido a OHB concomitante a isquemia, Grupo III (GIII) submetido a OHB durante a reperfusão e, grupo IV (GIV) submetido a OHB durante o período de isquemia e de reperfusão. A OHB foi realizada em câmara acrílica (2.0 ATA). Após anestesia, fragmentos do intestino delgado (íleo) foram fixados e processados para inclusão em parafina sendo os cortes corados pelo HE. As lâminas foram avaliadas quanto a presença de lesões histopatológicas da mucosa e avaliado a espessura da mucosa. RESULTADOS: A lesão histopatológica da mucosa foi significativamente inferior quando a OHB foi administrada na isquemia (12.6 ± 0.6) em comparação com o IR (21.3 ± 1.8). A OHB não foi efetiva quando aplicada durante a reperfusão (23.1 ± 2.1), ou durante a isquemia e reperfusão (18.7 ± 1.9). A espessura da mucosa foi preservada pela OHB na isquemia (327,50 ± 30.23 µm) em comparação com o IR (172.79 ± 5.95 µm). Nos períodos de reperfusão (162.50 ± 6.05 µm) e a isquemia (296.49 ± 20.01 µm) a mucosa apresentou lesão estrutural. CONCLUSÃO: A oxigenação hiperbárica protege a mucosa intestinal quando realizada durante o período de isquemia. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine whether hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) could effectively protect the small intestine mucosa against an ischemic insult, according to different periods of application. METHODS: The gut of 32 male rats was subjected to 60-min ischemia (clamping the mesenteric artery and vein); After the [...] y were further reperfused upon clamp opening during 60 min. Animal groups were as follows. GII = placed on HBO during the ischemia period; GIII = placed on HBO during reperfusion; GIV = treated with HBO throughout the ischemia-reperfusion period. Some animals (GI) did not receive HBO treatment at all and served as reference of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IR). HBO was carried out in a cylindrical acrylic chamber (2.0 ATA). Samples of small bowel were prepared for H.E staining for histological evaluations. RESULTS: The histological injury of mucosa was significantly less when HBO was administered during the ischemia period (17.6 ± 0.6) as compared with the IR (21.3 ± 1.8). HBO was not effective when applied during reperfusion (23.1 ± 2.1) or during the ischemia plus reperfusion period (18.7 ± 1.9). The thickness of the mucosa was preserved by HBO in ischemia (327.50 ± 30.23 µm) in comparison with the IR (172.79 ± 5.95 µm). In the periods of reperfusion (162.50 ± 6.05 µm) and ischemia plus reperfusion (296.49 ± 20.01 µm) the mucosa revealed a structural injury. CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen affects the ischemic insult of small bowel, being the favorable effect obtained when hyperbaric oxygen was administered early in the ischemic period.

  2. Intestino Corto / Short bowel syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Matilde, Socarrás Suárez; Miriam, Bolet Astoviza; Martha, Larrea Fabra.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El intestino corto está asociado a pérdida o disfunción del intestino delgado por resección del mismo, que causa diarreas, tránsito intestinal acelerado, malabsorción intestinal, y eventualmente la pérdida de peso y el desgaste muscular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar el conocimiento ace [...] rca de este síndrome. Se realiza una revisión del tema de intestino corto donde se refiere a su definición, causas fundamentales frecuentes e infrecuentes en el niño y en el adulto, cómo se adapta el intestino a la resección de diferentes extensiones, las funciones del íleon terminal. Se hacen una valoración clínica inicial, con el interrogatorio médico, revisión minuciosa de la historia clínica para cuantificar la capacidad de absorción. Se habla de los síntomas y signos de deficiencia nutricional. Se explican las estrategias del tratamiento, que tienen 3 etapas de evolución clínica. Se concluye que se indica la dietoterapia adecuada según el estado nutricional del paciente y la resección intestinal realizada, evitando las complicaciones para lograr una calidad máxima de vida Abstract in english Short bowel is associated with loss or dysfunction of the small bowel due to its resection, which causes diarrheas, accelerated intestinal transit, intestinal malabsorption and, eventually, weight loss ansd muscular waste. The objective of this paper was to update knowledge about this syndrome. A re [...] view of the short intestine topic is made, making reference to its definition, common and uncommon main cuases in the child and adult, how the bowel adapts itslef to resection of different extensions, and the functions of the terminal ileum. An initial clinical assessment is made with the medical questionnaire and a detailed review of the medical history to quantify the absorption capacity. The symptoms and signs of nutritional deficiency are dealt with. The strategies of the treatment consisting of 3 stages of clinical evolution are explained. It is concluded that the adequate diet therapy is indicated according to the nutritional state of the patient and the performed intestinal resections, preventing complications to achieve a maximum quality of life

  3. Enteroscopia Intra-Operatória e Hemorragia Enteral: A Indicação Mantém-se Intraoperative Enteroscopy In Small Bowel Bleeding: The Indication Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Figueiredo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de um doente de 63 anos com hemorragia originária no intestino delgado. Dada a presença de insta­bilidade hemodinâmica, que obrigou à suspensão da enteroscopia com duplo balão, foi submetido a enteroscopia intra-operatória com abordagem por via oral. As lesões encontradas incluem três angiodisplasias, tratadas com árgon-plasma, e duas úlceras, que foram ressecadas. A enteroscopia intra-operatória poderá ser uma opção terapêutica em pacientes com sangramento com origem no intestino delgado, designadamente quando evidenciem instabilidade hemodinâmicaWe report the case of a 63-year-old with small intestinal bleeding. Due to the fact that he was hemodynami­cally unstable, double-balloon enteroscopy had to be suspended. Urgent laparotomy with intraoperative enteroscopy by an orally passed endoscope was done. Three angiodysplasic lesions were treated with argon-plasma coagulation and two bleeding ulcers were accurately identified and resected. Intraoperative enteroscopy may be a therapeutic option, namely in unstable patients with small intestinal bleeding

  4. Enteroscopia Intra-Operatória e Hemorragia Enteral: A Indicação Mantém-se / Intraoperative Enteroscopy In Small Bowel Bleeding: The Indication Stands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Figueiredo; Alexandre, Duarte; Patrícia, Duarte; André, Oliva; Carlos, Gregório; Hermano, Gouveia; Maximino, Leitão.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de um doente de 63 anos com hemorragia originária no intestino delgado. Dada a presença de insta­bilidade hemodinâmica, que obrigou à suspensão da enteroscopia com duplo balão, foi submetido a enteroscopia intra-operatória com abordagem por via oral. As lesões encontradas incluem tr [...] ês angiodisplasias, tratadas com árgon-plasma, e duas úlceras, que foram ressecadas. A enteroscopia intra-operatória poderá ser uma opção terapêutica em pacientes com sangramento com origem no intestino delgado, designadamente quando evidenciem instabilidade hemodinâmica Abstract in english We report the case of a 63-year-old with small intestinal bleeding. Due to the fact that he was hemodynami­cally unstable, double-balloon enteroscopy had to be suspended. Urgent laparotomy with intraoperative enteroscopy by an orally passed endoscope was done. Three angiodysplasic lesions were treat [...] ed with argon-plasma coagulation and two bleeding ulcers were accurately identified and resected. Intraoperative enteroscopy may be a therapeutic option, namely in unstable patients with small intestinal bleeding

  5. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The component in wheat that triggers symptoms in NCGS appears to be the carbohydrates. Patients with NCGS appear to be IBS patients who are self-diagnosed and self-treated with a gluten-free diet. IBS symptoms are triggered by the consumption of the poorly absorbed fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and insoluble fibre. On reaching the distal small intestine and colon, FODMAPS and insoluble fibre increase the osmotic pressure in the large-intestine lumen and provide a substrate for bacterial fermentation, with consequent gas production, abdominal distension and abdominal pain or discomfort. Poor FODMAPS and insoluble fibres diet reduces the symptom and improve the quality of life in IBS patients. Moreover, it changes favourably the intestinal microbiota and restores the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells. Five gastrointestinal endocrine cell types that produce hormones regulating appetite and food intake are abnormal in IBS patients. Based on these hormonal abnormalities, one would expect that IBS patients to have increased food intake and body weight gain. However, the link between obesity and IBS is not fully studied. Individual dietary guidance for intake of poor FODMAPs and insoluble fibres diet in combination with probiotics intake and regular exercise is to be recommended for IBS patients. PMID:25880820

  6. Rifaximin therapy of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hoonmo L; Sabounchi, Saman; Huang, David B; DuPont, Herbert L

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of specific organic pathology. Although the underlying pathogenesis of IBS is not well-understood, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) or other abnormalities in the gut flora is believed to contribute to the development of a subset of IBS cases. Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed antimicrobial with activity against enteric pathogens. A number of studies have shown a significant improvement in IBS symptoms with antibiotic therapy including rifaximin. In this review, we discuss the pharmacokinetics, in vitro susceptibility profile, and efficacy and safety data from clinical trials of rifaximin treatment of IBS. PMID:24833932

  7. Recurrent intestinal volvulus in midgut malrotation causing acute bowel obstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayed Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal malrotation occurs when there is a disruption in the normal embryological development of the bowel. The majority of patients present with clinical features in childhood, though rarely a first presentation can take place in adulthood. Recurrent bowel obstruction in patients with previous abdominal operation for midgut malrotation is mostly due to adhesions but very few reported cases have been due to recurrent volvulus. We present the case of a 22-year-old gentleman who had laparotomy in childhood for small bowel volvulus and then presented with acute bowel obstruction. Preoperative computerised tomography scan showed small bowel obstruction and features in keeping with midgut malrotation. Emergency laparotomy findings confirmed midgut malrotation with absent appendix, abnormal location of caecum, ascending colon and small bowel. In addition, there were small bowel volvulus and a segment of terminal ileal stricture. Limited right hemicolectomy was performed with excellent postoperative recovery. This case is presented to illustrate a rare occurrence and raise an awareness of the possibility of dreadful recurrent volvulus even several years following an initial Ladd’s procedure for midgut malrotation. Therefore, one will need to exercise a high index of suspicion and this becomes very crucial in order to ensure prompt surgical intervention and thereby preventing an attendant bowel ischaemia with its associated high fatality.

  8. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.)

  9. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  10. Síndrome de Intestino Corto / Short bowel syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo, Franquelo Morales; Mubarak, Alramadan Alramadan; Beatriz, Valero Serrano; Reagens, Achille.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de intestino corto es un cuadro clínico caracterizado por una importante disminución de la superficie intestinal efectiva por una pérdida anatómica o funcional del intestino delgado. Aparece sobre todo tras resecciones intestinales extensas por isquemia mesentérica. Sus principales compl [...] icaciones son diarrea, deshidratación, pérdida de peso, desnutrición, déficit de electrolitos, vitaminas y oligoelementos. Un soporte nutricional adecuado e individualizado constituye la base del tratamiento. Presentamos el caso de un varón joven con estado de hipercoagulabilidad y síndrome de intestino corto que presentó un síndrome confusional por abandono en la dieta y tratamiento, expresándose como una encefalopatía de Wernicke. Abstract in english Short bowel syndrome is characterized by a significant reduction in the effective intestinal surface by an anatomical or functional loss of the small intestine. It mainly occurs after extensive bowel resection due to mesenteric ischemia. The main complications are diarrhoea, dehydration, weight loss [...] , malnutrition, and electrolyte, vitamin and trace element deficiency. Treatment is based on appropriate, individualized nutritional support. We report the case of a young man with a hypercoagulable state and short bowel syndrome who presented with a confusional state due to non-compliance to diet and treatment, expressed as a Wernicke encephalopathy.

  11. Perforación diverticular sigmoidea secundaria a la migración de endoprótesis biliar plástica / Sigmoid diverticulum perforation due to plastic biliary stent migration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beatriz, de Andrés A; Francisca, Moreno R; Patricia, Legido M; José, Rabadán J; Juan, Beltrán de Heredia R.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las endoprótesis biliares son dispositivos que se emplean para ampliar las vías biliares estenosadas, especialmente en las obstrucciones malignas, aunque actualmente su uso está aumentando progresivamente en las enfermedades benignas biliopancreáticas. La colocación endoscópica de las [...] endopró-tesis biliares es un procedimiento bien establecido que se realiza diariamente, aunque presenta una tasa de complicaciones de 5-10%, siendo las más frecuentes la colangitis y la obstrucción de la propia endoprótesis, existiendo otras más raras y graves como la pancreatitis, la hemorragia digestiva, la perforación intestinal y la migración de la endoprótesis biliar. Caso clínico: Varón de 70 años de edad con antecedentes de colocación de endoprótesis biliar plástica tras presentar coledocolitiasis posterior a colecistectomía, que acudió al Servicio de Urgencias con clínica de obstrucción intestinal. Después de realizar radiología simple y ecografía abdominal, se observó importante dilatación intestinal y una endoprótesis biliar en sigma. Se practicó intervención quirúrgica urgente, hallándose endoprótesis biliar plástica enclavada en un divertículo sigmoideo. Se realizó extracción de la endoprótesis y sutura simple de la perforación diverticular sigmoidea. Conclusión: La perforación diverticular sigmoidea secundaria a la migración de una endoprótesis biliar plástica es una complicación poco frecuente que puede aparecer tras la colocación de una endoprótesis en la vía biliar. Dicha perforación debe sospecharse ante todo cuadro de abdomen agudo que se acompaña de imágenes radiológicas que demuestren la migración de la endoprótesis biliar, ya que estos pacientes no suelen presentar una sintomatología típica. Abstract in english Background: Biliary stents are devices that are used to widen narrowed bile ducts, especially in malignant obstructions, although at present its use in benign biliopancreatic diseases is progressively increasing. Endoscopic placement of biliary stents is a well established procedure that is performe [...] d daily. Despite its frequency, has a complication rate of 5-10%, the most common are cholangitis and stent obstruction and there are others more rare and serious like pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, intestinal perforation and biliary stent migration. Case report: We report a 70-years-old male with a history of plastic biliary stent placement after open cholecystectomy because of choledocholithiasis, who arrived at the Emergency Department with symptoms of intestinal obstruction. After performing imaging studies, there was significant intestinal dilation and a biliary stent in the sigmoid colon. He underwent urgent surgical intervention, having the plastic biliary stent located in a sigmoid diverticulum. We performed removal of the stent and simple suture of the sigmoid diverticular perforation. Conclusion: Sigmoid diverticular perforation secondary to migration of a plastic biliary stent is a rare complication that can occur after placement of a stent in the bile duct. It must be suspected in all acute abdomens accompanied of radiological images demonstrating biliary stent migration because these patients often show atypical symptoms.

  12. CT assessment of anastomotic bowel leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, N. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Atri, M. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)]. E-mail: mostafa.atri@sw.ca; Ryan, S. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Haddad, R. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Smith, A. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-01-15

    Aim: To evaluate the predictors of clinically important gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Subjects and methods: Ninety-nine patients, 73 with clinical suspicion of anastomotic bowel leak and 26 non-bowel surgery controls underwent CT to investigate postoperative sepsis. Fifty patients had undergone large bowel and 23 small bowel anastomoses. The time interval from surgery was 3-30 days (mean 10 {+-} 5.9 SD) for the anastomotic group and 3-40 days (mean 14 {+-} 11 SD) for the control group (p = 0.3). Two radiologists blinded to the final results reviewed the CT examinations in consensus and recorded the presence of peri-anastomotic air, fluid or combination of the two; distant loculated fluid or combination of fluid and air; free air or fluid; and intestinal contrast leak. Final diagnosis of clinically important anastomotic leak (CIAL) was confirmed at surgery or by chart review of predetermined clinical and laboratory criteria. Results: The prevalence of CIAL in the group undergoing CT was 31.5% (23/73). The CT examinations with documented leak were performed 5-28 (mean; 11.4 {+-} 6 SD) days after surgery. Nine patients required repeat operation, 10 percutaneous abscess drainage, two percutaneous drainage followed by surgery, and two prolonged antibiotic treatment and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Of the CT features examined, only peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air was more frequently seen in the CIAL group as opposed to the no leak group (p = 0.04). There was no intestinal contrast leakage in this cohort. Free air was present up to 9 days and loculated air up to 26 days without CIAL. Conclusion: Most postoperative CT features overlap between patients with and without CIAL. The only feature seen statistically more frequently with CIAL is peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air.

  13. Differential diagnosis of small bowel occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ghiringhelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, also known as Lynch syndrome, is a common autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by early age at onset, and microsatellite instability (MSI. Patients with Lynch syndrome have a markedly increased risk of colorectal cancer. We report a case of a 28-year-old male with Lynch syndrome; the case allows to describe clinical manifestations and diagnostic criteria of this syndrome, and to underline the importance of genetics in the diagnosis of this disease.

  14. Comparison of simultaneous 99mTc-HMPAO and 111In oxine labelled white cell scans in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-seven patients, 29 with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 18 with presumed irritable bowel syndrome, including one with uncomplicated diverticular disease, were studied with simultaneous technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime and indium-III oxine labelled leucocyte scans performed at 1, 3 and 24 h. Twenty-seven patients with IBD had active disease as judged by clinical and laboratory criteria and all of these had positive scans with both agents. No false positive studies were obtained. The 1-h 99mTc-HMPAO WBC scans showed the same distribution to disease as the 3-h 111-In WBC scans, with no difference in intensity (P111-In scans. The 3-h 99mTc-HMPAO WBC scans showed more extensive disease (P111In WBC scans. Physiological bowel activity on 3-h 99mTc-HMPAO WBC scans was present in 12 patients but was faint and did not interfere with assessment of disease extent and activity. It is concluded that in terms of isotope availability, radiation dosimetry and image quality, 99mTc-HMPAO is the agent of choice in detecting active IBD, with localization of disease possible at 1-h after re-injection and optimal resolution and definition of disease extent at 3 h. A negative scan reliably excludes active disease. (orig.)reliably excludes active disease. (orig.)

  15. Inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn B Beaulieu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis affect women in their child-bearing years. Family planning has come to be a common discussion between the gastroenterologist and the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patient. Disease control prior to desired conception and throughout pregnancy is the most important thing to keep in mind when caring for the IBD patient. Continued medical management during pregnancy is crucial in optimizing outcomes. Studies indicate that quiescent disease prior to conception infer the best pregnancy outcomes, similar to those in the general population. Active disease prior to and during pregnancy, can lead to complications such as pre-term labor, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. Although there are no definitive long term effects of pregnancy on IBD, there are some limited studies that suggest that it may alter the disease course. Understanding the literature and its limitations is important in the modern era of IBD care. Educating the patient and taking a team approach with the obstetrician will help achieve successful outcomes for mother and baby.

  16. Acesso vídeo-laparoscópico no tratamento cirúrgico da diverticulite aguda The vídeolaparoscopic access in the surgical treatment of acute diverticular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Henrique da Silva e Sousa Jr.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A revisão de conceitos baseada na literatura recente relacionada ao tratamento da doença diverticular dos cólons pelo acesso vídeolaparoscópico é apresentada ao lado das indicações de formas de tratamento clássicas. A dupla abordagem videolaparoscópica, imediata para tratamento da peritonite seguida da ressecção tornada eletiva é a modalidade nova na literatura, mas ainda não padronizada. Discutem os autores dados relativos a esta tática e de outros estudos que podem ampliar o emprego desta abordagem.This review is based on standards of treatment for diverticular disease, both classical and new ones due to cumulated videolaparoscopic experience. The sequential double videolaparoscopic procedure for acute diverticulitis is discussed along with data from other studies supporting this novel modality of surgical treatment.

  17. Acesso vídeo-laparoscópico no tratamento cirúrgico da diverticulite aguda / The vídeolaparoscopic access in the surgical treatment of acute diverticular disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Afonso Henrique da Silva e, Sousa Jr.; Arceu, Scanavini Neto; Angelita, Habr-Gama.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A revisão de conceitos baseada na literatura recente relacionada ao tratamento da doença diverticular dos cólons pelo acesso vídeolaparoscópico é apresentada ao lado das indicações de formas de tratamento clássicas. A dupla abordagem videolaparoscópica, imediata para tratamento da peritonite seguida [...] da ressecção tornada eletiva é a modalidade nova na literatura, mas ainda não padronizada. Discutem os autores dados relativos a esta tática e de outros estudos que podem ampliar o emprego desta abordagem. Abstract in english This review is based on standards of treatment for diverticular disease, both classical and new ones due to cumulated videolaparoscopic experience. The sequential double videolaparoscopic procedure for acute diverticulitis is discussed along with data from other studies supporting this novel modalit [...] y of surgical treatment.

  18. High-Dose Barium Impaction Therapy Is Useful for the Initial Hemostasis and for Preventing the Recurrence of Colonic Diverticular Bleeding Unresponsive to Endoscopic Clipping

    OpenAIRE

    Ryota Niikura; Naoyoshi Nagata; Kazuyoshi Yamano; Takuro Shimbo; Naomi Uemura

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of colonic diverticular bleeding stop spontaneously, but some patients experience massive bleeding that requires emergency treatment. Endoscopy can be useful when the bleeding source is identified. However, bleeding sometimes recurs within a short period despite the successful endoscopic treatment. Under such conditions, more invasive therapy such as interventional angiography or surgery is required and can prolong hospitalization and involve frequent blood transfusions. We report ...

  19. Diet and risk of diverticular disease in Oxford cohort of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): prospective study of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, FL; Appleby, PN; Allen, NE; Key, TJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations of a vegetarian diet and dietary fibre intake with risk of diverticular disease. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The EPIC-Oxford study, a cohort of mainly health conscious participants recuited from around the United Kingdom. Participants: 47033 men and women living in England or Scotland of whom 15459 (33%) reported consuming a vegetarian diet. Main outcome measures: Diet group was assessed at baseline; intake of dietary fibre was...

  20. Nutritional therapy of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, G

    1989-09-01

    Nutritional factors relative to IBS include diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Etiologically, foods do not cause IBS. A small percentage of patients with childhood allergic diatheses, usually in association with atopic dermatitis and asthma, may be intolerant to one or more of wheat, corn, dairy products, coffee, tea, or citrus fruits. Diagnostically, many patients labeled as IBS subjects are in fact intolerant to the ingestion of lactose-containing foods, sorbitol, fructose, or combinations of fructose and sorbitol. A precise dietary history will characterize this group. Taken in its broadest context, IBS involves the entire hollow tract inclusive of esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and colon. The symptomatic presentation relative to the hollow organ involved allows the selection of dietary manipulations that may help to reduce symptoms. Gastroesophageal reflux, a consequence of low LES pressure in some IBS patients, may be treated with the elimination of fatty foods, alcohol, chocolate, and peppermint. Delayed gastric emptying may be helped by the elimination of fatty foods and reduction of soluble fiber. Aberrant small bowel motor function may be ameliorated by reduction of lactose, sorbitol, and fructose and the addition of soluble fiber. Gas syndromes may be improved by reduced intake of beans, cabbage, lentils, legumes, apples, grapes, and raisins. Colonic motor dysfunction may be overcome by the gradual addition of combinations of soluble and insoluble fiber-containing foods and supplements. The selective use of activated charcoal and simethicone may be helpful. PMID:2553606

  1. The irritable bowel syndrome-celiac disease connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Sanders, David S

    2012-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder that has a significant impact on quality of life and health care resources. Celiac disease (CD), a gluten-sensitive enteropathy, can be mistaken for IBS. This article discusses the connection between IBS and CD and the new concept of nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). NCGS may occur in the presence of a normal or near-normal small bowel biopsy. Some patients with IBS without CD may derive symptomatic benefit from a gluten-free diet. Future research could facilitate a significant impact on the quality of life in this potential subgroup of patients. PMID:23083983

  2. Preparing the bowel for colonoscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar, K; Goggin, N; Gormally, S; Durnin, M; Drumm, B

    1995-01-01

    Bowel preparation methods for total colonoscopy in children generally involve whole gut irrigation with electrolyte lavage solutions, which in most children will require hospitalisation for nasogastric tube administration. The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of oral bisacodyl combined with a single phosphate enema as a bowel preparation regimen in children. In an open prospective trial, 30 children (aged 18 months-15 years) were given oral bisacodyl on each morning of the two d...

  3. Does stress induce bowel dysfunction?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yu-Ming; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; John Y. Kao

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress is known to induce somatic symptoms. Classically, many gut physiological responses to stress are mediated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. There is, however, a growing body of evidence of stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) release causing bowel dysfunction through multiple pathways, either through the HPA axis, the autonomic nervous systems, or directly on the bowel itself. In addition, recent findings of CRF influencing the composition of gut...

  4. Cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jianlin Xie, Steven H Itzkowitz

    2008-01-01

    Patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Many of the molecular alterations responsible for sporadic colorectal cancer, namely chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and hypermethylation, also play a role in colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis. Colon cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease increases with longer duration of colitis, greater anatomic extent of colitis, the presence of primary sc...

  5. Rational Use of Antibiotics in the Treatment of Functional Bowel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fasulo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal symptoms such us bloating, fullness, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation due to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were recently attributed to small bowel bacterial overgrowth, a condition depending on the presence of an increased number of bacteria in the small bowel. However, the methodology used to describe this association may be harshly criticized, since it has already been shown to be quite inaccurate. As a result an inappropriate use of antibiotics was consequently generated. In fact, antibiotics could be effective in the treatment of functional complaints, but only in a limited subgroup of patients, characterized by an increase of fermentation at colonic level. In this review, we have examined the papers suggesting a pathophysiological link between IBS and small bowel bacterial overgrowth, underlining its inappropriateness, and put forth our personal view on the rationale for antibiotic use in IBS.

  6. The use of a prosthetic tissue expander to displace bowel from a brachytherapy implant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the use of a prosthetic maneuver to displace bowel from an implant site. The patient presented with a recurrent low grade fibrosarcoma which was grossly excised with positive microscopic margins in the right paravertebral area. For this reason we performed an Iridium-192 implant using afterloading catheters. Because of several dense adhesions, it was not possible to mobilize an omental sling over the implant site. To prevent the small bowel from lying on the catheters, we inserted a prosthetic breast tissue expander. This was expanded with saline and bacitracin solution and placed in the tumor bed overlying the catheters, thereby displacing the small bowel away from the sources. A postoperative CT scan with gastrograffin demonstrated that this procedure was effective. There were no complications. We conclude that such devices are suitable for use under these circumstances and can achieve the objective of decreasing the dose of radiation to the small bowel

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatn, Morten H; Sandvik, Arne K

    2015-06-01

    Scandinavian researchers have contributed to the present understanding of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Important epidemiological data and family risk factors have been reported from all the Nordic countries, original twin studies mainly from Denmark and Sweden, and relationships to cancer and surgery mostly from Sweden. In collaboration with the industry, development of medical compounds was for a long time in the front line of international research, and the Scandinavian countries participated in the clinical breakthrough of biologic treatment. At present, many Nordic centers are working in the forefront of IBD research. An increasing number of young investigators have entered the scene along with the extended distribution of University clinics and research laboratories in these countries. This presentation of IBD gives a brief overview in the fields of clinical epidemiology and molecular biology. Many areas are covered by International collaborations with partners from Nordic centers. IBD was a topic focused by the founders of Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. After 50 years one may state that the journal's history reflects important pieces of scientific knowledge within these diseases. The early scope of Johannes Myren for IBD was shown through his work in the original World Association of Gastroenterology (OMG), and after 50 years we can clearly support the view that global perspectives in IBD are increasingly important. PMID:25855003

  8. Teste do H2 no ar expirado na avaliação de absorção de lactose e sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado de escolares / Breath hydrogen test to evaluate lactose absorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jairo César dos, REIS; Mauro Batista de, MORAIS; Ulysses, FAGUNDES-NETO.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos realizados há mais de 10 anos demonstraram que a deficiência ontogenética de lactase é freqüente na população brasileira. Entretanto, esses estudos se basearam no incremento da glicemia após sobrecarga de doses não utilizadas habitualmente na dieta. Atualmente, aceita-se que a avaliação da a [...] bsorção da lactose com o teste do hidrogênio no ar expirado é mais apropriada que o teste da curva glicêmica. Por outro lado, a enteropatia ambiental sintomática e/ou assintomática constituem um grave problema de saúde pública em grupos populacionais de baixo nível sócio-econômico de nosso meio. A ocorrência de sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado de crianças com enteropatia ambiental, foi caracterizada em crianças moradoras em favelas. Sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado é caracterizado pela presença de bactérias pertencentes à flora colônica no intestino delgado. Objetivando avaliar a freqüência de má absorção de lactose e determinar a ocorrência de sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado em crianças escolares, através do teste do H2 no ar expirado, investigaram-se 83 alunos de uma escola localizada na região periférica da cidade de Marília, Estado de São Paulo, após sobrecarga oral de lactose e lactulose. Foram colhidas também amostras de fezes para pesquisa de parasitas. Má absorção de lactose foi observada em 19 (22,9%) escolares e intolerância à lactose em 10 (12,0%). Sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado foi identificado pelo teste do H2 no ar expirado em 6 (7,2%) dos 83 escolares. Giardia lamblia foi o parasita mais freqüentemente isolado nas fezes dos escolares. A ocorrência de deficiência ontogenética de lactase observada neste grupo de crianças foi semelhante ao relatado para populações caucasianas. Sobrecrescimento bacteriano foi encontrado neste grupo de crianças assintomáticas, podendo refletir as condições desfavoráveis de seu meio ambiente. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the lactose absorption capacity and possible existence of bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel in asymptomatic school children of low social economic level in Marilia, a city located in the interior of São Paulo state. Eighty three children aging 7 to 15 yea [...] rs old without any gastrointestinal manifestations at least 30 days prior to the tests were studied. All the patients had fasted for at least 8 hours before the tests were performed. Lactose absorption was evaluated by breath hidrogen test after an overload of lactose 18 g in 10% aquous solution. Lactose intolerance was determined by the occurrence of clinical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, etc in the following 24 hours after the test was performed. Bacterial overgrowth was evaluated by the breath hidrogen test after a 10 g lactulose load in aqueous solution. Lactose malabsorption was detected in 19 (22.9%) children and lactose intolerance was observed in 10 (12%) children. Lactose intolerance was more frequently observed in children who showed lactose malabsorption (6/19; 31.6%) than in those who presented a normal test (4/64; 6.3%) (P = 0.008). Bacterial overgrowth was detected in six (7.2%) children and showed no statistical relationship with lactose malabsorption. Ontogenetic lactose malabsorption verified in this group of school children is similar to the reported for Caucasian populations. Presence of bacterial overgrowth confirms the existence of asymptomatic environmental enteropathy in children of low social economic level.

  9. Teste do H2 no ar expirado na avaliação de absorção de lactose e sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado de escolares Breath hydrogen test to evaluate lactose absorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo César dos REIS

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos realizados há mais de 10 anos demonstraram que a deficiência ontogenética de lactase é freqüente na população brasileira. Entretanto, esses estudos se basearam no incremento da glicemia após sobrecarga de doses não utilizadas habitualmente na dieta. Atualmente, aceita-se que a avaliação da absorção da lactose com o teste do hidrogênio no ar expirado é mais apropriada que o teste da curva glicêmica. Por outro lado, a enteropatia ambiental sintomática e/ou assintomática constituem um grave problema de saúde pública em grupos populacionais de baixo nível sócio-econômico de nosso meio. A ocorrência de sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado de crianças com enteropatia ambiental, foi caracterizada em crianças moradoras em favelas. Sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado é caracterizado pela presença de bactérias pertencentes à flora colônica no intestino delgado. Objetivando avaliar a freqüência de má absorção de lactose e determinar a ocorrência de sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado em crianças escolares, através do teste do H2 no ar expirado, investigaram-se 83 alunos de uma escola localizada na região periférica da cidade de Marília, Estado de São Paulo, após sobrecarga oral de lactose e lactulose. Foram colhidas também amostras de fezes para pesquisa de parasitas. Má absorção de lactose foi observada em 19 (22,9% escolares e intolerância à lactose em 10 (12,0%. Sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado foi identificado pelo teste do H2 no ar expirado em 6 (7,2% dos 83 escolares. Giardia lamblia foi o parasita mais freqüentemente isolado nas fezes dos escolares. A ocorrência de deficiência ontogenética de lactase observada neste grupo de crianças foi semelhante ao relatado para populações caucasianas. Sobrecrescimento bacteriano foi encontrado neste grupo de crianças assintomáticas, podendo refletir as condições desfavoráveis de seu meio ambiente.The aim of this study was to determine the lactose absorption capacity and possible existence of bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel in asymptomatic school children of low social economic level in Marilia, a city located in the interior of São Paulo state. Eighty three children aging 7 to 15 years old without any gastrointestinal manifestations at least 30 days prior to the tests were studied. All the patients had fasted for at least 8 hours before the tests were performed. Lactose absorption was evaluated by breath hidrogen test after an overload of lactose 18 g in 10% aquous solution. Lactose intolerance was determined by the occurrence of clinical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, etc in the following 24 hours after the test was performed. Bacterial overgrowth was evaluated by the breath hidrogen test after a 10 g lactulose load in aqueous solution. Lactose malabsorption was detected in 19 (22.9% children and lactose intolerance was observed in 10 (12% children. Lactose intolerance was more frequently observed in children who showed lactose malabsorption (6/19; 31.6% than in those who presented a normal test (4/64; 6.3% (P = 0.008. Bacterial overgrowth was detected in six (7.2% children and showed no statistical relationship with lactose malabsorption. Ontogenetic lactose malabsorption verified in this group of school children is similar to the reported for Caucasian populations. Presence of bacterial overgrowth confirms the existence of asymptomatic environmental enteropathy in children of low social economic level.

  10. Oxidative stress gene expression profile in inbred mouse after ischemia/reperfusion small bowel injury / Perfil da expressão gênica do estresse oxidativo em camundongos isogênicos após lesão de isquemia e reperfusão intestinal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Roberto, Bertoletto; Adauto Tsutomu, Ikejiri; Frederico, Somaio Neto; José Carlos, Chaves; Roberto, Teruya; Eduardo Rodrigues, Bertoletto; Murched Omar, Taha; Djalma José, Fagundes.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar o perfil de expressão dos genes associados com estresse oxidativo e contribuir para estabelecer parâmetros sobre o papel das familias de enzimas relacionadas com a lesão de isquemia / reperfusão intestinal. MÉTODOS: Doze camundongos machos isogênicos (C57BL/6) foram distribuídos [...] aleatoriamente: Grupo Controle (CG) submetido à laparotomia anestesia, e observado por 120min; Grupo isquemia/reperfusão (IRG) submetido à anestesia, laparotomia, 60min de isquemia do intestino delgado e 60min de reperfusão. Um pool dos seis camundongos de cada grupo foi submetido ao protocolo de qPCR-RT (seis famílias) para o estresse oxidativo e defesa antioxidante. RESULTADOS: Dos 84 genes investigados, 64 (76,2%) tiveram expressão estatística significante e 20 (23,8%) não apresentaram diferença estatística com o grupo controle. Dos 64 genes expressos de forma significante, 60 (93,7%) foram hiper-expressos e 04 (6,3%) foram hipo-expressos. Do grupo sem expressão estatisticamente significante, 12 genes foram hiper e 8 genes foram hipo-expressos. Surpreendentemente, 37 (44,04%) apresentaram expressão três maior que o limiar de normalidade e arbitrariamente os valores foram considerados como altamente significantes. Assim, 37 genes (44,04%) foram hiper-expressos de modo muito significante. Nos demais, 47 (55,9%) dos genes foram hiper-expressos menos de três vezes (35 genes - 41,6%) ou hipo-expressos menos de três vezes(12 genes - 14,3%). CONCLUSÃO: A isquemia e reperfusão intestinal promoveu um perfil de hiper-expressão global das seis familias de genes relacionados com estresse oxidativo antioxidante e defesa antioxidante. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine the profile of gene expressions associated with oxidative stress and thereby contribute to establish parameters about the role of enzyme clusters related to the ischemia/reperfusion intestinal injury. METHODS: Twelve male inbred mice (C57BL/6) were randomly assigned: Control Gr [...] oup (CG) submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy and observed by 120min; Ischemia/reperfusion Group (IRG) submitted to anesthesia, laparotomy, 60min of small bowel ischemia and 60min of reperfusion. A pool of six samples was submitted to the qPCR-RT protocol (six clusters) for mouse oxidative stress and antioxidant defense pathways. RESULTS: On the 84 genes investigated, 64 (76.2%) had statistic significant expression and 20 (23.8%) showed no statistical difference to the control group. From these 64 significantly expressed genes, 60 (93.7%) were up-regulated and 04 (6.3%) were down-regulated. From the group with no statistical significantly expression, 12 genes were up-regulated and 8 genes were down-regulated. Surprisingly, 37 (44.04%) showed a higher than threefold up-regulation and then arbitrarily the values was considered as a very significant. Thus, 37 genes (44.04%) were expressed very significantly up-regulated. The remained 47 (55.9%) genes were up-regulated less than three folds (35 genes - 41.6%) or down-regulated less than three folds (12 genes - 14.3%). CONCLUSION: The intestinal ischemia and reperfusion promote a global hyper-expression profile of six different clusters genes related to antioxidant defense and oxidative stress.

  11. Atividade mioelétrica do intestino delgado de cães submetidos à oclusão parcial da veia porta / Myoelectric activity of the small bowel of dogs submitted to partial occlusion of the portal vein

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Álvaro Antônio Bandeira, Ferraz; Josemberg Marins, Campos; Luis Fernando, Evangelista; Antonio Roberto de Barros, Coelho; José Guido de, Araújo-Filho; Edmundo Machado, Ferraz.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A oclusão temporária da veia porta causa estase esplâncnica e pode causar dismotilidade intestinal. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações da atividade mioelétrica e da histologia do intestino delgado, além da pressão arterial média (PAM), frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão venosa central (PVC) e [...] pressão portal (PP), na fase de pré-oclusão e de oclusão portal. MÉTODO: Realizou-se anestesia geral em seis cães, seguido de monitorização da PAM, FC e PVC, laparotomia, aferição da PP, fixação de três pares de eletrodos na parede intestinal, biópsias jejunais e oclusão parcial da veia porta, sendo programado aumento da PP entre 2,5 e 3 vezes. Os eletrodos foram conectados a um microcomputador com software de aquisição para armazenamento e análise da atividade mioelétrica, cujo registro ocorreu nos 30 minutos da fase de pré-oclusão e nos 60 minutos de oclusão. Determinouse a variância e a média do RMS (root mean square) da atividade mioelétrica. RESULTADOS: Na fase de oclusão, houve diminuição significativa da média do RMS e aumento da frequência de hemorragia da lâmina própria, sendo proporcional ao tempo de estase.Infiltrado inflamatório, dilatação vascular e desprendimento epitelial não apresentaram diferença entre as duas fases. Durante a estase, PAM, FC e PVC diminuíram (p=0,326; 0,375 e 0,008; respectivamente), e PP aumentou (p=0,015). CONCLUSÃO: A oclusão parcial da veia porta de cães promoveu diminuição da atividade mioelétrica e aumento da frequência percentual da hemorragia da lâmina própria, além de queda da PVC Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Temporary occlusion of the portal vein causes splancnic venous stasis and intestinal disfunction, that can produce alterations in the motility, and this fact is not vastly known. AIM: To evaluate the small bowel myoelectric activity and histology in the six dogs, also covering mean arter [...] ial blood pressure (AP), pulse rate (PR), central venous pressure (CVP) e portal pressure (PP), in two phases: pre-occlusion and occlusion. METHODS: It was done general anesthesia, invasive monitorization of the AP, PR e CVP, laparotomy, measure of the PP, fixation of the three pairs of electrodes in the intestinal wall, jejunal biopsy and parcial occlusion of the portal vein, being programmed the increase of the PP between 2.5 and 3 times baseline. Electrodes were connected to a computer system that captured electrical signals from the intestine. The computer has a software of acquisition to store and analyse the myoelectric activity after registering, what happened in 30 minutes of the pre-occlusion phase and in 60 minutes of occlusion. The variance and the mean RMS(root mean square) of the myoeletric activity were determined. The statistical analysis was done with Friedman, Dunn, Cochran and Students t tests. RESULTS: Mean RMS of myoeletric activity showed significant decrease in the phase of portal occlusion, in comparison to preocclusion phase. The frequency of hemorrhage of the lamina propria was major during occlusion. It was proportional at stasis time, with significant difference between the preocclusion and the occlusion of 60 minutes. Inflammatory infiltration, vascular dilation and epithelial detachment did not show any differences between two phases. During the stasis, AP, PR and CVP decreased (p=0,326; 0,375 e 0,008, respectively), and PP increased(p=0,015). CONCLUSIONS: Parcial occlusion of the portal vein produced reduction of the myoeletric activity and elevation of the percentage frequency of hemorrhage in lamina propria, and a fall of CVP, with relative hemodynamic stabilization.

  12. Computed tomography of the whole bowel in patients suspected of Crohn's disease. Preliminary report - assessment of examination technique and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the usefulness of new technique - computed tomography (CT) of the whole bowel in patients with Crohn's disease and correlation of obtained images with other modalities (MR of the bowel, enteroclysis, barium enema, colonoscopy) and operation results. CT examination was performed in 20 patients suspected of having Crohn's disease, which was confirmed in 16 cases. CT was performed after filling small bowel with fluid administered by catheter placed in duodenum (in 10 patients) or orally (in 10 patients), distension of large bowel with air and intravenous injection of contrast material. Distension of small bowel was assessed in both groups by two radiologists. In 7 patients immediately after CT examination MR of the bowel was performed with contrast enhanced T1-weighted images. Distension of small bowel was better in patients examined after administration of fluid directly to duodenum, although the difference was not statistically significant. In 16 CT studies performed in patients with confirmed Crohn's disease all narrowed bowel segments (n = 25) were diagnosed and extraintestinal abnormalities were visualized (thickening of the mesenteries, enlarged lymph nodes, perirectal changes, abscess, fistula). In 7 patients examined by MR 2 of 10 narrowing (20%) were not diagnosed. CT of the whole bowel is promising method in diagnosis of patients with Crohn's disease. The best views of the small bowel were obtained with the use of CT enteroclysis. (author)e use of CT enteroclysis. (author)

  13. If I Had - Bowel Control Issues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... problems with bowel control is to do with muscle weakness. It’s about “why can’t the patient ... the bowel should be emptied by nerves and muscles. And those nerves and muscles function in a ...

  14. If I Had - Bowel Control Issues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that doctors give to patients who have problems controlling the bowel, and typically controlling gas is less of a problem than controlling the stool or the bowel movement. This is ...

  15. If I Had - Bowel Control Issues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... course the first thing that we tend to think of when patients have problems with bowel control ... as well as they should, and one could think of the bowel a little bit like a ...

  16. If I Had - Bowel Control Issues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as Insulin Lispro If I Had - Bowel Control Issues - Dr. Niall Galloway, MD, FRCS Back to Home Page If I Had - Bowel Control Issues - Dr. Niall Galloway, MD, FRCS (March 27, 2008 - ...

  17. Roentgenographic findings of experimental bowel ischaemia in dogs following occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results after ligation of the superior mesenteric artery in 17 dogs demonstrate that a gasless abdomen and small bowel pseudoobstruction are unspecific early roentgenographic findings and bowel-wall thickening with narrowed lumen and increased distance to neighbouring loops are a specific early roentgenographic plain-film finding of acute bowel ischemia following mesenteric vascular occlusion. Approximately 10 hours after ligation a combined distension of small and large bowel with dilatation and air-fluid levels is demonstrable as a sign of paralytic ileus with diffuse peritonitis without possibility of differentiation from other causes of this entity. Gas in the bowel wall, in the superior mesenteric vein and in the portal venous system is a late specific plain-film finding resulting from the invasion of gas-forming bacteria into the devitalized bowel wall with advanced gangrene and a sign of infaust prognosis. The results of the plain-film examinations are correlated to angiographic, clinical and laboratory findings, as well as to histology and bacteriology of the ischemic bowel segments. (orig.)

  18. An unusual white blood cell scan in a child with inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; O'Loughlin, E; Uren, R; Chaitow, J

    2000-10-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled leukocyte (WBC) imaging is a valuable screening method for inflammatory bowel disease, especially in children, because of its high rate of sensitivity, low cost, and ease of preparation. A 14-year-old girl is described who had juvenile arthritis and iritis complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. She was examined for recurrent abdominal pain. A Tc-99m stannous colloid WBC scan was performed, and tracer accumulation was seen in the small bowel in the region of the distal ileum on the initial 1-hour image. Delayed imaging at 3 hours also revealed tracer accumulation in the cecum and ascending colon, which was not seen on the early image. A biopsy of the colon during endoscopy showed no evidence of active inflammation in the colon. The small bowel was not seen. Computed tomography revealed changes suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease in the distal ileum. The appearance on the WBC study was most likely a result of inflammatory bowel disease involving the distal ileum, with transit of luminal activity into the large bowel. PMID:11043720

  19. Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescoli, Claudia; Albertoni, Laura; D'incá, Renata; Rugge, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    In both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the secondary prevention of colorectal cancer basically relies on the histological detection of dysplasia. In inflammatory bowel diseases, dysplasia identifies the subgroup of patients eligible for stricter surveillance (or prophylactic colectomy). In clinical practice, a number of issues may influence the benefits of clinico-pathological surveillance for inflammatory bowel disease patients with dysplasia, including: sampling errors, inconsistent biopsy assessments, patients' compliance with follow-up requirements, and how heath care is organized. Even in such a multifaceted context, it has been demonstrated that dysplasia surveillance is effective in reducing colorectal cancer-related mortality and morbidity. This paper focuses on current issues concerning the histological assessment of inflammatory bowel disease-associated dysplastic lesions. PMID:22974564

  20. Gastrointestinal symptoms in the irritable bowel compared with peptic ulcer and inflammatory bowel disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, W G

    1984-01-01

    Symptoms of 50 patients with the irritable bowel syndrome were compared with those of 49 with endoscopically proven peptic ulcer disease and 49 with radiologically or endoscopically proven inflammatory bowel disease using a questionnaire which was administered after the diagnosis was made. Symptoms of bowel dysfunction including pain related to bowel movements were more likely to occur in the irritable bowel syndrome than peptic ulcer disease. Only abdominal distension, straining at stool and...

  1. Advanced therapeutic endoscopist and inflammatory bowel disease: Dawn of a new role

    OpenAIRE

    Modha, Kunjam; Navaneethan, Udayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopy plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Colonoscopy has been traditionally used in the diagnosis of IBD and helps in determination of an important end point in patient management, “mucosal healing”. However, the involvement of an advanced endoscopist has expanded with innovations in therapeutic and newer imaging techniques. Endoscopists are increasingly being involved in the management of anastomotic and small bowel stri...

  2. Bowel obstruction in a pregnant patient with ileal pouch–anal anastomosis

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Mark; Sylvain, Jacques; Stern, Hartley

    1997-01-01

    Bowel obstruction is a rare but serious complication