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Sample records for small bowel diverticular

  1. Sigmoid motility in diverticular disease and the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Trotman, I. F.; Misiewicz, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Intraluminal pressures were measured with four open ended, water perfused tubes in the fasting state and after a standard liquid meal (400 KCal, 375 ml, protein 15 g, carbohydrate 55 g, lipid 13.4 g) in six patients with sigmoid diverticular disease, 20 with the irritable bowel syndrome and in 13 controls. The pressure sensors were positioned in the true sigmoid colon at colonoscopy at 25, 35, 45, and 55 cm from the anus. Colonic pressures were significantly higher in diverticular disease tha...

  2. Small Bowel Bleeding

    ... Patients Home / Digestive Health Topic / Small Bowel Bleeding Small Bowel Bleeding Basics Resources Overview The small bowel ( ... of the test, the yield is >90%. Deep small bowel enteroscopy In cases where a lesion has ...

  3. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Small bowel bacterial overgrowth is a condition in which very large numbers of bacteria grow in the small intestine. ... Unlike the large intestine, the small intestine does not have a ... are too many bacteria in the small intestine, these organisms ...

  4. Association Between the Location of Diverticular Disease and the Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Multicenter Study in Japan

    Yamada,Eiji; Inamori, Masahiko; Uchida, Eri; Tanida,Emiko; Izumi, Motoyoshi; Takeshita, Kimiya; Fujii, Tetsuro; Komatsu, Kazuto; Hamanaka, Jun; MAEDA, SHIN; Kanesaki, Akira; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: No previous reports have shown an association between location of diverticular disease (DD) and the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We included 1,009 consecutive patients undergoing total colonoscopy in seven centers in Japan from June 2013 to September 2013. IBS was diagnosed using Rome III criteria, and diverticulosis was diagnosed by colonoscopy with transparent soft-short-hood. Left-sided colon was defined as sigmoid colon, descending colon, and rectum. Right-sided co...

  5. Actinomycosis complicating sigmoid diverticular disease: a case report.

    Vodovnik, Aleksandar; Logishetty, Kartik

    2009-01-01

    A 63-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to hospital as hypotensive with abdominal tenderness and vaginal discharge. Laboratory investigations showed microcytic anaemia, low albumin and high white cell count. Computerised tomography scans revealed small bowel dilatation, sigmoid diverticula, ascites and pelvic fluid. The endometrial pipelle was positive and vaginal swab was negative for actinomyces. Post mortem examination revealed widespread sigmoid diverticular disease and bowel perforation with an intense inflammation. Actinomycotic granules were noted in the diverticular inflammatory debris, pelvic abscess and lung sections. Clinical course and histomorphological findings favour the perforating sigmoid diverticular actinomycosis as an origin of the systemic infection. PMID:20181157

  6. Small bowel tissue smear

    Small bowel tissue smear is a lab test that checks for disease in a sample of tissue from the small intestine. ... A sample of tissue from the small intestine is removed during a ... sample is sent to a laboratory. There it is sliced, stained, and ...

  7. Scintigraphic demonstration of inflammatory bowel pathologies in radionuclides Meckel`s diverticular studies

    Ciavarelle, F

    1998-12-01

    Radionuclide Meckel`s diverticular studies are commonly requested to help distinguish the source of chronic gastrointestinal blood loss. However, several aetiologies may contribute to false-positive scan findings, for example inflammatory pathologies such as Crohn`s disease, ulcerative colitis, regional enteritis and intussusception, all of which commonly localise pertechnetate. In this paper, two cases of incidental findings on Meckel`s diverticular studies and their impact on patient management will be presented 4 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Small bowel tumors

    Xynopoulos D.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Small intestinal neoplasms are uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. Small intestinal neoplasms may occur sporadically, or in association with genetic diseases such as familial adenomatous polyposis coli or Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, or in association with chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn’s disease or celiac sprue. Benign small intestinal tumors such as leiomyoma, lipoma, hamartoma or desmoid tumor, are usually asymptomatic but may present with intussception. Primary malignancies of the small intestine, including adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, carcinoid, and lymphoma, may present with intestinal obstruction, jaundice, bleeding, or pain. Extraintestinal neoplasms may involve the intestine via contiguous spread or peritoneal metastasis. Hematogenous metastases to the intestine from an extraintestinal primary are unusual and are most typical of melanoma. Because the small intestine is relatively inaccessible to routine endoscopy, diagnosis of small intestinal neoplasms is often delayed for months after onset of symptoms. When the diagnosis is suspected, enteroclysis is the most useful imaging study. Small bowel endoscopy (enteroscopy is increasingly widely available and may permit earlier, non-operative diagnosis.

  9. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings

  10. Actinomycosis complicating sigmoid diverticular disease: a case report

    Vodovnik, Aleksandar; Logishetty, Kartik

    2009-01-01

    A 63-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to hospital as hypotensive with abdominal tenderness and vaginal discharge. Laboratory investigations showed microcytic anaemia, low albumin and high white cell count. Computerised tomography scans revealed small bowel dilatation, sigmoid diverticula, ascites and pelvic fluid. The endometrial pipelle was positive and vaginal swab was negative for actinomyces. Post mortem examination revealed widespread sigmoid diverticular disease and bowel perforati...

  11. Small Bowel Review - Part I

    Thomson, ABR; Wild, G.

    1997-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the study of the small bowel. Part I of this two-part review of the small bowel examines carbohydrates, including brush border membrane hydrolysis and sugar transport; amino acids, dipeptides, proteins and food allergy, with a focus on glutamine, peptides and macromolecules, and nucleosides, nucleotides and polyamines; salt and water absorption, and diarrhea, including antidiarrheal therapy and oral rehydration treatment; lipids (digestion and absorption...

  12. Tumours in the Small Bowel

    N. Kurniawan; C. Rüther; I. Steinbrück; Baltes, P; F. Hagenmüller; M. Keuchel

    2014-01-01

    Small bowel tumours are rare and originate from a wide variety of benign and malignant entities. Adenocarcinomas are the most frequent primary malignant small bowel tumours. Submucosal tumours like gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) or neuroendocrine tumours (NET) may show a central umbilication, pathologic vessels, bridging folds or an ulceration of the overlying mucosa. These signs help to differentiate them from harmless bulges caused by impression from outside, e.g. from other intest...

  13. Clinical applications of small bowel capsule endoscopy.

    Kopylov, Uri; Seidman, Ernest G

    2013-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy has revolutionized our ability to visualize the entire small bowel mucosa. This modality is established as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, small bowel tumors, and other conditions involving the small bowel mucosa. This review includes an overview of the current and potential future clinical applications of small bowel video endoscopy. PMID:23983481

  14. Tumours in the Small Bowel

    N. Kurniawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel tumours are rare and originate from a wide variety of benign and malignant entities. Adenocarcinomas are the most frequent primary malignant small bowel tumours. Submucosal tumours like gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST or neuroendocrine tumours (NET may show a central umbilication, pathologic vessels, bridging folds or an ulceration of the overlying mucosa. These signs help to differentiate them from harmless bulges caused by impression from outside, e.g. from other intestinal loops. Sarcomas of the small bowel are rare neoplasias with mesenchymal origin, sometimes presenting as protruding masses. Benign tumours like lipoma, fibrolipoma, fibroma, myoma, and heterotopias typically present as submucosal masses. They cannot be differentiated endoscopically from those with malignant potential as GIST or NET. Neuroendocrine carcinomas may present with diffuse infiltration, which may resemble other malignant tumours. The endoscopic appearance of small bowel lymphomas has a great variation from mass lesions to diffuse infiltrative changes. Melanoma metastases are the most frequent metastases to the small bowel. They may be hard to distinguish from other tumours when originating from an amelanotic melanoma.

  15. Clinical applications of small bowel capsule endoscopy

    Kopylov U

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Uri Kopylov, Ernest G Seidman Division of Gastroenterology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Abstract: Video capsule endoscopy has revolutionized our ability to visualize the entire small bowel mucosa. This modality is established as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, small bowel tumors, and other conditions involving the small bowel mucosa. This review includes an overview of the current and potential future clinical applications of small bowel video endoscopy. Keywords: small bowel video capsule endoscopy, obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohns disease, small bowel tumors, patency capsule

  16. Small bowel neoplasia in coeliac disease

    Rampertab, S D; Forde, K A; Green, P. H. R.

    2003-01-01

    There is an increased risk of small bowel adenocarcinoma in patients with coeliac disease compared with the normal population. It has been suggested that adenocarcinoma of the small intestine in coeliac disease arises through an adenoma-carcinoma sequence but there has been only one reported case of a small bowel adenoma in a patient with coeliac disease. We report three additional cases of a small bowel adenoma in the setting of coeliac disease. In addition, four cases of small bowel adenoca...

  17. Small bowel tumors

    Xynopoulos D.; Paraskevas E.; Dimitroulopoulos D.; Heuman D.M.; Mihas A.A.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Small intestinal neoplasms are uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. Small intestinal neoplasms may occur sporadically, or in association with genetic diseases such as familial adenomatous polyposis coli or Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, or in association with chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn’s disease or celiac sprue. Benign small intestinal tumors such as leiomyoma, lipoma, hamartoma or desmoid tumor, are usually asymptomatic but may present with intu...

  18. Small bowel resection

    ... reconnect, your surgeon makes an opening called a stoma through the skin of your belly. The small ... of your belly. Stool will go through the stoma into a drainage bag outside your body. This ...

  19. Diverticular Disease

    ... called diverticula) that can form anywhere in your digestive tract, but usually form in the last part of ... your doctor to see the pouches in your digestive tract that are inflamed or infected. Sometimes, diverticular disease ...

  20. Imaging the small bowel.

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-03-01

    Radiologic investigations continue to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the small intestine despite enhancement of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy. Imaging techniques continue to evolve and new techniques in MRI in particular, are being developed.

  1. CT enteroclysis in small bowel Crohn's disease

    The diagnostic evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease has changed dramatically over the last decade. The introduction of wireless capsule endoscopy, double balloon endoscopy and the introduction of newer therapeutic agents have changed the role of imaging in the small bowel. Additionally, advances in multidetector CT technology have further changed how radiologic investigations are utilized in the diagnosis and management of small bowel Crohn's disease. This article describes how we perform CT enteroclysis in the investigation of small bowel Crohn's disease and discusses the role of CT enteroclysis in the current management of small bowel Crohn's disease.

  2. Tumor of small bowel

    Young woman who is having episodes of overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding that requires transfusions. The endoscopic study consists of 2 endoscopies of the upper digestive system and two colonoscopies. The tests do not find the cause of the digestive hemorrhage. A double-balloon enteroscopy is performed and it is found that the Ileum has an ulcerate subepithelial lesion with neoplasia appearance which is marked with Chinese ink and biopsies are taken from the tissue which are not diagnosed. Studies of staging are performed ant the result is negative. A laparotomy is performed for diagnosis and treatment which includes the intestinal resection of ileum where the tumor is placed. The result of the test shows to be a neuroendocrine carcinoma of high degree of large cells undifferentiated. One appears in addition a revision to overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and neuroendocrine tumor of small

  3. Primary Amyloidosis Presenting as Small Bowel Encapsulation

    Jones, Jennifer; van Rosendaal, Guido; Cleary, Cynthia; Urbanski, Stefan; Woodman, Richard C.

    2004-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a pathological process which encompasses a spectrum of diseases that result from extracellular deposition of pathological fibrillar proteins. Clinical presentations vary depending on the organs involved. There is no documented case of amyloidosis presenting as small bowel encapsulation. A previously healthy 62-year-old man developed a small bowel obstruction in 1997. At surgery, a peculiar membrane encasing his entire small bowel was discovered. This appeared to have no vascula...

  4. Clinical applications of small bowel capsule endoscopy

    Kopylov U; Seidman EG

    2013-01-01

    Uri Kopylov, Ernest G Seidman Division of Gastroenterology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Abstract: Video capsule endoscopy has revolutionized our ability to visualize the entire small bowel mucosa. This modality is established as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, small bowel tumors, and other conditions involving the small bowel mucosa. This review includes an overview of the current and potential future c...

  5. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestin......OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small...

  6. CT findings in acute small bowel diverticulitis

    Small bowel diverticulitis is a rare cause of an acute abdomen. Originating from acquired diverticula of the jejunum, less often of the ileum, or Meckel diverticulum, the symptoms are non-specific, simulating other acute inflammatory disorders, such as appendicitis, cholecystitis or colonic diverticulitis. The diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis is solely based on radiologic findings, with computed tomography (CT) regarded as the method of choice. In recent years, a number of case reports have described the spectrum of the CT features in acute small bowel diverticulitis and its dependence on the severity of the inflammatory process. Typical findings are an inflamed diverticulum, inflammatory mesenteric infiltration, extraluminal gas collection and mural edema of adjacent small bowel loops with resultant separation of bowel loops. An enterolith is rarely found in an inflamed diverticulum. Complications include abscesses, fistulae, small bowel obstruction and free perforation with peritonitis. Small bowel diverticulitis can be a diagnostic problem if it involves the terminal ileum or Meckel's diverticulum. For preoperative confirmation of the presumed diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis on CT, an enteroclysis for acquired diverticula or a technetium scan for Meckel's diverticulum should be performed. We present the CT findings in three patients of acute small bowel diverticulitis, two affecting the jejunum and one a Meckel's diverticulum. (orig.)

  7. Disturbances in small bowel motility.

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the small intestine has become the focus of investigation as a potential site of dysmotility in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number of motor abnormalities have been defined in some studies, and include \\'clustered\\' contractions, exaggerated post-prandial motor response and disturbances in intestinal transit. The significance of these findings remains unclear. The interpretation of available studies is complicated by differences in subject selection, the direct influence of certain symptoms, such as diarrhoea and constipation, and the interference of compounding factors, such as stress and psychopathology. Dysmotility could also reflect autonomic dysfunction, disturbed CNS control and the response to heightened visceral sensation or central perception. While motor abnormalities may not explain all symptoms in IBS, sensorimotor interactions may be important in symptom pathogenesis and deserve further study.

  8. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies...

  9. Small bowel diaphragm disease mimicking malignancy.

    Sarantitis, Ioannis; Gerrard, Adam Daniel; Teasdale, Rebecca; Pettit, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can produce diaphragm disease where multiple strictures develop in the small bowel. This typically presents with anaemia and symptoms of small bowel obstruction. The strictures develop as a result of circumferential mucosal ulceration with subsequent contraction of rings of scar tissue. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with a 6-month history of NSAIDs abuse who presented with subacute small bowel obstruction 1 year after stopping NSAIDs. CT and MRI showed multiple ileal strictures with florid locoregional lymphadenopathy. A malignant diagnosis such as lymphoma was considered likely as florid mesenteric lymphadenopathy has not been previously reported in diaphragm disease. Laparotomy with small bowel resection was therefore performed. Histology showed diaphragm disease with the enlarged mesenteric nodes having reactive features. Gross locoregional lymphadenopathy should not deter a diagnosis of diaphragm disease in cases of multiple small bowel strictures where there is a strong history of NSAIDs use. PMID:26174729

  10. Minimization of small bowel volume within treatment fields using customized small bowel displacement system (SBDS)

    Authors designed a customized Small Bowel Displacement System(SBDS) to displace the small bowel from the pelvic radiation fields and minimize treatment-related bowel morbidities. From August 1995 to May 1996, 55 consecutive patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with the SBDS were included in this study. The SBDS consists of a customized styrofoam compression device which can displace the small bowel from the radiation fields and an individualized immobilization abdominal board for easy daily setup in prone position. After opacifying the small bowel with Barium, the patients were laid prone and posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) simulation films were taken with and without the SBDS. The areas of the small bowel included in the radiation fields with and without the SBDS were compared. Using the SBDS, the mean small bowel area was reduced by 59% on PA and 51% on LAT films (P=0.0001). In six patients (6/55, 11%), it was possible that no small bowel was included within the treatment fields. The mean upward displacement of the most caudal small bowel was 4.8 cm using the SBDS. Only 15% (8/55) of patients treated with the SBDS manifested diarrhea requiring medication. The SBDS is a novel method that can be used to displace the small bowel away from the treatment portal effectively and reduce the radiation therapy morbidities. Compliance with setup is excellent when the SBDS is used. (author)

  11. Roentgen examination of the operated small bowel

    After operations on the small bowel roentgenology shall help in the diagnosis of complications (suture insufficiency, peritonitis, hemorrhage, ileus), shall analyse the modified function and shall identify reappearing tumors or Crohn's desease. Watersoluble jodated substances are preferable during the first days. Later barium suspensions permit to obtain pictures of good quality. Middle and lower segments of the small bowel are best analysed with duodenal intubation. Pneumocolon gives often the best results in controlling ileocolic anastomosis. (orig.)

  12. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Phytobezoar

    Bar?? Morkavuk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bezoars are foreign bodies impacted in the digestive tract resulting of their ingestion and accumulation, involving mainly the stomach,small bowel. Phytobezoars are a rare cause of acute small bowel obstruction. It should be suspected in patients with an increased risk of bezoar formation, such as in the presence of previous gastric surgery and a history suggestive of increased fiber intake. The aim of this work was to identify the diagnostic difficulties and treatment of this rare entity.

  13. Small bowel emergency surgery: literature's review

    Di Saverio Salomone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emergency surgery of the small bowel represents a challenge for the surgeon, in the third millennium as well. There is a wide number of pathologies which involve the small bowel. The present review, by analyzing the recent and past literature, resumes the more commons. The aim of the present review is to provide the main indications to face the principal pathologies an emergency surgeon has to face with during his daily activity.

  14. Mesenteric Air Embolism Following Enteroscopic Small Bowel Tattooing Procedure

    Natalie Chen; Ramit Lamba; John Lee; Chandana Lall

    2012-01-01

    Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is a revolutionary procedure in which the entire small bowel can be visualized endoscopically. DBE has the advantage of both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in the setting of small bowel neoplasms and vascular malformations. We present a unique case of a 76-year-old female who underwent small bowel DBE tattoo marking of a distal small bowel tumor complicated by development of severe abdominal pain postprocedure secondary to bowel air embolism into the ...

  15. Laparoscopic Management of Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction

    Konjic, Ferid; Idrizovic, Enes; Hasukic, Ismar; Jahic, Alen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adhesions are the reason for bowel obstruction in 80% of the cases. In well selected patients the adhesive ileus laparoscopic treatment has multiple advantages which include the shorter hospitalization period, earlier food taking, and less postoperative morbidity rate. Case report: Here we have a patient in the age of 35 hospitalized at the clinic due to occlusive symptoms. Two years before an opened appendectomy had been performed on him. He underwent the treatment of exploration laparoscopy and laparoscopic adhesiolysis. Dilated small bowel loops connected with the anterior abdominal wall in the ileocecal region by adhesions were found intraoperatively and then resected harmonically with scalpel. One strangulation around which a small bowel loop was wrapped around was found and dissected. Postoperative course was normal. PMID:27041815

  16. Changes of smooth muscle contractile filaments in small bowel atresia

    Udo Rolle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate morphological changes of intestinal smooth muscle contractile fibres in small bowel atresia patients. METHODS: Resected small bowel specimens from small bowel atresia patients (n = 12 were divided into three sections (proximal, atretic and distal. Standard histology hematoxylin-eosin staining and enzyme immunohistochemistry was performed to visualize smooth muscle contractile markers ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA and desmin using conventional paraffin sections of the proximal and distal bowel. Small bowel from age-matched patients (n = 2 undergoing Meckels diverticulum resection served as controls. RESULTS: The smooth muscle coat in the proximal bowel of small bowel atresia patients was thickened compared with control tissue, but the distal bowel was unchanged. Expression of smooth muscle contractile fibres SMA and desmin within the proximal bowel was slightly reduced compared with the distal bowel and control tissue. There were no major differences in the architecture of the smooth muscle within the proximal bowel and the distal bowel. The proximal and distal bowel in small bowel atresia patients revealed only minimal differences regarding smooth muscle morphology and the presence of smooth muscle contractile filament markers. CONCLUSION: Changes in smooth muscle contractile filaments do not appear to play a major role in postoperative motility disorders in small bowel atresia.

  17. Use of CT Enterography for Small Bowel Pathology:Experience and Findings in 90 Patients

    Proper evaluation of the small intestine is achieved with the combination of intravenous contrast medium and large volume of neutral contrast medium administered orally to stretch the intestinal lumen and produce images for the assessment of the lumen, thickness and pattern of enhancement of the small intestine walls. Materials and methods: Between May 2007 and February 2009 we retrospectively collected 90 cases of mainly outpatients who consulted our clinic. They were prepared taking a liquid diet for 24 hours that had no residue and complete fasting 4 hours prior to the examination. A total of 2000 cc of water was administrated orally (divided in 500 cc, 75, 65, 25 and 15 minutes prior to the examination). Then 100 cc of contrast medium (OptirayTM ) were administered intravenously, at a rate of 4 cc/sec. An early arterial phase was performed 20 seconds after injection, and a portal phase 60 seconds after IV contrast administration. The studies were performed in a 16 channels, General Electric multidetector scanner, with 3.0 mm slices, with multiplanar reconstructions and MIP. Results: The studies were interpreted by a group body imaging radiologists. The most frequent findings were: diverticular disease, cystic lesions, neoplasia, Crohn's disease,ileitis, mechanical obstruction, hiatal hernia, cholelithiasis, hepatic hemangiomas, duodenal diverticulum, polyposis, intestinal mal rotation, and active bleeding. Conclusions: CT enterography is a useful and noninvasive technique for diagnosing small bowel disorders, allowing, in most cases, a satisfactory distension of the small bowel without the use of an enteral tube.

  18. Unusual causes of mechanical small bowel obstruction

    We herein report our experience regarding unusual causes of bowel obstruction to increase the awareness of surgeons regarding this disease. From 1991 to 2003, we had experience at the University affiliated hospitals, northern Jordan with 24 patients with small bowel obstruction resulting from unusual causes. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these patients with regards to the mode of presentation, cause of obstruction, radiological and operative findings, management and outcome. We recorded 15 patients who underwent previous abdominal surgery. Preoperative diagnosis was correct in only one patient with an internal hernia, but the abdominal CT scan suggested the diagnosis in 5 of the 9 patients who had the scan. The final diagnosis was internal hernias in 11 patients, foreign bodies in 5, ischemic strictures in 3, carcinoid tumors in 2, endometriosis in 2, and metastatic deposit from interstitial bladder carcinoma in one patient. Nine of the 12 patients with recurrent obstruction had either short course or recurrence obstruction during the same hospital admission. W carried out bowel resections in 15 patients (5 resections were due to bowel strangulation). Post operative death occurred in 4 patients. Awareness of these rare causes of intestinal obstruction even in patients with previous abdominal operation might improve the outcome. The tentative diagnosis of adhesion obstruction in patients with unusual obstructive etiology might lead to a higher rate of gangrenous complications. Rigorous preoperative evaluation including careful history and early abdominal CT may show the obstructive cause. (author)

  19. DIOSPYROBEZOAR INDUCED SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION IN CHILDREN

    Zahur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytobezoars are an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction (S BO . We report 14 patients presenting with episodes of small bowel obstruction from phytobezoars. 14 patients were admitted with SBO due to diospyrobezoar. 21.4% patients were females and majority belonged to rural areas. Majority were admitted to the hospital in November and December, when the fruit is highly consumed. Ileum was the commonest site for the location for phytobezoars (50% follo wed by jejunum (28.6%. All patients underwent surgery including manual fragmentation and milking into cecum in 50% patients, enterotomy in 21.4% patients, resection anastomosis in 14.3% patients and resection with exteriorization of gut in 14.3% patients. Phytobezoars including diospyrobezoar should be considered as a rare but important cause of small bowel obstruction in children and in adults with known risk factors hailing from rural areas. Surgical treatment with manual fragmentation and milking of bez oar into cecum is effective in most cases.

  20. Modern MRI of the small bowell

    The radiological diagnostics of diseases of the small intestine have undergone a great change in the last two decades. Through rapid progress with new treatments and an increasing therapeutic focus on transmural healing, a complete evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is now crucial. With the introduction of endoscopy, gastrointestinal imaging with a relatively high radiation exposure had only limited applications. The development of cross-sectional imaging allowed a much broader radiological evaluation of abdominal diseases. Due to rapid investigation techniques, excellent soft tissue contrast and the distinct advantage of eliminating exposure to radiation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the gastrointestinal tract has gained increasing importance. With sufficient filling of the intestinal lumen, simultaneous imaging of all the intestinal wall layers, the perienteric structures and associated abdominal pathologies is now possible. New MR sequences, such as diffusion-weighted sequences, dynamic contrast-enhanced sequences and MR fluoroscopy, enable the detection of morphological changes, with additional characterization of affected bowel loops as well as the assessment of functional pathologies with dynamic information about intestinal motility disturbances. Recent guidelines of European radiological and gastroenterological organizations have confirmed the importance of cross-sectional imaging and particularly of MRI for diagnostics and follow-up in patients with Crohn's disease. Due to the possibility of assessment of all the layers of the intestinal wall and the presence of extramural complications, MRI has a significant impact on further therapeutic treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Especially in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, MR enterography and MR enteroclysis should be the methods of choice for the evaluation of small bowel pathologies because of radiation issues and the great diagnostic value they provide. A variety of MR sequences has enabled not only the detection but also the characterization of pathological changes of the small intestine, which are vital for further treatment of these patients. (orig.)

  1. The radiolesions of the small bowel

    The irradiation of the pelvic abdominal cancers extends beyond the centre of the tumour and may induce actinic digestive lesions. The bowel and more rarely the small bowel -which is the subject-matter of our study- are concerned by those radiolesions that are favoured by therapeutic overdose, post-operative adhesions fastening the bows, radio-surgical or chemicostatic associations, and lastly by vascular or nutritive deficiencies. One may distinguish between two kinds of lesions, depending on the lapse of time before their coming out and on the symptoms. The early or acute types are characterized by a radio-mucitis and give an exsudative enteropathy with anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of weight, of which the diagnosis is easy because it occurs during the irradiation and lessens at the end of the treatment. The late radiolesions of the small bowel are characterized by sclerosis and chronic endarteritis and, after a longlasting period of latency, give varied symptoms: disordered intestinal transit which sometimes is irreversible, perforation, fistula, syndrome of malabsorption, giving often rise to be mistaken for a recurrence of the cancer. The treatment varies whether the lesion is segmental or diffuse. In the first case, the failure of the medical means accounts for the surgical cutting away or the internal derivation; in the second case, the digestive mutilation which would result from an enlargement of the lesion commands to be more cautious and to call for the methods of parenteral feeding and digestive setting to rest

  2. Radiology in primary small bowel adenocarcinoma

    In a retrospective study, films from radiologic examinations of 13 patients with primary adeno-carcinoma of the small bowel were reviewed. All patients had a barium examination and in 5 cases angiography was also performed. The barium studies disclosed strictures with overhanging edges in 11 patients, in 4 of whom there was a pronounced prestenotic dilation. Angiographically the predominant findings were in all cases hypovascularity and displacement of vessels. In 4 patients there was also encasement. Neovascularity was present in 2 patients. One patient showed angiographic changes due to intussusception. (orig.)

  3. Pathophysiology of the nodular and micronodular small bowel fold

    The normal small bowel fold is easily seen on conventional studies of the small intestine, but visualization of the small bowel villus is just at the resolution of current roentgenographic technique. When the villi are enlarged, they can be seen radiographically as an irregularity or micronodularity of the small bowel fold. The anatomy of the fold and the pathophysiology of diseases producing fold nodularity (tumor, inflammatory disease, NLH, mastocytosis) and micronodularity (lymphangiectasia, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Whipple disease) are presented, with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation. The radiologist should suggest certain diseases or conditions based on the roentgenographic characteristics of the closely analyzed small bowel fold

  4. The pathophysiology of the nodular and micronodular small bowel fold

    The normal small bowel fold is easily seen on conventional studies of the small intestine, but visualization of the small bowel villus is at the limit of resolution of current roentgenographic technique. When the villi are enlarged, they appear radiographically as an irregularity or micronodularity of the small bowel fold. The anatomy of the fold and the pathophysiology of diseases producing fold nodularity (tumor,inflammatory disease, NLH, mastocytosis) and micronodularity (lymphangiectasia, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Whipple disease) are presented, with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation. The radiologist should suggest certain diseases or conditions based on the roentgenographic characteristics of the closely analyzed small bowel fold

  5. The prevention of radiation-induced small bowel complications

    Moderate dose pelvic radiotherapy is associated with a 5% severe complication risk related to the small bowel. Strictures and/or fistulation can occur many years after treatment. These complications are difficult to treat, and surgical treatment (excision, bypass) bears a significant morbidity risk. The risk of chronic diarrhoea or malabsorption may increase to 40%, depending on the irradiated small bowel volume. Late small bowel complications are generally irreversible due to vascular aetiology. Prevention of these complications can be achieved by limiting the volume of small bowel treated. Consequence for radiotherapeutic techniques in treatment for rectal cancer are multiple beam set-up, customised blocking based on visualisation of the small bowel in the treatment position, and the use of a special open table-top device that results in a small bowel shift from the treatment field. (author)

  6. Small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar: CT diagnosis

    Small bowel phytobezoars are rare and are almost always obstructive. The literature contains few reports on the radiological findings for primary small bowel bezoars. There is also very little published on CT results with this lesion, but the features of the scan are characteristic. We present the CT findings in a patient with an obstructive small bowel phytobezoar, and emphasize the diagnostic value of CT. (orig.)

  7. Primary malignant mucosal tumours of the small bowel

    Three cases of primary malignant tumours in the small bowel are presented. The authors discuss the clinical symptoms of these patients and describe the radiological picture. Adenocarcinoma most frequently occurs in the proximal small bowel. Radiologists should be aware of the dominant site of occurrence of these tumours when performing a small bowel investigation, because lesions in the jejunum may easily be overlooked due to superposition. (orig.)

  8. Blunt abdominal trauma with transanal small bowel evisceration

    Noushif Medappil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel evisceration through the anus can occur spontaneously or post traumatically. Traumatic transanal small bowel evisceration results from iatrogenic injuries, suction injuries, and blunt abdominal trauma (BAT. We report a 48-year-old female who presented with evisceration of small intestinal loops through the anus following BAT and discuss the etiologies and mechanisms of injury of this rare presentation.

  9. Small bowel angiodysplasia and novel disease associations: a cohort study.

    Holleran, Grainne

    2013-04-01

    Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias recurrently bleed, accounting for 3-5% of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The advent of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has led to an increased recognition of small bowel angiodysplasias (SBAs) but little is known about their etiology. Previous small cohorts and case reports suggest an equal gender incidence and associations with cardiovascular disease, renal impairment, and coagulopathies.

  10. Monocontrast-distension examination of the small bowel. A comparison to the small bowel follow-through and the enteroclysis

    Purpose: Development of a new monocontrast examination of the small bowel. Material und Methods: The new examination was applied to 20 patients with suspected bowel obstruction or inflammatory bowel disease. A contrast mixture, containing gelatine, a water-soluble contrast medium (Peritrast trademark) and water (GPW-mixture) was given over an intestinal tube. The viscosity of the new contrast mixture was measured by rotation and flow viscosimetry. The diagnostic value and the degree of small bowel distension were determined independently by 3 examiners. By comparison 20 randomized selected small bowel follow-through examinations (SBFT) and 20 small bowel enemas were examined. Special questionnaires were used to determine subjective compatibility and discomfort. Results: Due to the viscosity of the new contrast medium and the administration over an intestinal tube, a good bowel distension was achieved with the GPW mixture. The bowel distension (p: <0.01) and the diagnostic value (p: <0.01) of the new examination in comparison to the SBFT was characterized as being significantly better (p: 0.31-1.0). The diagnostic value of the small bowel enema was characterized as significantly better by one of the three examiners in comparison to the new monocontrast-distenson examination (p-level<0.01). Conclusion: The monocontrast-distension examination is a potential alternative in patients in whom a small bowel enema with barium sulfate is contraindicated. (orig.)

  11. Small bowel obstruction secondary to a liberated Meckel's enterolith

    Demetriou, Vias; McKean, David; Briggs, James; Moore, Niall

    2013-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with a short history of abdominal pain which rapidly progressed to absolute constipation. An abdominal radiograph demonstrated a paucity of bowel gas and a 4 cm lesion with concentric laminar calcification projected over the pelvis. A CT scan revealed a 4 cm giant Meckel's diverticulum, downstream of which a laminated mass was impacted in the lumen of the distal ileum causing small bowel obstruction. Subsequent surgery confirmed small bowel obstruction secondary ...

  12. Contrast enema depiction of small-bowel volvulus in complicated neonatal bowel obstruction

    Navarro, Oscar M.; Daneman, Alan; Miller, Stephen F. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-12-01

    About one-half of patients with meconium ileus (MI) present with a complication such as volvulus, atresia, meconium peritonitis or giant cystic meconium peritonitis. The treatment of these complications requires surgery. However, the preoperative diagnosis of complicated MI is difficult. We describe two neonates with complicated small-bowel obstruction, one with MI related to cystic fibrosis and the other not related to cystic fibrosis. In both, contrast enema depicted a spiral appearance of the distal small bowel, which at surgery proved to be the result of volvulus associated with antenatal bowel perforation. This appearance of the small bowel on contrast enema in this clinical setting has not been previously described. The recognition of this spiral appearance of the distal small bowel suggests the need for surgery. (orig.)

  13. Contrast enema depiction of small-bowel volvulus in complicated neonatal bowel obstruction

    About one-half of patients with meconium ileus (MI) present with a complication such as volvulus, atresia, meconium peritonitis or giant cystic meconium peritonitis. The treatment of these complications requires surgery. However, the preoperative diagnosis of complicated MI is difficult. We describe two neonates with complicated small-bowel obstruction, one with MI related to cystic fibrosis and the other not related to cystic fibrosis. In both, contrast enema depicted a spiral appearance of the distal small bowel, which at surgery proved to be the result of volvulus associated with antenatal bowel perforation. This appearance of the small bowel on contrast enema in this clinical setting has not been previously described. The recognition of this spiral appearance of the distal small bowel suggests the need for surgery. (orig.)

  14. Management of diverticular disease.

    Pfützer, Roland H; Kruis, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Diverticular disease is a common condition in Western countries and the incidence and prevalence of the disease is increasing. The pathogenetic factors involved include structural changes in the gut that increase with age, a diet low in fibre and rich in meat, changes in intestinal motility, the concept of enteric neuropathy and an underlying genetic background. Current treatment strategies are hampered by insufficient options to stratify patients according to individual risk. One of the main reasons is the lack of an all-encompassing classification system of diverticular disease. In response, the German Society for Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases (DGVS) has proposed a classification system as part of its new guideline for the diagnosis and management of diverticular disease. The classification system includes five main types of disease: asymptomatic diverticulosis, acute uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis, as well as chronic diverticular disease and diverticular bleeding. Here, we review prevention and treatment strategies stratified by these five main types of disease, from prevention of the first attack of diverticulitis to the management of chronic complications and diverticular bleeding. PMID:26170219

  15. Gastric, small bowel, and colorectal cancer

    The majority of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies are adenocarcinomas. In the colon, adenocarcinoma is practically the only clinically significant tumor, and it is the second most common tumor in the small bowel, with carcinoid being the most common. The stomach harbors the greatest variety of malignant neoplasms. Adenocarcinoma, however, is still the predominant cell type, followed by lymphoma and leiomyosarcoma. Various diagnostic procedures have been used to screen patients for GI tract tumors. Fiberoptic endoscopic examination has been advocated as the study of choice to screen the population at risk of developing stomach and colon cancer because of its ability to directly visualize the mucosa and to permit biopsy of suspicious lesions. However, because fiberoptic endoscopy requires patient sedation, the number of endoscopists is limited, and the number of patients is large, single-contrast and double-contrast roentgenographic examinations of the GI tract remain the most widely accepted screening procedures

  16. The Usefulness of Capsule Endoscopy for Small Bowel Tumors.

    Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Su; Shim, Ki-Nam; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has expanded the range of endoscopic examination of the small bowel. The clinical application of VCE is mainly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) and small bowel tumor is one of the clinically significant diagnoses of VCE, often requiring subsequent invasive interventions. Small bowel tumors are detected with a frequency of around 4% with VCE in indications of OGIB, iron deficiency anemia, unexplained abdominal pain, and others. Protruding mass with bleeding, mucosal disruption, irregular surface, discolored area, and white villi are suggested as the VCE findings of small bowel tumor. Device assisted enteroscopy (DAE), computed tomography enteroclysis/enterography and magnetic resonance enteroclysis/enterography also have clinical value in small bowel examination and tumor detection, and they can be used with VCE, sequentially or complementarily. Familial adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, melanoma, lymphoma, and neuroendocrine tumor with hepatic metastasis are the high risk groups for small bowel tumors, and surveillance programs for small bowel tumors are needed. VCE and radiological imaging have value in screening, and in selected cases, DAE can provide more accurate diagnosis and endoscopic treatment. This review describes the usefulness and clinical impact of VCE on small bowel tumors. PMID:26855919

  17. Small-bowel neoplasms in patients undergoing video capsule endoscopy

    Rondonotti, E; Pennazio, M; Toth, E; Menchen, P; Riccioni, M E; De Palma, G D; Scotto, F; De Looze, D; Pachofsky, T; Tacheci, I; Havelund, T; Couto, G; Trifan, A; Kofokotsios, A; Cannizzaro, R; Perez-Quadrado, E; de Franchis, R; European, Capsule Endoscopy Group; Italian Club for, Capsule Endoscopy; Iberian Group for, Capsule Endoscopy

    2008-01-01

    (6), diarrhea with malabsorption (1). The main primary small-bowel tumor type was gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) (32%) followed by adenocarcinoma (20%) and carcinoid (15%); 66% of secondary small-bowel tumors were melanomas. Of the tumors, 80.6% were identified solely on the basis of VCE...... shorten the diagnostic work-up and influence the subsequent management of these patients....

  18. The Usefulness of Capsule Endoscopy for Small Bowel Tumors

    Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Su; Shim, Ki-Nam; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has expanded the range of endoscopic examination of the small bowel. The clinical application of VCE is mainly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) and small bowel tumor is one of the clinically significant diagnoses of VCE, often requiring subsequent invasive interventions. Small bowel tumors are detected with a frequency of around 4% with VCE in indications of OGIB, iron deficiency anemia, unexplained abdominal pain, and others. Protruding mass with bleeding, mucosal disruption, irregular surface, discolored area, and white villi are suggested as the VCE findings of small bowel tumor. Device assisted enteroscopy (DAE), computed tomography enteroclysis/enterography and magnetic resonance enteroclysis/enterography also have clinical value in small bowel examination and tumor detection, and they can be used with VCE, sequentially or complementarily. Familial adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, melanoma, lymphoma, and neuroendocrine tumor with hepatic metastasis are the high risk groups for small bowel tumors, and surveillance programs for small bowel tumors are needed. VCE and radiological imaging have value in screening, and in selected cases, DAE can provide more accurate diagnosis and endoscopic treatment. This review describes the usefulness and clinical impact of VCE on small bowel tumors. PMID:26855919

  19. Multiphasic MDCT in small bowel volvulus

    Feng Shiting, E-mail: fst1977@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chan Tao, E-mail: taochan@hku.hk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Hong Kong, Room 406, Block K, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Sun Canhui, E-mail: canhuisun@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Li Ziping, E-mail: liziping163@tom.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Guo Huanyi, E-mail: guohuanyi@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Yang Guangqi, E-mail: shwy03@126.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Peng Zhenpeng, E-mail: ppzhen@21cn.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Meng Quanfei, E-mail: mzycoco@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Objective: Evaluate the use of MDCT with 3D CT angiography (CTA) and CT portal venography (CTPV) reconstruction for the diagnosis of small bowel volvulus (SBV). Methods: Multiphasic MDCT findings in nine patients (seven males and two females, age range 2-70) with surgically proven SBV were retrospectively reviewed. Non-contrast and double phase contrast enhanced MDCT including 3D CTA and CTPV reconstruction were performed in all the patients. Two experienced abdominal radiologists evaluated the images and defined the location, direction and degree of SBV. Results: On axial MDCT images, all cases show segmental or global dilatation of small intestine. Other findings include circumferential bowel wall thickening in eight cases, halo appearance and hyperemia in seven cases, whirl sign in six cases, beak-like appearance in six cases, closed loops in six cases and ascites in one case. CTA/CTPV showed abnormal courses involving main trunks of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) in seven cases, with or without distortion of their tributaries. Normal course of SMA but abnormal course of SMV was seen in the other two cases. Of all the nine cases, whirl sign was seen in six cases and barber's pole sign in five cases. Dilated SMV was observed in eight cases and abrupt termination of SMA was found in one case. Compared with surgical findings, the location, direction and degree of SBV were correctly estimated in all cases based on CTA/CTPV. Conclusion: Multiphasic MDCT with CTA/CTPV reconstruction can play an important role in the diagnosis of SBV. The location, direction and degree of SBV can all be defined preoperatively using this method.

  20. Small bowel motility in functional chronic constipation.

    Seidl, H; Gundling, F; Pehl, C; Pfeiffer, A; Schepp, W; Schmidt, T

    2009-12-01

    In functional constipation, three pathophysiological subgroups have been identified: slow-transit constipation (STC); normal-transit constipation (NTC) and outlet delay (OD). Extracolonic manifestations, especially disturbed small bowel motility, are well known to occur in STC, but have rarely been studied in NTC and OD. To perform 24-h-ambulatory jejunal manometry in a large prospective series of clinical patients with chronic constipation of all subtypes. A total of 61 consecutive patients, referred to our tertiary gastroenterologic centre for chronic constipation (48 female, 13 male; mean age 57 (range 20-87) years), underwent jejunal 24-h-ambulatory manometry (standardized meal) after a transit-time study (radio-opaque markers), anorectal manometry, defecography and colonoscopy. Computerized and visual analysis by two independent observers was compared with the normal range of manometric variables, defined by data previously obtained in 50 healthy subjects (Gut 1996;38:859). Five patients were excluded from the study because of coexistence of OD and STC. No patient with OD (n = 8), but all patients with STC (n = 32) and 94% of patients with NTC (n = 16) showed small bowel motor abnormalities; both in postprandial response and fasting motility. The abnormal findings ranged from severe disturbances with complete loss of MMC to subtle changes of contraction parameters that could only be assessed by computerized analysis. No significant differences between STC- and NTC-patients were found. Most findings pointed to an underlying enteric neuropathy. Intestinal prolonged-ambulatory manometry adds valuable information to the pathophysiologic understanding of functional chronic constipation of STC- and NTC-type, however there are no distinct manometric features to differentiate between both. PMID:19614887

  1. Imaging differentiation of phytobezoar and small-bowel faeces: CT characteristics with quantitative analysis in patients with small- bowel obstruction

    Chen, Ya-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Hsien; Hsu, Hsian-He; Yu, Chih-Yung [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Wang, Hong-Hau [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital Songshan Branch, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Fan, Hsiu-Lung [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Chen, Ran-Chou [Taipei City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming Univeristy, Department of Biochemical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Chang, Wei-Chou [Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming Univeristy, Department of Biochemical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China)

    2015-04-01

    The objective is to use multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to differentiate phytobezoar impaction and small-bowel faeces in patients with small-bowel obstruction (SBO). We retrospectively reviewed 91 consecutive SBO patients with surgically proven phytobezoars (n = 31) or adhesion with small-bowel faeces (n = 60). Two readers blinded to the diagnosis recorded the following MDCT features: degree of obstruction, transition point, mesenteric fatty stranding, intraperitoneal fluid, air-fluid level, pneumatosis intestinalis, and portal venous gas. MDCT measurements of the food debris length, attenuation, luminal diameter, and wall thickness of the obstructed bowel were also compared. A higher grade of obstruction with an absence of mesenteric fatty stranding and intraperitoneal fluid was more commonly seen in the phytobezoar group than in the small-bowel faeces group (p < 0.01). The food debris length (phytobezoar, 5.7 ± 2.8 cm; small-bowel feces, 20.3 ± 7.9 cm, p < 0.01) and mean attenuation (phytobezoar, -59.6 ± 43.3 Hounsfield units (HU); small-bowel faeces, 8.5 ± 7.7 HU, p <0.01) were significantly different between the two groups. The ROC curve showed that food debris length <9.5 cm and mean attenuation value < -11.75 HU predicted phytobezoar impaction. MDCT features with measurements of the food debris length and mean attenuation assist the differentiation of phytobezoar impaction and small-bowel faeces. (orig.)

  2. Imaging differentiation of phytobezoar and small-bowel faeces: CT characteristics with quantitative analysis in patients with small- bowel obstruction

    The objective is to use multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to differentiate phytobezoar impaction and small-bowel faeces in patients with small-bowel obstruction (SBO). We retrospectively reviewed 91 consecutive SBO patients with surgically proven phytobezoars (n = 31) or adhesion with small-bowel faeces (n = 60). Two readers blinded to the diagnosis recorded the following MDCT features: degree of obstruction, transition point, mesenteric fatty stranding, intraperitoneal fluid, air-fluid level, pneumatosis intestinalis, and portal venous gas. MDCT measurements of the food debris length, attenuation, luminal diameter, and wall thickness of the obstructed bowel were also compared. A higher grade of obstruction with an absence of mesenteric fatty stranding and intraperitoneal fluid was more commonly seen in the phytobezoar group than in the small-bowel faeces group (p < 0.01). The food debris length (phytobezoar, 5.7 ± 2.8 cm; small-bowel feces, 20.3 ± 7.9 cm, p < 0.01) and mean attenuation (phytobezoar, -59.6 ± 43.3 Hounsfield units (HU); small-bowel faeces, 8.5 ± 7.7 HU, p <0.01) were significantly different between the two groups. The ROC curve showed that food debris length <9.5 cm and mean attenuation value < -11.75 HU predicted phytobezoar impaction. MDCT features with measurements of the food debris length and mean attenuation assist the differentiation of phytobezoar impaction and small-bowel faeces. (orig.)

  3. CT enteroclysis in the diagnostics of small bowel diseases

    Background: The role of CT enteroclysis is gaining on importance in the diagnostics of small bowel diseases. The aim of the study was to present own experiences in CT enteroclysis application, with the use of a 64-detector CT unit. Material/Methods: CT enteroclyses were performed in 60 patients: 53 with the suspicion of the Crohns disease, 2 suspected for carcinoid, 1 with suspicion of the fistula between the small bowel and the bladder, 2 suspected for the tumor of the ileo-caecal region, and in 1 case, the aim of examination was to carry out an evaluation of the postsurgical state of the bowel-bowel anastomosis. We used own endoscopic technique of catheter insertion into the bowel, which shortens the examination time and improves patients comfort. Results: The catheter was correctly introduced into the small bowel in 58 patients (endoscopy had to be repeated in 4 cases). Only 2 examinations failed, because patients refused repeated endoscopy. Radiological signs of the Crohns disease were found in 50 out of 53 patients. In the 3 remaining patients, the appearance of the small bowel was normal. In 5 non-Crohns disease patients, CT enteroclysis enabled a good visualization of the pathology (tumors, fistula). Conclusions: CT enteroclysis with the use of the 64-detector CT unit is a valuable method in the diagnostics of small bowel diseases. It could supplement or precede capsule endoscopy. (authors)

  4. ACG Clinical Guideline: Diagnosis and Management of Small Bowel Bleeding.

    Gerson, Lauren B; Fidler, Jeff L; Cave, David R; Leighton, Jonathan A

    2015-09-01

    Bleeding from the small intestine remains a relatively uncommon event, accounting for ~5-10% of all patients presenting with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Given advances in small bowel imaging with video capsule endoscopy (VCE), deep enteroscopy, and radiographic imaging, the cause of bleeding in the small bowel can now be identified in most patients. The term small bowel bleeding is therefore proposed as a replacement for the previous classification of obscure GI bleeding (OGIB). We recommend that the term OGIB should be reserved for patients in whom a source of bleeding cannot be identified anywhere in the GI tract. A source of small bowel bleeding should be considered in patients with GI bleeding after performance of a normal upper and lower endoscopic examination. Second-look examinations using upper endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and/or colonoscopy can be performed if indicated before small bowel evaluation. VCE should be considered a first-line procedure for small bowel investigation. Any method of deep enteroscopy can be used when endoscopic evaluation and therapy are required. VCE should be performed before deep enteroscopy if there is no contraindication. Computed tomographic enterography should be performed in patients with suspected obstruction before VCE or after negative VCE examinations. When there is acute overt hemorrhage in the unstable patient, angiography should be performed emergently. In patients with occult hemorrhage or stable patients with active overt bleeding, multiphasic computed tomography should be performed after VCE or CTE to identify the source of bleeding and to guide further management. If a source of bleeding is identified in the small bowel that is associated with significant ongoing anemia and/or active bleeding, the patient should be managed with endoscopic therapy. Conservative management is recommended for patients without a source found after small bowel investigation, whereas repeat diagnostic investigations are recommended for patients with initial negative small bowel evaluations and ongoing overt or occult bleeding. PMID:26303132

  5. Transient small-bowel intussusception in children on CT

    Strouse, Peter J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, F3503, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0252 (United States); DiPietro, Michael A.; Saez, Fermin [Section of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2003-05-01

    To determine the frequency and significance of small-bowel intussusception identified in children on CT. All abdomen CT reports between July 1995 and April 2002 were reviewed to identify patients with small-bowel intussusception. Intussusceptions were identified as an intraluminal mass with a characteristic layered appearance and/or continuity with adjacent mesenteric fat. Ileocolic intussusceptions and intussusceptions related to feeding tubes were excluded. Imaging studies and medical records were reviewed. Twenty-five pediatric patients (16 boys, 9 girls; mean age 11.2 years) were identified with small-bowel intussusception on CT. No patient had a persistent intussusception requiring surgery. Fourteen had limited immediate repeat CT images as part of the same examination, ten of which demonstrated resolution of the CT abnormality. Follow-up CT [n=13 (6 within 24 h)], ultrasound (n=3), small-bowel follow-through (n=4) and surgery (n=3) showed no intussusception. In four patients with persistent symptoms, underlying pathology was identified requiring treatment (giardiasis, 2; small-bowel inflammation/strictures, 1; abscess and partial small-bowel obstruction after perforated appendicitis, 1). In 21 other patients, direct correlation of symptoms to CT abnormality was absent or questionable, no treatment was required, and there was no clinical or imaging evidence of persistence or recurrence. Most small-bowel intussusceptions identified in children by CT are transient and of no clinical significance. (orig.)

  6. Transient small-bowel intussusception in children on CT

    To determine the frequency and significance of small-bowel intussusception identified in children on CT. All abdomen CT reports between July 1995 and April 2002 were reviewed to identify patients with small-bowel intussusception. Intussusceptions were identified as an intraluminal mass with a characteristic layered appearance and/or continuity with adjacent mesenteric fat. Ileocolic intussusceptions and intussusceptions related to feeding tubes were excluded. Imaging studies and medical records were reviewed. Twenty-five pediatric patients (16 boys, 9 girls; mean age 11.2 years) were identified with small-bowel intussusception on CT. No patient had a persistent intussusception requiring surgery. Fourteen had limited immediate repeat CT images as part of the same examination, ten of which demonstrated resolution of the CT abnormality. Follow-up CT [n=13 (6 within 24 h)], ultrasound (n=3), small-bowel follow-through (n=4) and surgery (n=3) showed no intussusception. In four patients with persistent symptoms, underlying pathology was identified requiring treatment (giardiasis, 2; small-bowel inflammation/strictures, 1; abscess and partial small-bowel obstruction after perforated appendicitis, 1). In 21 other patients, direct correlation of symptoms to CT abnormality was absent or questionable, no treatment was required, and there was no clinical or imaging evidence of persistence or recurrence. Most small-bowel intussusceptions identified in children by CT are transient and of no clinical significance. (orig.)

  7. Infectious Complications Following Small Bowel Transplantation.

    Silva, J T; San-Juan, R; Fernández-Caamaño, B; Prieto-Bozano, G; Fernández-Ruiz, M; Lumbreras, C; Calvo-Pulido, J; Jiménez-Romero, C; Resino-Foz, E; López-Medrano, F; Lopez-Santamaria, M; Maria Aguado, J

    2016-03-01

    Microbiological spectrum and outcome of infectious complications following small bowel transplantation (SBT) have not been thoroughly characterized. We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing SBT from 2004 to 2013 in Spain. Sixty-nine patients underwent a total of 87 SBT procedures (65 pediatric, 22 adult). The median follow-up was 867 days. Overall, 81 transplant patients (93.1%) developed 263 episodes of infection (incidence rate: 2.81 episodes per 1000 transplant-days), with no significant differences between adult and pediatric populations. Most infections were bacterial (47.5%). Despite universal prophylaxis, 22 transplant patients (25.3%) developed cytomegalovirus disease, mainly in the form of enteritis. Specifically, 54 episodes of opportunistic infection (OI) occurred in 35 transplant patients. Infection was the major cause of mortality (17 of 24 deaths). Multivariate analysis identified retransplantation (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-4.80; p = 0.046) and posttransplant renal replacement therapy (RRT; HR: 4.19; 95% CI: 1.40-12.60; p = 0.011) as risk factors for OI. RRT was also a risk factor for invasive fungal disease (IFD; HR: 24.90; 95% CI: 5.35-115.91; p OI and IFD. PMID:26560685

  8. Analysis of Non-Small Bowel Lesions Detected by Capsule Endoscopy in Patients with Potential Small Bowel Bleeding

    Akin, Fatma Ebru; Yurekli, Oyku Tayfur; Demirezer Bolat, Aylin; Tahtacı, Mustafa; Koseoglu, Huseyin; Selvi, Eyup; Buyukasik, Naciye Semnur; Ersoy, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding cases in whom source cannot be identified after conventional upper and lower GI endoscopy are defined as potential small bowel bleeding. We aimed to search for lesions in the reach of conventional endoscopy in patients to whom video capsule endoscopy (VCE) had been applied for potential small bowel bleeding. 114 patients who had VCE evaluation for potential small bowel bleeding between January 2009 and August 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. Mean age of the patients was 55 ± 17 years. Female/male ratio is 39/75. In 58 patients (50.9%) bleeding lesion could be determined. Among these 58 patients 8 patients' lesions were in the reach of conventional endoscopes. Overall these 8 patients comprised 7% of patients in whom VCE was performed for potential small bowel bleeding. Among these 8 patients 5 had colonic lesions (4 angiodysplasia, 1 ulcerated polypoid cecal lesion), 2 had gastric lesions (1 GAVE, 1 anastomotic bleeding), and 1 patient had a bleeding lesion in the duodenal bulbus. Although capsule endoscopy is usually performed for potential small bowel bleeding gastroenterologists should always keep in mind that these patients may be suffering from bleeding from non-small bowel segments and should carefully review images captured from non-small bowel areas.

  9. Small bowel enteroclysis using a hemodialysis blood pump

    The purpose of this study is to describe the usefulness of small bowel enteroclysis using a hemodialysis blood pump. Over 1 16 month period, 135 double contrast small bowel enteroclysis examinations were performed in 132 patients using a hemodialysis blood pump. Following incubation of the proximal jejunum, barium at a dilution of 50 % and 0.5 %-methylcellulose were infused at a constant rate using a hemodialysis blood pump and multiple spot films of the small intestine were obtained. Success rate, quality of radiographs, positive findings, fluoroscopic time and complications were evaluated. It spite of the long fluoroscopic time and invasiveness, double contrast small bowel enteroclysis is useful for the evaluation of small bowel disease. The infusion of barium and methylcellulose using a hemodialysis blood pump give radiographs of good quality. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  10. Oral contrast agents for small bowel distension in MRI: influence of the osmolarity for small bowel distention

    To assess the effect of the osmolarity for small bowel distension in MRI, ten volunteers ingested at two separate occasions negative oral contrast agents with different quantity and osmolarity: (1) a water solution combined with 2.0% sorbitol and 0.2% locus bean gum (LBG) with a quantity of 1500 ml and an osmolarity of 148 mOsmol/l, (2) a water solution combined with 2.0% sorbitol and 2.0% barium sulphate with a quantity of 1000 ml and an osmolarity of 194 mOsmol/l. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D-TrueFISP images by measuring the small bowel diameters. There were no statistically significant differences in mean small bowel diameter between both contrast agents. The mean small bowel distension was 19.2 mm after ingestion of 1500 ml of sorbitol-LBG solution and 19.0 mm after ingestion of 1000-ml sorbitol-barium sulphate solution. Furthermore, all volunteers found the ingestion of 1000-ml solution more pleasant than the 1500-ml solution. The ingestion of 1000 ml of sorbitol-barium sulphate solution led to a sufficient small bowel distension compared to 1500 ml of sorbitol-LBG solution. The side effect rate of both solutions was low. Based on these data, we recommend a quantity of 1000 ml of sorbitol-barium sulphate solution as an alternative for 1500-ml sorbitol-LBG solution for optimal bowel distension. (orig.)

  11. Oral contrast agents for small bowel distension in MRI: influence of the osmolarity for small bowel distention

    Ajaj, Waleed; Kuehle, Christiane; Nuefer, Michael; Goehde, Susanne C.; Lauenstein, Thomas C. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Goyen, Mathias [Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Schneemann, Hubert [University Hospital Essen, Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Essen (Germany); Ruehm, Stefan G. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    To assess the effect of the osmolarity for small bowel distension in MRI, ten volunteers ingested at two separate occasions negative oral contrast agents with different quantity and osmolarity: (1) a water solution combined with 2.0% sorbitol and 0.2% locus bean gum (LBG) with a quantity of 1500 ml and an osmolarity of 148 mOsmol/l, (2) a water solution combined with 2.0% sorbitol and 2.0% barium sulphate with a quantity of 1000 ml and an osmolarity of 194 mOsmol/l. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D-TrueFISP images by measuring the small bowel diameters. There were no statistically significant differences in mean small bowel diameter between both contrast agents. The mean small bowel distension was 19.2 mm after ingestion of 1500 ml of sorbitol-LBG solution and 19.0 mm after ingestion of 1000-ml sorbitol-barium sulphate solution. Furthermore, all volunteers found the ingestion of 1000-ml solution more pleasant than the 1500-ml solution. The ingestion of 1000 ml of sorbitol-barium sulphate solution led to a sufficient small bowel distension compared to 1500 ml of sorbitol-LBG solution. The side effect rate of both solutions was low. Based on these data, we recommend a quantity of 1000 ml of sorbitol-barium sulphate solution as an alternative for 1500-ml sorbitol-LBG solution for optimal bowel distension. (orig.)

  12. Normal small bowel wall characteristics on MR enterography

    Cronin, Carmel G., E-mail: carmelcronin2000@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland); Delappe, Eithne; Lohan, Derek G.; Roche, Clare; Murphy, Joseph M. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the normal small bowel parameters, namely bowel diameter, bowel wall thickness, number of folds (valvulae connivientes) per 2.5 cm (in.), fold thickness and interfold distance per small bowel segment (duodenum, jejunum, proximal ileum, distal ileum and terminal ileum) on MR enterography. Materials and methods: Between September 2003 and January 2008, 280 MR enterography examinations were performed for investigation of known or suspected small bowel pathology. 120 of these examinations were normal. Sixty-five (m = 29, f = 36, mean age = 34 years, range = 17-73 years) of 120 examinations without a prior small bowel diagnosis, with no prior or subsequent abnormal radiology or endoscopy examinations, no prior small bowel surgery and with a minimum 3 years follow-up demonstrating normality were retrospectively evaluated for the described small bowel parameters. Results: We found the mean diameter of the duodenum to be 24.8 mm (S.D. = 4.5 mm), jejunum to be 24.5 mm (S.D. = 4.2 mm), proximal ileum to be 19.5 mm (S.D. = 3.6 mm), distal ileum to be 18.9 mm (S.D. = 4.2 mm) and terminal ileum to be 18.7 mm (S.D. = 3.6 mm). The number of folds per 2.5 cm varied from 4.6 in the jejunum to 1.5 in the terminal ileum. The fold thickness varied from 2.1 mm in the duodenum to 1.8 mm in the terminal ileum. The small bowel parameters gradually decreased in size from the duodenum to the smallest measurements which were in the terminal ileum. The bowel wall is similar in size throughout the small bowel measuring 1.5 {+-} 0.5 mm. Conclusion: These results provide the mean, range of normality and standard deviation of the small bowel parameters per segment on the current population on MR enterography. From our experience, knowledge of these parameters is extremely helpful and essential in the everyday assessment of MR enterography studies.

  13. Metastatic choriocarcinoma in the small bowel: a case report

    Zohreh Yousefi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: In abnormal postpartum hemorrhage, we should consider the possibility of choriocarcinoma. Although, it is important to note rare manifestations of metastatic choriocarcinoma of small bowel in massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

  14. Recent Advances in Imaging of Small and Large Bowel.

    Das, Chandan J; Manchanda, Smita; Panda, Ananya; Sharma, Anshul; Gupta, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of bowel pathology is challenging in view of the nonspecific clinical presentation. Currently, there are various imaging modalities available to reach an accurate diagnosis. These modalities include conventional techniques (radiographs, small bowel follow-through, conventional enteroclysis), ultrasonography, and cross-sectional examinations (computed tomography [CT] and MR imaging) as well as functional imaging modalities, such as PET-CT or PET-MR imaging. Each modality has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used in isolation or combination. This review discusses the role of CT, MR imaging, and PET-CT in the evaluation of small and large bowel diseases. PMID:26590441

  15. Factors predisposing to radiation-related small-bowel damage

    Potish, R.A.; Jones, T.K. Jr.; Levitt, S.H.

    1979-08-01

    From 1970 through 1977, 92 patients with ovarian cancer received 20 Gy (2,000 rad) to the abdomen, followed by 30 Gy (3,000 rad) to the pelvis. Small-bowel obstruction developed in 7 (7.6%). The number of previous laparotomies, thin physique, and hypertension were significantly associated with complications. Two patients receiving isoniazid and 2 receiving Premarin had enteric complications. Pre-existing vascular damage may potentiate radiation damage to the small bowel.

  16. Factors predisposing to radiation-related small-bowel damage

    From 1970 through 1977, 92 patients with ovarian cancer received 20 Gy (2,000 rad) to the abdomen, followed by 30 Gy (3,000 rad) to the pelvis. Small-bowel obstruction developed in 7 (7.6%). The number of previous laparotomies, thin physique, and hypertension were significantly associated with complications. Two patients receiving isoniazid and 2 receiving Premarin had enteric complications. Pre-existing vascular damage may potentiate radiation damage to the small bowel

  17. The natural history of small bowel angiodysplasia.

    Holleran, Grainne; Hall, Barry; Zgaga, Lina; Breslin, Niall; McNamara, Deirdre

    2016-04-01

    Background Small bowel angiodysplasias (SBA) account for 50% of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Lesions bleed recurrently and current treatments are relatively ineffective at reducing re-bleeding. Little is known about the natural history of SBA which is needed to guide treatment decisions and counsel patients on prognosis. Aim The aim of this study is to describe the natural history of a cohort of patients with SBA. Methods Patients with SBA were identified retrospectively and clinical and outcome information were collected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with re-bleeding. Results SBAs were found in 86 patients of which 54% (n?=?47) were female, and the average age was 71.6 years. The majority (69%) had multiple lesions, mean of 2.76/patient, and 65% were located in the jejunum. Follow-up was available in 65% (n?=?56). There was a significant increase in haemoglobin level from 10.05g/dL to 11.94g/dL, p?events occurred in 80% (n?=?45), with an average of 2.91/person. The mean interval between diagnosis and the first re-bleeding event was 10.7 months. Of the group overall, 70% (n?=?40) required transfusions during follow up, and 67% required hospitalisation due to re-bleeding. About 50% received a directed treatment, including argon plasma coagulation, somatostatin analogues, or surgical resection. A total of 3.5% (n?=?2) died as a direct consequence of bleeding from SBAs. Multiple lesions (p?=?0.048) and valvular heart disease (p?=?0.034) were predictive of re-bleeding. Conclusion Our results show the significant impact of SBA on patients' morbidity, with high rates of re-bleeding, persistent anaemia and a mortality rate of 3.5%, despite the use of currently available medical and endoscopic therapies. PMID:26540240

  18. CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer

    Kim, Jae Wook; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Gab Choul; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer. Of the 1468 patients with primary lung cancer between 1990 and 2000, 13 patients who had metastasis to the small intestine were collected. Of these 13 patients, nine who underwent CT scan were included for analysis. The pathologic diagnoses of primary lung cancer in these nine patients were squamous cell carcinoma in six, adenocarcinoma in two, and large cell carcinoma in one. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the site and patterns (intraluminal mass/bowel wall thickening/bowel implants) of metastatic masses, and the presence or absence of complication such as intussusception, obstruction, or perforation of the small bowel. The medical records of the patients were also reviewed retrospectively for evaluation of presenting abdominal symptom and time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Metastatic lesions were distributed throughout the small intestine: the duodenum in five, the jejunum in four, the ileum in six, and both jejunum and ileum in one patient. The size of metastatic masses of small bowel ranged from 1.3 cm to 5.0 cm (mean size, 2.6 cm) On CT, the small bowel was involved with intraluminal masses (mean size, 3.4 cm) in eight patients, diffuse wall thickening (mean thickness, 1.6 cm) in five, and bowel implants (mean size, 2.2 cm) in two. Complications occurred in seven patients, including intussusceptions without obstruction in two patients and with obstruction in two, obstruction without intussusceptions in two, and bowel perforation in one. Of 9 patients, 6 had at least one symptom referable to the small bowel including abdominal pain in 4, anemia in 3, vomiting in 1, and jaundice in 1. Lung cancer and small bowel lesions were detected simultaneously in four patients and the time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer ranged from 10 days to 30 months (median interval, 54 days) in patients. CT helps in defining the extent and pattern of small bowel metastases as well as in demonstrating their complication.

  19. CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer

    To evaluate the CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer. Of the 1468 patients with primary lung cancer between 1990 and 2000, 13 patients who had metastasis to the small intestine were collected. Of these 13 patients, nine who underwent CT scan were included for analysis. The pathologic diagnoses of primary lung cancer in these nine patients were squamous cell carcinoma in six, adenocarcinoma in two, and large cell carcinoma in one. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the site and patterns (intraluminal mass/bowel wall thickening/bowel implants) of metastatic masses, and the presence or absence of complication such as intussusception, obstruction, or perforation of the small bowel. The medical records of the patients were also reviewed retrospectively for evaluation of presenting abdominal symptom and time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Metastatic lesions were distributed throughout the small intestine: the duodenum in five, the jejunum in four, the ileum in six, and both jejunum and ileum in one patient. The size of metastatic masses of small bowel ranged from 1.3 cm to 5.0 cm (mean size, 2.6 cm) On CT, the small bowel was involved with intraluminal masses (mean size, 3.4 cm) in eight patients, diffuse wall thickening (mean thickness, 1.6 cm) in five, and bowel implants (mean size, 2.2 cm) in two. Complications occurred in seven patients, including intussusceptions without obstruction in two patients and with obstruction in two, obstruction without intussusceptions in two, and bowel perforation in one. Of 9 patients, 6 had at least one symptom referable to the small bowel including abdominal pain in 4, anemia in 3, vomiting in 1, and jaundice in 1. Lung cancer and small bowel lesions were detected simultaneously in four patients and the time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer ranged from 10 days to 30 months (median interval, 54 days) in patients. CT helps in defining the extent and pattern of small bowel metastases as well as in demonstrating their complication

  20. Mesenteric air embolism following enteroscopic small bowel tattooing procedure.

    Chen, Natalie; Lamba, Ramit; Lee, John; Lall, Chandana

    2012-01-01

    Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is a revolutionary procedure in which the entire small bowel can be visualized endoscopically. DBE has the advantage of both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in the setting of small bowel neoplasms and vascular malformations. We present a unique case of a 76-year-old female who underwent small bowel DBE tattoo marking of a distal small bowel tumor complicated by development of severe abdominal pain postprocedure secondary to bowel air embolism into the mesenteric veins. Mesenteric air can be seen after other endoscopic procedures such as biopsy, mucosal clip placement and polypectomy, or following a colonoscopy. Mesenteric air embolism following small bowel tattooing procedure has not been previously reported in the literature. Mesenteric air when present may be attributed to mesenteric ischemia and can subject the patient to unnecessary surgical intervention if misdiagnosed. Thus, this report holds significance for the radiologist as computed tomography (CT) findings of mesenteric air embolism must be evaluated in the context of appropriate clinical history before treatment decisions are made. PMID:23393642

  1. Mesenteric Air Embolism Following Enteroscopic Small Bowel Tattooing Procedure

    Natalie Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE is a revolutionary procedure in which the entire small bowel can be visualized endoscopically. DBE has the advantage of both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in the setting of small bowel neoplasms and vascular malformations. We present a unique case of a 76-year-old female who underwent small bowel DBE tattoo marking of a distal small bowel tumor complicated by development of severe abdominal pain postprocedure secondary to bowel air embolism into the mesenteric veins. Mesenteric air can be seen after other endoscopic procedures such as biopsy, mucosal clip placement and polypectomy, or following a colonoscopy. Mesenteric air embolism following small bowel tattooing procedure has not been previously reported in the literature. Mesenteric air when present may be attributed to mesenteric ischemia and can subject the patient to unnecessary surgical intervention if misdiagnosed. Thus, this report holds significance for the radiologist as computed tomography (CT findings of mesenteric air embolism must be evaluated in the context of appropriate clinical history before treatment decisions are made.

  2. Transient small bowel angioedema due to intravenous iodinated contrast media

    Xiu-Hua Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of transient proximal small bowel angioedema induced by intravenous administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media (CM are presented. Computed tomography (CT images in the venous phase displayed the proximal small bowel with circumferential thickening of the wall including the duodenum and proximal segment of the jejunum. The bowel wall was normal in non-enhanced images, and normal or inconspicuous in arterial phase enhanced images. In one of the three cases, the bowel wall was thickened in venous phase but disappeared in the 40 s delayed phase images. No filling defect was seen in the lumen of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. No peritoneal effusion or mesentery abnormality was found. Each of these patients reported only mild abdominal discomfort and recovered without specific treatment within a short time. Only one patient suffered mild diarrhea after scanning which had resolved by the following day. The transient anaphylactic small bowel angioedema due to intravenous iodinated contrast media was easily diagnosed based on its characteristic CT findings and clinical symptoms. Differential diagnosis may include inflammatory and ischemic bowel disease, as well as neoplasms. A three-phase CT protocol and good understanding of this disorder are fundamentally important in the diagnosis of this condition. The supposed etiology behind the transient anaphylactic reaction to intravenous administration of iodinated CM in small bowel is similar to other CM-induced hypersensitive immediate reactions. The predilection location of transient anaphylactic bowel angioedema is the small intestine, particularly the proximal segment. A speculated cause may be the richer supply of vessels in the small intestine, ample mucous folds and loose connective tissue in the duodenum and the jejunum.

  3. US features of transient small bowel intussusception in pediatric patients

    To describe the sonographic (US) and clinical features of spontaneously reduced small bowel intussusception, and to discuss the management options for small bowel intussusception based on US findings with clinical correlation. During a five years of period, 34 small bowel intussusceptions were diagnosed on US in 32 infants and children. The clinical presentations and imaging findings of the patients were reviewed. The clinical presentations included abdominal pain or irritability (n = 25), vomiting (n 5), diarrhea (n = 3), bloody stool (n = 1), and abdominal distension (n = 1), in combination or alone. US showed multi-layered round masses of small (mean, 1.5 0.3 cm) diameters and with thin (mean, 3.5 1 mm) outer rims along the course of the small bowel. The mean length was 1.8 0.5 cm and peristalsis was seen on the video records. There were no visible lead points. The vascular flow signal appeared on color Doppler images in all 21 patients examined. Spontaneous reduction was confirmed by combinations of US (n = 28), small bowel series (n = 6), CT scan (n = 3), and surgical exploration (n 2). All patients discharged with improved condition. Typical US findings of the transient small bowel intussusception included 1) small size without wall swelling, 2) short segment, 3) preserved wall motion, and 4) absence of the lead point. Conservative management with US monitoring rather than an immediate operation is recommended for those patient with typical transient small bowel intussusceptions. Atypical US findings or clinical deterioration of the patient with persistent intussusception warrant surgical exploration

  4. CT Findings of Small Bowel Anisakiasis: Analysis of Four Cases

    Kim, Wee Kyoung; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo; Jung, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Min Yeong [Hanyang University Guri Hospital, College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We wanted to describe the CT findings of small bowel anisakiasis with the pathologic correlation. Four patients with surgically and pathologically proven small bowel anisakiasis were included in this retrospective study. They were three men and one woman and their ages ranged from 28 to 43 years (mean age: 38 years). We evaluated their clinical, CT and histological findings. All the patients had a history of ingesting raw fish within 24 hours from the time of symptom onset. They complained of abdominal pain (n=4), nausea (n=4), vomiting (n=2) and diarrhea (n=1). Physical examination revealed tenderness (n=4), rebound tenderness (n=4) and increased bowel sounds (n=3). Leukocytosis was noted in all the patients on the laboratory examination. None of the patients showed eosinophilia. The CT findings were segmental small bowel wall thickening with preserved layering (n=4), focal segmental luminal narrowing with proximal dilatation (n=4), peritoneal thickening (n=3), mesenteric or omental infiltration (n=4) and varying degrees of ascites (n=4). On the histopathologic examination, they revealed an infiltration of eosinophils (n=4) in all layers of the bowel wall with severe edema. The larvae were found on surgico-pathologic examination in all the cases. The CT findings may be helpful to make the specific diagnosis of small bowel anisakiasis in a patient with the clinical findings of an acute abdomen and a history of eating raw fish

  5. Predictive factors of small bowel patency in Crohn's disease patients

    Andreia Albuquerque

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patency capsule was developed to avoid small bowel video capsule endoscopy retention, namely in patients with Crohn's disease. Aims: To evaluate the predictive factors of small bowel patency in Crohn's disease patients. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis including 151 Crohn's disease patients submitted to patency capsule (Agile® Patency Capsule from 2011 to 2012. Patients that excreted the intact patency capsule were classified as having a patent small bowel (without patency capsule retention, other patients were considered to have negative patency of the small bowel (patency capsule retention. Results: Patients had a mean age of 41±14 years, 54% were female and 25% had been previously submitted to surgery. Stricturing disease was seen in 20% of cases and penetrating disease in 16% of cases. Left-sided colonic lesions and ileal strictures were observed at colonoscopy in 13% and 9% of patients, respectively. In our sample, 28% of patients had negative patency of the small bowel (patency capsule retention. In multivariate analysis, independent factors that were associated with negative patency of the small bowel in Crohn's disease patients were stricturing (OR 10.16, p < 0.001 and penetrating phenotypes (OR 11.73, p = 0.001, left-sided colonic lesions (OR 3.77, p = 0.038, ileal stricture (OR 9.76, p = 0.003; previous intestinal surgery was found to be protective (OR 0.16, p = 0.006. Conclusions: Stricturing or penetrating disease, ileal strictures, no previous surgery and left-sided colonic lesions were the factors associated with negative small bowel patency in Crohn's disease patients.

  6. A new method for radiolucent presentation of small bowel

    A new method for radiolucent presentation of small bowell is described. A modified easy introducible small tube for contrast medium instillation is used. For stabilization of contrast medium a contrast enhancing substance is added. A 0.5% solution of this substance is also used as distention medium. Consequently contrast medium is equally distributed and coating of intestinal mucosa pattern is greatly enhanced. (orig.)

  7. SMALL BOWELL BURKITT LYMPHOMA AT THE CHILD. CASE REPORT

    Şt. C. Chicoş

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkitt lymphoma localised at the small bowell is very rare. We present the case of a 7 years old child admitted into the hospital for acute appendicitis. During the surgical procedure we found a tumor localised on the last segment of the small bowell. We performed appendectomy associated with segmental resection of intestine were the tumor was, with end to end eneteroenterostomy. The microscopic pathological exam showed the infiltration of the intestinal wall with lymphocytes and macrophages with an overall appearance of „starry sky”. Immunehistochemistry revealed malignant B type lymphocytes CD 20 positive, CD 68 positive macrophages and a Ki-67 proliferation index rate of 85%. These findings certified the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion: The Burkitt lymphoma of the small bowell can be a „surprising” intraoperatively diagnosis. The treatment of this tumor is surgical procedure (resection of the intestine associated with chemotherapy.

  8. Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the small bowel mesentery

    Guang-Yu Yang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is an uncommon cutaneous malignant tumor that presents as a rapidly growing skin nodule on sun-exposed areas of the body. MCC is aggressive with regional nodal and distant metastases to the skin, lung, and bones. There have been no reports of metastatic MCC to the mesentery and 6 reports describing metastasis to the small intestine. We present a case of metastatic MCC to the mesentery with infiltration to the small bowel, 8 years after original tumor resection. This is the 5th metastasis and it encased the small bowel resulting in a hair-pin loop contributing to the unusual clinical presentation. Although MCC metastatic to the bowel is uncommon, it is not rare. It is important to recognize the unusual manifestations of this disease as they are becoming more common in the future. Routine radiologic surveillance and thorough review of systems are important to patient follow-up.

  9. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth is Associated with Intestinal Inflammation in the Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Liliana David; Alexandru Babin; Alina Picos; Dan Lucian Dumitrascu

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is encountered in bowel disorders, including irritable bowel symptoms. Low degrees of inflammation have been recently reported in the irritable bowel syndrome. We looked for the association between intestinal inflammation and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome.Methods. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was assessed by the H2 glucose breath test in 90 consecutive patients with irritable bowel syndrome....

  10. Ileo-ileal Intussusception and Bowel Obstruction Caused by Plasmablastic Lymphoma of Small Bowel- A Rare Entity in Rare Location

    Thakur, Sanjiv S.

    2016-01-01

    Intussusception of small bowel is considered a rare cause of bowel obstruction in adults accounting for only about 1% of bowel obstruction in adults. Intussusception in adults is uncommon with 95% cases of intussusceptions occurring in children. Adult intussusception from small intestinal lymphoma is also rare with only 36 cases reported in the literature between 2000 and 2011. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive lymphoid neoplasm usually seen in the oral cavity in the clinical setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Plasmablastic lymphoma of the small intestine is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of plasmablastic lymphoma of small bowel with ileoileal intussusception in an HIV-negative immunocompetent male patient.

  11. Acute small bowel obstruction due to chicken bone bezoar

    Vetpillai P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preadeepan Vetpillai,1 Ayo Oshowo21CT2 Surgery in General, Charing Cross Hospital, 2Colorectal and Laparoscopic Surgery, Whittington Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Acute intestinal obstruction due to foreign bodies, or bezoar, is a rare occurrence in an adult with a normal intestinal tract. We report an unusual case of a 43-year-old black man with no previous abdominal surgery and no significant medical history who presented with an acute episode of small bowel obstruction due to an impacted undigested chicken bone.Keywords: small bowel obstruction, chicken bone, bezoar

  12. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Small bowel

    The small bowel is a hollow organ involved in the transit and absorption of food. In relation to its anatomical location, a significant amount of this organ is exposed in whole or in part to ionizing radiation in external radiotherapy during abdominal or pelvic irradiation either for primary cancers or metastasis. The acute functional changes during external beam radiation are mainly leading to diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating. The main late side effects of irradiation of the small intestine are chronic diarrhea, malabsorption with steatorrhoea, abdominal spasms, intestinal obstruction, bleeding and fistulas. The architecture of the small intestine may be considered as parallel with a significant correlation between the irradiated volume of small bowel and the likelihood of acute toxicity, whatever the dose. The literature analysis recommends to consider the volume of small bowel receiving 15 Gy (threshold of 100 to 200 cm3) but also 30 and 50 Gy (thresholds of 35 to 300 cm3, depending on the level of dose considered). Modern techniques of conformal radiotherapy with modulated intensity will probably have beneficial impact on small bowel toxicity. (authors)

  13. MR enterography in the evaluation of small bowel dilation

    Magnetic reasonance (MR) enterography enables high contrast resolution depiction of the location and cause of bowel obstruction through a combination of predictable luminal distension and multiplanar imaging capabilities. Furthermore, because the patient is not exposed to ionizing radiation, sequential 'dynamic' MR imaging can be performed repeatedly over time further facilitating depiction of the site and/or the cause of obstruction. With increasing availability of MR imaging and standardization of the oral contrast medium regimens, it is likely that this technique will assume an ever-increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel dilation in the coming years. We illustrate the utility of MR enterography in the evaluation of small bowel dilation, whether it be mechanical, functional (e.g., ileus), or related to infiltrative mural disease.

  14. Small bowel ultrasound in patients with celiac disease

    Bartusek, D. [Department of Radiology, Masaryk University hospital Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: dbartusek@fnbrno.cz; Valek, V. [Department of Radiology, Masaryk University hospital Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: v.valek@fnbrno.cz; Husty, J. [Department of Radiology, Masaryk University hospital Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: jhusty@fnbrno.cz; Uteseny, J. [Department of Pediatric Internal Medicine, Masaryk University hospital Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: juteseny@fnbrno.cz

    2007-08-15

    Objective: Celiac disease (CD) is a common, lifelong disease with small bowel malabsorption based on genetically conditioned gluten intolerance. The clinical manifestation could be very heterogeneous. The proof of celiac disease is now based mainly on clinical and laboratory (antibodies and enterobiopsy) signs, which are in some cases problematic and inconvenient. Materials and methods: In our study we have examined 250 patients with suspection or with proven celiac disease and we evaluated specific ultrasound small bowel changes in this group. In the next step, we chose 59 patients with laboratory proved celiac disease and we statistically compared ultrasound, other laboratory and clinical findings in different forms and stages of the disease. Results: Specific small bowel pathologies in patients with celiac disease (like changes of intestinal villi in different parts of small bowel, abnormal peristalsis and mesenterial lymphadenopathy) can be well visualized by ultrasound and in combination with clinical and laboratory signs ultrasound examination could have an important role in screening, determination of diagnosis and monitoring of patients with different forms of celiac disease.

  15. Small bowel obstruction due to ingested superabsorbent beads

    Hao D. Pham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Superabsorbent water beads have found many uses as household decorative items, crafts, and other industrial uses. We report a case of ingestion of several LiquiBlock Rainbow brand superabsorbent beads by a ten month old girl leading to small bowel obstruction requiring laparotomy and removal of the beads.

  16. Resection of peritoneal metastases causing malignant small bowel obstruction

    Merrie Arend EH

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resection of peritoneal metastases has been shown to improve survival in patients with abdominal metastatic disease from abdominal or extra abdominal malignancy. This study evaluates the benefit of peritoneal metastatic resection in patients with malignant small bowel obstruction and a past history of treated cancer. Patients and methods Patients undergoing laparotomy for resection of peritoneal metastases from recurrence of previous cancer between 1992–2003 were reviewed retrospectively. Data were collected about type of primary cancer, interval to recurrence, extent of the disease and completeness of resection, morbidity and mortality and long-term survival. Results Between 1992 and 2003 there were 79 patients (median age 62, range 19–91 who had laparotomy for small bowel obstruction due to recurrent cancer. The primary cancer was colorectal (31, gynaecologic cancer (19, melanoma (16 and others (13. Overall, the rate of complications was 35% and mortality was 10%. Median survival was 5 months; patients with history of colorectal cancer had better survival than other cancer (median survival 7 months vs. 4 months; p = 0.02. Multivariate analysis showed that the extent of recurrent disease was the only factor that affected overall survival. Conclusion Laparotomy for small bowel obstruction is a worthwhile option for patients with malignant small bowel obstruction. Although it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality it offers a reasonable survival benefit in particular for patients with completely resectable disease.

  17. A radiologist's guide to small bowel and multivisceral transplantation

    This review will describe the indications for the various small bowel containing transplants. The importance of early referral will be highlighted. Radiologists play a central role in assessing these complex patients prior to transplantation. Furthermore, in the postoperative period, radiologists play an important part in diagnosing and treating complications

  18. CT findings of phytobezoar associated with small bowel obstruction

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate CT findings of phytobezoar associated with small bowel obstruction. We evaluated abdominal CT of 19 patients with phytobezoar. Abdominal CT of 6 patients with small bowel feces was included for the comparison. On CT we analyzed morphological features of phytobezoars such as location, number, size, shape, and the presence or absence of an encapsulating wall. The sites of the phytobezoar were in the jejunum in 12 patients (63%) and the ileum in 7 (37%). The phytobezoars were single in number in 13 patients (68%) and multiple in 6 (32%). The mean short- and long-axis diameters of the phytobezoars measured 3.2 cm (range 2.1-5.2 cm) and 5.2 cm (range 2.2-11.0 cm), respectively. The phytobezoars were ovoid in 9 patients, round in 6, and tubular in 4. On CT, phytobezoars appeared as gas-containing masses in 17 patients (89%) and as a solid mass without gas in the remaining 2 patients (11%). An encapsulating wall was noted in 6 patients (32%). Small bowel feces were much more tubular in shape but did not have encapsulating wall on CT. The CT imaging is useful in making the diagnosis of phytobezoar associated with small bowel obstruction. (orig.)

  19. Small bowel ultrasound in patients with celiac disease

    Objective: Celiac disease (CD) is a common, lifelong disease with small bowel malabsorption based on genetically conditioned gluten intolerance. The clinical manifestation could be very heterogeneous. The proof of celiac disease is now based mainly on clinical and laboratory (antibodies and enterobiopsy) signs, which are in some cases problematic and inconvenient. Materials and methods: In our study we have examined 250 patients with suspection or with proven celiac disease and we evaluated specific ultrasound small bowel changes in this group. In the next step, we chose 59 patients with laboratory proved celiac disease and we statistically compared ultrasound, other laboratory and clinical findings in different forms and stages of the disease. Results: Specific small bowel pathologies in patients with celiac disease (like changes of intestinal villi in different parts of small bowel, abnormal peristalsis and mesenterial lymphadenopathy) can be well visualized by ultrasound and in combination with clinical and laboratory signs ultrasound examination could have an important role in screening, determination of diagnosis and monitoring of patients with different forms of celiac disease

  20. Occult small bowel melanoma metastases on whole body PET

    Full text: A 72-year-old man with a history of malignant melanoma with pulmonary and chest wall metastases presented with acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and occasional right iliac fossa pain. Upper GI endoscopy, a small bowel series, and colonoscopy failed to demonstrate a source of bleeding The patient continued to have further large rectal bleeds and became cardiovascularly unstable A 99mTc labelled red blood cell scan was performed, acquiring images for up to 4 hours, and again no active bleeding site was identified. A 18-fluorine fluoro-deoxy glucose (FDG) whole body Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan was performed following routine protocol. This scan showed widespread and multiple foci of FDG avid disease. Uptake was seen in the caecum, ascending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum, and a number of discrete foci within the small bowel. Although the colonic uptake may have been physiological, malignant involvement could not be excluded. The other intra-abdominal foci were not consistent with physiological activity and were thought likely to represent metastatic deposits within the small bowel. These were assumed to be the cause of the GI bleeding, not able to be demonstrated by conventional imaging modalities. In this difficult case the FDG PET scan was able to demonstrate small bowel melanoma deposits and the probable cause for the GI bleeding, unable to be demonstrated by conventional imaging modalities. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  1. Capsule endoscopy and imaging tests in the elective investigation of small bowel disease

    Capsule endoscopy enables high-resolution depiction of small bowel mucosa and has been shown, by several studies, to have a high diagnostic yield in a variety of small bowel diseases. In this review, we critically assess the contributions of capsule endoscopy and imaging tests in common small bowel disorders. Radiological tests that only assess the small bowel mucosa will be less useful in the era of capsule endoscopy

  2. Uncommon Metastasis of Laryngeal Cancer to Small Bowel Causing Intestinal Obstruction Treated by Laparoscopic Approach

    Omar Bekdache; Lateefa Al Nuaimi; Haytham El Salhat; Vasudev Sharma; Ghodratollah Nowrasteh; Al Rawi, Sadir J.

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic laryngeal cancer to the small bowel is extremely rare. Management of small bowel obstruction used to constitute a relative contraindication for the use of laparoscopic modality. We are reporting a case of an elderly man known to have laryngeal cancer who presented with small bowel obstruction due to metastatic deposit to the small bowel. The condition was successfully treated by laparoscopic assisted approach. A review of the natural history of advanced laryngeal cancer, common and...

  3. The lack of impact of pelvic irradiation on small bowel mobility: implications for radiotherapy treatment planning

    Purpose: Small bowel contrast is frequently used during simulation for patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy to assist in the design of blocks that exclude small bowel from the radiation field. In many instances, a large field is treated to 45 gray (Gy), followed by a field reduction to exclude the small bowel. This prospective study was designed to assess whether the position and mobility of the small bowel changed after the initial 45 Gy, thereby determining whether a special small bowel series done at initial simulation is applicable at the time of field reduction. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients undergoing pelvic irradiation were given small bowel contrast for their initial simulation. Radiographs were taken with the bladder empty and the bladder full. The location of the small bowel and its displacement with bladder distention was measured. This entire procedure was repeated prior to field reduction (after 39.6-46.0 Gy). Results: There was no demonstrable alteration in small bowel mobility after 39.6-46.0 Gy. The approximate position of the small bowel relative to bony landmarks was unchanged. Conclusion: The position and mobility of the small bowel appears not to be affected by 39.6-46.0 Gy of pelvic radiotherapy. Therefore, it is reasonable to design reduced pelvic fields to exclude the small bowel based on special small bowel series done at initial treatment simulation

  4. MR imaging of the small bowel in Crohn's disease.

    Siddiki, Hassan; Fidler, Jeff

    2009-03-01

    MR and CT techniques optimized for small bowel imaging are playing an increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel disorders. Several studies have shown the advantage of these techniques over tradition barium fluoroscopic examinations secondary to improvements in spatial and temporal resolution combined with improved bowel distending agents. The preference of MR vs. CT has been geographical and based on expertise and public policy. With the increasing awareness of radiation exposure, there has been a more global interest in implementing techniques that either reduce or eliminate radiation exposure [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography--an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. This is especially important in patients with chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease who may require multiple studies over a lifetime or in studies that require sequential imaging time points such as in assessment of gastrointestinal motility [Froehlich JM, Patak MA, von Weymarn C, Juli CF, Zollikofer CL, Wentz KU. Small bowel motility assessment with magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2005;21:370-75]. A recent study showed that certain subgroups of patients with Crohn's disease may be exposed to higher doses of radiation; those diagnosed at an early age, those with upper tract inflammation, penetrating disease, requirement of intravenous steroids, infliximab or multiple surgeries [Desmond AN, O'Regan K, Curran C, et al. Crohn's disease: factors associated with exposure to high levels of diagnostic radiation. Gut 2008;57:1524-29]. Therefore it has been suggested that techniques that can reduce or eliminate radiation exposure should be considered for imaging [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography--an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. Owing to the excellent softtissue contrast, direct multiplanar imaging capabilities, new ultrafast breath-holding pulse sequences, lack of ionizing radiation and availability of a variety of oral contrast agents, MR is well suited to play a critical role in the imaging of small bowel disorders. In this article we will review the technical issues related to the performance of MR enterography and enteroclysis and discuss the role and controversies of using MR in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:19118967

  5. Oral purgative and simethicone before small bowel capsule endoscopy

    Bruno Joel Ferreira Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate small bowel cleansing quality, diagnostic yield and transit time, comparing three cleansing protocols prior to capsule endoscopy. METHODS: Sixty patients were prospectively enrolled and randomized to one of the following cleansing protocols: patients in Group A underwent a 24 h liquid diet and overnight fasting; patients in Group B followed protocol A and subsequently were administered 2 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG the evening before the procedure; patients in Group C followed protocol B and were additionally administered 100 mg of simethicone 30 min prior to capsule ingestion. Small bowel cleansing was independently assessed by two experienced endoscopists and classified as poor, fair, good or excellent according to the proportion of small bowel mucosa under perfect conditions for visualization. When there was no agreement between the two endoscopists, the images were reviewed and discussed until a consensus was reached. The preparation was considered acceptable if > 50% or adequate if > 75% of the mucosa was in perfect cleansing condition. The amount of bubbles was assessed independently and it was considered significant if it prevented a correct interpretation of the images. Positive endoscopic findings, gastric emptying time (GET and small bowel transit time (SBTT were recorded for each examination. RESULTS: There was a trend favoring Group B in achieving an acceptable (including fair, good or excellent level of cleansing (Group A: 65%; Group B: 83.3%; Group C: 68.4% [P = not significant (NS] and favoring Group C in attaining an excellent level of cleansing (Group A: 10%; Group B: 16.7%; Group C: 21.1% (P = NS. The number of patients with an adequate cleansing of the small bowel, corresponding to an excellent or good classification, was 5 (25% in Group A, 5 (27.8% in Group B and 4 (21.1% in Group C (P = 0.892. Conversely, 7 patients (35% in Group A, 3 patients (16.7% in Group B and 6 patients (31.6% in Group C were considered to have poor small bowel cleansing (P = 0.417, with significant fluid or debris such that the examination was unreliable. The proportion of patients with a significant amount of bubbles was 50% in Group A, 27.8% in Group B and 15.8% in Group C (P = 0.065. This was significantly lower in Group C when compared to Group A (P = 0.026. The mean GET was 27.8 min for Group A, 27.2 min for Group B and 40.7 min for Group C (P = 0.381. The mean SBTT was 256.4 min for Group A, 256.1 min for Group B and 258.1 min for Group C (P = 0.998. Regarding to the rate of complete examinations, the capsule reached the cecum in 20 patients (100% in Group A, 16 patients (88.9% in Group B and 17 patients (89.5% in Group C (P = 0.312. A definite diagnosis based on relevant small bowel endoscopic lesions was established in 60% of the patients in Group A (12 patients, 44.4% in Group B (8 patients and 57.8% in Group C (11 patients (P = 0.587. CONCLUSION: Preparation with 2 L of PEG before small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE may improve small bowel cleansing and the quality of visualization. Simethicone may further reduce intraluminal bubbles. No significant differences were found regarding GET, SBTT and the proportion of complete exploration or diagnostic yield among the three different cleansing protocols.

  6. [Inflammatory complications of colon diverticular disease: current therapeutic challenges].

    Erdas, Enrico; Licheri, Sergio; Garau, Annalisa; Pisano, Giuseppe; Pomata, Mariano; Daniele, Giovanni Maria

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory complications of diverticular disease are still responsible for high mortality rates. The aim of the present study was to analyse the factors that primarily influence the type of treatment and prognosis of such pathologies. From 1996 to 2006, 88 patients were admitted to our department for inflammatory complications secondary to diverticular disease. The majority of the patients were emergency room referrals, and nearly half of them were elderly (over 65 years of age). The most frequently observed complications were acute diverticulitis (45.5%), which was almost always resolved with medical therapy, and diverticular perforations (43.2%), for which surgical therapy was always necessary. The main treatment for localised peritonitis was one-stage colorectal resection, whereas for generalized peritonitis a two-stage resection was the procedure of choice. The highest degrees of peritonitis were observed in elderly patients. Restoration of bowel continuity was performed in nearly all patients below 65 years of age, but was not possible in 44.4% of those aged above 65. Postoperative mortality occurred in two cases, both with diffuse peritonitis, advanced age, and elevated anaesthetic risk. The present series seems to confirm the findings of other Authors, namely that the prognosis of diverticular perforation is influenced more by patient-related factors (older age, sepsis, comorbidity) than by the type of surgical procedure. Thus, it is probable that a decrease in the mortality rate and improvements in the quality of life can be achieved through more aggressive diagnostic protocols and new preventive strategies. PMID:18360985

  7. Laparoscopic Management of Diverticular Disease

    Larach, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Laparoscopy surgery has achieved wide acceptance for the treatment of benign disease of the colon. A review of the literature regarding the indications, surgical technique, and outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease is presented.

  8. Inter-observer agreement for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease with capsule endoscopy

    Jensen, Michael Dam; Nathan, Torben; Kjeldsen, Jens

    OBJECTIVE: Compared to other modalities, capsule endoscopy (CE) has a high diagnostic yield for diagnosing small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to determine the inter-observer agreement for detection of small bowel CD with predefined diagnostic criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS...... diagnostic of small bowel CD. Three observers with experience in gastrointestinal endoscopy and CE participated in the study. RESULTS: The presence or absence of small bowel CD was determined with complete agreement in 23 patients, nine patients with and 14 without small bowel CD. The inter...

  9. [Prenatal discovery of Joubert syndrome associated with small bowel volvulus].

    Aurégan, C; Donciu, V; Millischer, A-E; Khen-Dunlop, N; Deloison, B; Sonigo, P; Magny, J-F

    2016-03-01

    Joubert syndrome and prenatal volvulus are difficult to diagnose during pregnancy. Joubert syndrome and related diseases should be considered in case of prenatal abnormal features of the fourth ventricle. Small bowel volvulus is also a surgical emergency because of the risk of intestinal necrosis before or after delivery. This type of condition justifies the transfer of pregnant women to a specialized hospital where the newborn may receive appropriate care. We report the case of a 31-week and 4-day gestational-age fetus in whom intrauterine growth retardation and small-bowel volvulus were diagnosed. Additional imaging revealed associated Joubert syndrome. This highlights the need for regular ultrasound monitoring during pregnancy and the comanagement of obstetricians and pediatricians to provide appropriate care before and after delivery. PMID:26850151

  10. Small Bowel Crohn's disease MRI pictorial essay

    The focus of this article includes revision of normal small bowel anatomy on sequences performed at our institution, with advantages and disadvantages; brief summary of the disease; appearance of acute active disease; usefulness of ancillary findings of active disease; appearance of chronic disease both active and inactive; complications of Crohn's disease; pitfalls and limitations of interpretation; and clinically relevant reporting through clinician feedback.

  11. Blind bedside insertion of small bowel feeding tubes.

    Duggan, SN

    2009-12-01

    The use of Naso-Jejunal (NJ) feeding is limited by difficulty in feeding tube placement. Patients have traditionally required transfer to Endoscopy or Radiology for insertion of small bowel feeding tubes, with clear resource implications. We hypothesised that the adoption of a simple bedside procedure would be effective and reduce cost. Clinical nutrition and nurse specialist personnel were trained in the 10\\/10\\/10 method of blind bedside NJ insertion.

  12. Acute small bowel obstruction due to chicken bone bezoar

    Vetpillai P; Oshowo A

    2012-01-01

    Preadeepan Vetpillai,1 Ayo Oshowo21CT2 Surgery in General, Charing Cross Hospital, 2Colorectal and Laparoscopic Surgery, Whittington Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Acute intestinal obstruction due to foreign bodies, or bezoar, is a rare occurrence in an adult with a normal intestinal tract. We report an unusual case of a 43-year-old black man with no previous abdominal surgery and no significant medical history who presented with an acute episode of small bowel obstruction due to an impacted u...

  13. Abnormalities of mucosal folds of the small intestine: a guide in interpretation of small bowel series

    Normal small intestinal folds are less than 2mm in thickness and criss-cross in appearance. Many diseases of the small intestine produce an abnormality in mucosal folds, namely thickening and parallel (perpendicular to the bowel lumen) arrangement of folds, nodularity, destruction, and ulcer. Diseases causing submucosal edema produce regular smooth thickening whereas diseases producing submucosal hemorrhage produce regular spiky thickening. Inflammatory bowel diseases and lymphoma produce irregular (in width, or distorted or bent at peculiar angles to the bowel lumen) thickening nodularity of the mucosa. Severe inflammatory processes as well as malignant tumors produce mucosal destruction and ulcer. Proposed here is an approach to narrow the category of disease processes based on mucosal fold abnormality. This approach with sufficient clinical history is invaluable in the interpretation of small bowel series

  14. Direct diverticular inguinal hernia

    Nineteen patients with direct diverticular inguinal hernia (DDIH) were examined with herniography and surgically explored. A lump medially in the groin and pain were the prominent clinical manifestations in 18 patients. Physical examination indicated the presence of a DDIH in 6 patients. In 16 patients herniography revealed hernial sacs protruding from the supravesical fossa in 5 and from the medial inguinal fossa in 11. At operation a circumscribed defect was found in the transverse fascia laterally and cranially to the pubic tubercle in all patients. In 16 patients peritoneal hernial sacs were demonstrated at surgery while in 3 only lipomas (fatty hernia) were contained within the defect. In our opinion DDIH is a specific variety of inguinal hernia with a fairly typical clinical presentation and radiographic appearance but probably often overlooked at surgery. (orig.)

  15. Direct diverticular inguinal hernia

    Ekberg, O.; Kullenberg, K.

    Nineteen patients with direct diverticular inguinal hernia (DDIH) were examined with herniography and surgically explored. A lump medially in the groin and pain were the prominent clinical manifestations in 18 patients. Physical examination indicated the presence of a DDIH in 6 patients. In 16 patients herniography revealed hernial sacs protruding from the supravesical fossa in 5 and from the medial inguinal fossa in 11. At operation a circumscribed defect was found in the transverse fascia laterally and cranially to the pubic tubercle in all patients. In 16 patients peritoneal hernial sacs were demonstrated at surgery while in 3 only lipomas (fatty hernia) were contained within the defect. In our opinion DDIH is a specific variety of inguinal hernia with a fairly typical clinical presentation and radiographic appearance but probably often overlooked at surgery.

  16. Advanced small bowel adenocarcinoma: Molecular characteristics and therapeutic perspectives.

    Zaaimi, Yosra; Aparicio, Thomas; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Taieb, Julien; Zaanan, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    Small bowel cancer represents less than 5% of all gastrointestinal cancers, while small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) accounts for about one third of all cancers of the small bowel. Although SBA frequently appears sporadically, some diseases are risk factors, such as Crohn's disease and some genetic predispositions to cancer. Progress in the identification of molecular alterations suggests some similarities in carcinogenesis between SBA and colorectal cancer. Evidence levels for the treatment and prognosis of these tumors are insufficient because of the scarcity of this disease and the absence of randomized trials. Chemotherapy based on fluoropyrimidine plus a platinum salt appears to be the most effective treatment regimen in non-randomized prospective trials for advanced SBA. Targeted therapy, against the angiogenic pathway or the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, for example, is not yet established, but seems promising given the over-expression of vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF)-A or EGFR observed in SBA. Phase I and II studies are currently evaluating the safety and efficacy of these targeted therapies in SBA treatment. The low incidence of SBA should promote the development of international collaborations to improve our knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying these tumors and to set up therapeutic trials. PMID:26547136

  17. Local radiotherapy of exposed murine small bowel: Apoptosis and inflammation

    Thornberg Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preoperative radiotherapy of the pelvic abdomen presents with complications mostly affecting the small bowel. The aim of this study was to define the features of early radiation-induced injury on small bowel. Methods 54 mice were divided into two groups (36 irradiated and 18 sham irradiated. Animals were placed on a special frame and (in the radiated group the exteriorized segment of ileum was subjected to a single absorbed dose of 19 or 38 Gy radiation using 6 MV high energy photons. Specimens were collected for histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC and ELISA analysis after 2, 24 and 48 hours. Venous blood was collected for systemic leucocyte count in a Burker chamber. Results Histology demonstrated progressive infiltration of inflammatory cells with cryptitis and increased apoptosis. MIP-2 (macrophage inflammatory protein concentration was significantly increased in irradiated animals up to 48 hours. No significant differences were observed in IL-10 (interleukin and TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor levels. IHC with CD45 showed a significant increase at 2 hours of infiltrating leucocytes and lymphocytes after irradiation followed by progressive decrease with time. Caspase-3 expression increased significantly in a dose dependent trend in both irradiated groups up to 48 hours. Conclusion Acute small bowel injury caused by local irradiation is characterised by increased apoptosis of crypt epithelial cells and by lymphocyte infiltration of the underlying tissue. The severity of histological changes tends to be dose dependent and may affect the course of tissue damage.

  18. Small bowel neuroendocrine tumors: From pathophysiology to clinical approach.

    Xavier, Sofia; Rosa, Bruno; Cotter, José

    2016-02-15

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), defined as epithelial tumors with predominant neuroendocrine differentiation, are among the most frequent types of small bowel neoplasm. They represent a rare, slow-growing neoplasm with some characteristics common to all forms and others attributable to the organ of origin. The diagnosis of this subgroup of neoplasia is not usually straight-forward for several reasons. Being a rare form of neoplasm they are frequently not readily considered in the differential diagnosis. Also, clinical manifestations are nonspecific lending the clinician no clue that points directly to this entity. However, the annual incidence of NETs has risen in the last years to 40 to 50 cases per million probably not due to a real increase in incidence but rather due to better diagnostic tools that have become progressively available. Being a rare malignancy, investigation regarding its pathophysiology and efforts toward better understanding and classification of these tumors has been limited until recently. Clinical societies dedicated to this matter are emerging (NANETS, ENETS and UKINETS) and several guidelines were published in an effort to standardize the nomenclature, grading and staging systems as well as diagnosis and management of NETs. Also, some investigation on the genetic behavior of small bowel NETs has been recently released, shedding some light on the pathophysiology of these tumors, and pointing some new directions on the possible treating options. In this review we focus on the current status of the overall knowledge about small bowel NETs, focusing on recent breakthroughs and its potential application on clinical practice. PMID:26909234

  19. [A Feasibility Study of closing the small bowel with high-frequency welding device].

    Zhou, Huabin; Han, Shuai; Chen, Jun; Huang, Dequn; Peng, Liang; Ning, Jingxuan; Li, Zhou

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of closing the small bowel in an ex vivo porcine model with high-frequency welding device. A total of 100 porcine small bowels were divided into two groups, and then were closed with two different methods. The fifty small bowels in experimental group were closed by the high-frequency welding device, and the other fifty small bowels in comparison group were hand-sutured. All the small bowels were subjected to leak pressure testing later on. The speed of closure and bursting pressure were compared. The 50 porcine small bowels closed by the high-frequency welding device showed a success rate of 100%. Compared with the hand-sutured group, the bursting pressures of the former were significantly lower (Pwelding device has higher feasibility in closing the small bowel. PMID:25868254

  20. Efficacy of small bowel follow-through with oral administration of methylcellulose in the diagnosis of small bowel disease

    To evaluate the usefulness of modified Small Bowel Follow Through (SBFT) with oral administration of methylcellulose in patients with small bowel diseases. Mean transit time was 142 minutes, and the maximum diameter of the jejunum and ileum was 2.9 cm and 2.1 cm respectively: in 45 patients (63%) the examination was concluded within 2 hours. The quality of images was excellent in 29 cases (41%), good in 30 (42%), fair in 8 (11%), and poor in 3 (4%). Images related to the inflammatory and vascular disease were graded as 'good' or 'excellent' in 92% and 89% of cases, respectively, and the image quality of lesions of the jejunum and ileum were graded, respectively, as 'good' or 'excellent' in 96 % and 63% of cases. Using this modified technique, sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 99%, respectively. Modified SBFT with the oral administration of methylcellulose is a simple but highly sensitive method of evaluating small bowel diseases. It is especially valuable in cases of inflammatory and vascular disease of the small intestine and lesions in the jejunum. (author). 15 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Heritability and familial aggregation of diverticular disease

    Strate, Lisa L; Erichsen, Rune; Baron, John A; Mortensen, Jakob; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Riis, Anders H; Christensen, Kaare; Srensen, Henrik Toft

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the role of heritable factors in diverticular disease. We evaluated the contribution of heritable factors to the development of diverticular disease diagnosed at a hospitalization or outpatient visit....

  2. MRI of small bowel Crohn's disease: determining the reproducibility of bowel wall gadolinium enhancement measurements

    This study aims to determine inter- and intra-observer variation in MRI measurements of relative bowel wall signal intensity (SI) in Crohn's disease. Twenty-one small bowel MRI examinations (11 male, mean age 40), including T1-weighted acquisitions acquired 30 to 120s post-gadolinium, were analysed. Maximal bowel wall SI (most avid, conspicuous contrast enhancement) in designated diseased segments was measured by two radiologists and two trainees using self-positioned ''free'' regions of interest (ROIs) followed by ''fixed'' ROIs chosen by one radiologist, and this procedure was repeated 1 month later. Relative enhancement (post-contrast SI minus pre-contrast SI/pre-contrast SI) was calculated. Data were analysed using Bland-Altman limits of agreement and intra-class correlation. Inter-observer agreement for relative enhancement was poor (spanning over 120%) using a free ROI - 95% limits of agreement -0.69, 0.70 and -0.47, 0.74 for radiologists and trainees, respectively, only marginally improved by use of a fixed ROI -0.60, 0.67 and -0.59, 0.49. Intra-class correlation ranged from 0.46 to 0.72. Intra-observer agreement was slightly better and optimised using a fixed ROI - 95% limits of agreement -0.52, 0.50 and -0.34, 0.28 for radiologists and trainees, respectively. Intra-class correlation ranged from 0.49 to 0.86. Relative bowel wall signal intensity measurements demonstrate wide limits of observer agreement, unrelated to reader experience but improved using fixed ROIs. (orig.)

  3. Small Bowel Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The First Study in Iran

    Abbasi, Mehdi HayatBakhsh; Zahedi, MohammadJavad; Darvish Moghadam, Sodaif; Shafieipour, Sara; HayatBakhsh Abbasi, Mahroo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may have a role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). So, the aim of this study was to assess the association between SIBO and IBS by using glucose breath test (GBT) in Kerman city as the first study in Iranian population. METHODS 107 patients with IBS and 107 healthy individuals were enrolled in our study. All the participants underwent GBT. A peak of H2 values >20 p.p.m above the basal value after glucose ingestion ...

  4. Effect of longer battery life on small bowel capsule endoscopy

    Ou, George; Shahidi, Neal; Galorport, Cherry; Takach, Oliver; Lee, Terry; Enns, Robert

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine if longer battery life improves capsule endoscopy (CE) completion rates. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed at a tertiary, university-affiliated hospital in Vancouver, Canada. Patients who underwent CE with either PillCam SB2 or SB2U between 01/2010 and 12/2013 were considered for inclusion. SB2 and SB2U share identical physical dimensions but differ in their battery lives (8 h vs 12 h). Exclusion criteria included history of gastric or small bowel surgery, endoscopic placement of CE, interrupted view of major landmarks due to technical difficulty or significant amount of debris, and repeat CE using same system. Basic demographics, comorbidities, medications, baseline bowel habits, and previous surgeries were reviewed. Timing of major landmarks in CE were recorded, and used to calculate gastric transit time, small bowel transit time, and total recording time. A complete CE study was defined as visualization of cecum. Transit times and completion rates were compared. RESULTS: Four hundred and eight patients, including 208 (51.0%) males, were included for analysis. The mean age was 55.5 19.3 years. The most common indication for CE was gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 254, 62.3%), followed by inflammatory bowel disease (n = 86, 21.1%). There was no difference in gastric transit times (group difference 0.90, 95%CI: 0.72-1.13, P = 0.352) and small bowel transit times (group difference 1.07, 95%CI: 0.95-1.19, P = 0.261) between SB2U and SB2, but total recording time was about 14% longer in the SB2U group (95%CI: 10%-18%, P < 0.001) and there was a corresponding trend toward higher completion rate (88.2% vs 93.2%, OR = 1.78, 95%CI 0.88-3.63, P = 0.111). There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of positive findings (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.64-1.51, P = 0.918). CONCLUSION: Extending the operating time of CE may be a simple method to improve completion rate although it does not affect the rate of positive findings. PMID:25759536

  5. Small bowel obstruction due to subserosal endometriosis: an elusive condition

    Garima Mishra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The bowel is involved in 3.8 to 37% of women with endometriosis, out of which nearly 1% present with signs of bowel obstruction to the surgeon. This report describes a case of acute small bowel obstruction in a 23 years old woman. The patient gave a history of intermittent episodes of pain abdomen and abdominal distension for the past 1 year with significant loss of weight. The menstrual cycles were normal. Although there was no history of Tuberculosis, a positive history of contact was present. The clinical and biochemical picture was suggestive of peritonitis. CECT of the abdomen revealed a long segment distal ileal stricture. With a provisional diagnosis of Tubercular Ileo-Caecal stricture perforation, a midline exploratory laparotomy was performed. The procedure consisted of right limited hemicolectomy and primary ileo-ascending anastomosis with a proximal loop ileostomy. Ileostomy was done to allow the healing of distal anastomosis and closure was done after 4 weeks. Histopathology of the resected segment of ileum revealed subserosal endometriosis. Postoperatively, the patient was not given any hormonal therapy and recovery has been uneventful over the past 1 year of follow up. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 907-912

  6. Application of nasointestinal decompression intubation in small bowel obstruction

    Objective: To evaluate the nasointestinal decompression intubation in acute small intestinal obstruction. Methods: Ten patients with acute small bowel obstruction received nasointestinal decompression intubation under x-ray guidance. The nasointestinal decompression tube passing over a guidewire was inserted into small intestine near Tres ligament or further down distally with assistance of patients adopting in multi-physical positions. Results: The intubation of nasointestinal decompression tubes into small intestine was technically successful in all patients with average procedural time of 16 min. (10-35 min). After placement of the tube, all patients obtained various degrees of symptoms relief including abdominal pain, distention, vomiting, etc. Four patients with simple adhesive obstruction recovered completely and the tube was removed 2 weeks later. Three patients were referred to surgical operation, and 3 others gave up for further treatment. There were no complications such as bleeding or perforation related to intubation. Conclusion: Nasointestinal decompression intubation under guidance of X-ray is rather simple, less time consuming, especially with high efficiency for preoperative gastrointestinal decompression and treating simple adhesive bowel obstruction; ought to be recommended. (authors)

  7. Technical quality of CT colonography in relation with diverticular disease

    Objective: The aim of the study is to explore how the technical quality of the examination was affected by diverticular disease. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated a consecutive series of 78 subjects who underwent CTC for screening (n = 58) or staging (n = 20) colorectal cancer, 38 of them (49%) after an incomplete optical colonoscopy. Patients were administered a mild laxative and a iodinated contrast material for fecal tagging. We scored both the bowel preparation and the overall colon distension as poor, good, or optimal and measured the mean sigmoid colon diameter. We counted the number of diverticula and classified patients as having or not a severe diverticular disease (SDD). The number of the prompts of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) per patient was also considered. MannWhitney U and ?2 tests were performed. Results: No CTC complications occurred. The bowel cleansing was poor in 8 (10%) patients, good in 29 (37%) and optimal in 41 (53%); colon distension was poor in 7 (9%) patients, good in 38 (49%), and optimal in 33 (42%). Fifty-four (69%) showed diverticula and 30 (38%) had an SDD. Bowel cleansing and distension were not significantly impaired by neither diverticula (p > 0.590) nor the SDD (p > 0.110). Mean sigmoid colon diameter was reduced in presence of diverticula (28 mm versus 23 mm, p = 0.009) or SDD (26 mm versus 22 mm, p = 0.016). The mean number of CAD prompts per patient was not significantly increased by the presence of SDD (p = 0.829). Conclusions: Bowel cleansing and distension at CTC were not influenced by the presence of diverticular disease.

  8. MRI enterography: the future of small bowel diagnostics?

    Feuerbach, S

    2010-01-01

    MRI plays an increasing role in small bowel imaging of Crohn's disease. MR enterography (MRE) without nasojejunal intubation and radiation exposure offers similar results compared to MR enteroclysis (with intubation) and should be therefore the preferred method. Sensitivity and specificity is comparable to that of CT enterography. Capsule endoscopy is obviously superior to MRE in detecting superficial lesions, but this is limited to the mucosa and stenosis has to be excluded before examination using imaging, like MRE. There are no convincing studies in the literature regarding assessment of disease activity with imaging. Moreover, there is no consensus in the literature about a suitable reference standard. PMID:20926869

  9. Delayed Presentation of Trichobezoar with Small Bowel Obstruction

    Soofia Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel obstruction is a common surgical emergency but trichobezoar as an etiology, rarely reported. A seven year old school going female child presented with acute intestinal obstruction with a palpable and mobile mass in the abdomen. At exploration, a 10 cm long trichobezoar was found in the distal ileum which was removed through enterotomy. Postoperative course remained uneventful. Further probing revealed that child used to eat her own scalp hairs at the age of 2 years and the habit persisted for about 18 months which resulted in alopecia at that time. Later on she started showing normal behavior.

  10. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome following Small Bowel Obstruction

    Shoumitro Deb; Richard Law-Min; David Fearnley

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of a 64-year-old lady who developed clinical features of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome following a laparotomy for small bowel obstruction. Following the operation she developed paralytic ileus and required total parenteral nutrition for one month. A suspected history of average 40 units of weekly alcohol consumption prior to the operation could not be confirmed and the patient did not show any sign of alcohol dependence. Within a few months of treatment with a daily oral dose o...

  11. Giant small bowel diverticulum presenting after percutaneous gastrostomy: case report

    Robinson, G.J.; Clark, J.A.; Pugash, R.A. [St. Michael' s Hospital, Wellesley Central Site, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-10-01

    The standard technique for percutaneous gastrostomy requires insufflation of air into the stomach via a nasogastric tube before percutaneous gastric puncture. We present a previously undescribed complication in which the insertion of a percutaneous gastrostomy tube resulted in the distention of a previously undiagnosed giant small bowel diverticulum. This led to discomfort for the patient, further radiologic investigation and a delay in discharge. Symptoms resolved with conservative management. We suggest a strategy for avoiding this complication, as well as for reducing the incidence of post-procedure ileus. (author)

  12. Small bowel obstruction complicating colonoscopy: a case report

    Hunter Iain A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This report describes a rare complication of colonoscopy and reviews the literature with regard to other rare causes of acute abdominal presentations following colonoscopy. Case presentation After a therapeutic colonoscopy a 60-year-old woman developed an acute abdomen. At laparotomy she was discovered to have small bowel obstruction secondary to incarceration through a congenital band adhesion. Conclusion Although there is no practical way in which such rare complications can be predicted, this case report emphasises the wide array of pathologies that can result in acute abdominal symptoms following colonoscopy.

  13. Small bowel adenocarcinoma mimicking a large adrenal tumor

    Ivović Miomira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel is a rare gastrointestinal neoplasm usually affecting the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum. Because of their rarity and poorly defined abdominal symptoms, a correct diagnosis is often delayed. Case Outline. We present a 43-year-old woman admitted at the Clinic for Endocrinology due to a large tumor (over 7 cm of the left adrenal gland. The tumor was detected by ultrasound and confirmed by CT scan. The patient complained of abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant, fatigue and septic fever. Normal urinary catecholamines excluded pheochromocytoma. The endocrine evaluations revealed laboratory signs of subclinical hypercorticism: midnight cortisol 235 nmol/L, post 1 mg - overnight Dexamethasone suppression test for cortisol 95.5 nmol/L and basal ACTH 4.2 pg/mL. Plasma rennin activity and aldosterone were within the normal range. Surgery was performed. Intraoperative findings showed signs of acute peritonitis and a small ulceration of the jejunum below at 70 cm on the anal side from the Treitz’s ligament. Adrenal glands were not enlarged. Patohistology and immunochemistry identified adenocarcinoma of the jejunum without infiltration of the lymphatic nodules. The extensive jejunal resection and lavage of the peritoneum were performed. Due to complications of massive peritonitis, the patient died seven days after surgery. Conclusion. Poorly defined symptoms and a low incidence make the diagnosis of small bowel carcinoma, particularly of the jejunal region, very difficult in spite of the new endoscopic techniques.

  14. Intestinal anisakiasis as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction.

    Kojima, Gotaro; Usuki, Shinichiro; Mizokami, Ken; Tanabe, Marianne; Machi, Junji

    2013-09-01

    Anisakiasis, a parasitic infection by larvae of the nematode Anisakis found in raw or undercooked saltwater fish, mostly involves stomach but rarely small intestine. We report a rare case of a 61-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain and developed small bowel obstruction caused by intestinal anisakiasis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed segmental edema of the intestinal wall with proximal dilatation. The patient underwent urgent laparotomy because strangulated small bowel obstruction was suspected. A localized portion of the intestine around jejunoileal junction was found to be erythematous, edematous, and hardened, which was resected. The resected specimen showed a linear whitish worm, Anisakis simplex, penetrating into the intestinal mucosa. It is often clinically challenging to consider intestinal anisakiasis in the differential diagnosis because of its nonspecific abdominal symptoms and findings. Although gastrointestinal anisakiasis is still rare in the United States, the incidence is expected to rise given the growing popularity of Japanese cuisine such as sushi or sashimi. Anisakiasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in patients with nonspecific abdominal symptoms after consumption of raw or undercooked fish. PMID:23786678

  15. Video Capsule Endoscopy of the Small Bowel for Monitoring of Crohn's Disease.

    Kopylov, Uri; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Seidman, Ernest G; Eliakim, Rami

    2015-11-01

    Video capsule endoscopy has revolutionized our ability to visualize the small bowel mucosa. This modality is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of suspected small bowel Crohn's disease, and it is increasingly used for the monitoring of disease activity in patients with established small bowel Crohn's. The purpose of the current article was to review the literature pertaining to the utilization of capsule endoscopy in established Crohn's disease, for monitoring of mucosal healing, postoperative recurrence, disease classification, and other indications. PMID:26193349

  16. Ultrasonographic differentiation of bezoar from feces in small bowel obstruction

    Kyung Hoon Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate ultrasonographic accuracy in the differentiation of a bezoar from feces in a small bowel obstruction showing feces-like material just proximal to the transitional zone in abdominal computed tomography (CT. Methods: This study included 14 patients who showed feces-like material just proximal to the transitional zone, among 302 patients diagnosed with small bowel obstruction on abdominal CT. The diagnostic signs of a bezoar on ultrasonography included an arc-like surfaced intraluminal mass, posterior acoustic shadow and twinkling artifacts. The diagnostic performance of ultrasonography in each patient was compared with a final diagnosis that was surgically or clinically made. Results: Among the 14 patients, seven were ultrasonographically diagnosed as having a bezoar, and five of the seven were surgically diagnosed as having a phytobezoar. The remaining two of the seven showed complete symptomatic improvement before surgery. The other seven patients were ultrasonographically diagnosed as not having a bezoar. Among them, six patients were conservatively treated with symptomatic improvement, suggesting the absence of a bezoar. The remaining one patient was confirmed not to have a bezoar during adhesiolysis. In all patients, the ultrasonographic diagnosis agreed with the clinically confirmed diagnosis. Conclusion: Ultrasonography might be an accurate method for the differential diagnosis of feces-like material just proximal to the transitional zone in abdominal CT. It can help radiologists to quickly and easily diagnose a bezoar.

  17. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: the first study in iran.

    Abbasi, Mehdi HayatBakhsh; Zahedi, MohammadJavad; Darvish Moghadam, Sodaif; Shafieipour, Sara; HayatBakhsh Abbasi, Mahroo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may have a role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). So, the aim of this study was to assess the association between SIBO and IBS by using glucose breath test (GBT) in Kerman city as the first study in Iranian population. METHODS 107 patients with IBS and 107 healthy individuals were enrolled in our study. All the participants underwent GBT. A peak of H2 values >20 p.p.m above the basal value after glucose ingestion was considered suggestive of SIBO. SPSS software version 17 was used for data analysis. P value SIBO. We suggest a Placebo-controlled bacterial eradication study for identifying the role of SIBO in IBS. PMID:25628852

  18. Small bowel incarceration in a broad ligament defect.

    Guillem, P; Cordonnier, C; Bounoua, F; Adams, P; Duval, G

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old woman whose medical history included three normal pregnancies without previous abdominal or pelvic surgery. She presented with small bowel obstruction. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan study revealed air fluid levels in the pelvis. Laparoscopic exploration revealed a viable ileal loop incarcerated through the mesoligamentum teres. The intestinal loop was reduced and the broad ligament defect was closed with a laparoscopic absorbable clip. Among internal hernias, hernias through a defect in the broad ligament represent only 4-7%. Defects within the broad ligament can be either congenital (ruptured cystic structures reminiscent of the mesonephric or mullerian ducts) or secondary to operative trauma, pregnancy and birth trauma, or prior pelvic inflammatory disease. CT scan may be diagnostic by showing incarceration of a dilated intestinal loop in the Douglas pouch with air fluid levels. This is the first reputed case of a totally laparoscopic repair of a bowel incarceration through a broad ligament defect. PMID:12399855

  19. Prevention of postoperative small bowel obstruction in gastric cancer.

    Hayashi, Shigeoki; Fujii, Masashi; Takayama, Tadatoshi

    2015-11-01

    Postoperative adhesion is a frequent problem in patients undergoing surgery. In particular, gastrectomy is associated with a high risk of bowel obstruction. However, there are few reports of small bowel obstruction (SBO) after gastrectomy in the English-language literature. We reviewed the literature to assess the effectiveness of various techniques for preventing adhesion in patients treated with gastrectomy. We assumed that strategies used to prevent postoperative adhesion associated with colorectal surgery, cholecystectomy, appendectomy and gynecologic procedures are similar to those used in gastrectomy. We therefore reviewed reports on the prevention of postoperative SBO in any abdominal surgical procedure, focusing especially on gastrectomy. General intraoperative preventive techniques, such as the use of starch-free gloves, saline irrigation at a temperature below 37C and laparoscopic techniques whenever possible, may reduce the incidence of SBO in patients with gastric cancer who undergo gastrectomy. If preserving the omentum is unrelated to the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer, this technique should be recommended for preventing postoperative SBO. The use of hyaluronic acid/carboxymethylcellulose bioabsorbable membranes should also be considered in patients undergoing gastrectomy. However, demonstrating the advantages of bioabsorbable membranes would require larger randomized studies with a longer follow-up period. PMID:25542082

  20. Small bowel obstruction in children: usefulness of CT for diagnosis and localization

    Lee, Young Cheol; Kim, Young Tong; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of CT for the diagnosis of the cause and localization of small bowel obstruction. Out of a group of children who underwent a CT examination for a suspected small bowel obstruction, 19 patients with confirmed underlying disorders were identified and included in the study. Neonates and patients with duodenal obstruction were excluded from the study. The CT findings were analyzed for the location of obstruction site, abnormalities of the mesentery and mesenteric vessels, bowel wall thickening, closed loop obstruction, and strangulation. The obstruction site was divided into five parts. The preoperative CT diagnosis was compared with the final diagnosis. Causes of small bowel obstruction were intussusception (n = 6), appendiceal perforation (n = 4), transmesenteric internal hernia (n = 2), postoperative bands (n = 1), idiopathic multiple bands (n = 1), a foreign body (n = 1), a small bowel adenocarcinoma (n = 1), Meckel's diverticulitis (n = 1), tuberculous peritonitis (n = 1) and Salmonella enteritis with bowel perforation (n = 1). The CT findings showed mesenteric vascular prominence (n = 13), omental or mesenteric infiltration (n = 10), localized bowel wall thickening (n = 7) closed loops obstruction (n = 3) and strangulation (n = 1). The obstruction site was identified in all cases. The causes of obstruction could be diagnosed preoperatively in 14 cases, but a preoperative diagnosis was difficult in 5 cases. The causes of small bowel obstruction in children are variable, and CT is useful for evaluating the cause and localization of small bowel obstruction.

  1. Utility of CT in the diagnosis and management of small-bowel obstruction in children

    CT is often used in the diagnosis and management of small-bowel obstruction in children. To determine sensitivity of CT in delineating presence, site and cause of small-bowel obstruction in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 47 children with surgically proven small-bowel obstruction. We noted any findings of obstruction and the site and cause of obstruction. Presence, absence or equivocal findings of bowel obstruction on abdominal radiographs performed prior to CT were also noted. We reviewed patient charts for clinical details and surgical findings, including bowel resection. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher exact test to determine which CT findings might predict bowel resection. CT correctly diagnosed small-bowel obstruction in 43/47 (91.5%) cases. CT correctly indicated site of obstruction in 37/47 (78.7%) cases and cause of obstruction in 32/47 (68.1%) cases. Small-bowel feces sign was significantly associated with bowel resection at surgery (P = 0.0091). No other CT finding was predictive of bowel resection. Out of 41 children who had abdominal radiographs before CT, 29 (70.7%) showed unequivocal obstruction, six (14.6%) showed equivocal findings and six (14.6%) were unremarkable. CT is highly sensitive in diagnosing small-bowel obstruction in children and is helpful in determining the presence of small-bowel obstruction in many clinically suspected cases with equivocal or normal plain radiographs. CT also helps to determine the site and cause of the obstruction with good sensitivity. (orig.)

  2. Non-specific granulomatous inflammatory lesions of small bowel.

    Bapat R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The entity of nonspecific granulomatous inflammatory lesions(NSGIL of the small bowel is a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Data of 52 histopathologically proven cases of NSGIL seen by us between 1986 and 1991 were analysed. All these patients presented with either intestinal obstruction or perforation. They were thoroughly evaluated and investigated for tuberculosis. Of the 52 patients, 6 patients received antitubercular therapy (ATT before and after surgery and 32 patients only after surgery. Fourteen patients did not receive ATT. Surgical procedures undertaken included stricturoplasty, resection/anastomosis and simple suturing of perforation. No complications were seen in patients who received ATT; however, six of 14 patients who did not receive ATT developed wound sepsis and 2 developed partial wound dehiscence. Many of these NSGIL lesions could be tuberculous in etiology though typical caseating granulomas were not seen.

  3. CT and MRI of the small bowel; CT und MRT des Duenndarms

    Wessling, Johannes; Buerke, Boris [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2012-09-15

    MDCT and MRT are valuable methods for diagnosing small bowel diseases. This article provides an overview of the techniques, indication spectrum, and advantages and disadvantages. Characteristic morphological image findings and diagnosing tips and tricks are explained on the basis of a selection of relevant small bowel diseases including inflammation, tumours and gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  4. Small bowel MRI imaging in the DGH - Are you doing it yet?

    Lee-Elliott, C., E-mail: Catherine.Lee-Elliott@poole.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Poole, Dorset (United Kingdom); Ayer, R. [Department of Radiology, Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Poole, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the spectrum of disease visualized at small bowel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the district general hospital (DGH) setting. The advantages and disadvantages of small bowel MRI, technique, and service implementation are discussed.

  5. High sensitivity of quick view capsule endoscopy for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease

    Halling, Morten Lee; Nathan, Torben; Kjeldsen, Jens; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2014-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) has a high sensitivity for diagnosing small bowel Crohn's disease, but video analysis is time consuming. The quick view (qv) function is an effective tool to reduce time consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of missed small bowel ulcerations with qv...

  6. CT findings of right paraduodenal hernia presenting as acute small bowel obstruction

    Kim, Ji Chang; Kim, Man Deuk; Jeong, Bong Gak; Kang, Si Won [Taejon St Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Byung Il [Taejon Armed Forces General Hospital, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-01

    Because it is rare, acute small bowel obstruction due to right paraduodenal hernia is an entity with which radiologists are not entirely familiar. Its clinical importance, however, lies in the fat that delayed diagnosis leads to significantly increased morbidity and mortality rates. We report a case of small bowel obstruction due to right paraduodenal hernia in which all the known characteristic findings were demonstrated.

  7. An unusual cause of small bowel obstruction: Gossypiboma case report

    Inceoglu Resit

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The term "gossypiboma" denotes a mass of cotton that is retained in the body following surgery. Gossypiboma is a medico-legal problem especially for surgeons. To the best of our knowledge, the patient presented herein is the second reported patient in whom the exact site of migration of a retained surgical textile material into the intestinal lumen could be demonstrated by preoperative imaging studies. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman presented with symptoms of small bowel obstruction due to incomplete intraluminal migration of a laparotomy towel 3 years after open cholecystectomy and umbilical hernia repair. Plain abdominal radiography did not show any sign of a radio-opaque marker in the abdomen. However, contrast enhanced abdominal computerized tomography revealed a round, well-defined soft-tissue mass with a dense, enhanced wall, containing an internal high-density area with air-bubbles in the mid-abdomen. A fistula between the abscess cavity containing the suspicious mass and gastrointestinal tract was identified by upper gastrointestinal series. The presence of a foreign body was considered. It was surgically removed with a partial small bowel resection followed by anastomosis. Conclusions Although gossypiboma is rarely seen in daily clinical practice, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction in patients who underwent laparotomy previously. The best approach in the prevention of this condition can be achieved by meticulous count of surgical materials in addition to thorough exploration of surgical site at the conclusion of operations and also by routine use of surgical textile materials impregnated with a radio-opaque marker.

  8. The clinical value of MRI in the diagnosis of small-bowel diseases

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and the clinical value of MRI in the diagnosis of small-bowel disease. Methods: Sixty-three patients with suspected small-bowel diseases and 3 volunteers without signs of small bowel disease underwent MRI examination. Thirty-one patients whose diagnoses were confirmed by pathology or clinical results were categorized into two groups (neoplastic and nonneoplastic). The conspicuity of bowel wall, the sensitivity of MRI in detecting small-bowel lesions, and the accuracy rate of diagnosis were calculated. The average bowel wall thickness between the two groups was assessed by using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, mesenteric infiltration, and small-bowel stenosis were analyzed by using Fisher's exact test in each group respectively. Results: MRI examinations of all 66 subjects were successfully performed. Images were rated on a continuous 4-point scale. Sixty-two cases (93.9%) were scored as 2 or 3. The diagnoses of 31 patients (neoplastic group (n=10) and nonneoplastic group (n=21) were confirmed by pathology or clinical results. The sensitivity, accuracy of MRI in identifying small bowel diseases were 100% (31/31) and 77.4% (24/31) respectively. The average bowel wall thickness of the two groups was 23 mm (7.0-65.0 mm) and 5 mm(2.0-35.0 mm) respectively, and there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (Z=-2.949, P0.05). Conclusion: MRI can depict the location and extension of the small-bowel disease accurately and it is an effective method in the diagnosis of small-bowel disease. (authors)

  9. The effect of barium infusion rate on the diagnostic value of small bowel enteroclysis

    Although enteroclysis may have many advantages over the conventional methods of small bowel examination, the contrast material is not always infused at a rate appropriate to gain maximum diagnostic information. In this study, 190 patients were examined by small bowell enteroclysis at five contrast infusion rates ranging from 50 to 150 ml/min using a newly designed infusion pump system. The results show that at rates above 75 ml/min, motility disturbances are masked by small bowel dilatation and paralysis, transit times are extended and morphological detail is obscured. At rates below 75 ml/min, incomplete filling of the loops renders optimal diagnostic evaluation impossible. An infusion rate of 75 ml/min was found to be optimal for initiating small bowel studies. This rate can be adjusted for individual cases when pathology or drugs affect the motility of the small bowel. 13 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  10. Modern MRI of the small bowell; Moderne MRT des Duenndarms

    Scharitzer, M.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    The radiological diagnostics of diseases of the small intestine have undergone a great change in the last two decades. Through rapid progress with new treatments and an increasing therapeutic focus on transmural healing, a complete evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is now crucial. With the introduction of endoscopy, gastrointestinal imaging with a relatively high radiation exposure had only limited applications. The development of cross-sectional imaging allowed a much broader radiological evaluation of abdominal diseases. Due to rapid investigation techniques, excellent soft tissue contrast and the distinct advantage of eliminating exposure to radiation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the gastrointestinal tract has gained increasing importance. With sufficient filling of the intestinal lumen, simultaneous imaging of all the intestinal wall layers, the perienteric structures and associated abdominal pathologies is now possible. New MR sequences, such as diffusion-weighted sequences, dynamic contrast-enhanced sequences and MR fluoroscopy, enable the detection of morphological changes, with additional characterization of affected bowel loops as well as the assessment of functional pathologies with dynamic information about intestinal motility disturbances. Recent guidelines of European radiological and gastroenterological organizations have confirmed the importance of cross-sectional imaging and particularly of MRI for diagnostics and follow-up in patients with Crohn's disease. Due to the possibility of assessment of all the layers of the intestinal wall and the presence of extramural complications, MRI has a significant impact on further therapeutic treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Especially in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, MR enterography and MR enteroclysis should be the methods of choice for the evaluation of small bowel pathologies because of radiation issues and the great diagnostic value they provide. A variety of MR sequences has enabled not only the detection but also the characterization of pathological changes of the small intestine, which are vital for further treatment of these patients. (orig.) [German] Die radiologische Diagnostik von Erkrankungen des Duenndarms wurde in den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten einem dramatischen Wandel unterzogen. Durch rasche Fortschritte mit neuen Behandlungsmethoden und einem zunehmend therapeutischen Fokus auf transmuralen Heilungsprozessen ist eine Gesamtabklaerung des Gastrointestinaltrakts in den Mittelpunkt gerueckt. Durch die Einfuehrung der Endoskopie hat die gastrointestinale Bildgebung mit der Magen-Darm-Passage bzw. dem Enteroklysma mit einer relativ hohen Strahlenbelastung nur bedingte Einsatzmoeglichkeiten gezeigt. Die Entwicklung der Schnittbildverfahren ermoeglichte eine deutlich breitere radiologische Abklaerung abdomineller Erkrankungen. Durch schnelle Untersuchungstechniken sowie einen hohen Weichteilkontrast mit dem grossen Vorteil einer fehlenden Strahlenexposition hat die MRT des Gastrointestinaltrakts zunehmende Bedeutung gewonnen. Bei suffizienter Fuellung des Darmlumens liegt ein grosser Vorteil in der gleichzeitigen Abbildung saemtlicher Darmwandschichten, der perienteralen Strukturen sowie assoziierter abdomineller Veraenderungen. Neue MR-Sequenzen wie diffusionsgewichtete Sequenzen, dynamische Kontrastmittelsequenzen oder die MR-Fluoroskopie ermoeglichen die Detektion morphologischer Veraenderungen mit zusaetzlicher Charakterisierung dieser Darmabschnitte sowie die Beurteilung funktioneller Pathologien mit dynamischer Information ueber eine gestoerte Darmmotilitaet. Aktuelle Richtlinien europaeischer radiologischer und gastroenterologischer Organisationen haben die Bedeutung der Schnittbildverfahren und insbesondere der MRT fuer die Erstdiagnose und das Follow-up bei Patienten mit Morbus Crohn bestaetigt. Durch die Moeglichkeit der Beurteilung aller Darmwandschichten sowie dem Vorhandensein extramuraler Komplikationen hat die MRT einen signifikanten Einfluss auf das weitere therapeutische Vorgehen bei Patienten mit chronisch entzuendlichen Darmerkrankungen. Insbesondere bei Patienten mit chronisch entzuendlichen Darmerkrankungen sollte aus Gruenden der Strahlenhygiene bei hoher diagnostischer Aussagekraft die MRT als MR-Enterographie oder MR-Enteroklysma die Methode der Wahl fuer die Abklaerung von Duenndarmpathologien darstellen. Mithilfe verschiedener MR-Sequenzen sind nicht nur die Detektion, sondern auch die Charakterisierung der gefundenen Veraenderungen fuer die weitere Behandlung der Patienten entscheidend. (orig.)

  11. Effect of experimental stress on the small bowel and colon in healthy humans

    Pritchard, SE; Garsed, KC; Hoad, CL; Lingaya, M; Banwait, R; Thongborisute, W; Roberts, E; Costigan, C; Marciani, L; Gowland, PA; Spiller, RC

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are frequently reported to be exacerbated by stress. Animal studies suggest that corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) mediates the effect of stress on the bowel. We have shown that stressed IBS patients with diarrhea have constricted small bowels. We hypothesized that we could mimic this effect by applying experimental stress in the form of either hand immersion in ice water or CRH injection in healthy volunteers (HV). Methods The postpr...

  12. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Lactose Intolerance Contribute to Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptomatology in Pakistan

    Javed Yakoob; Zaigham Abbas; Rustam Khan; Saeed Hamid; Safia Awan; Wasim Jafri

    2011-01-01

    Background /Aim: The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome resemble those of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of SIBO and lactose intolerance (LI) occurrence in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) according to Rome III criteria. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective case-control study, patients over 18 years of age with altered bowel habit, bloating, and patients who had lactose Hydrogen bre...

  13. Small bowel sparing effect of small bowel displacement system in 3D-CRT and IMRT for cervix cancer

    In radiotherapy for cervix cancer, both 3-dimensional radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) could reduce the dose to the small bowel (SB), while the small bowel displacement system (SBDS) could reduce the SB volume in the pelvic cavity. To evaluate the effect of the SBDS on the dose to the SB in 3D-CRT and IMRT plans, 3D-CRT and IMRT plans, with or without SBDS, were compared. Ten consecutive uterine cervix cancer, receiving curative radiotherapy, were accrued. Ten pairs of computerized tomography (CT) scans were obtained in the prone position, with or without SBDS, which consisted of a Styrofoam compression device and an individualized custom-made abdominal immobilization device. Both 3D-CRT, using the 4-field box technique, and IMRT plans, with 7 portals of 15 MV X-ray, were generated for each CT image, and prescribed 50 Gy (25 fractions) to the isocenter. For the SB, the volume change due to the SBDS and the DVHs of the four different plans were analyzed using paired t-tests. The SBDS significantly reduced the mean SB volume from 522 to 262 cm3 (49.8% reduction). The SB volumes that received a dose of 10 ∼ 50 Gy were significantly reduced in 3D-CRT (65 ∼ 80% reduction) and IMRT plans (54 ∼ 67% reduction) using the SBDS. When the SB volumes that received 20 ∼ 50 Gy were compared between the 3D-CRT and IMRT plans, those of the IMRT without the SBDS were significantly less, by 6∼ 7%, than those for the 3D-CRT without the SBDS, but the volume difference was less than 1% when using the SBDS. The SBDS reduced the radiation dose to the SB in both the 3D-CRT and IMRT plans, so could reduce the radiation injury of the SB

  14. Reducing false positives of small bowel segmentation on CT scans by localizing colon regions

    Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Jiamin; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Automated small bowel segmentation is essential for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of small bowel pathology, such as tumor detection and pre-operative planning. We previously proposed a method to segment the small bowel using the mesenteric vasculature as a roadmap. The method performed well on small bowel segmentation but produced many false positives, most of which were located on the colon. To improve the accuracy of small bowel segmentation, we propose a semi-automated method with minimum interaction to distinguish the colon from the small bowel. The method utilizes anatomic knowledge about the mesenteric vasculature and a statistical method of colon detection. First, anatomic labeling of the mesenteric arteries is used to identify the arteries supplying the colon. Second, a statistical detector is created by combining two colon probability maps. One probability map is of the colon location and is generated from colon centerlines generated from CT colonography (CTC) data. Another probability map is of 3D colon texture using Haralick features and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. The two probability maps are combined to localize colon regions, i.e., voxels having high probabilities on both maps were labeled as colon. Third, colon regions identified by anatomical labeling and the statistical detector are removed from the original results of small bowel segmentation. The method was evaluated on 11 abdominal CT scans of patients suspected of having carcinoid tumors. The reference standard consisted of manually-labeled small bowel segmentation. The method reduced the voxel-based false positive rate of small bowel segmentation from 19.7%±3.9% to 5.9%±2.3%, with two-tailed P-value < 0.0001.

  15. Goblet Cell Carcinoid Tumor of the Appendix with Small Bowel Obstruction: A Case Report

    Hwang, Su Yeon; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Min Jeong; Koh, Sung Hye; Jeon, Eui Yong; Min, Kwang Seon; Seo, Jin Won; Park, Hyoung Chul [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Goblet cell carcinoid tumor of the appendix (GCTA) is a tumor with histological features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors. The most common clinical presentation of GCTA is acute appendicitis, although small bowel obstruction has been reported as a rare clinical symptom of GCTA. However, to the best of our knowledge, the CT feature of small bowel obstructions in patients with GCTA has not been reported to date. Here, we present a case of small bowel obstruction in a patient with GCTA caused by extensive tumor infiltration at the terminal ileum and distal ileum.

  16. Sonographic diagnosis of multiple small-bowel intussusceptions in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a case report

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare, though well-described, hereditary polyposis syndrome associated with mucocutaneous pigmentation that typically presents in the second decade of life with complications related to intestinal polyps. We present two cases of teenaged girls presenting with small-bowel intussusceptions within a 3-month period. Sonographic examinations readily revealed small-bowel intussusceptions with secondary small-bowel obstruction. In both the symptoms were less severe than one would expect given the underlying pathology found at subsequent surgery. Sonographic imaging with pathologic correlation is provided. (orig.)

  17. Radiological aspects of diagnosis and staging of small bowel lymphoma - a case report

    The authors report a case of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the small bowel, presenting with ulcerative lesions on radiological studies. primary intestinal lymphoma is considered a rare entity and its diagnosis criteria are quiet strict. The secondary form of the disease - involvement of the small bowel by systemic lymphoma - constitutes an infrequent clinical presentation of these neoplasms and must be considered when the criteria for primary disease are not fulfilled. Diagnosis is based on small bowel series studies and/or computed tomography findings, but the definitive diagnosis is established by biopsy. (author)

  18. Dose-volume correlation in radiation-related late small-bowel complication; A clinical study

    Letschert, J.G.J.; Lebesque, J.V.; Boer, R.W. de; hart, A.A.M.; Barteling, H. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1990-08-01

    The effects of the volume of irradiated small bowel on late small-bowel tolerance was studied, taking into account the equivalent total dose ant type of pre-irradiation surgical procedure. A method was developed to estimate small-bowel volumes in the high-bowel volumes were measured for three-field and AP-PA pelvic treatments (165 cm{sup 3} and 400 cm{sup 3}, respectively), extended AP-PA treatment of para-aortic and iliac nodes (1000 cm{sup 3}). In a retrospective study of 111 patientst irradiated after surgery for rectal or recto-sigmoid cancer to a dose of 45-50 Gy in 5 weeks, extended AP-PA pelvic treatment (n = 27) resulted in a high incidence of severe small-bowel complications (37%), whereas for limited (three-field) pelvic treatment (n = 84) the complication rate was 6%. These complication data together with data from the literature on postoperative radiation-related small-bowel complications were analysed using the maximum likelihood method to fit the data to the logistic form of the dose-response relation, taking the volume effect into account by a power law. The analysis indicated that the incidence of radiation-related small-bowel compllications was higher after rectal surgery than after other types of surgery, which might be explained by the development of more adhesions. For both types of surgery a volume exponent of the power-law of 0.26 {plus minus} 0.05 was established. This means that if the small-bowel volume is increased by a factor of 2, the total dose has to be reduced by 17% for the same incidence of small-bowel complications. (author). 45 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs.

  19. Thrombocytosis and small bowel perforation: unusual presentation of abdominopelvic actinomycosis.

    Desteli, Güldeniz Aksan; Gürsu, Tvrkan; Bircan, Hüseyin Yüce; Kızılkılıç, Ebru; Demiralay, Ebru; Timurkaynak, Funda

    2013-12-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUD) are frequently used as a family planning procedure in developing countries because they are easy to administer and governmental policies support their use in many countries. It is recommended that IUDs be removed or replaced after 10 years, but longer use is common, especially in developing countries. In some cases, rare infections such as pelvic inflammatory diseases, pelvic tuberculosis, or abdominopelvic actinomycosis related to IUD can develop. Pelvic actinomycosis is a rare disease and is often diagnosed incidentally during surgery. In recent years, there has been an increase in actinomycotic infections mostly due to long-term usage of IUD and forgotten intravaginal pessaries. It usually develops as an ascending infection. It is usually associated with non-specific symptoms such as lower abdominal pain, menstrual disturbances, fever, and vaginal discharge. The disease is sometimes asymptomatic. The rate of accurate preoperative diagnosis for pelvic actinomycosis is less than 10%, and symptoms and imaging studies sometimes mimic pelvic malignancy. This report details a case with abdominopelvic actinomycosis associated with an IUD presenting with highly elevated thromboctye count and small bowel perforation with abscess formation. PMID:24334952

  20. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel in a patient with occlusive Crohn’s disease

    Lior Drukker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old male, diagnosed with mild Crohn’s disease (CD 11 years ago but with no prior abdominal surgeries, was diagnosed with a small bowel stricture, due to ongoing abdominal pain and intolerance of enteral diet, and referred for surgical treatment. Exploratory laparoscopy revealed a white solid mass causing a near total jejunal obstruction with significant proximal dilatation. An adjacent small node was sampled for frozen biopsy, revealing a lymph node infiltrated with adenocarcinoma. Laparoscopic assisted small bowel resection and appendectomy were carried out. Final pathological results supported the initial report of diffuse small bowel adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, once a small bowel stricture associated with CD is suspected, rapid action should be considered to avoid late diagnosis of a neoplasia.

  1. Glucagon in the scintigraphic diagnosis of small-bowel hemorrhage by Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells

    Twelve patients undergoing scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells (RBC) exhibited abnormal small-bowel activity and were given glucagon to assess its role in detecting bleeding from the small bowel. Six demonstrated focal accumulation of activity which was not identified prior to glucagon. Endoscopy, barium studies, angiography, and colonoscopy located the small-bowel bleeding site in 4 patients; in the other 2, studies of the colon failed to show the bleeding site and the origin was presumed to be the small bowel. The authors suggest that intravenous glucagon can be beneficial as an adjuvant to Tc-99m-RBC when diagnosing bleeding from the small bowel

  2. Minimization of small bowel volume within treatment fields utilizing customized belly boards

    Thirty consecutive patients with pelvic malignancies were evaluated prospectively for the impact of a novel bowel minimization device (belly board) on the volume of small bowel included within a four field pelvic radiation plan. A customized polyurethane and styrofoam bowel immobilization mold was created for each patient in the prone position. Using contrast enhanced CT scanning on a dedicated radiation treatment planning scanner, we imaged the location of the small intestine in the supine position and the prone position aided by the belly board. Custom in-house interactive image analysis software was developed to allow volumetric determination of small bowel within the treatment portals. The mean small bowel volume was reduced by 66% (299 cm3 to 102 cm3), comparing the standard supine position to the prone position assisted by the belly board. In 13 patients without prior pelvic surgery, the small bowel volume reduction was a more dramatic 74% (334 cm3 to 88 cm3). All patients were found to benefit from this prone belly board setup regardless of body habitus, weight, and age. Compliance with the set-up including use of bladder distension was excellent. All patients completed their pelvic radiotherapy without requiring a treatment break. Weight loss at completion averaged less than 5%. Seventy-six percent of patients experienced little or no diarrhea. This technique is comfortable, inexpensive, highly reproducible, and permits maximal bowel displacement from standard pelvic radiotherapy fields

  3. Coffee Enema for Preparation for Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Pilot Study

    Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

    2014-01-01

    Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

  4. Ultrasound in Crohn's disease of the small bowel

    Objective: The purpose of this work is to prospectively evaluate high resolution ultrasonography with graded compression in the ability to detect Crohn's disease of the small bowel (CDSB) together with its complications and activity signs, compared with enteroclysis, CT and immunoscintigraphy in the mirror of the final diagnosis. Methods and material: In a series of 73 consecutive patients, who were referred for enteroclysis with suspected Crohn's disease of the small bowel computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), immunoscintigraphy with 99mTc labeled monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody (AGAb) examinations were performed within 10 days from each other. For the final evaluation the diagnosis of CDSB was based on combination of clinical and enteroclysis findings (73 cases) and in 17 cases additional surgical and pathological data were available. The results of other modalities were blinded to the radiologists performing and reading out the exams. The diagnostic values of each modality was assessed also in those 18 patients, who had early Crohn's disease. In the group of 43 patients with proven CDSB who had all the four imaging modalities, the modalities were compared in their ability to demonstrate various pathological conditions related to CD. Increased (>500 ml/min) flow measured by Doppler US in the superior mesenteric artery and increased color signs in the gut wall seen by power Doppler sonography were compared to CDAI. Results: Of the 73 patients the combination of enteroclysis and clinical tests demonstrated CDSB in 47. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasound were 88.4, 93.3 and 90.4%, respectively. Enteroclysis was the most accurate method. CT was more sensitive than US, but less specific. The accuracy of US, CT and scintigraphy were similar. In the group of 18 patients, who had early CDSB, the sensitivity of US decreased to only 67%, CT and scintigraphy had higher values. Intra- and perimural abscesses, and sinus tracts were also more frequently visualized by US, especially if they were small. US was superior than CT in detecting stenoses and skip lesions, but inferior to enteroclysis. US and CT detected more fistulas, than enteroclysis. Compared to CT, US detected more cases with mesenteric lymphadenopathy, equal cases with abscesses and free peritoneal fluids. In detecting mesenteric inflammatory proliferation CT, and in detecting colonic involvement CT and immunoscintigraphy were slightly superior than graded compression US. Patterns of mural stratification detected by ultrasound correlated well with the enteroclysis severity stages. There was only 59% agreement between increased superior mesenteric artery flow detected by Doppler sonography and CDAI, and 60.5% agreement between increased number of Color pixels in the gut wall measured by power Doppler and increased CDAI. Conclusion: High resolution graded compression sonography is a valuable tool for detecting small intestinal Crohn's disease. It has similar diagnostic values as CT. However in early disease the sensitivity substantially decreases. In known Crohn's disease for following disease course, evaluating relapses and extramural manifestations US is an excellent tool. Doppler and Power Doppler activity measurements do not correlate well with the more widespread clinical activity index

  5. Radiological assessment of small bowel obstructions: value of conventional enteroclysis and dynamic MR-enteroclysis

    Purpose: To compare small bowel lesions, especially stenoses, with conventional enteroclysis, static MRI and dynamic MR-enteroclysis. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients with Crohn's disease or other suspected small bowel lesions were examined. MRI was performed in a static and a dynamic way either within one hour after conventional enteroclysis (n = 30) or a few days afterwards (n = 12). In order to monitor bowel filling and to characterize stenoses in a dynamic fashion, 4 series of coronal T2w HASTE breath hold sequences were used, first without additional bowel opacification and then during administration of 1,5 l methyl cellulose via a naso-intestinal tube in the MR unit. Intravenously applied Buscopan was used to reduce bowel movement. Results: In 4 out of 42 Patients, application of methylcellulose was limited to 1000 ml because of gastrointestinal complaints or visible gastral reflux. All patients could be evaluated. Static MRI performed within one hour after conventional enteroclysis and no additional bowel opacification showed insufficient bowel distension. Distension was still better than in MRI without prior application of contrast medium. On the contrary, dynamic MR - enteroclysis lead to controlled and complete bowel distension which allowed for significantly better evaluation of normal bowel anatomy and pathological alterations of the gut. Because of a better bowel distension and dynamic evaluation, MR-enteroclysis revealed significantly more stenoses (n = 42) than MRI obtained with less distension (n = 27, p < 0.001), and characterization of lesions was comparable to conventional enteroclysis (p < 0.001). Fixed and non-fixed stenoses could be differentiated by dynamic MR-enteroclysis. Furthermore, extraluminal complication of Crohn's disease such as abscesses and fistulae or large bowel manifestation of disease were shown in 13 patients. (orig.)

  6. The effect of obesity levels on irradiated small bowel volume in belly board with small bowel displacement device for rectal cancer radiotherapy

    For radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients treated with small bowel displacement device (SBDD) and belly board, We will suggest new indication of using SBDD depending on obesity index by analyzing correlation between obesity and irradiated small bowel volume. In this study, We reviewed 29 rectal cancer patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with belly board and SBDD from January to April in 2012. We only analyzed those patients treated with three-field technique (PA and both LAT) on 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fx). We measured patients' height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and divided BMI into two groups.(≥23:BMI=group 1, <23:BMI=group 2) We performed a statistical analysis to evaluate correlation between total volume of bladder (TVbldder), obesity index and high dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 90% of prescribed dose, HDVsb), low dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 33% of prescribed dose, LDVsb). The result shows, gender, WHR and status of pre operative or post operative do not greatly affect HDVsb and LDVsb. Statistical result shows, there are significant correlation between HDVsb and BMI (p<0.04), HDVsb and TVbladder (p<0.01), LDVsb and TVbladder (p<0.01). BMI seems to correlate with HDVsb but does not with LDVsb (p>0.05). There are negative correlation between HDVsb and BMI, TVbladder and HDVsb, TVbladder and LDVsb . Especially, BMI group1 has more effective and negative correlation with HDVsb (p=0.027) than in BMI group 2. In the case of BMI group 1, TVbladder has significant negative correlation with HDVsb and LDVsb (p<0.04). In conclusions, we confirmed that Using SBDD with belly board in BMI group 1 could more effectively reduce irradiated small bowel volume in radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Therefore, We suggest using belly board with SBDD in order to reduce the small bowel toxicity in rectal radiotherapy, if patients' BMI is above 23

  7. The effect of obesity levels on irradiated small bowel volume in belly board with small bowel displacement device for rectal cancer radiotherapy

    Kim, Se Young; Kim, Joo Ho; Park, Hyo Kuk; Cho, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    For radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients treated with small bowel displacement device (SBDD) and belly board, We will suggest new indication of using SBDD depending on obesity index by analyzing correlation between obesity and irradiated small bowel volume. In this study, We reviewed 29 rectal cancer patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with belly board and SBDD from January to April in 2012. We only analyzed those patients treated with three-field technique (PA and both LAT) on 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fx). We measured patients' height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and divided BMI into two groups.(≥23:BMI=group 1, <23:BMI=group 2) We performed a statistical analysis to evaluate correlation between total volume of bladder (TV{sub bldder}), obesity index and high dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 90% of prescribed dose, HDV{sub sb}), low dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 33% of prescribed dose, LDV{sub sb}). The result shows, gender, WHR and status of pre operative or post operative do not greatly affect HDV{sub sb} and LDV{sub sb}. Statistical result shows, there are significant correlation between HDV{sub sb} and BMI (p<0.04), HDV{sub sb} and TV{sub bladder} (p<0.01), LDV{sub sb} and TV{sub bladder} (p<0.01). BMI seems to correlate with HDV{sub sb} but does not with LDV{sub sb} (p>0.05). There are negative correlation between HDV{sub sb} and BMI, TV{sub bladder} and HDV{sub sb}, TV{sub bladder} and LDV{sub sb} . Especially, BMI group1 has more effective and negative correlation with HDV{sub sb} (p=0.027) than in BMI group 2. In the case of BMI group 1, TV{sub bladder} has significant negative correlation with HDV{sub sb} and LDV{sub sb} (p<0.04). In conclusions, we confirmed that Using SBDD with belly board in BMI group 1 could more effectively reduce irradiated small bowel volume in radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Therefore, We suggest using belly board with SBDD in order to reduce the small bowel toxicity in rectal radiotherapy, if patients' BMI is above 23.

  8. Radiological features of small bowel involvement in a case of Wegener's granulomatosis

    The authors describe the radiological features of diffuse small bowel involvement of rapid course and fatal outcome in a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis after complete remission of the typical organ systems involved in this disease. 12 refs.; 3 figs

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel in children with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease: evaluation of disease activity

    Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Loggitsi, Dimitra; Economopoulos, Nikos; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Kelekis, Nikolaos L. [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, General University Hospital, Second Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Roma, Eleftheria; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Pahoula, Ioanna [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aghia Sofia Children' s Hospital, First Department of Paediatrics, Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    Examinations using ionizing radiation are frequently used in the evaluation of disease activity in children affected by idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an MR imaging protocol without the need for fluoroscopic insertion of an enteral tube and to assess the disease activity in children with IBD. Included in the study were 37 children (22 girls and 15 boys; age range 7-15 years, mean 11.67 years) with IBD who underwent MR imaging of the small bowel. Of these 37 children, 32 had Crohn disease and 5 had indeterminate colitis. A water solution containing herbal fibres was administered orally or through a nasogastric tube. Patients were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner with T1-weighted and {tau}2-weighted sequences followed by a dynamic study using 3-D T1-W images after intravenous administration of gadolinium. The percentage enhancement of the bowel wall was significantly increased in patients with abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) values compared to patients with CRP values in the normal range (P<0.001). A relatively weak but significant correlation between percentage enhancement of the bowel wall and CRP values was noted during all phases of enhancement. This MR imaging protocol is a safe and well-tolerated method for evaluating disease activity and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD in children. (orig.)

  10. Small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar formation within meckel diverticulum: CT findings

    Frazzini, V.I. Jr.; English, W.J.; Bashist, B.; Moore, E. [Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Intestinal obstruction due to a phytobezoar within a Meckel diverticulum is exceedingly rare, with only seven reported cases in the surgical literature. The most important precipitating factor is the ingestion of agents high in fiber and cellulose. Small bowel obstruction in all but one case was due to retrograde propagation of the bezoar into the small bowel lumen. We report the clinical and CT findings in such a patient following a vegetarian diet. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Does magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy improve small bowel capsule endoscopy completion rate? A randomised controlled trial

    Hale, Melissa F.; Drew, Kaye; Sidhu, Reena; McAlindon, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Delayed gastric emptying is a significant factor in incomplete small bowel capsule examinations. Gastric transit could be hastened by external magnetic control of the capsule. We studied the feasibility of this approach to improve capsule endoscopy completion rates. Patients and methods: Prospective, single-center, randomized controlled trial involving 122 patients attending for small bowel capsule endoscopy using MiroCam Navi. Patients were randomized to either the...

  12. Bowel Perforation after Erlotinib Treatment in a Patient with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Cheon, Yun-Hong; Kim, Moon Jin; Kang, Min Gyu; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Sang Su; Kim, Cha Young; Jeon, Dae-Hong; Kim, Yu Eun; LEE, GYEONG-WON

    2011-01-01

    Erlotinib is accepted as a standard second-line chemotherapeutic agent in patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are refractory or resistant to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. There has been no previous report of bowel perforation with or without gastrointestinal metastases related to erlotinib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The exact mechanism of bowel perforation in patients who received erlotinib remains unclear. In this report, we report the first case of enter...

  13. Small bowel obstruction secondary to migration of a fragment of lithobezoar: a case report

    Medani, Mekki; Myers, Eddie; Kenny, Bryan; Waldron, David

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel obstruction is a common world-wide condition that has a range of etiological factors. The management is largely dependent on the cause of the obstruction. Small bowel obstruction caused by foreign body ingestion is rare; many items have been reported as responsible, but there are no reports implicating polyurethane foam. Case presentation We report the case of a 44-year-old Irish male who presented following ingestion of polyurethane foam. He was asymptomatic on prese...

  14. Coffee Enema for Preparation for Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Pilot Study

    Kim, Eun Sun; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; JEEN, YOON TAE; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

    2014-01-01

    Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel duri...

  15. Whipple's disease demonstrated by double contrast small bowel enema with barium and methylcellulose

    The radiologic findings on small bowel enema examination using barium and methylcellulose (SBE+Ba+MC) in a patient with Whipple's disease before and after treatment are described. The changes on SBE+Ba+MC corresponded well to the clinical and morphologic picture. The advantages of this double contrast technique compared to the enteroclysis with barium alone are demonstrated. The SBE+Ba+MC is a good method to demonstrate the manifestations of Whipple's disease involving the small bowel and the mesentery. (orig.)

  16. NSAID-induced deleterious effects on the proximal and mid small bowel in seronegative spondyloarthropathy patients

    Mihai Rimbaş, Mădălina Marinescu, Mihail Radu Voiosu, Cristian Răsvan Băicuş, Simona Caraiola, Adriana Nicolau, Doina Niţescu, Georgeta Camelia Badea, Magda Ileana Pârvu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the small bowel of seronegative spondyloarthropathy (SpA) patients in order to ascertain the presence of mucosal lesions.METHODS: Between January 2008 and June 2010, 54 consecutive patients were enrolled and submitted to avideo capsule endoscopy (VCE) examination. History and demographic data were taken, as well as the history of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) consumption. After reading each VCE recording, a capsule endoscopy scoring index for small bowel muc...

  17. Differences of microbiota in small bowel and faeces between irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy subjects.

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Chang, Pi-Feng; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Lee, Tzong-Hsi; Chen, Yun; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Ni, Yen-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Objective Several studies suggested that colonic microbiota have impacts on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. However, the knowledge about the association of small intestine (SI) microbiota with IBS is limited. We aimed to investigate the gut microbiota composition of SI and stool in IBS patients. Materials and methods Biopsies of jejunum mucosa by balloon-assisted enteroscopy and faecal samples from 28 IBS patients and 19 healthy controls were analysed by next-generation sequencing method. Results The three major phyla in SI microbiota of case/control groups were Proteobacteria (32.8/47.7%), Bacteroidetes (25.2/15.3%), and Firmicutes (19.8/11.2%), and those of stool were Bacteroidetes (41.3/45.8%), Firmicutes (40.7/38.2%), and Proteobacteria (15.4/7.1%). Analysis based on the family level, IBS patients had a higher proportion of Veillonellaceae (mean proportion 6.49% versus 2.68%, p = 0.046) in stool than controls. Prevotellaceae was more abundant in IBS patients than in control group (14.27% versus 6.13%, p = 0.023), while Mycobacteriaceae (0.06% versus 0.17%, p = 0.024) and Neisseriaceae (6.40% versus 8.94%, p = 0.038) was less abundant in IBS patients' jejunal mucosa than those in controls. This less abundant jejunal Neisseriaceae was associated with more severe IBS (p = 0.03). The ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in the stool of IBS-diarrhoea type patients was approximately three-fold higher, and the ratio of Firmicutes to Actinobacter in SI of IBS-mixed type patients was about nine-fold higher than healthy subjects. Conclusion Higher abundance of colonic Veillonellaceae and SI Prevotellaceae, and lower amount of oral cavity normal flora in proximal SI were found in IBS patients. We may manipulate these bacteria in IBS patients in future studies (ClinicalTrial.gov Number NCT01679730). PMID:26595305

  18. Non-emergency small bowel obstruction: assessment of CT findings that predict need for surgery

    Deshmukh, Swati D.; Shin, David S.; Willmann, Juergen K.; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Shin, Lewis; Jeffrey, R.B. [Stanford University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To identify CT findings predictive of surgical management in non-emergency small bowel obstruction (SBO). Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT of 129 patients with non-emergency SBO were evaluated for small bowel luminal diameter, wall thickness, presence of the small bowel faeces sign (intraluminal particulate matter in a dilated small bowel) and length, transition point, submucosal oedema, mesenteric stranding, ascites and degree of obstruction (low grade partial, high grade partial and complete obstruction). Medical records were reviewed for age, gender, management and history of abdominal surgery, abdominal malignancy, or SBO. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata Release 9.2. Degree of obstruction was the only predictor of need for surgery. Whereas 18.0% of patients with low-grade partial obstruction (n = 50) underwent surgery, 32.5% of patients with high-grade partial obstruction (n = 77) and 100% of patients with complete obstruction (n = 2) required surgery (P = 0.004). The small bowel faeces sign was inversely predictive of surgery (P = 0.018). In non-emergency SBO patients with contrast-enhanced CT imaging, grade of obstruction predicts surgery, while the small bowel faeces sign inversely predicts need for surgery. (orig.)

  19. Non-emergency small bowel obstruction: assessment of CT findings that predict need for surgery

    To identify CT findings predictive of surgical management in non-emergency small bowel obstruction (SBO). Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT of 129 patients with non-emergency SBO were evaluated for small bowel luminal diameter, wall thickness, presence of the small bowel faeces sign (intraluminal particulate matter in a dilated small bowel) and length, transition point, submucosal oedema, mesenteric stranding, ascites and degree of obstruction (low grade partial, high grade partial and complete obstruction). Medical records were reviewed for age, gender, management and history of abdominal surgery, abdominal malignancy, or SBO. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata Release 9.2. Degree of obstruction was the only predictor of need for surgery. Whereas 18.0% of patients with low-grade partial obstruction (n = 50) underwent surgery, 32.5% of patients with high-grade partial obstruction (n = 77) and 100% of patients with complete obstruction (n = 2) required surgery (P = 0.004). The small bowel faeces sign was inversely predictive of surgery (P = 0.018). In non-emergency SBO patients with contrast-enhanced CT imaging, grade of obstruction predicts surgery, while the small bowel faeces sign inversely predicts need for surgery. (orig.)

  20. Efficacy of small bowel displacement system in post-operative pelvic radiation therapy of rectal cancer

    This study is to evaluate the efficacy of small bowel displacement system(SBDS) in post-operative pelvic radiation therapy(RT) of rectal cancer patients by measurement of small bowel volume included in the radiation fields receiving therapeutic dose. Ten consecutive new rectal cancer patients referred to the department of Radiation Oncology of Samsung Medical Center in May of 1997 were included in this study. All patients were asked to drink Gastro-graphin before simulation and were laid prone for conventional simulation and CT scans with and without SBDS. The volume of opacified small bowel on CT scans, which was to be included in the radiation fields receiving therapeutic dose, was measured using picture archiving and communication system(PACS). The average small bowel volumes with and without SBDS were 176.0ml(5.2-415.6ml) and 185.1m;(54.5-434.2ml), respectively. the changes of small bowel volume with SBDS compared to those without SBDS were more than 10% decrease in three, less than 10% decrease in two, less than 10% increase in three, and more than 10% increase in two patients. No significant advantage of using SBDS in post-operative pelvic RT for rectal cancer patients has been shown by small bowel volume measurement using CT scan considering additional effort and time needed for simulation and treatment setup

  1. Developing a new measure of small bowel peristalsis with dynamic MR: a proof of concept study

    Background. Small bowel peristalsis is a complex of many individual motion elements. Although each element of peristalsis can be measured there is no current global measure of peristalsis. Purpose. To examine the feasibility of automated computerized assessment of global small bowel motility using simple computational methods. Material and Methods. Coronal dynamic MR images were obtained from five healthy volunteers who had fasted for 9 h and drunk 1.5 L of water. Images were taken using single breath-hold and ECG triggering. Acquisitions were repeated at 10 and 20 min after an intramuscular injection of hyoscine butylbromide. Parametric maps were generated representing the mean change in signal amplitude (MSA) per voxel for each dynamic acquisition. Two observers independently assessed thresholding for optimal segmentation of small bowel from other sources of signal. Total voxel activity (TVA) for each study was calculated as a sum of MSA per slice and whole examination and TVA profiles were generated. Results. Independent observations suggest that the automated segmentation method described usefully segments small bowel activity from other signal. Small bowel movement represented as TVA varied three-fold in the five volunteers and was inhibited by anti-muscarinic injection. Conclusion. It is possible to develop a new measure, based on automated segmentation of mean signal amplitude changes, of small bowel peristalsis using dynamic MR

  2. Developing a new measure of small bowel peristalsis with dynamic MR: a proof of concept study

    Farghal, Aser; Kasmai, Bahman; Malcolm, Paul N.; Toms, Andoni P. [Dept. of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich Univ. Hospital NHS Trust, Norwich (United Kingdom)], E-mail: andoni.toms@nnuh.nhs.uk; Graves, Martin J. [Univ. Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Background. Small bowel peristalsis is a complex of many individual motion elements. Although each element of peristalsis can be measured there is no current global measure of peristalsis. Purpose. To examine the feasibility of automated computerized assessment of global small bowel motility using simple computational methods. Material and Methods. Coronal dynamic MR images were obtained from five healthy volunteers who had fasted for 9 h and drunk 1.5 L of water. Images were taken using single breath-hold and ECG triggering. Acquisitions were repeated at 10 and 20 min after an intramuscular injection of hyoscine butylbromide. Parametric maps were generated representing the mean change in signal amplitude (MSA) per voxel for each dynamic acquisition. Two observers independently assessed thresholding for optimal segmentation of small bowel from other sources of signal. Total voxel activity (TVA) for each study was calculated as a sum of MSA per slice and whole examination and TVA profiles were generated. Results. Independent observations suggest that the automated segmentation method described usefully segments small bowel activity from other signal. Small bowel movement represented as TVA varied three-fold in the five volunteers and was inhibited by anti-muscarinic injection. Conclusion. It is possible to develop a new measure, based on automated segmentation of mean signal amplitude changes, of small bowel peristalsis using dynamic MR.

  3. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Small Bowel Metastasis from Leiomyosarcoma in the Tibia

    Kun-Chun Chiang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Small bowel metastasis from primary bone leiomyosarcoma is very rare. Here we reporton a 50-year-old man who presented with general weakness, weight loss (six kg in twomonths and intermittent tarry stools for two months. He had undergone an above-kneeamputation for left tibia leiomyosarcoma seven years previously. No local recurrence and/ordistant metastasis developed during a seven-year period of follow-up. Subsequent imagingstudy revealed a multilobulated mass in the ileum. He received segmental resection of thesmall bowel and a multilobulated mass was noted in the submucosal layer of the ileum withmucosa ulceration. His postoperative course was uneventful. Histopathological examinationof the resected mass revealed small bowel metastatic leiomyosarcoma. No local recurrenceor distant metastases were detected during a six-month follow-up period. To the best of ourknowledge, this is the first report of small bowel metastasis from primary bone leiomyosarcomapresenting with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  4. Combined small and large bowel MR imaging in patients with Crohn's disease: a feasibility study

    Narin, Burcu; Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne; Lauenstein, Thomas C. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122, Essen (Germany); Langhorst, Jost; Gerken, Guido [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany); Akgoez, Haldun [Siyami Ersek Hastanesi, Istanbul (Turkey); Ruehm, Stefan G. [Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles (United States)

    2004-09-01

    MRI of the small bowel is a new method for the assessment of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, inflammatory bowel disease can affect both the small and large bowel. Therefore, our goal was to assess the feasibility of displaying the small bowel and colon simultaneously by MR imaging. Eighteen patients with inflammatory bowel disease were studied. For small bowel distension, patients ingested a solution containing mannitol and locust bean gum. Furthermore, the colon was rectally filled with water. MR examinations were performed on a 1.5-T system. Before and after intravenous gadolinium administration, a T1w data set was collected. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy as a standard of reference. The oral ingestion and the rectal application of water allowed an assessment of the small bowel and colon in all patients. By means of MRI (endoscopy), 19 (13) inflamed bowel segments in the colon and terminal ileum were detected. Furthermore, eight additional inflammatory lesions in the jejunum and proximal ileum that had not been endoscopically accessible were found by MRI. The simultaneous display of the small and large bowel by MRI is feasible. Major advantages of the proposed MR concept are related to its non-invasive character as well as to the potential to visualize parts of the small bowel that cannot be reached by endoscopy. (orig.)

  5. The value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease

    Objective: To investigate the value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease. Methods: Sixteen patients with suspected small bowel disease, but without acute inflammatory disease or bowel obstruction, received MR enteroclysis with air infusion. There were 12 males and 4 females, and their age ranged from 17 to 75 years. 10 patients had abdominal pain, 4 with melena or blood stool, and 2 with diarrhea. The longest course was 7 years, and the shortest 1 week. Before MR imaging, a nasoenteric catheter was inserted into the distal part of duodenum, and about 1000 ml of air was infused through the tube to distend the small bowel. 20 mg of IV anisodamine was given to reduce small-bowel peristalsis. All patients were imaged with fat-saturated Gd-DTPA enhanced coronal and axial T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequence and fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) sequence. Comparison between the diagnosis of MRI and the results of surgery, pathology or clinic was performed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of MRI. Results: 5 cases were normal, 6 with Crohn disease, 2 with gastric intestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and 1 each of lymphoma, tuberculosis and irritable bowel syndrome. The lumen of normal small bowel in MR enteroclysis was no signal, the wall was outlined as middle signal by intraluminal air and surrounding air-distended bowel and was between 1-3 mm thick, and the diameter of the lumen was between 17-28 mm. Crohn disease showed segmental mural thickening, increased enhancement, luminal stricture, and even extraluminal inflammatory mass or fistula. Intestinal tuberculosis invaded the distal section of ileum, cecum, and the proximal ascending colon, the wall thickened and enhanced apparently, and cecum and proximal ascending colon shortened. GIST showed a mass that was iso-signal on T1WI, high signal on T2WI, and enhanced significantly after IV Gd-DTPA. 1 recurrent lymphoma of ileum showed mural thickening and increased enhancement but no stenosis. 1 irritable bowel syndrome is disfunction, so its shape and signal is normal. Except 1 Crohn disease, which showed a large mass, was misdiagnosed as lymphoma and no abnormality was found in 1 irritable bowel syndrome, the other diagnosis of MRI was correct. The sensitivity in diagnosing small intestinal disease was 100%, and the specificity was 83%. Conclusion: MR enteroclysis with air infusion is a sensitive method in diagnosing the small bowel disease, especially in Crohn disease and tumor. It can clearly display the mural thickening and the extraluminal inflammatory mass

  6. Temsirolimus therapy and small bowel perforation in a pediatric patient with Clostridium septicum bacteremia

    Melissa Anne Herrin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Temsirolimus has been demonstrated to result in significant disease stabilization in children with high-grade glioma, neuroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. While mucositis has been reported as a common adverse effect of temsirolimus therapy in adult and pediatric patients, bowel perforation is an infrequent and life-threatening side effect of temsirolimus in adults and has not previously been reported in children. We present a child treated with temsirolimus for recurrent metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma who underwent ileocecectomy and small bowel resection for perforation with frank necrosis. His presentation was complicated by Clostridium septicum infection, a rare, frequently fatal, gastrointestinal pathogen associated with malignancy and bowel ischemia.

  7. Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Small Bowel: Comparison of Different Oral Contrast Media

    Purpose: To evaluate several substances regarding small bowel distension and contrast on balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cine magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: Luminal contrast was evaluated in 24 volunteers after oral application of two different contrast agent groups leading to either bright lumen (pineapple, blueberry juice) or dark lumen (tap water, orange juice) on T1-weighted images. Bowel distension was evaluated in 30 patients ingesting either methylcellulose or mannitol solution for limiting intestinal absorption. Fifteen patients with duodeno-jejunal intubation served as the control. Quantitative evaluation included measurement of luminal signal intensities and diameters of four bowel segments, qualitative evaluation assessed luminal contrast and distension on a five-point scale. Results: Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the four contrast agents revealed no significant differences regarding luminal contrast on bSSFP images. Quantitative evaluation revealed significantly lower (P<0.05) small bowel distension for three out of four segments (qualitative evaluation: two out of four segments) for methylcellulose in comparison to the control. Mannitol was found to be equal to the control. Conclusion: Oral ingestion of tap water or orange juice in combination with mannitol is recommended for cine MR imaging of the small bowel regarding luminal contrast and small bowel distension on bSSFP sequences

  8. Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Small Bowel: Comparison of Different Oral Contrast Media

    Asbach, P.; Breitwieser, C.; Diederichs, G.; Eisele, S.; Kivelitz, D.; Taupitz, M.; Zeitz, M.; Hamm, B.; Klessen, C. [Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Charite Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate several substances regarding small bowel distension and contrast on balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cine magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: Luminal contrast was evaluated in 24 volunteers after oral application of two different contrast agent groups leading to either bright lumen (pineapple, blueberry juice) or dark lumen (tap water, orange juice) on T1-weighted images. Bowel distension was evaluated in 30 patients ingesting either methylcellulose or mannitol solution for limiting intestinal absorption. Fifteen patients with duodeno-jejunal intubation served as the control. Quantitative evaluation included measurement of luminal signal intensities and diameters of four bowel segments, qualitative evaluation assessed luminal contrast and distension on a five-point scale. Results: Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the four contrast agents revealed no significant differences regarding luminal contrast on bSSFP images. Quantitative evaluation revealed significantly lower (P<0.05) small bowel distension for three out of four segments (qualitative evaluation: two out of four segments) for methylcellulose in comparison to the control. Mannitol was found to be equal to the control. Conclusion: Oral ingestion of tap water or orange juice in combination with mannitol is recommended for cine MR imaging of the small bowel regarding luminal contrast and small bowel distension on bSSFP sequences.

  9. Molecular Analysis for Differential Diagnosis of Small Bowel Obstruction: Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Diamine Oxidase Activity

    Akimoto, Teruyuki; Takada, Moriatsu; Ichihara, Takao; Kuroda, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Background: A small bowel obstruction is classified as simple (nonstrangulated) or strangulated. The early recognition with correct diagnosis of small bowel obstruction is a critical issue as the release from strangulation requires surgical emergency. Methods: To evaluate the physiological effect on small bowel obstruction, a metallic ring was put in the small intestine (simple ileus) and a loop obstruction was made with keeping the blood flow (strangulated obstruction). Serum level of cytoki...

  10. Spectrum of imaging findings on MDCT enterography in patients with small bowel tuberculosis

    Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is the sixth most common extrapulmonary site of involvement. The sites of involvement in abdominal tuberculosis, in descending order of frequency, are lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity, and gastrointestinal tract. The radiological armamentarium for evaluating tuberculosis of the small bowel (SBTB) includes barium studies (small bowel follow-through, SBFT), CT (multidetector CT, CT enterography, and CT enteroclysis), ultrasound (sonoenteroclysis), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; enterography and enteroclysis). In this review, we illustrate the abnormalities at MDCT enterography in 20 consecutive patients with SB TB and also describe extraluminal findings in these patients. MDCT enterography allows non-invasive good-quality assessment of well-distended bowel loops and the adjacent soft tissues. It displays the thickness and enhancement of the entire bowel wall in all three planes and allows examination of all bowel loops, especially the ileal loops, which are mostly superimposed. The terminal ileum and ileocaecal junction are the most common sites of small bowel involvement in intestinal TB. The most common abnormality is short-segment strictures with symmetrical concentric mural thickening and homogeneous mural enhancement. Other findings include lymphadenopathy, ascites, enteroliths, peritoneal thickening, and enhancement. In conclusion, MDCT enterography is a comprehensive technique for the evaluation of SB TB

  11. Lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery: A case report and review of the literature

    Worapop Suthiwartnarueput

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangioma is a rare benign condition characterized by proliferation of lymphatic spaces. It is usually found in the head and neck of affected children. Lymphangioma of the small-bowel mesentery is rare, having been reported for less than 1% of all lymphangiomas. Importantly, it can cause fatal complications such as volvulus or involvement of the main branch of the mesenteric arteries, requiring emergency surgery. Moreover, the gross and histopathologic findings may resemble benign multicystic mesothelioma and lymphangiomyoma. Immunohistochemical study for factor VIII-related antigen, D2-40, calretinin and human melanoma black-45 (HMB-45 are essential for diagnosis. Factor VIII-related antigen and D2-40 are positive in lymphangioma but negative in benign multicystic mesothelioma. HMB-45 shows positive study in the smooth-muscle cells around the lymphatic spaces of the lymphangiomyoma. We report a case of small-bowel volvulus induced by mesenteric lymphangioma in a 2-year-and-9-mo-old boy who presented with rapid abdominal distension and vomiting. The abdominal computed tomography scan showed a multiseptated mass at the right lower quadrant with a whirl-like small-bowel dilatation, suggestive of a mesenteric cyst with midgut volvulus. The intraoperative findings revealed a huge, lobulated, yellowish pink, cystic mass measuring 20 cm × 20 cm × 10 cm, that was originated from the small bowel mesentery with small-bowel volvulus and small-bowel dilatation. Cut surface of the mass revealed multicystic spaces containing a milky white fluid. The patient underwent tumor removal with small-bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Microscopic examination revealed that the cystic walls were lined with flat endothelial cells and comprised of smooth muscle in the walls. The flat endothelial cells were positive for factor VIII-related antigen and D2-40 but negative for calretinin. HMB-45 showed negative study in the smooth-muscle cells around the lymphatic spaces. Thus, the diagnosis was lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery with associated small bowel volvulus.

  12. Small Bowel Metastatic Cancer Observed With Double Balloon Enteroscopy in a Patient With a Past History of Multiple Cancers

    Song, Ji Young; Lee, Beom Jae; Yu, Eun Sang; Na, Young Ju; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Bak, Young-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Small bowel tumors are very rare and generally malignant. As a result of the anatomical location and nonspecific manifestations of small bowel tumors, they are very difficult to diagnose. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy is a relatively noninvasive method compared to surgical resection, and allows for real-time observation, tissue confirmation with biopsy, and interventional procedures. Here, we report the case of a 69-year-old woman with a small bowel metastatic carcinoma observed with double ba...

  13. Successful treatment of recurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma by cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy: a case report and review of the literature

    Takada Toshiaki; Arai Isao; Morii Eiichi; Yamano Tomoki; Aozasa Katsuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Small bowel adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy associated with a poor prognosis and there is little evidence of effective treatment. Recurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma is an intractable disease for which there is little information available regarding its treatment by palliative therapy. We present a case of recurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma successfully treated by cytoreductive surgery and palliative chemotherapy. Case presentation We report the case of a 72-year-...

  14. X-ray findings of small bowel taeniasis: A clinical and experimental study

    Unlike ascariasis of the small bowel, taeniasis can be detected radiologically with much difficulty because of the basic difference between the morphological features of each helminth. However once the characteristics of tape worms are appreciated and kept in mind, radiological diagnosis is fairly accurately made. In the present study we have reported typical radiological features of the small bowel taeniasis as observed in 6 adults patients seen at the Department of Radiology of St. Mary's Hospital and Holy Family Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Tapering tape-like or ribbon -like radiolucent shadows in distal small bowel appear unique. Compression spot film study of the ileum is most important in revealing such findings. An animal experiment using the swine small intestine and parasitological specimen of evacuated worm of taenia saginata was designed to help understand radiological manifestation in vivo

  15. X-ray findings of small bowel taeniasis: A clinical and experimental study

    Kim, Hong Soo; Kang, Hee Woong; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    Unlike ascariasis of the small bowel, taeniasis can be detected radiologically with much difficulty because of the basic difference between the morphological features of each helminth. However once the characteristics of tape worms are appreciated and kept in mind, radiological diagnosis is fairly accurately made. In the present study we have reported typical radiological features of the small bowel taeniasis as observed in 6 adults patients seen at the Department of Radiology of St. Mary's Hospital and Holy Family Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Tapering tape-like or ribbon -like radiolucent shadows in distal small bowel appear unique. Compression spot film study of the ileum is most important in revealing such findings. An animal experiment using the swine small intestine and parasitological specimen of evacuated worm of taenia saginata was designed to help understand radiological manifestation in vivo.

  16. Small bowel transglutaminase 2-specific IgA deposits in dermatitis herpetiformis.

    Salmi, Teea T; Hervonen, Kaisa; Laurila, Kaija; Collin, Pekka; Mki, Markku; Koskinen, Outi; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Reunala, Timo

    2014-07-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an extraintestinal manifestation of coeliac disease. Untreated coeliac disease patients are known to have transglutaminase 2 (TG2)-targeted IgA deposits in the small bowel mucosa. To evaluate whether similar intestinal IgA deposits are also present in DH and whether the deposits disappear with gluten-free diet, 47 untreated and 27 treated DH patients were studied. Seventy-nine percent of untreated and 41% of the treated DH patients had TG2-specific IgA deposits in the small bowel, and the presence of the deposits showed a significant association with the degree of small bowel villous atrophy (p < 0.001). Other coeliac-disease related inflammatory markers were also investigated, and the density of small bowel mucosal intraepithelial ??(+) T cells was increased in 91% of untreated and 73% of treated DH patients. The results show that the majority of untreated DH patients have similar gluten-dependent TG2-specific IgA deposits the small bowel mucosa as coeliac disease patients. PMID:24352382

  17. Accuracy of trained nurses in finding small bowel lesions at video capsule endoscopy.

    Guarini, Alessandra; De Marinis, Francesca; Hassan, Cesare; Spada, Cristiano; Bruzzese, Vincenzo; Zullo, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The video capsule endoscopy is an accurate tool to investigate the entire small bowel. Currently, the nurse actively participates in the procedure from patient preparation to the video download, whereas a gastroenterologist interprets the endoscopic findings. However, few studies recently showed high accuracy of nurses in detecting lesions in the small bowel on video capsule endoscopy recordings. This prospective study aimed to assess the ability of experienced and trained nurses in detecting small bowel lesions as compared with gastroenterologists. Forty-six consecutive video capsule endoscopy procedures were analyzed. Overall, the nurse evaluation was highly (95.6%) accurate in detecting small bowel lesions, with a 100% concordance with the gastroenterologist for the relevant findings. In addition, the absence of lesions was confirmed by the endoscopist in all cases classified as negative by the nurse. Data of this study found that trained nurses, with a large experience in endoscopic features, correctly identified small bowel lesions on video capsule endoscopy recordings. Therefore, a trained nurse may accurately select the thumbnails of all mucosal irregularities that may be faster reviewed by the endoscopist for a final diagnosis. PMID:25831247

  18. CT findings in acute small bowel diverticulitis; Computertomographie bei akuter Duenndarmdivertikulitis

    Ferstl, F.J.; Obert, R. [Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinisches Zentrum (RNZ) am St. Theresienkrankenhaus Nuernberg (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    Small bowel diverticulitis is a rare cause of an acute abdomen. Originating from acquired diverticula of the jejunum, less often of the ileum, or Meckel diverticulum, the symptoms are non-specific, simulating other acute inflammatory disorders, such as appendicitis, cholecystitis or colonic diverticulitis. The diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis is solely based on radiologic findings, with computed tomography (CT) regarded as the method of choice. In recent years, a number of case reports have described the spectrum of the CT features in acute small bowel diverticulitis and its dependence on the severity of the inflammatory process. Typical findings are an inflamed diverticulum, inflammatory mesenteric infiltration, extraluminal gas collection and mural edema of adjacent small bowel loops with resultant separation of bowel loops. An enterolith is rarely found in an inflamed diverticulum. Complications include abscesses, fistulae, small bowel obstruction and free perforation with peritonitis. Small bowel diverticulitis can be a diagnostic problem if it involves the terminal ileum or Meckel's diverticulum. For preoperative confirmation of the presumed diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis on CT, an enteroclysis for acquired diverticula or a technetium scan for Meckel's diverticulum should be performed. We present the CT findings in three patients of acute small bowel diverticulitis, two affecting the jejunum and one a Meckel's diverticulum. (orig.) [German] Die akute Duenndarmdivertikulitis ist eine seltene Ursache eines akuten Abdomens. Ausgehend von den erworbenen Divertikeln des Jejunums, seltener des Ileums, oder von einem Meckel-Divertikel, manifestiert sich die Divertikulitis klinisch durch eine unspezifische Symptomatik, die zuerst an die haeufigeren, akutentzuendlichen Erkrankungen des Abdomens wie z. B. Appendizitis, Cholezystitis oder Kolondivertikulitis denken laesst. Die Duenndarmdivertikulitis kann praeoperativ nur durch radiologische Verfahren gesichert werden, wobei die CT die Methode der Wahl darstellt. Das vorwiegend in Form von Kasuistiken beschriebene Spektrum der CT-Morphologie der akuten Duenndarmdivertikulitis variiert je nach Ausmass des Entzuendungsprozesses. Als typische CT-Befunde finden sich ein entzuendetes Divertikel, peridivertikulaere Fettgewebsinfiltrationen, extraluminale Luftansammlungen als Zeichen einer gedeckten Perforation und ein Wandoedem des betroffenen Duenndarmsegmentes mit vermehrter Distanzierung der Darmschlingen. In sehr seltenen Faellen kann auch ein Enterolith in einem entzuendeten Divertikel nachweisbar sein. An Komplikationen koennen Abszesse, Fisteln, ein Ileus und eine freie Perforation mit Peritonitis auftreten. Diagnostische Probleme bereitet die Duenndarmdivertikulitis von allem bei Lokalisation im terminalen Ileum und im Meckel-Divertikel. Zur Sicherung der computertomographischen Verdachtsdiagnose einer akuten Duenndarmdivertikulitis koennen ein Enteroklysma bzw. beim Meckel-Divertikel eine 99m-Technetium-Pertechnetat-Szintigraphie eingesetzt werden. Wir beschreiben die CT-Befunde zweier Patientinnen mit akuter Jejunumdivertikulitis und eines Patienten mit Meckel-Divertikulitis und vergleichen die Ergebnisse mit den Angaben aus der Literatur. (orig.)

  19. Ethanol inhibition of glucose absorption in isolated, perfused small bowel of rats

    There is evidence for both humans and rats that malnutrition frequently occurs when ethanol is chronically ingested. Small bowel 14C-labelled glucose absorption was measured with an ex vivo system in which the small bowel of the rat was surgically removed and then arterially perfused with an artificial medium. Glucose absorption for a control group of seven rats was 248 +/- 8 microM/min/gm dry weight of small bowel (mean +/- SEM). This was significantly greater than the value 112 +/- 12 microM/min/gm dry weight (P less than 0.005) for a group of five rats in which a competitive inhibitor of glucose absorption, phlorizin (0.2 mM), was added to the bowel lumen. In the presence of 3% ethanol within the gut lumen of five rats, glucose absorption was also reduced (to 131 +/- 12 microM/min/gm dry weight) compared to absorption in the control group (P less than 0.005). The calculated amount of glucose absorbed was corrected for metabolism to lactate and carbon dioxide. We conclude that both phlorizin and ethanol inhibit glucose absorption in the isolated and perfused small bowel of rats and that probably at least part of the malnutrition in ethanol-fed rats is due to glucose malabsorption

  20. The use of a biodegradable mesh to prevent radiation-associated small-bowel injury

    Radiation-associated small bowel injury occurs in up to 50% of patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy following pelvic cancer surgery. We describe our experience using a biodegradable mesh that allows the small bowel to be supported above the pelvic inlet and is totally absorbed following radiation therapy. Between 1985 and 1989, 45 procedures were performed in patients with carcinoma of the rectum (anterior resection in 15 patients, abdominoperineal resection in 23 patients, pelvic exenteration in six patients, and proctocolectomy in one patient). In 30 patients a polyglycolic acid (Dexon) mesh was used, and in 15 patients a polyglactin 910 (Vicryl) mesh was used. Forty-four patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The mean (+/- SEM) dose was 56.8 +/- 18.4 Gy. There were no immediate complications related to the mesh. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 53 months (median follow-up, 34 months). With the exception of two patients who had a polyglactin 910 mesh and who developed bowel obstruction due to adhesions under the anterior abdominal wall, there has been no documented incidence of clinical radiation-associated small bowel injury. The use of the absorbable mesh may permit us to use higher doses of postoperative radiotherapy without the associated hazard of radiation-associated small bowel injury

  1. Small bowel obstruction secondary to migration of a fragment of lithobezoar: a case report.

    Medani, Mekki

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Small bowel obstruction is a common world-wide condition that has a range of etiological factors. The management is largely dependent on the cause of the obstruction. Small bowel obstruction caused by foreign body ingestion is rare; many items have been reported as responsible, but there are no reports implicating polyurethane foam. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 44-year-old Irish male who presented following ingestion of polyurethane foam. He was asymptomatic on presentation but developed a small bowel obstruction shortly thereafter. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting following ingestion of polyurethane foam should be scheduled for elective laparotomy, gastrotomy, and retrieval of the cast on the next available theatre list - given that they are suitable for surgery.

  2. Untreated celiac disease in a patient with dermatitis herpetiformis leading to a small bowel carcinoma.

    Derikx, Monique H M; Bisseling, Tanya M

    2012-01-01

    Usually, celiac disease has a benign course, though the overall morbidity and mortality have increased. Treatment with a gluten-free diet restores the damaged intestinal mucosa. In rare cases a small bowel adenocarcinoma develops. Unfortunately, the clinical presentation is not always recognized and prognosis is bad. We present a 69-year-old man with a history of dermatitis herpetiformis who presented to our tertiary center for a second opinion for a suspected gastric motility disorder. This diagnosis was based on the combination of upper abdominal pain for over 2 years and repetitive episodes of vomiting. Immediately after referral, celiac disease was diagnosed and a gluten-free diet was started. In the next half year of follow-up, additional anemia and weight loss developed and eventually a small bowel adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. Revision of a small bowel follow-through, which had been performed 2 years earlier, showed that the tube had been positioned just distal from the process. Therefore, this diagnosis had not been made at that time. Unfortunately, curative therapy was not possible and the patient died a few months later. In conclusion, all patients with dermatitis herpetiformis have a gluten-sensitive enteropathy and should be treated with a gluten-free diet. Next to this it is important to notice that patients with celiac disease have an increased risk of developing a small bowel malignancy. Unexplained upper abdominal pain, weight loss and anemia should lead to additional investigations to exclude a small bowel malignancy in these patients. At last, the diagnosis of a small bowel carcinoma is difficult. Together with the radiologist, the optimal techniques for visualization of this malignancy should be considered. PMID:22379467

  3. Carcinoid tumors of the small-bowel: Evaluation with 64-section CT-enteroclysis

    Soyer, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.soyer@lrb.aphp.fr [Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Hpital Lariboisire - AP-HP, 2 rue Ambroise Par, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Universit Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne-Paris Cit, 10 rue de Verdun, 75010 Paris (France); UMR INSERM 965, Hpital Lariboisire, 2 rue Amboise Par, 75010 Paris (France); Dohan, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.dohan@lrb.aphp.fr [Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Hpital Lariboisire - AP-HP, 2 rue Ambroise Par, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Universit Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne-Paris Cit, 10 rue de Verdun, 75010 Paris (France); UMR INSERM 965, Hpital Lariboisire, 2 rue Amboise Par, 75010 Paris (France); Eveno, Clarisse, E-mail: larisse.eveno@lrb.aphp.fr [Universit Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne-Paris Cit, 10 rue de Verdun, 75010 Paris (France); UMR INSERM 965, Hpital Lariboisire, 2 rue Amboise Par, 75010 Paris (France); Department of Digestive Diseases, Hpital Lariboisire - AP-HP, 2 rue Ambroise Par, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); and others

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To describe the imaging presentation of carcinoid tumors of the small-bowel at 64-section CT-enteroclysis and determine the sensitivity of this technique for tumor detection. Patients and methods: The 64-section CT-enteroclysis examinations of 22 patients with histopathologically proven small-bowel carcinoid tumors and those of 6 patients with suspected recurrence after small-bowel resection for carcinoid tumor were reviewed. Images were analyzed with respect to imaging presentation. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, of 64-section CT-enteroclysis for the diagnosis of carcinoid tumor of the small-bowel were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Twenty-five carcinoid tumors were confirmed in 22 patients (prevalence, 22/28; 79%). Overall sensitivity for carcinoid tumor detection was 76% (19/25; 95%CI: 5591%) on a per-lesion basis. On a per-patient basis, 64-section CT-enteroclysis had a sensitivity of 86% (19/22; 95%CI: 6597%), a specificity of 100% (6/6; 95%CI: 54100%) and an accuracy of 89% (25/28; 95%CI: 7298%) for the diagnosis of carcinoid tumor. Focal small-bowel wall thickening, mesenteric stranding, and mesenteric mass were found in 20/22 (91%), 18/22 (82%) and 15/22 (68%) patients with pathologically confirmed tumors. Conclusion: 64-Section CT-enteroclysis shows highly suggestive features for the diagnosis of carcinoid tumor of the small-bowel and achieves high degrees of sensitivity for tumor detection.

  4. Carcinoid tumors of the small-bowel: Evaluation with 64-section CT-enteroclysis

    Purpose: To describe the imaging presentation of carcinoid tumors of the small-bowel at 64-section CT-enteroclysis and determine the sensitivity of this technique for tumor detection. Patients and methods: The 64-section CT-enteroclysis examinations of 22 patients with histopathologically proven small-bowel carcinoid tumors and those of 6 patients with suspected recurrence after small-bowel resection for carcinoid tumor were reviewed. Images were analyzed with respect to imaging presentation. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, of 64-section CT-enteroclysis for the diagnosis of carcinoid tumor of the small-bowel were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Twenty-five carcinoid tumors were confirmed in 22 patients (prevalence, 22/28; 79%). Overall sensitivity for carcinoid tumor detection was 76% (19/25; 95%CI: 5591%) on a per-lesion basis. On a per-patient basis, 64-section CT-enteroclysis had a sensitivity of 86% (19/22; 95%CI: 6597%), a specificity of 100% (6/6; 95%CI: 54100%) and an accuracy of 89% (25/28; 95%CI: 7298%) for the diagnosis of carcinoid tumor. Focal small-bowel wall thickening, mesenteric stranding, and mesenteric mass were found in 20/22 (91%), 18/22 (82%) and 15/22 (68%) patients with pathologically confirmed tumors. Conclusion: 64-Section CT-enteroclysis shows highly suggestive features for the diagnosis of carcinoid tumor of the small-bowel and achieves high degrees of sensitivity for tumor detection

  5. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group

  6. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    Nielsen, O.H.; Gjorup, T.; Christensen, F.N.

    1986-12-01

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group.

  7. Alterations in myoelectric activity of the small bowel in rabbits after transarterial embolization

    Objective: To explore alterations in myoelectric activity of the small bowel in rabbits after transarterial embolization and provide academic basis for assessing bowel viability and management. Methods: Twenty normal rabbits were selected and divided into three groups (2 mg group, n=10; 6 mg group, n=5; control group, n=5). Members of 2 mg group were embolized with PVA 2 mg, those of 6 mg group with PVA 6 mg, and the control group with normal saline 2 ml. After microcatherization embolization, myoelectric activity of the small bowel was recorded for 24 hr using chronically implanted electrodes in conscious rabbits. Results: In 2 mg group, the frequency and the amplitude of slow wave of proximal jejunum were significantly lower in post-embolization period than pre-embolization period [(17.83±0.55) cpm vs (11.59±0.23) cpm(P0.05) and (0.1632±0.002) mV vs (0.1606±0.003) mV (P>0.05), respectively]. Conclusions: Embolization with PVA evokes significant and passive effect on basal electrical rhythm of small bowel. It could provide academic basis for assessing bowel viability to interventional embolization. (authors)

  8. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Novel Insight in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Evangelos J. Giamarellos Bourboulis; Michalis Tzivras

    2009-01-01

    A total of 65-84% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) presents with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO is defined as the presence of more than 105 cfu/ml of colonic type bacteria in the lumen of the small bowel. It is more common in patients with IBS and predominant bloating and diarrhea. Based on the implication of SIBO in the pathogenesis of IBS, six trials have been conducted and analyzed in this review aiming to define a role of rifaximin for the management of ...

  9. Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Meaningful association or unnecessary hype

    Uday C Ghoshal; Srivastava, Deepakshi

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and altered stool form and passage. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which there is overgrowth of bacteria in small bowel in excess of 105 colony forming units per milliliter on culture of the upper gut aspirate. Frequency of SIBO varied from 4%-78% among patients with IBS and from 1%-40% among controls. Higher frequency in some studies might be due to fa...

  10. Exclusion of small bowel from pelvis for postoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    The pelvis is the preferential site of disease when recurrence occurs after curative resection of rectal cancer. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy decreases local recurrence rates for Dukes stages B and C; however, after abdominoperineal or anterior resections, the small bowel descends into the lower pelvis, and, due to its low tolerance to radiation, optimal doses cannot be safely delivered unless the small bowel can be excluded from the pelvis. This can be achieved by cystopexy and/or by creating a pelvic sling with a knitted polypropylene mesh. Three cases are presented in which radiotherapy was satisfactorily delivered with these techniques

  11. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of small bowel mesentery in associated with cecal cancer: a case report

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare disease that is histopathologically defined as a solitary tumor composed of a monoclonal proliferation of cells with plasmacytic differentiation in an extramedullary site. Most of these tumors occur in the submucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and they rarely occur in the small bowel mesentery. We report here on a case of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the small bowel mesentery that was in association with a cecal cancer. Abdominal ultrasound and CT revealed a lobulated soft tissue mass with a cystic portion and peripheral calcification. In this case, the preoperative radiological diagnosis was difficult due to accompanying cecal cancer

  12. Ileo-anal pouch necrosis secondary to small bowel volvulus: A case report

    Hewes Jim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Small bowel volvulus is a rare occurrence in the Western world and its occurrence after ileo-anal ouch formation is even rarer. Case Presentation We report a case of a 26 year old lady who presented with small bowel volvulus and subsequent ischaemia and necrosis of her ileo-anal pouch created 5 years previously. Conclusion This case illustrates a rare but potentially devastating complication of ileo-anal pouch formation and as such the diagnosis should be borne in mind when a patient with a pouch presents with an acute abdomen.

  13. Dental impression material: a rare cause of small-bowel obstruction.

    Dent, Lemuel; Peterson, Analeta; Pruett, Danica; Beech, Derrick

    2009-12-01

    Small-bowel obstruction due to foreign bodies is unusual in adults. Intestinal obstruction is occasionally caused by pits, bezoars, endoscopy capsules, and gastrostomy tube buttons. We report a rare case of distal small-bowel obstruction due to dental impression material. Avoidance of this potentially life-threatening complication may be achieved by increased vigilance in accounting for all impression material when dental impression trays are removed. Early detection of swallowed dental material may afford endoscopic removal from the stomach, thus preventing intestinal obstruction. PMID:20070020

  14. Diffuse filiform polyposis of the small intestine without inflammatory bowel disease

    Jiang, Jin-Wei; Wang, Guan-Yu; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Chen, Ren-Biao; Zhang, Ze-Qin; Zhang, Yu-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Filiform polyposis is a rare disease, which typically occurs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. We report a case of filiform polyposis occurring in a 56-year-old man with no history or evidence of inflammatory bowel disease. The patient’s main symptoms were melena and anemia. We performed an emergency exploratory laparotomy, in which we observed worm-like polyps spread almost along the entire small intestine, and a partial resection of the small intestine to treat bleeding in the bo...

  15. Decreasing gastrointestinal morbidity with the use of small bowel contrast during treatment planning for pelvic irradiation

    Small bowel tolerance is a major dose-limiting factor in treating the pelvis with radiation therapy (RT). The use of small bowel contrast during RT simulation is one technique used to localize the bowel and identify the treatment plan that would exclude the greatest volume. To determine the influence of treatment planning with oral contrast on gastrointestinal injury, acute and chronic small bowel morbidity was analyzed in 115 patients with endometrial and rectal carcinoma who received postoperative radiation therapy at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Mean and median time of follow-up were 31 and 27 months, respectively. Acute diarrhea was seen in 82% of the patient population. Ten percent of patients experienced major complications requiring hospitalization. Ninety-three percent of patients simulated without contrast experienced side effects compared to 77% of patients simulated with contrast (p = .026). There was an increased incidence of chronic complications in patients who were not simulated with contrast dye (50% vs 23%, p = .014). Median duration of minor side effects was 4 months for patients planned without oral contrast and 1 month for patients who had contrast at the time of simulation (p = .036). The superior aspect of the treatment field was determined to be at a more inferior location in patients simulated with contrast, thereby excluding small bowel from treatment. Seventy-four percent of patients simulated without contrast had the upper border of the field placed at the superior aspect of the sacroiliac joint or above, compared to only 40% of patients planned with oral contrast (p = .002). This study has demonstrated decreased complications (both overall and chronic) as well as a change in the location of the treatment field with the use of small bowel contrast

  16. Software-assisted quantitative analysis of small bowel motility compared to manual measurements

    Aim: To validate a newly developed software prototype that automatically analyses small bowel motility by comparing it directly with manual measurement. Material and methods: Forty-five patients with clinical indication for small bowel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were retrospectively included in this institutional review board-approved study. MRI was performed using a 1.5T system following a standard MR-enterography protocol. Small bowel motility parameters (contractions-per-minute, luminal diameter, amplitude) were measured three times each in identical segments using the manual and the semiautomatic software-assisted method. The methods were compared for agreement, repeatability, and time needed for each measurement. All parameters were compared between the methods. Results: A total of 91 small-bowel segments were analysed. No significant intra-individual difference (p>0.05) was found for peristaltic frequencies between the methods (mean: 4.14/min manual; 4.22/min software-assisted). Amplitudes (5.14mm; 5.57mm) and mean lumen diameters (17.39mm; 14.68) differed due to systematic differences in the definition of the bowel wall. Mean duration of single measurement was significantly (p<0.01) shorter with the software (6.25min; 1.30min). The scattering of repeated measurements was significantly (p<0.05) lower using the software. Conclusion: The software-assisted method accomplished highly reliable, fast and accurate measurement of small bowel motility. Measurement precision and duration differed significantly between the two methods in favour of the software-assisted technique

  17. Decreasing gastrointestinal morbidity with the use of small bowel contrast during treatment planning for pelvic irradiation

    Herbert, S.H.; Curran, W.J. Jr.; Solin, L.J.; Stafford, P.M.; Lanciano, R.M.; Hanks, G.E. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Small bowel tolerance is a major dose-limiting factor in treating the pelvis with radiation therapy (RT). The use of small bowel contrast during RT simulation is one technique used to localize the bowel and identify the treatment plan that would exclude the greatest volume. To determine the influence of treatment planning with oral contrast on gastrointestinal injury, acute and chronic small bowel morbidity was analyzed in 115 patients with endometrial and rectal carcinoma who received postoperative radiation therapy at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Mean and median time of follow-up were 31 and 27 months, respectively. Acute diarrhea was seen in 82% of the patient population. Ten percent of patients experienced major complications requiring hospitalization. Ninety-three percent of patients simulated without contrast experienced side effects compared to 77% of patients simulated with contrast (p = .026). There was an increased incidence of chronic complications in patients who were not simulated with contrast dye (50% vs 23%, p = .014). Median duration of minor side effects was 4 months for patients planned without oral contrast and 1 month for patients who had contrast at the time of simulation (p = .036). The superior aspect of the treatment field was determined to be at a more inferior location in patients simulated with contrast, thereby excluding small bowel from treatment. Seventy-four percent of patients simulated without contrast had the upper border of the field placed at the superior aspect of the sacroiliac joint or above, compared to only 40% of patients planned with oral contrast (p = .002). This study has demonstrated decreased complications (both overall and chronic) as well as a change in the location of the treatment field with the use of small bowel contrast.

  18. Peritonitis with small bowel perforation caused by a fish bone in a healthy patient.

    Choi, Yonghoon; Kim, Gyuwon; Shim, Chansup; Kim, Dongkeun; Kim, Dongju

    2014-02-14

    Perforation of the gastrointestinal tract by ingested foreign bodies is extremely rare in otherwise healthy patients, accounting for ingested foreign bodies could cause small bowel perforation through a hernia sac, Meckel's diverticulum, or the appendix, all of which are uncommon. Despite their sharp ends and elongated shape, bowel perforation caused by ingested fish bones is rarely reported, particularly in patients without intestinal disease. We report a case of 57-year-old female who visited the emergency room with periumbilical pain and no history of underlying intestinal disease or intra-abdominal surgery. Abdominal computed tomography and exploratory laparotomy revealed a small bowel micro-perforation with a 2.7-cm fish bone penetrating the jejunal wall. PMID:24587641

  19. Quantification, validation, and follow-up of small bowel motility in Crohn's disease

    Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Peng, Jennifer Q.; Safdar, Nabile M.; Conklin, Laurie; Sze, Raymond; Linguraru, Marius George

    2015-03-01

    The use of magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) has become a mainstay in the evaluation, assessment and follow up of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease (CD), thanks to its high image quality and its non-ionizing nature. In particular, the advent of faster MRE sequences less sensitive to image-motion artifacts offers the possibility to obtain visual, structural and functional information of the patient's small bowel. However, the inherent subjectivity of the mere visual inspection of these images often hinders the accurate identification and monitoring of the pathological areas. In this paper, we present a framework that provides quantitative and objective motility information of the small bowel from free-breathing MRE dynamic sequences. After compensating for the breathing motion of the patient, we create personalized peristaltic activity maps via optical flow analysis. The result is the creation of a new set of images providing objective and precise functional information of the small bowel. The accuracy of the new method was also evaluated from two different perspectives: objective accuracy (1.1 ± 0.6 mm/s of error), i.e., the ability of the system to provide quantitative and accurate information about the motility of moving bowel landmarks, and subjective accuracy (avg. difference of 0.7 ± 0.7 in a range of 1 to 5), i.e., the degree of agreement with the subjective evaluation of an expert. Finally, the practical utility of the new method was successfully evaluated in a preliminary study with 32 studies of healthy and CD cases, showing its potential for the fast and accurate assessment and follow up of CD in the small bowel.

  20. Small bowell perforation and mesentery injury after an unusual blunt abdominal traumaCase report

    Pimenta de Castro, J.; Gomes, G.; Mateus, N.; Escrevente, R.; Pereira, L.; Jcome, P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In blunt abdominal trauma, lesions of the small bowell and mesentery are often underdiagnosed; although unusual, they represent the third most injured organ, with increasing morbidity and mortality. Presentation of case The authors present the case of a 68 years old male, admitted to the emergency department after being hit by a bale of straw, weighing around 300kg, in the abdomen. After successful ressuscitation, a CT scan was performed, suggesting hemoperitoneum because of vascular lesion of the right colon bleeding. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, confirming the presence of blood in the abdominal cavity and identifying jejunal perforation, an apparently innocent hematoma of the small bowel mesentery (beside the bowel wall) distally to the first lesion and a laceration of the sigmoid serosa; a segmental jejunal resection and suture of the colon serosa were performed. In the early post-operative period, an enteric discharge was noticed, mandating surgical reexploration; a previously unnoticed bowel perforation, in the mesenteric border where the hematoma was identified, justified an additional enterectomy, after what the patients recovery progressed uneventfully. Discussion In this case, a sudden increase in abdominal pressure could explain that missed rupture of the mesenteric border of the jejunum, also causing the mesenteric hematoma, or, in spite of that, a state of low perfusion could have lead to total wall ischemia of an already irrigation compromised segment. Only noted after surgical exploration, despite prior evaluation with a computed tomography. Small bowell and mesenteric injuries are potentially missed due to decreased exploratory laparotomies for blunt abdominal trauma. Conclusion Although uncommon, small bowel and mesenteric injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality. High clinical suspicion is essential for an early diagnosis PMID:25576959

  1. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study

    Hoad, C L [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Marciani, L [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Foley, S [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Totman, J J [Brain and Body Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Wright, J [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Bush, D [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cox, E F [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Campbell, E [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Spiller, R C [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Gowland, P A [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-07

    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug interventio000.

  2. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study

    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention

  3. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study.

    Hoad, C L; Marciani, L; Foley, S; Totman, J J; Wright, J; Bush, D; Cox, E F; Campbell, E; Spiller, R C; Gowland, P A

    2007-12-01

    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention. PMID:18029983

  4. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study

    Hoad, C. L.; Marciani, L.; Foley, S.; Totman, J. J.; Wright, J.; Bush, D.; Cox, E. F.; Campbell, E.; Spiller, R. C.; Gowland, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention.

  5. Metastatic melanoma causing small bowel intussusception: diagnosis by {sup 1}8F-FDG PET/CT

    Souza, Frederico Ferreira de; Johnston, Ciaran [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Brigham and Women' s Hospital. Dana Farber Cancer Institute], e-mail: ffsouza@partners.org; Souza, Felipe Ferreira de; Souza, Daniel Andrade Tinoco de [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, (United States). Brigham and Women' s Hospital

    2009-09-15

    Malignant melanoma is a common and aggressive disease that frequently causes metastases to the small bowel. This study illustrates a case of small bowel intussusception secondary to metastatic melanoma visualized at {sup 1}8F-FDG PET/CT in a 48-year-old woman who had this examination for restaging purposes. (author)

  6. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: preoperative CT-guided percutaneous needle localization of the bleeding small bowel segment.

    Heiss, Peter; Feuerbach, Stefan; Iesalnieks, Igors; Rockmann, Felix; Wrede, Christian E; Zorger, Niels; Schlitt, Hans J; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Hamer, Okka W

    2009-04-01

    A 57-year-old woman presented with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Double balloon enteroscopy, angiography, and surgery including intraoperative enteroscopy failed to identify the bleeding site. Multidetector computed tomography (CT) depicted active bleeding of a small bowel segment. The bleeding segment was localized by CT-guided percutaneous needle insertion and subsequently removed surgically. PMID:19328430

  7. Where did the super-small sized large bowel advanced cancer come from?

    Wada Ryo; Sato Koichi; Ichida Takafumi; Maekawa Hiroshi; Ogawa Kaoru; Maekawa Takeo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Our study suggested that the super-small sized (less than 15 mm in maximum diameter) large bowel advanced cancers, which were sometimes found, were derived from the superficial depressed-type or flat elevation-type of the colorectal early cancers, not polyp-type of those.

  8. Transient small-bowel intussusceptions in adults: significance of ultrasonographic detection

    Maconi, G. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: giovanni.maconi@unimi.it; Radice, E. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy); Greco, S. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy); Bezzio, C. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy); Bianchi Porro, G. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    Aim: To investigate the frequency, clinical significance, and outcome of small-bowel intussusceptions in adults detected using ultrasound in an outpatient setting. Patients and methods: In two different retrospective (January 2001 to April 2003) and prospective (May 2003 to June 2005) periods, 33 small-bowel intussusceptions were found in 32 patients (13 females; mean age: 38.1 years) with known or suspected intestinal disease. Patients underwent diagnostic work-up to assess any organic disease. Patients with self-limiting intussusception were submitted to clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up. Results: Of the 32 patients with small-bowel intussusception, 25 were identified in the prospective series of 4487 examinations (0.53%) and seven in the retrospective series of 5342 examinations (0.15%; p = 0.002). Four patients had persistent and 28 self-limiting intussusceptions. Self-limiting intussusceptions were idiopathic in 11 patients (39%) or associated with organic diseases in 17 (Crohn's disease in 11 patients, celiac disease in three, ulcerative colitis in one patient, and previous surgery for cancer in two). Self-limiting intussusceptions were asymptomatic in 25% of patients. Conclusion: Small-bowel intussusceptions in adults are not rare and are frequently self-limiting, idiopathic, or related to organic diseases, mainly Crohn's disease and coeliac disease.

  9. Prospective evaluation of small bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate for capsule endoscopy

    Andreas Franke, Frank Hummel, Phillip Knebel, Christoph Antoni, Ulrich Bcker, Manfred V Singer, Matthias Lhr

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the effect of Prepacol, a combination of sodium phosphate and bisacodyl, on transit and quality of capsule endoscopy (CE.METHODS: Fivety two consecutive patients were included in this prospective study. CE was performed following a 12 h fasting period. Twenty six patients were randomized for additional preparation with Prepacol. The quality of CE was assessed separately for the proximal and the distal small bowel by 3 experienced endoscopists on the basis of a graduation which was initially developed with 20 previous CE.RESULTS: Preparation with Prepacol accelerated small bowel transit time (262 55 min vs 287 97 min, but had no effect on the quality of CE. Visibility was significantly reduced in the distal compared to the proximal small bowel.CONCLUSION: The significantly reduced visibility of CE in the distal small bowel allocates the need for a good preparation. Since Prepacol has no beneficial effect on CE the modality of preparation and the ideal time of application remains unclear. Further standardized examinations are necessary to identify sufficient preparation procedures and to determine the impact of the volume of the preparation solution.

  10. Diseases of the small bowel in chronic diarrhea: diagnosis and treatment

    M. Simadibrata

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic diarrhea in Asia is between 0.8-1.0%. The diseases and abnormalities according to the location, which can cause chronic diarrhea, are divided into three locations: the small bowel, the large bowel and extraintestinal. The small bowel diseases include infectious and non-infectious diseases. The infectious diseases are bacterial infections, parasitic infections etc. The non-infectious diseases include of Crohn’s disease, Celiac sprue, NSAID enteropathy, lactose intolerance, benign tumor, carcinoid tumor, carcinoma, post surgery complications, laxative etc. The approaches to diagnosis include good anamnesis, careful physical examination, supporting laboratory tests, more specialized supporting examinations including X-ray of the colon, esophagogastroduodenum follow-through, enteroclysis, ileo-colonoscopy and endoscopy on the upper portion of the digestive tract including the small intestine with biopsy for histopathology examinations. The treatment for chronic diarrhea is divided into supportive and causal therapy. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 179-89 Keywords: small bowel, chronic diarrhea, approaches to diagnosis, treatment

  11. Penetrating ectopic peptic ulcer in the absence of Meckel's diverticulum ultimately presenting as small bowel obstruction.

    Hurley, Hilary

    2012-02-03

    We report here how a heterotopic penetrating peptic ulcer progressed to cause small bowel obstruction in a patient with multiple previous negative investigations. The clinical presentation, radiographic features and pathological findings of this case are described, along with the salient lessons learnt. The added value of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in such circumstances is debated.

  12. Transient small-bowel intussusceptions in adults: significance of ultrasonographic detection

    Aim: To investigate the frequency, clinical significance, and outcome of small-bowel intussusceptions in adults detected using ultrasound in an outpatient setting. Patients and methods: In two different retrospective (January 2001 to April 2003) and prospective (May 2003 to June 2005) periods, 33 small-bowel intussusceptions were found in 32 patients (13 females; mean age: 38.1 years) with known or suspected intestinal disease. Patients underwent diagnostic work-up to assess any organic disease. Patients with self-limiting intussusception were submitted to clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up. Results: Of the 32 patients with small-bowel intussusception, 25 were identified in the prospective series of 4487 examinations (0.53%) and seven in the retrospective series of 5342 examinations (0.15%; p = 0.002). Four patients had persistent and 28 self-limiting intussusceptions. Self-limiting intussusceptions were idiopathic in 11 patients (39%) or associated with organic diseases in 17 (Crohn's disease in 11 patients, celiac disease in three, ulcerative colitis in one patient, and previous surgery for cancer in two). Self-limiting intussusceptions were asymptomatic in 25% of patients. Conclusion: Small-bowel intussusceptions in adults are not rare and are frequently self-limiting, idiopathic, or related to organic diseases, mainly Crohn's disease and coeliac disease

  13. Herpes simplex colitis in a child with combined liver and small bowel transplant.

    Delis, S; Kato, T; Ruiz, P; Mittal, N; Babinski, L; Tzakis, A

    2001-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been a rare cause of gastrointestinal (GI) infection, especially in immunocompromised patients. A variety of GI sites may be involved; however, only three reported cases of HSV colitis have been documented in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HSV colitis in a small bowel transplant recipient. PMID:11560759

  14. Treating Small Bowel Obstruction with a Manual Physical Therapy: A Prospective Efficacy Study

    Rice, Amanda D.; Patterson, Kimberley; Reed, Evette D.; Wurn, Belinda F.; Klingenberg, Bernhard; King, C. Richard; Wurn, Lawrence J.

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel obstructions (SBOs) caused by adhesions are a common, often life-threatening postsurgical complication with few treatment options available for patients. This study examines the efficacy of a manual physical therapy treatment regimen on the pain and quality of life of subjects with a history of bowel obstructions due to adhesions in a prospective, controlled survey based study. Changes in six domains of quality of life were measured via ratings reported before and after treatment using the validated Small Bowel Obstruction Questionnaire (SBO-Q). Improvements in the domains for pain (p = 0.0087), overall quality of life (p = 0.0016), and pain severity (p = 0.0006) were significant when average scores before treatment were compared with scores after treatment. The gastrointestinal symptoms (p = 0.0258) domain was marginally significant. There was no statistically significant improvement identified in the diet or medication domains in the SBO-Q for this population. Significant improvements in range of motion in the trunk (p ≤ 0.001), often limited by adhesions, were also observed for all measures. This study demonstrates in a small number of subjects that this manual physical therapy protocol is an effective treatment option for patients with adhesive small bowel obstructions as measured by subject reported symptoms and quality of life. PMID:26989690

  15. Use of a preparation of galactomannane for translucent small bowel presentation

    An improvement of radiological small bowel examination is achieved by a specially composed contrast medium, the use of a galactomannane based non methylcellulose containing distention medium and a specially adapted instillation technique. The distention of the terminal ileum can be supported pharmacologically by ceruletid. (orig.)

  16. NSAID-induced deleterious effects on the proximal and mid small bowel in seronegative spondyloarthropathy patients

    Mihai Rimbaş, Mădălina Marinescu, Mihail Radu Voiosu, Cristian Răsvan Băicuş, Simona Caraiola, Adriana Nicolau, Doina Niţescu, Georgeta Camelia Badea, Magda Ileana Pârvu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the small bowel of seronegative spondyloarthropathy (SpA patients in order to ascertain the presence of mucosal lesions.METHODS: Between January 2008 and June 2010, 54 consecutive patients were enrolled and submitted to avideo capsule endoscopy (VCE examination. History and demographic data were taken, as well as the history of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID consumption. After reading each VCE recording, a capsule endoscopy scoring index for small bowel mucosal inflammatory change (Lewis score was calculated. Statistical analysis of the data was performed.RESULTS: The Lewis score for the whole cohort was 397.73. It was higher in the NSAID consumption subgroup (P = 0.036. The difference in Lewis score between NSAID users and non-users was reproduced for the first and second proximal tertiles of the small bowel, but not for its distal third (P values of 0.036, 0.001 and 0.18, respectively. There was no statistical significant difference between the groups with regard to age or sex of the patients.CONCLUSION: The intestinal inflammatory involvement of SpA patients is more prominent in NSAID users for the proximal/mid small bowel, but not for its distal part.

  17. Signet Ring Cell Lymphoma of the Small Bowel: A case report

    Norwani Basir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal lymphoma of the bowel is uncommon compared to adenocarcinoma. Signet ring cell lymphoma (SRCL is a rare variant of non-Hodgkins lymphoma that is characterized by clear cytoplasm with displaced nuclei to the periphery giving a signet ring appearance. Small bowel involvement has not been previously reported. We report the rare case of a 78-year-old female who presented with short history of fever, loss of appetite, nausea,vomiting, mild weight loss with abdominal discomfort and was later diagnosed to have SRCL of the ileum.

  18. Transient angioedema of small bowel secondary to intravenous iodinated contrast medium

    Kirankumar N Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical details and imaging findings of a case of transient angioedema of the small bowel following intravenous administration of non-ionic iodinated contrast material in a 17 year old female with no predisposing risk factors. Findings included long segment, symmetric, circumferential, low-density, bowel wall thickening involving the duodenum, jejunum, and most of the ileum on computed tomography scan obtained at 7 min following intravenous contrast material injection. This entity is self-limiting with a favourable clinical outcome and requires no specific treatment but only aggressive clinical monitoring.

  19. Laparoscopic surgery for small-bowel obstruction caused by Meckel’s diverticulum

    Matsumoto, Takatsugu; Nagai, Motoki; Koike, Daisuke; Nomura, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal distention and vomiting. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a blind loop of the bowel extending to near the uterus and a fibrotic band connecting the mesentery to the top of the bowel, suggestive of Meckel’s diverticulum (MD) and a mesodiverticular band (MDB). After intestinal decompression, elective laparoscopic surgery was carried out. Using three 5-mm ports, MD was dissected from the surrounding adhesion and MDB was divided intracorporeally. And subsequent Meckel’s diverticulectomy was performed. The presence of heterotopic gastric mucosa was confirmed histologically. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged 5 d after the operation. She has remained healthy and symptom-free during 4 years of follow-up. This was considered to be an unusual case of preoperatively diagnosed and laparoscopically treated small-bowel obstruction due to MD in a young adult woman. PMID:26981191

  20. Laparoscopic surgery for small-bowel obstruction caused by Meckel's diverticulum.

    Matsumoto, Takatsugu; Nagai, Motoki; Koike, Daisuke; Nomura, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Nobutaka

    2016-02-27

    A 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal distention and vomiting. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a blind loop of the bowel extending to near the uterus and a fibrotic band connecting the mesentery to the top of the bowel, suggestive of Meckel's diverticulum (MD) and a mesodiverticular band (MDB). After intestinal decompression, elective laparoscopic surgery was carried out. Using three 5-mm ports, MD was dissected from the surrounding adhesion and MDB was divided intracorporeally. And subsequent Meckel's diverticulectomy was performed. The presence of heterotopic gastric mucosa was confirmed histologically. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged 5 d after the operation. She has remained healthy and symptom-free during 4 years of follow-up. This was considered to be an unusual case of preoperatively diagnosed and laparoscopically treated small-bowel obstruction due to MD in a young adult woman. PMID:26981191

  1. Treatment planning for colorectal cancer: radiation and surgical techniques and value of small-bowel films

    For colorectal cancer, the adjuvant radiation dose levels required to achieve a high incidence of local control closely parallel the radiation tolerance of small bowel (4500-5000 rad), and for patients with partially resected or unresected disease, the dose levels exceed tolerance (6000-7000 rad). Therefore, both the surgeon and the radiation oncologist should use techniques that localize tumor volumes and decrease the amount of small intestine within the irradiation field. Surgical options include pelvic reconstruction and clip placement. Radiation options include the use of radiographs to define small bowel location and mobility combined with treatment techniques using multiple fields, bladder distention, shrinking or boost fields, and/or patient position changes. When both specialties interact in optimum fashion, local control can be increased with minimal side effects to the small intestine

  2. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: are there any predictors?

    McCallum Richard W; Sostarich Sandra; Reddymasu Savio C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which excessive levels of bacteria, mainly the colonic-type species are present in the small intestine. Recent data suggest that SIBO may contribute to the pathophysiology of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The purpose of this study was to identify potential predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Methods Adults with IBS based on Rome II criteria who had predominance of bloating and flatulence underwent a gluc...

  3. Multiscale texture descriptors for automatic small bowel tumors detection in capsule endoscopy

    Barbosa, Daniel; Roupar, Dalila; Lima, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Conventional endoscopic exams do not allow the entire visualization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Push enteroscopy (PE) is an effective diagnostic and therapeutic procedure, although it only allows exploration of the proximal small bowel (Pennazio et al., 1995). Simultaneously, convetional colonoscopy is limited at the terminal ileum. Therefore, prior to the wireless capsule endoscopy era, the small intestine was the conventional endoscopy’s last frontier, because it could not b...

  4. Small bowel haemorrhage associated with partial midgut malrotation in a middle-aged man

    Peddu Praveen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe a case of life-threatening small bowel haemorrhage in a 56 year old man, who was found to have partial midgut malrotation at laparotomy. An association between congenital malrotation and gastrointestinal haemorrhage has not previously been reported in this age group. We discuss the association between gut malrotation and small intestinal pathology and describe the principles of management in these patients.

  5. Large bowel obstruction secondary to adhesive bands

    El-Masry, Nabil S.; Geevarghese, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is most commonly due to malignancy, volvulus, hernia, diverticular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. LBO due to adhesions is unusual. A literature review was conducted which revealed that only a few such cases have been reported. We report two cases of LBO secondary to adhesions in patients, one with and one without a past abdominal surgical history. We highlight that while rare, the aetiology of LBO secondary to adhesions must be considered in the differen...

  6. Small Bowel Dose Parameters Predicting Grade ≥3 Acute Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: An Independent Validation Study Comparing Peritoneal Space Versus Small Bowel Loop Contouring Techniques

    Banerjee, Robyn, E-mail: robynbanerjee@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Chakraborty, Santam; Nygren, Ian; Sinha, Richie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether volumes based on contours of the peritoneal space can be used instead of individual small bowel loops to predict for grade ≥3 acute small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A standardized contouring method was developed for the peritoneal space and retrospectively applied to the radiation treatment plans of 67 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data were extracted and analyzed against patient toxicity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were carried out for both contouring methods. Results: Grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity occurred in 16% (11/67) of patients in the study. A highly significant dose-volume relationship between small bowel irradiation and acute small bowel toxicity was supported by the use of both small bowel loop and peritoneal space contouring techniques. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that, for both contouring methods, the greatest sensitivity for predicting toxicity was associated with the volume receiving between 15 and 25 Gy. Conclusion: DVH analysis of peritoneal space volumes accurately predicts grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, suggesting that the contours of the peritoneal space provide a reasonable surrogate for the contours of individual small bowel loops. The study finds that a small bowel V15 less than 275 cc and a peritoneal space V15 less than 830 cc are associated with a less than 10% risk of grade ≥3 acute toxicity.

  7. Small Bowel Dose Parameters Predicting Grade ≥3 Acute Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: An Independent Validation Study Comparing Peritoneal Space Versus Small Bowel Loop Contouring Techniques

    Purpose: To determine whether volumes based on contours of the peritoneal space can be used instead of individual small bowel loops to predict for grade ≥3 acute small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A standardized contouring method was developed for the peritoneal space and retrospectively applied to the radiation treatment plans of 67 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data were extracted and analyzed against patient toxicity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were carried out for both contouring methods. Results: Grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity occurred in 16% (11/67) of patients in the study. A highly significant dose-volume relationship between small bowel irradiation and acute small bowel toxicity was supported by the use of both small bowel loop and peritoneal space contouring techniques. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that, for both contouring methods, the greatest sensitivity for predicting toxicity was associated with the volume receiving between 15 and 25 Gy. Conclusion: DVH analysis of peritoneal space volumes accurately predicts grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, suggesting that the contours of the peritoneal space provide a reasonable surrogate for the contours of individual small bowel loops. The study finds that a small bowel V15 less than 275 cc and a peritoneal space V15 less than 830 cc are associated with a less than 10% risk of grade ≥3 acute toxicity

  8. MR imaging of the small bowel in Crohn's disease

    Siddiki, Hassan [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Fidler, Jeff [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail: fidler.jeff@mayo.edu

    2009-03-15

    MR and CT techniques optimized for small bowel imaging are playing an increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel disorders. Several studies have shown the advantage of these techniques over tradition barium fluoroscopic examinations secondary to improvements in spatial and temporal resolution combined with improved bowel distending agents. The preference of MR vs. CT has been geographical and based on expertise and public policy. With the increasing awareness of radiation exposure, there has been a more global interest in implementing techniques that either reduce or eliminate radiation exposure [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. This is especially important in patients with chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease who may require multiple studies over a lifetime or in studies that require sequential imaging time points such as in assessment of gastrointestinal motility [Froehlich JM, Patak MA, von Weymarn C, Juli CF, Zollikofer CL, Wentz KU. Small bowel motility assessment with magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2005;21:370-75]. A recent study showed that certain subgroups of patients with Crohn's disease may be exposed to higher doses of radiation; those diagnosed at an early age, those with upper tract inflammation, penetrating disease, requirement of intravenous steroids, infliximab or multiple surgeries [Desmond AN, O'Regan K, Curran C, et al. Crohn's disease: factors associated with exposure to high levels of diagnostic radiation. Gut 2008;57:1524-29]. Therefore it has been suggested that techniques that can reduce or eliminate radiation exposure should be considered for imaging [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. Owing to the excellent softtissue contrast, direct multiplanar imaging capabilities, new ultrafast breath-holding pulse sequences, lack of ionizing radiation and availability of a variety of oral contrast agents, MR is well suited to play a critical role in the imaging of small bowel disorders. In this article we will review the technical issues related to the performance of MR enterography and enteroclysis and discuss the role and controversies of using MR in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages of the small bowel in patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome

    Sandstrm Gunnar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune activation have repeatedly been suggested as pathogentic factors in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The driving force for immune activation in IBS remains unknown. The aim of our study was to find out if the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia could be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methods We studied 65 patients (61 females with IBS and 42 (29 females healthy controls in which IBS had been excluded. Full thickness biopsies from the jejunum and mucosa biopsies from the duodenum and the jejunum were stained with a monoclonal antibody to Chlamydia lipopolysaccharide (LPS and species-specific monoclonal antibodies to C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. We used polyclonal antibodies to chromogranin A, CD68, CD11c, and CD117 to identify enteroendocrine cells, macrophages, dendritic, and mast cells, respectively. Results Chlamydia LPS was present in 89% of patients with IBS, but in only 14% of healthy controls (p C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP. Staining for C. pneumoniae was negative in both patients and controls. Chlamydia LPS was detected in enteroendocrine cells of the mucosa in 90% of positive biopsies and in subepithelial macrophages in 69% of biopsies. Biopsies taken at different time points in 19 patients revealed persistence of Chlamydia LPS up to 11 years. The odds ratio for the association of Chlamydia LPS with presence of IBS (43.1; 95% CI: 13.2-140.7 is much higher than any previously described pathogenetic marker in IBS. Conclusions We found C. trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages in the small bowel mucosa of patients with IBS. Further studies are required to clarify if the presence of such antigens has a role in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  10. Stagnant loop syndrome resulting from small-bowel irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass

    Stagnant or blind-loop syndrome includes vitamin B12 malabsorption, steatorrhea, and bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. A case is presented to demonstrate this syndrome occurring after small-bowel irradiation injury with exaggeration postenterocolic by-pass. Alteration of normal small-bowel flora is basic to development of the stagnant-loop syndrome. Certain strains of bacteria as Bacteriodes and E. coli are capable of producing a malabsorption state. Definitive therapy for this syndrome developing after severe irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass includes antibiotics. Rapid symptomatic relief from diarrhea and improved malabsorption studies usually follow appropriate antibiotic therapy. Recolonization of the loop(s) with the offending bacterial species may produce exacerbation of symptoms. Since antibiotics are effective, recognition of this syndrome is important. Foul diarrheal stools should not be considered a necessary consequence of irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass

  11. Ingestion of a foreign body unmasks an asymptomatic small bowel carcinoid tumor

    Yi-Zarn Wang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bowel obstruction is a common surgical admission around the world. On the other hand, small intestinal tumors, such as midgut carcinoid, are uncommon neoplasms and an infrequent cause of intestinal obstruction leading to hospitalization. A foreign body is an extremely rare cause of intestinal obstruction and when ingested, foreign bodies most often lodge in the narrowest portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Narrowing of the small bowel due to a neoplasm can prohibit the passage of an accidentally ingested foreign object and produce an obstruction that neither the neoplasm nor the foreign body could have produced alone. We hereby report a case in which an accidentally ingested piece of foreign material leads to the finding of a small, early stage, asymptomatic, midgut carcinoid cancer in the proximal ileum that would have otherwise eluded detection for several years.

  12. Stagnant loop syndrome resulting from small-bowel irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass

    Swan, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Stagnant or blind-loop syndrome includes vitamin B12 malabsorption, steatorrhea, and bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. A case is presented to demonstrate this syndrome occurring after small-bowel irradiation injury with exaggeration postenterocolic by-pass. Alteration of normal small-bowel flora is basic to development of the stagnant-loop syndrome. Certain strains of bacteria as Bacteriodes and E. coli are capable of producing a malabsorption state. Definitive therapy for this syndrome developing after severe irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass includes antibiotics. Rapid symptomatic relief from diarrhea and improved malabsorption studies usually follow appropriate antibiotic therapy. Recolonization of the loop(s) with the offending bacterial species may produce exacerbation of symptoms. Since antibiotics are effective, recognition of this syndrome is important. Foul diarrheal stools should not be considered a necessary consequence of irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass.

  13. Comparison of magnetic resonance enterography, capsule endoscopy and gastrointestinal radiography of children with small bowel Crohns disease

    LAI, CAN; ZHOU, HAI-CHUN; Ma, Ming; ZHANG, HONG-XI; Jia, Xuan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) findings with those of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) or conventional gastrointestinal radiography (CGR) in pediatric patients with small bowel Crohns disease. A total of 55 cases of small bowel Crohns disease that were diagnosed through clinical, laboratory, surgical and histopathological findings were reviewed. Prior to the examination, children suspected of having other types of diseases of the small intestinal wer...

  14. Effect of infliximab on small bowel stenoses in patients with Crohns disease

    Nadia Pallotta, Fausto Barberani, Naima Abdulkadir Hassan, Danila Guagnozzi, Giuseppina Vincoli, Enrico Corazziari

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess prospectively small bowel stenoses in Crohns disease (CD patients treated with infliximab using Small Intestine Contrast Ultrasonography (SICUS.METHODS: Twenty patients (M 12, age, 42.7 11.8 years, 15 of whom showed obstructive symptoms indicating the presence of small bowel stenosis, and 5 without stenosis, were treated with infliximab (5 mg/kg at wk 0, 2, 6 and 5 mg/kg every 8 wk thereafter for steroid refractoriness, fistulizing disease, or to avoid high-risk surgery. SICUS was performed at the induction phase and at regular time intervals during the follow-up period of 34.7 16.1 mo (range 7-58. Small bowel stenoses were detected by SICUS, endoscopy and MRI.RESULTS: In no case was progression of stenoses or the appearance of new ones seen. Of the 15 patients with stenosis, 5 stopped treatment after the induction phase (2 for no response, 3 for drug intolerance, one of whom showed complete regression of one stenosis. Among the remaining 10 patients, a complete regression of 8 stenoses (1 stenosis in 5 patients and 3 stenoses in one patient was observed after 6-22 infliximab infusions.CONCLUSION: In patients with CD treated with infliximab we observed: (a No progression of small bowel stenosis and no appearance of new ones, (b Complete regression of 1/22 stenosis after the induction phase and of 8/15 (53.3% stenosis after 6-22 infusions during maintenance therapy.

  15. Radiologic findings of small bowel rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma

    Ha, Hyeon Kweun; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-04-15

    Bowel rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma is no longer rare, and is among the most challenging problems that confront the physicians and radiologists. It is frequently difficult to diagnose because the symptoms may be trivial during the early stage and masked by more obvious, but less lethal injuries. It is well known that the roentgen examination of the abdomen is also of little value to exclude bowel rupture because of infrequency of positive findings and free gas. The plain films of 23 cases of jejunal rupture and 8 cases of ileal rupture were evaluated to sort and diagnostic features of small bowel rupture caused by blunt abdominal trauma. 1. Free intraperitoneal gas was noted in 6 cases of jejunal rupture (26%) and 1 case of ileal rupture (13%), and definite radiological evidence of free intraperitoneal fluid was present in 16 cases of patients (52%). 2. The contour change of bowel loops such as tapering or indentation were seen in 11 cases of patients (36%), and local opacity along the mesenteric root axis was demonstrated in 19 cases of patients (61%). 3. Paralytic ileus was localized to LUQ in jejunal rupture and to mid-abdomen in ileal rupture, and gastric and transverse-colon distension with gas was noticeable especially in jejunal rupture.

  16. Radiologic findings of small bowel rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma

    Bowel rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma is no longer rare, and is among the most challenging problems that confront the physicians and radiologists. It is frequently difficult to diagnose because the symptoms may be trivial during the early stage and masked by more obvious, but less lethal injuries. It is well known that the roentgen examination of the abdomen is also of little value to exclude bowel rupture because of infrequency of positive findings and free gas. The plain films of 23 cases of jejunal rupture and 8 cases of ileal rupture were evaluated to sort and diagnostic features of small bowel rupture caused by blunt abdominal trauma. 1. Free intraperitoneal gas was noted in 6 cases of jejunal rupture (26%) and 1 case of ileal rupture (13%), and definite radiological evidence of free intraperitoneal fluid was present in 16 cases of patients (52%). 2. The contour change of bowel loops such as tapering or indentation were seen in 11 cases of patients (36%), and local opacity along the mesenteric root axis was demonstrated in 19 cases of patients (61%). 3. Paralytic ileus was localized to LUQ in jejunal rupture and to mid-abdomen in ileal rupture, and gastric and transverse-colon distension with gas was noticeable especially in jejunal rupture

  17. Adhesive small bowel adhesions obstruction: Evolutions in diagnosis, management and prevention

    Catena, Fausto; Di Saverio, Salomone; Coccolini, Federico; Ansaloni, Luca; De Simone, Belinda; Sartelli, Massimo; Van Goor, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal adhesions following abdominal surgery represent a major unsolved problem. They are the first cause of small bowel obstruction. Diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation, water-soluble contrast follow-through and computed tomography scan. For patients presenting no signs of strangulation, peritonitis or severe intestinal impairment there is good evidence to support non-operative management. Open surgery is the preferred method for the surgical treatment of adhesive small bowel obstruction, in case of suspected strangulation or after failed conservative management, but laparoscopy is gaining widespread acceptance especially in selected group of patients. "Good" surgical technique and anti-adhesive barriers are the main current concepts of adhesion prevention. We discuss current knowledge in modern diagnosis and evolving strategies for management and prevention that are leading to stratified care for patients. PMID:27022449

  18. Small bowel obstruction - the water-soluble follow-through revisited

    AIMS: The aim of the present study to examine the use of a modified water-soluble follow-through in the diagnosis and management of small bowel obstruction (SBO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two patients were recruited to the study: 33 into the control group and 29 into the study group. A modified small bowel follow-through (SBFT) was performed in the study group patients. The control group was managed conventionally. Assessment was made by questionnaire documenting initial surgical diagnosis and likelihood of operative intervention, final diagnosis and surgical outcome (operative versus non-operative). RESULTS: SBFT changed the diagnosis in 12/24 of the study group (pp>0.05, chi-squared test). CONCLUSION: SBFT remains a valid and useful tool in surgical management of SBO. In particular it aids diagnostic confidence in planning surgical intervention, particularly in uncomplicated patients

  19. Adhesive small bowel adhesions obstruction: Evolutions in diagnosis, management and prevention.

    Catena, Fausto; Di Saverio, Salomone; Coccolini, Federico; Ansaloni, Luca; De Simone, Belinda; Sartelli, Massimo; Van Goor, Harry

    2016-03-27

    Intra-abdominal adhesions following abdominal surgery represent a major unsolved problem. They are the first cause of small bowel obstruction. Diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation, water-soluble contrast follow-through and computed tomography scan. For patients presenting no signs of strangulation, peritonitis or severe intestinal impairment there is good evidence to support non-operative management. Open surgery is the preferred method for the surgical treatment of adhesive small bowel obstruction, in case of suspected strangulation or after failed conservative management, but laparoscopy is gaining widespread acceptance especially in selected group of patients. "Good" surgical technique and anti-adhesive barriers are the main current concepts of adhesion prevention. We discuss current knowledge in modern diagnosis and evolving strategies for management and prevention that are leading to stratified care for patients. PMID:27022449

  20. Posterolateral diaphragmatic hernia with small-bowel incarceration in an adult.

    Wenzel-Smith, Gisela

    2013-05-01

    Bochdalek hernia (BH), a closing defect of the peripheral posterior aspect of the diaphragm, is the commonest of the congenital diaphragmatic hernias and is usually diagnosed in neonates. Symptomatic presentation of a right-sided diaphragmatic hernia in an adult is unusual. Owing to their rarity and varied presentation, they can pose a diagnostic challenge. A right-sided BH in a 40-year-old woman who presented with respiratory distress associated with abdominal pain and symptoms of small-bowel obstruction is reported. Midline laparotomy revealed necrotic small bowel and faecothorax of the pleural cavity. Diaphragmatic hernias should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute or chronic gastrointestinal, or less frequently respiratory, symptoms. PMID:23725897

  1. Segmental small bowel necrosis associated with antiphospholipid syndrome: A case report

    Wang, Qun-Ying; Ye, Xiao-Hua; Ding, Jin; Wu, Xiao-kang

    2015-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is a multi-system disease characterized by the formation of thromboembolic complications and/or pregnancy morbidity, and with persistently increased titers of antiphospholipid antibodies. We report the case of a 50-year-old, previously healthy man who presented with fever and new-onset, dull abdominal pain. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed segmental small bowel obstruction, for which an emergency laparotomy was performed. Histopathologic examinatio...

  2. Untreated Celiac Disease in a Patient with Dermatitis Herpetiformis Leading to a Small Bowel Carcinoma

    Derikx, Monique H.M.; Bisseling, Tanya M

    2012-01-01

    Usually, celiac disease has a benign course, though the overall morbidity and mortality have increased. Treatment with a gluten-free diet restores the damaged intestinal mucosa. In rare cases a small bowel adenocarcinoma develops. Unfortunately, the clinical presentation is not always recognized and prognosis is bad. We present a 69-year-old man with a history of dermatitis herpetiformis who presented to our tertiary center for a second opinion for a suspected gastric motility disorder. This ...

  3. The effects of erythromycin in small-bowel follow-through

    To evaluate the efficacy of erythromycin(EM), known to accelerate gastric emptying, in modified small-bowel follow-through(SBFT). We evaluated 32 normal patients who underwent modified SBFT by oral administration of methylcellulose. In the EM injection group(n=20), 500 mg EM (3 mg/kg in pediatric patients) in 100 ml saline was infused intravenously over a 15-minute period prior to the administration of a barium meal, while in the control group(n=12), EM was not infused. Gastric emptying time(GET), small-bowel transit time(SBTT) for barium and methylcellulose, small-bowel transit(SBT) during the first 15 minutes, luminal diameter and quality of image were compared between the two groups. SBT was assigned 1, 2, 3, or 4 points, depending on the extent to which the barium head reached the proximal or distal jejunum, and the proximal or distal ileum during the initial 15-minute. Three radiologists reached a consensus as to image quality. Mean GET was significantly faster in the EM injection group (18.5 mins for 150 ml barium suspension and 25.8 mins for 600 ml methylcellulose). The SBT score during the initial 15 minutes was significantly higher in the EM injection group (3.3 points) than in the control group (2.4points), but mean SBTT was not significantly different between the two groups. Luminal diameter and image quality were also higher in the EM injection group. EM does not decrease SBTT but is highly effective for shortening gastric emptying time, helping to increase the range of fluoroscopic examination and improve image quality in modified small-bowel follow-through, especially in patients with delayed gastric emptying

  4. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms: Experience with Rifaximin

    Sergio Peralta, Claudia Cottone, Tiziana Doveri, Piero Luigi Almasio, Antonio Craxi

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in our geographical area (Western Sicily, Italy) by means of an observational study, and to gather information on the use of locally active, non-absorbable antibiotics for treatment of SIBO.METHODS: Our survey included 115 patients fulfilling the Rome II criteria for diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); a total of 97 patients accepted to perform a breath test with lactulose (BTLact), and those who had a po...

  5. Simultaneous culture of saliva and jejunal aspirate in the investigation of small bowel bacterial overgrowth.

    Hamilton, I.; Worsley, B W; Cobden, I; Cooke, E. M.; Shoesmith, J G; Axon, A T

    1982-01-01

    Both saliva and jejunal aspirate were cultured from 22 patients with suspected small bowel bacterial overgrowth and from eight controls. Large numbers of organisms (greater than 10(6)/ml) were recovered from the jejunal aspirate of 16 subjects, in five of whom the same organisms were present in similar relative proportions in the saliva, suggesting contamination of the sample with saliva, while in 11 the jejunal organisms differed from those in saliva. In eight of these the jejunal flora was ...

  6. Small bowel parasitosis as cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding diagnosed by capsule endoscopy

    Dimitrios K. Christodoulou; Sigounas, Dimitrios E.; Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Georgios Dimos; Epameinondas V Tsianos

    2010-01-01

    Hookworm infection is a relatively common cause of anemia in endemic areas. However, it is rarely encountered in Europe. In this report we describe the case of a 24-year old patient originating from an endemic area who was admitted due to severe anemia, with an Hct of 15.6% and eosinophilia (Eosinophils: 22.4%). While both esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were non-diagnostic, capsule endoscopy revealed a large number of hookworms infesting his small bowel and withdrawing blood. The ...

  7. Appendiceal duplication with simultaneous acute appendicitis and appendicular perforation causing small bowel obstruction

    Bali, RS; Wani, MM; Mir, SI; Thakur, S; Bhat, RA

    2011-01-01

    Acute appendicitis, as well as intestinal obstruction, is a common surgical emergencies. Both the conditions can present as an acute abdomen, however the diagnosis of acute appendicitis can be overlooked when it presents as a small bowel obstruction. Difficulties in correctly identifying the cause of pain can be hazardous to the patient and care needs to be taken in obtaining a prompt and accurate diagnosis enabling the most appropriate management. Appendiceal duplication although rare and di...

  8. Pericecal hernia manifesting as a small bowel obstruction successfully treated with laparoscopic surgery

    Ogami, Takuya; Honjo, Hirotaka; Kusanagi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A pericecal hernia is a type of internal hernia, which rarely causes small bowel obstruction (SBO). At our institution, a 92-year-old man presented with vomiting and abdominal pain. He was conservatively treated with a diagnosis of SBO. After 2 weeks of copious drainage output, he was taken to the operating room. Laparoscopy revealed a pericecal hernia that was successfully reduced. We conclude that laparoscopic surgery is an effective way to treat SBOs secondary to pericecal hernias. PMID:26933000

  9. Spontaneous transmesenteric hernia: a rare cause of small bowel obstruction in an adult

    Poras Chaudhary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of spontaneous transmesenteric hernia with strangulation in an adult. Transmesenteric hernia (TMH is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction and is seldom diagnosed preoperatively, and most TMHs in adults are related to predisposing factors, such as previous surgery, abdominal trauma, and peritonitis. TMH are more likely to develop volvulus and strangulation or ischemia. A brief review of etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment is discussed.

  10. Proximal small bowel obstruction caused by a massive intraluminal thrombus from a stress ulcer

    Siddiky, AH; GUPTA, P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of proximal small bowel obstruction caused by an occlusive thrombus as a result of bleeding from a duodenal ulcer, which is likely to be stress induced. Initial presentation was confused as a bleeding duodenal ulcer and resultant ileus. Such reports are incredibly rare in the literature and never has one been reported as a result of a stress ulcer. Obstructive symptoms in the acute postoperative patient may be confused for an ileus but mechanical causes must be excluded. Th...

  11. [A case of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the small bowel in a patient with intestinal obstruction].

    Brotzu, C; Bosu, C; Pisano, G; Pomata, M

    1997-01-01

    Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) represents an uncommon lesion usually related to humoral immunodeficiency conditions. A case of NLH of the small bowel discovered by chance during an emergency laparotomy for an intestinal obstruction is herein reported. Discussion is focused on the main features of NLH which as in the reported case, is likely to be the initial manifestation of an intestinal disease not yet clinically defined. PMID:9296598

  12. Recent advances in small bowel diseases: Part I

    Alan BR Thomson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As is the case in all parts of gastroenterology and hepatology, there have been many advances in our knowledge and understanding of small intestinal diseases. Over 1000 publications were reviewed for 2008 and 2009, and the important advances in basic science as well as clinical applications were considered. In Part I of this Editorial Review, seven topics are considered: intestinal development; proliferation and repair; intestinal permeability; microbiotica, infectious diarrhea and probiotics; diarrhea; salt and water absorption; necrotizing enterocolitis; and immunology/allergy. These topics were chosen because of their importance to the practicing physician.

  13. Accuracy of enteroclysis in Crohn's disease of the small bowel: a retrospective study

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of enteroclysis in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease of the small bowel in a group of consecutive patients. From January 1992 to December 1995, 165 patients with suspected Crohn's disease of the small bowel presented to our institution for enteroclysis. In 14 patients up to three enteroclysis exams were performed. Most patients (78 %) underwent colonoscopy and retrograde ileoscopy. In the remaining patients clinical follow-up was used as gold standard. In 79 patients no radiographic abnormalities were found. Sixty-one patients (40 men and 21 women; mean age 34.2 years) had a radiological diagnosis of Crohn's disease. This involved the terminal ileum in 39 patients (64 %) either alone (n = 25) or in association with the pelvic ileum (n = 14). In 12 of these patients retrograde ileoscopy was not feasible. Twenty-one patients underwent surgery. In 4 patients pathology revealed diseases other than Crohn's. These patients had all ileocecal diseases (tuberculosis = 2; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma = 1; adenocarcinoma = 1). One false-negative result was observed. Overall, enteroclysis showed a sensitivity of 98.2 % and a positive predictive value of 93.4 %. Enteroclysis is a sensitive technique in evaluating both the extent and the severity of small bowel involvement in Crohn's disease, although the overlap of radiographic findings may hamper its accuracy when the disease is confined to the ileocecal area. (orig.)

  14. Multi-slice spiral CT evaluation in Crohn's disease of small bowel

    Objective: To assess the value of enhanced MSCT scan for the Crohn's disease of small bowel. Methods: Fourty-five patients of small bowel Crohn's disease who were proved by multi-method were examined by two-phase enhanced scan with MSCT. The images were reformed in ADW 4.2 by MPR mainly. The CT values of the lesion segments in different phases were tested, with one way ANOVA in statistical analysis; the density difference between the lesion segments and normal segments in different phases were tested, the cases were divided according to 10 HU, and compared them with each other by χ2 test. Results: The average CT value of lesion segments was (39.3±3.7) HU in plain scan, (74.8±13.8) HU in artery phase, (90.2±12.3) HU in portal vein phase, there were sinigicant difference in them (F=258.87, P10 HU respectively in plain scan, 6 cases and 39 cases in artery phase, 2 cases and 43 cases in portal vein phase, by χ2 test, there were sinigicant difference between plain scan and artery phase (χ2=32.49, P2= 39.22, P2= 1.10, P>0.05). After enhancement, the lesions can display clearly than plain scan, and the detectable rate was raised highly. Conclusion: Two-phase enhancement scan can diagnosis the Crohn's disease of small bowel and evaluate it overall. (authors)

  15. Cardiopulmonary bypass induced microcirculatory injury of the small bowel in rats

    Guo-Hua Dong, Chang-Tian Wang, Yun Li, Biao Xu, Jian-Jun Qian, Hai-Wei Wu, Hua Jing

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate microvascular injury quantitatively in the small bowel with respect to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and related mechanisms.METHODS: In 10 male SD rats, normothermic CPB was established and continued with a flow rate of 100-150 mL/kg per minute for 60 min, while another 10 sham-operated animals served as controls. An approximate 10-cm loop of the terminal ileum was exteriorized for observation by means of intravital fluorescence microscopy. The small bowel microcirculatory network including arterioles, capillaries, and collecting venules was observed prior to CPB, CPB 30 min, CPB 60 min, post-CPB 60 min and post-CPB 120 min. The intestinal capillary perfusion, microvascular permeability and leukocyte adherence were also measured.RESULTS: The systemic hemodynamics remained stable throughout the experiment in both groups. In CPB animals, significant arteriolar vasoconstriction, blood velocity reduction and functional capillary density diminution were found. As concomitances, exaggerated albumin extravasation and increased leukocyte accumulation were also noted. These changes were more pronounced and there were no signs of restitution at the end of the observation period.CONCLUSION: CPB induces significant microcirculatory injury of the small bowel in rats. The major underlying mechanisms are blood flow redistribution and generalized inflammatory response associated with CPB.

  16. Detected peritoneal fluid in small bowel obstruction is associated with the need for surgical intervention.

    O'Daly, Brendan J

    2009-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Predicting the clinical course in adhesional small bowel obstruction is difficult. There are no validated clinical or radiologic features that allow early identification of patients likely to require surgical intervention. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 100 patients consecutively admitted to a tertiary level teaching hospital over a 3-year period (2002-2004) who had acute adhesional small bowel obstruction and underwent computed tomography (CT). The primary outcomes that we assessed were conservative management or the need for surgical intervention. We investigated time to physiologic gastrointestinal function recovery as a secondary outcome. We examined independent predictors of surgical intervention in a bivariate analysis using a stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients investigated, we excluded 12. Of the 88 remaining patients, 58 (66%) were managed conservatively and 30 (34%) underwent surgery. Peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan (n = 37) was associated more frequently with surgery than conservative management (46% v. 29%, p = 0.046, chi(2)). Logistical regression identified peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan as an independent predictor of surgical intervention (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.15-7.84). CONCLUSION: The presence of peritoneal fluid on a CT scan in patients with adhesional small bowel obstruction is an independent predictor of surgical intervention and should alert the clinician that the patient is 3 times more likely to require surgery.

  17. Mucosal healing effect of mesalazine granules in naproxen-induced small bowel enteropathy

    Istvn Rcz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of mesalazine granules on small intestinal injury induced by naproxen using capsule endoscopy (CE. METHODS: This was a single center, non-randomized, open-label, uncontrolled pilot study, using the PillCam SB CE system with RAPID 5 software. The Lewis Index Score (LIS for small bowel injury was investigated to evaluate the severity of mucosal injury. Arthropathy patients with at least one month history of daily naproxen use of 1000 mg and proton pump inhibitor co-therapy were screened. Patients with a minimum LIS of 135 were eligible to enter the 4-wk treatment phase of the study. During this treatment period, 3 1000 mg/d mesalazine granules were added to ongoing therapies of 1000 mg/d naproxen and 20 mg/d omeprazole. At the end of the 4-wk combined treatment period, a second small bowel CE was performed to re-evaluate the enteropathy according to the LIS results. The primary objective of this study was to assess the mucosal changes after 4 wk of mesalazine treatment. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients (16 females, ranging in age from 46 to 78 years (mean age 60.3 years were screened, all had been taking 1000 mg/d naproxen for at least one month. Eight patients were excluded from the mesalazine therapeutic phase of the study for the following reasons: the screening CE showed normal small bowel mucosa or only insignificant damages (LIS < 135 in five patients, the screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric ulcer in one patient, capsule technical failure and incomplete CE due to poor small bowel cleanliness in two patients. Ten patients (9 female, mean age 56.2 years whose initial LIS reached mild and moderate-to-severe enteropathy grades (between 135 and 790 and ? 790 entered the 4-wk therapeutic phase and a repeat CE was performed. When comparing the change in LIS from baseline to end of treatment in all patients, a marked decrease was seen (mean LIS: 1236.4 821.9 vs 925.2 543.4, P = 0.271. Moreover, a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment mean total LIS was detected in 7 patients who had moderate-to-severe enteropathy gradings at the inclusion CE (mean LIS: 1615 672 vs 1064 424, P = 0.033. CONCLUSION: According to the small bowel CE evaluation mesalazine granules significantly attenuated mucosal injuries in patients with moderate-to-severe enteropathies induced by naproxen.

  18. Laparoscopic management of mesh erosion into small bowel and urinary bladder following total extra-peritoneal repair of inguinal hernia

    Sandeep Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesh erosion into visceral organs is a rare complication following laparoscopic mesh repair for inguinal hernia with only 15 cases reported in English literature. We report the first case of complete laparoscopic management of mesh erosion into small bowel and urinary bladder. A 62-year-male underwent laparoscopic total extra-peritoneal repair of left inguinal hernia at another centre in April 2012. He presented to our centre 21 months later with persistent lower urinary tract infection (UTI. On evaluation mesh erosion into bowel and urinary bladder was suspected. At laparoscopy, a small bowel loop was adhered to the area of inflammation in the left lower abdomen. After adhesiolysis, mesh was seen to be eroding into small bowel. The entire infected mesh was pulled out from the pre-peritoneal space and urinary bladder wall using gentle traction. The involved small bowel segment was resected, and bowel continuity restored using endoscopic linear cutter. The resected bowel along with the mesh was extracted in a plastic bag. Intra-operative test for leak from urinary bladder was found to be negative. The patient recovered uneventfully and is doing well at 12 months follow-up with resolution of UTI. Laparoscopic approach to mesh erosion is feasible as the plane of mesh placement during laparoscopic hernia repair is closer to peritoneum than during open hernia repair.

  19. Laparoscopic management of mesh erosion into small bowel and urinary bladder following total extra-peritoneal repair of inguinal hernia

    Aggarwal, Sandeep; Praneeth, Kokkula; Rathore, Yashwant; Waran, Vignesh; Singh, Prabhjot

    2016-01-01

    Mesh erosion into visceral organs is a rare complication following laparoscopic mesh repair for inguinal hernia with only 15 cases reported in English literature. We report the first case of complete laparoscopic management of mesh erosion into small bowel and urinary bladder. A 62-year-male underwent laparoscopic total extra-peritoneal repair of left inguinal hernia at another centre in April 2012. He presented to our centre 21 months later with persistent lower urinary tract infection (UTI). On evaluation mesh erosion into bowel and urinary bladder was suspected. At laparoscopy, a small bowel loop was adhered to the area of inflammation in the left lower abdomen. After adhesiolysis, mesh was seen to be eroding into small bowel. The entire infected mesh was pulled out from the pre-peritoneal space and urinary bladder wall using gentle traction. The involved small bowel segment was resected, and bowel continuity restored using endoscopic linear cutter. The resected bowel along with the mesh was extracted in a plastic bag. Intra-operative test for leak from urinary bladder was found to be negative. The patient recovered uneventfully and is doing well at 12 months follow-up with resolution of UTI. Laparoscopic approach to mesh erosion is feasible as the plane of mesh placement during laparoscopic hernia repair is closer to peritoneum than during open hernia repair. PMID:26917927

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of capsule endoscopy for small bowel Crohn's disease is superior to that of MR enterography or CT enterography

    Jensen, Michael Dam; Nathan, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Kjeldsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) detects small bowel Crohn's disease with greater diagnostic yield than radiologic procedures, although there are concerns that CE has low specificity. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of CE, magnetic resonance imaging enterography (MRE) and computed tomography...

  1. Bezoar-induced small bowel obstruction: Clinical characteristics and diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography

    Wang, Pei-Yuan; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Lin; Li, Hai-Fei; Chen, Liang; WANG Xu; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the possible predisposing factors of bezoar-induced small bowel obstruction (BI-SBO) and to discuss the diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography, particularly contrast-enhanced scanning, in this condition.

  2. Virtual endoscopy of the small bowel: phantom study and preliminary clinical results

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scanning technique for lesion detection in a small bowel phantom and to evaluate the virtual endoscopy (VE) technique in patients. A small bowel phantom with a fold thickness of 7 mm and length of 115 cm was prepared with nine round lesions (3 x 1 mm, 2 x 2 mm, 2 x 3 mm, 2 x 4 mm). Spiral CT parameters were 7/7/4, 3/5/2, 3/5/1, 1.5/3/1 (slice thickness/table feed/reconstruction interval). VE was done using volume rendering technique with 1 cm distance between images and 120 viewing angle. Two masked readers were asked to determine the number and location of the lesions. Seven patients underwent an abdominal CT during one breathhold after placement of a duodenal tube and filling of the small bowel with methyl cellulose contrast solution. VE images were compared with the axial slices with respect to detectability of pathology. With the 7/7/4 protocol only the 4-mm lesions were visualised with fuzzy contours. The 3/5/2 protocol showed both 4-mm lesions, one 3-mm lesion and one false positive lesion. The 3/5/1 protocol showed both 4-mm and both 3-mm (one uncertain) lesions with improved sharpness, and no false positive lesions. One 2-mm and one 1-mm lesion were additionally seen with the 1.5/3/1 protocol. Path definition was difficult in sharp turns or kinks in the lumen. In all patients, no difference was found between VE and axial slices for bowel pathology; however, axial slices showed 'outside' information that was not included in VE. We conclude that the 3/5/2 protocol may be regarded as an optimal compromise between lesion detection, coverage during one breathhold, and number of reconstructed images in patients; round lesions of 4 mm in diameter can be detected with high certainty. (orig.)

  3. An experimental study on radiological examination of obstructed small bowel with various contrast media

    Lee, Yong; Kim, Sung Jin; Han, Moon Hee; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    For the evaluation of the level and cause of small bowel obstruction, an oral barium study is usually chosen. When perforation is whether barium or a water-soluble contrast agent should be used, because barium causes from foreign body reactions as well as adhesions in the extraluminal tissues. Water-soluble contrast agent, on the other hand, are less satisfactory but in general have no untoward effects in the extraluminal tissues. Because of hyperosomolarity, water-soluble contrast agents attract large amounts of fluid with subsequent dilution and loss of contrast and pose a risk of pulmonary edema if aspirated. The use of the newer non-ionic and low-osmolarity water-soluble contrast will likely avoid pulmonary complications due to aspiration. The author performed this experimental study to compare the radiological efficacy of different contrast media in enteric follow-through examinations of obstructed small bowel. Rate had a ligature applied to the distal ileum via laparotomy. Four contrast media were subjected to testing by instillation via oro-gastric tube immediately after laparotomy. Radiographs were exposed at 1, 4 and 8 hours and evaluated later. After 24 hours the animals were sacrificed and the stomach and small bowels, free from mesentery and omental tissue, were weighted with contrasts. The progression in the bowel was proportionate to the osmolarity of the contrast media. After 1 hour, the observations indicated sodium diatrizoate (Gastrografin, Schering) to be the least favorable medium with respect to sharpness of the mucosal border. After 8 hours, barium gave a poorer delineation compared to Ioxaglate (Hexabric, Guerbet) and Iopromide (Ultravist, Schering). Early deaths were noted in the sodium diatrizoate and ioxaglate groups. So we conclude that when using a rather high-volume bolus, low-osmolar non-ionic contrast media seem to have significant prospects for general diagnostic use in patients with suspected intestinal obstruction.

  4. Reversible small bowel obstruction in the chicken foetus

    Christina Oetzmann von Sochaczewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ligation of the embryonic gut is an established technique to induce intestinal obstruction and subsequently intestinal atresia in chicken embryos. In this study, we modified this established chicken model of prenatal intestinal obstruction to describe (1 the kinetics of morphological changes, (2 to test if removal of the ligature in ovo is possible in later embryonic development and (3 to describe morphological adaptations following removal of the ligature. Materials and Methods: On embryonic day (ED 11, small intestines of chick embryos were ligated micro surgically in ovo. In Group 1 (n = 80 gut was harvested proximal and distal to the ligation on ED 12-19. In Group 2 (n = 20 the induced obstruction was released on day 15 and gut was harvested on ED 16-19. Acetyl choline esterase staining was used as to assess resulting morphological changes. Results: A marked intestinal dilatation of the proximal segment can be seen 4 days after the operation (ED 15. The dilatation increased in severity until ED 19 and intestinal atresia could be observed after ED 16. In the dilated proximal segments, signs of disturbed enteric nervous system morphology were obvious. In contrast to this, release of the obstruction on ED 15 in Group 2 resulted in almost normal gut morphology at ED 19. Conclusion: Our model not only allows the description of morphological changes caused by an induced obstruction on ED 11 but also-more important - of morphological signs of adaptation following the release of the obstruction on ED 15.

  5. Lactose malabsorption in Greek adults: correlation of small bowel transit time with the severity of lactose intolerance.

    Ladas, S; Papanikos, J; Arapakis, G

    1982-01-01

    Using breath hydrogen analysis after 139 mmol (50 g) oral lactose load, we investigated the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in 200 Greek adults and examined the relationship between symptoms and small bowel transit time. One hundred and fifty subjects had increased breath hydrogen concentrations (greater than 20 ppm) after the lactose load. In these individuals peak breath hydrogen concentration was inversely related to small bowel transit time (r = 0.63, 6 = 6.854, p less than 0.001) and...

  6. Breath Hydrogen Gas Concentration Linked to Intestinal Gas Distribution and Malabsorption in Patients with Small-bowel Pseudo-obstruction

    Yoshihisa Urita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The patient with colonic obstruction may frequently have bacterial overgrowth and increased breath hydrogen (H2 levels because the bacterium can contact with food residues for longer time. We experienced two cases with intestinal obstruction whose breath H2 concentrations were measured continuously.Case 1: A 70-year-old woman with small bowel obstruction was treated with a gastric tube. When small bowel gas decreased and colonic gas was demonstrated on the plain abdominal radiograph, the breath H2 concentration increased to 6 ppm and reduced again shortly.Case 2: A 41-year-old man with functional small bowel obstruction after surgical treatment was treated with intravenous administration of erythromycin. Although the plain abdominal radiograph demonstrated a decrease of small-bowel gas, the breath H2 gas kept the low level. After a clear-liquid meal was supplied, fasting breath H2 concentration increased rapidly to 22 ppm and gradually decreased to 9 ppm despite the fact that the intestinal gas was unchanged on X-ray. A rapid increase of breath H2 concentration may reflect the movement of small bowel contents to the colon in patients with small-bowel pseudo-obstruction or malabsorption following diet progression.Conclusions: Change in breath H2 concentration had a close association with distribution and movement of intestinal gas.

  7. Breathhold MRI of the small bowel in Crohn's disease after enteroklysis with oral magnetic particles

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of breathhold MRI following enteroclysis with addition of oral magnetic particles to study the extension, detection of stenoses and extraluminal manifestations in Crohn's disease. Results: Typical findings were marked bowel wall thickening with strong contrast enhancement. 95.8% of affected small bowel segments and 94.7% of stenoses were correctly detected by MRI. All four fistulas were detected and important extraluminal findings were seen in 6/18 patients. Additionally, one ileoileal and two ileosigmoidal adhesions, two extraluminal abscesses and affection of the right ureter were delineated. Conclusion: MRI in Crohn's disease offers the potential to avoid radiation exposure in this relatively young patient group. Important additional findings relevant to indication of surgery are seen in approximately one third of cases. The replacement of transduodenal intubation by oral contrast application remains to be further studied. (orig./AJ)

  8. Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel

    Delaney, J.P.; Bonsack, M.E.; Felemovicius, I. (Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel

    Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Small bowel cleansing does not improve quality of wireless capsule endoscopy

    Wilkens, Rune; Langholz, Ebbe; Glerup, Henning

    , instructed patients to ingest one sachet of Picoprep powder, at 9 pm the day before examination, followed by 1.5 litres of liquid diet, as per standard of care at Site A. Patients were matched between centres based on indication, sex and age. Cleansing quality was assessed by two different methods described......), Small bowel video capsule endoscopy: an overview, Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology, 323-329 [2] Park SC, Keum B, Hyun JJ et al., (2010), A novel cleansing score system for capsule endoscopy, World Journal of Gastroenterology, 875-880 [3] Van Weynberg SJB, De Leest HTJI, Mulder CJJ, (2011......), Description of a novel grading system to assess the quality of bowel preparation in video capsule endoscopy., Endoscopy, 406-411...

  11. Diverticular disease: changing epidemiology and management.

    Razik, Roshan; Nguyen, Geoffrey C

    2015-05-01

    Diverticulosis is the most common pathological finding in routine colonoscopy. Diverticular disease comprises both diverticulitis and diverticular hemorrhage. This review examines the pathophysiological basis for disease including the importance of the elastin/collagen profile in diverticula formation. It summarizes the latest epidemiological findings with an emphasis on age- and sex-related differences. Risk factors including obesity, medications, hereditary factors, and diet are critically reviewed with the most up-to-date evidence. A detailed appraisal of therapeutic options is provided with special emphasis on 5-aminosalicylate, probiotics, mesalamine, percutaneous abscess drainage, and image-guided embolization. The role of antibiotics and surgery is discussed and compared with guideline recommendations. A more conservative approach, averting admission and even antibiotics, is explored. Finally, a careful review of the data surrounding the utility of colonoscopy in diagnosis and management is provided given the increasing number of reports citing the low incidence of colorectal neoplasia after an episode of diverticulitis. Throughout the review we focus on the older patient with diverticular disease. PMID:25893309

  12. Diet, ageing and genetic factors in the pathogenesis of diverticular disease

    Daniel Martin Commane, Ramesh Pulendran Arasaradnam, Sarah Mills, John Cummings Mathers, Mike Bradburn

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverticular disease (DD is an age-related disorder of the large bowel which may affect half of the population over the age of 65 in the UK. This high prevalence ranks it as one of the most common bowel disorders in western nations. The majority of patients remain asymptomatic but there are associated life-threatening co-morbidities, which, given the large numbers of people with DD, translates into a considerable number of deaths per annum. Despite this public health burden, relatively little seems to be known about either the mechanisms of development or causality. In the 1970s, a model of DD formulated the concept that diverticula occur as a consequence of pressure-induced damage to the colon wall amongst those with a low intake of dietary fiber. In this review, we have examined the evidence regarding the influence of ageing, diet, inflammation and genetics on DD development. We argue that the evidence supporting the barotrauma hypothesis is largely anecdotal. We have also identified several gaps in the knowledge base which need to be filled before we can complete a model for the etiology of diverticular disease.

  13. Enhanced Diagnostic Yield with Prolonged Small Bowel Transit Time during Capsule Endoscopy

    Jonathan M. Buscaglia, Sumit Kapoor, John O. Clarke, Juan Carlos Bucobo, Samuel A. Giday, Priscilla Magno, Elaine Yong, Gerard E. Mullin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of small bowel transit time (SBTT on diagnostic yield during capsule endoscopy (CE has not been previously evaluated. Our study aim was to assess the effect of SBTT on the likelihood of detecting intestinal pathology during CE. Methods: We reviewed collected data on CE studies performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital from January 2006 to June 2007. In patients investigated for anemia or obscure bleeding, the following lesions were considered relevant: ulcers, erosions, AVMs, red spots, varices, vascular ectasias, and presence of blood. In patients with diarrhea or abdominal pain, ulcers, erosions, and blood were considered relevant. Age, gender, study indication, hospital status, and quality of bowel preparation were identified as candidate risk factors affecting SBTT. Univariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to study the effect of SBTT on diagnostic yield. Results: Total of 212 CE studies were analyzed; most were in outpatients (n=175, 82.9% and with excellent bowel preparation (n=177, 83.5%. Mean SBTT was 237.0min (3.9hrs. Age, gender, bowel prep, hospital status, and study indication did not significantly affect SBTT. However, increased SBTT was independently associated with increased diagnostic yield; OR=1.7 in SBTT=2-4hr (p=0.41, OR=1.8 in SBTT=4-6hrs (p=0.30, OR=9.6 in SBTT=6-8hrs (p=0.05. Conclusion: Prolonged SBTT during CE (>6 hr is associated with an increased diagnostic yield. This may be due to a positive effect on image quality during a “slower” study. The use of promotility agents may adversely affect the ability of CE to detect significant intestinal pathology.

  14. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and lactose intolerance contribute to irritable bowel syndrome symptomatology in Pakistan

    Javed Yakoob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background /Aim: The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome resemble those of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of SIBO and lactose intolerance (LI occurrence in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D according to Rome III criteria. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective case-control study, patients over 18 years of age with altered bowel habit, bloating, and patients who had lactose Hydrogen breath test (H 2 BT done were included. The "cases" were defined as patients who fulfill Rome III criteria for IBS-D, while "controls" were those having chronic nonspecific diarrhea (CNSD who did not fulfill Rome III criteria for IBS-D. Demographic data, predominant bowel habit pattern, concurrent use of medications, etc., were noted. Results: Patients with IBS-D were 119 (51% with a mean age of 35 ± 13 years, while those with CNSD were 115 (49% with mean age 36 ± 15 years. Patients in both IBS-D and CNSD were comparable in gender, with male 87 (74% and female 77 (64%. SIBO was documented by lactose H 2 BT in 32/234 (14% cases. It was positive in 22/119 (19% cases with IBS-D, while 10/115 (9% cases had CNSD (P = 0.03. LI was positive in 43/234 (18% cases. Of these, 25/119 (21% cases had IBS-D and 18/115 (16% cases had CNSD (P = 0.29. Conclusion: SIBO was seen in a significant number of our patients with IBS-D. There was no significant age or gender difference in patients with or without SIBO.

  15. Differentiation between small bowel intussusception in children and adults and the radiological findings which require an operation

    Jeong, Myeong Ja; Lee, Ji Won; Han, Heon; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jun, Woo Sun [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    To assess the differences in small bowel intussusceptions between children and adults, and to interpret the radiological findings requiring a surgical procedure. A total of 62 study subjects (35 children, 27 adults) with small bowel intussusception diagnosed by US or CT and seen between January 2005 and December 2007 were included in this study. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed both the medical records and radiological findings of each study subject. We contrasted the range of features found to be typical of small bowel intussusception for both children and adults based on cause, abdominal symptoms, diagnostic tools, and treatments. Also, we evaluated the radiological findings requiring a surgical procedure. The causes of small bowel intussusception were not identified in children; however, 4 adults were found to have tumors (a lipoma, a hemangioma, 2 metastases) ({rho} = 0.031). All of the children (100%) and 8 adults (29.6%) had abdominal symptoms ({rho} < 0.001). The primary diagnostic tool in children was the US (31 cases, 88.6%), as opposed to the CT in adults (27 cases, 100%) ({rho} < 0.001). A spontaneous reduction was confirmed in all children (100%) and supposed in 23 adults (85.2%) ({rho} = 0.031). The noteworthy radiological findings of 4 study subjects having undergone a surgical procedure are masses at the lead point and small bowel obstruction ({rho} < 0.0001). Cases of small bowel intussusception in children are different from cases observed in adults, based on cause, symptoms, and diagnostic tools. However, most cases are spontaneously reduced. Important radiological findings requiring a surgical procedure were found to be caused by masses at the lead point and at the small bowel obstruction.

  16. An Intestinal Occlusion Device for Prevention of Small Bowel Distention During Transgastric Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery

    Jonathan M. Tomasko; Mathew, Abraham; Moyer, Matthew T.; Haluck, Randy S.; Pauli, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Bowel distention from luminal gas insufflation reduces the peritoneal operative domain during natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures, increases the risk for iatrogenic injury, and leads to postoperative patient discomfort. Methods: A prototype duodenal occlusion device was placed in the duodenum before NOTES in 28 female pigs. The occlusion balloon was inflated and left in place during the procedure, and small bowel distension was subject...

  17. Low-dose azathioprine effectively improves mucosal healing in Chinese patients with small bowel Crohn's disease

    Yu, Li Fen; Zhong, Jie; Cheng, Shi Dan; Tang, Yong Hua; Miao, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate mucosal healing after 24-month low-dose azathioprine (AZA) treatment in Chinese patients with moderate small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). Methods Patients with lesions mainly located at the ileum were screened by baseline multislice computed tomography enterography and anal-route double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE). They were naive to any immunomodulators and biological agents before the enrollment. Lesions from 150 cm of the terminal ileum proximal to ileocecal valve were assessed by DBE with the simple endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD) after 12 and 24 months of low-dose AZA treatment, respectively. Results The average maximal tolerance dose of AZA was 61.8 17.2 mg/day. The total rates of complete, near-complete, partial and no mucosal healing in 36 patients were 19.4%, 5.6%, 27.8% and 47.2% at month 12 and 30.6%, 25.0%, 33.3% and 11.1% at month 24, respectively. The baseline SES-CD (odds ratio [OR] 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.116.63, P = 0.029) and duration of disease (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.101.47, P = 0.001) were two relevant factors associated with the mucosal healing of patients with small bowel CD. Conclusion A 24-month low-dose AZA regimen as maintenance treatment in moderate small bowel CD could achieve a higher mucosal healing rate than that of 12-month treatment in Chinese patients, especially in those with duration of disease less than 12 months and a baseline SES-CD of 5 or 6. PMID:24387287

  18. Accelerating the transit time of barium sulphate suspensions in small bowel examinations

    Summers, David S. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Little France, Edinburgh, Scotland EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Roger, Mark D. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Little France, Edinburgh, Scotland EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Allan, Paul L. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Little France, Edinburgh, Scotland EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Murchison, John T. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Little France, Edinburgh, Scotland EH16 4SA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: john.murchison@luht.scot.nhs.uk

    2007-04-15

    Purpose: To determine whether hyperosmolar and effervescent agents proven individually to accelerate transit time in the barium small bowel examination have an additive effect when combined, surpassing that of either agent alone. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-nine patients were randomised to four groups. Three hundred milliliters of barium sulphate alone was given to the first group. Fifteen milliliters of iodinated hyperosmolar contrast agent (Gastrografin, meglumine/sodium diatrizoate, Schering) was given in addition to barium sulphate to the second group while six packets of effervescent granules (Carbex, Ferring) were added for the third group. The final group was given a combination of both additives and barium sulphate. The time taken following ingestion for the contrast column to reach the caecum, as assessed by frequent interval fluoroscopy, was recorded. A subgroup of 32 patients were selected randomly from the four groups, 8 from each and assessed for quality of examination. Statistical assessments were made using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients were analysed after exclusions. The addition of accelerant to barium sulphate, both individually and in combination significantly reduced the small bowel transit time (p < 0.001). No significant difference existed between the additives when used with barium alone. The combined group had significantly faster transit times compared to the hyperosmolar group (p = 0.02). Differences between combined and effervescent groups tended towards significance (p = 0.09). No significant difference existed between groups when examination quality was assessed. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of combined effervescent and hyperosmolar agents to the barium suspension may significantly shorten the small bowel transit time without adversely affecting examination quality. This has implications for patient acceptability of the examination as well as potentially reducing screening time and therefore radiation dose.

  19. Efficacy of malononitrilamide FK778 in a preclinical model of small bowel transplantation.

    Alessiani, M; Zonta, S; Abbiati, F; Cobianchi, L; Bardone, M; Zitelli, E; Doni, M; Viganò, J; Mazzilli, M; Lovisetto, F; Dominioni, T; Dionigi, B; Lusona, B; Morbini, P; Molinaro, M D; Dionigi, P

    2005-01-01

    In a swine model of orthotopic small bowel transplantation, we assessed the efficacy of combined immunosuppressive therapy with low-dose tacrolimus plus FK778, compared with high-dose tacrolimus monotherapy. The small bowel was replaced in 23 piglets: group 1 (n = 5), no immunosuppression; group 2 (n = 12), oral tacrolimus to maintain whole blood trough levels between 15 and 25 ng/mL; and group 3 (n = 6), oral FK778 4 mg/kg/d, plus oral tacrolimus to maintain whole blood trough levels between 5 and 15 ng/mL. Follow-up time was limited to 60 days. Overall survival rates at 30 and 60 days were 0% and 0% in group 1, 30% and 0% in group 2, and 66% and 66% in group 3, respectively. The median survival time was 11 days in group 1, 28 days in group 2, and more than 60 days in group 3. The differences between groups 3 and 1 and between groups 3 and 2 were statistically significant. The numbers of major bacterial infections were 19 in group 2 (1.9 episodes per animal) and 3 in group 3 (0.75 episodes per animal). The infectious-related mortality rate was 70% in group 2 (7 cases) and 0% in group 3 (P < .05). Acute cellular rejection was absent or mild in 85% of group 2 stomal biopsy specimens and in 100% of group 3 biopsy specimens. In conclusion, combination therapy of low-dose tacrolimus is potentiated by FK778 to prevent acute cellular rejection and prolong small bowel transplant survival in pigs. PMID:16182793

  20. Studies of the small bowel surface by scanning electron microscopy in infants with persistent diarrhea

    U. Fagundes-Neto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the ultrastructural abnormalities of the small bowel surface in 16 infants with persistent diarrhea. The age range of the patients was 2 to 10 months, mean 4.8 months. All patients had diarrhea lasting 14 or more days. Bacterial overgrowth of the colonic microflora in the jejunal secretion, at concentrations above 10(4 colonies/ml, was present in 11 (68.7% patients. The stool culture was positive for an enteropathogenic agent in 8 (50.0% patients: for EPEC O111 in 2, EPEC O119 in 1, EAEC in 1, and Shigella flexneri in 1; mixed infections due to EPEC O111 and EAEC in 1 patient, EPEC O119 and EAEC in 1 and EPEC O55, EPEC O111, EAEC and Shigella sonnei in 1. Morphological abnormalities in the small bowel mucosa were observed in all 16 patients, varying in intensity from moderate 9 (56.3% to severe 7 (43.7%. The scanning electron microscopic study of small bowel biopsies from these subjects showed several surface abnormalities. At low magnification (100X most of the villi showed mild to moderate stunting, but on several occasions there was subtotal villus atrophy. At higher magnification (7,500X photomicrographs showed derangement of the enterocytes; on several occasions the cell borders were not clearly defined and very often microvilli were decreased in number and height; in some areas there was a total disappearance of the microvilli. In half of the patients a mucus-fibrinoid pseudomembrane was seen partially coating the enterocytes, a finding that provides additional information on the pathophysiology of persistent diarrhea.

  1. Disruption of interstitial cells of Cajal networks after massive small bowel resection

    Jie Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the disruptions of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC in the remaining bowel in rats after massive small bowel resection (mSBR. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats fitting entry criteria were divided randomly into three experimental groups (n = 10 each: Group A rats underwent bowel transection and re-anastomosis (sham and tissue samples were harvested at day 7 post-surgery. Group B and C rats underwent 80% small bowel resection with tissue harvested from Group B rats at day 7 post-surgery, and from Group C rats at day 14 post-surgery. The distribution of ICC at the site of the residual small bowel was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of small intestine samples. The ultrastructural changes of ICC in the remnant ileum of model rats 7 and 14 d after mSBR were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Intracellular recordings of slow wave oscillations were used to evaluate electrical pacemaking. The protein expression of c-kit, ICC phenotypic markers, and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF in intestinal smooth muscle of each group were detected by Western blotting. RESULTS: After mSBR, immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the number of c-kit-positive cells was dramatically decreased in Group B rats compared with sham tissues. Significant ultrastructural changes in ICC with associated smooth muscle hypertrophy were also observed. Disordered spontaneous rhythmic contractions with reduced amplitude (8.5 1.4 mV vs 24.8 1.3 mV, P = 0.037 and increased slow wave frequency (39.5 2.1 cycles/min vs 33.0 1.3 cycles/min, P = 0.044 were found in the residual intestinal smooth muscle 7 d post mSBR. The contractile function and electrical activity of intestinal circular smooth muscle returned to normal levels at 14 d post mSBR (amplitude, 14.9 1.6 mV vs 24.8 1.3 mV; frequency, 30.7 1.7 cycles/min vs 33.0 1.3 cycles/min. The expression of Mscf and c-kit protein was decreased at 7 d (P = 0.026, but gradually returned to normal levels at 14 d. The ICC and associated neural networks were disrupted, which was associated with the phenotype alterations of ICC. CONCLUSION: Massive small bowel resection in rats triggered damage to ICC networks and decreased the number of ICC leading to disordered intestinal rhythmicity. The mSCF/c-kit signaling pathway plays a role in the regulation and maintenance of ICC phenotypes.

  2. Intussusception of the small bowel secondary to malignant metastases in two 80-year-old people: a case series

    Papanicolaou Athanasios

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Small bowel intussusception is rare in adults and accounts for one percent of all bowel obstructions. Malignancy is the etiologic agent in approximately 50 percent of all cases. Case presentation Our first patient was an 80-year-old Caucasian woman with signs and symptoms of intermittent bowel obstruction for the last 12 months. Pre-operative investigation by abdominal computed tomography scanning revealed an obstruction at the ileocecal valve. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ileocecal intussusception. She underwent an enterectomy. Histological examination showed metastatic breast cancer (lobular carcinoma. Our patient had previously undergone a mastectomy due to carcinoma three years earlier. Our second patient was an 80-year-old Caucasian man with signs and symptoms of acute bowel obstruction. Pre-operative investigation by abdominal computed tomography scanning showed an intussusception in the proximal part of the small bowel. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a jejunojejunal intussusception. He underwent an enterectomy. Histological examination showed metastatic melanoma. Our patient had a prior history of a primary cutaneous melanoma which was excised two years ago. Conclusion Pre-operative determination of the etiologic agent of intussusception in the small bowel in adults is difficult. Although a computed tomography scan is very helpful, the diagnosis of intussusception is made by exploratory laparotomy and histological examination defines the etiologic agent. A prior malignancy in the patient's history must be taken under consideration as a possible cause of intussusception.

  3. Small bowel parasitosis as cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding diagnosed by capsule endoscopy

    Dimitrios K Christodoulou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hookworm infection is a relatively common cause of anemia in endemic areas. However, it is rarely encountered in Europe. In this report we describe the case of a 24-year old patient originating from an endemic area who was admitted due to severe anemia, with an Hct of 15.6% and eosinophilia (Eosinophils: 22.4%. While both esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were non-diagnostic, capsule endoscopy revealed a large number of hookworms infesting his small bowel and withdrawing blood. The patient was successfully treated with Albendazole. Capsule endoscopy was proven an important tool in diagnosing intestinal parasitosis.

  4. A rare complication of small bowel intussusception: Report of a case and review of literature

    Impellizzeri Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volvulus and intussusception are rare conditions in children. We describe an unusual case of intussusception due to a solitary Peutz-Jeghers type hamartomatous polyp complicated by volvulus, which occurred in an 11-year-old girl. A laparotomy allows to successfully treat the pathology. The postoperative course was favourable. We discuss the clinical findings and the values of the preoperative instrumental diagnosis. The literature is reviewed. Identifying a midgut volvulus, as complication of a small bowel intussusception, during the diagnostic phase could help in choosing the most appropriate surgical approach.

  5. Small bowel tumors detection in capsule endoscopy by Gaussian modeling of color curvelet covariance coefficients.

    Martins, Maria M; Barbosa, Daniel J; Ramos, Jaime; Lima, Carlos S

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the classification of tumoral tissue in the small bowel by using capsule endoscopic images. The followed approach is based on texture classification. Texture descriptors are derived from selected scales of the Discrete Curvelet Transform (DCT). The goal is to take advantage of the high directional sensitivity of the DCT (16 directions) when compared with the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) (3 directions). Second order statistics are then computed in the HSV color space and named Color Curvelet Covariance (3C) coefficients. Finally, these coefficients are modeled by a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Sensitivity of 99% and specificity of 95.19% are obtained in the testing set. PMID:21096477

  6. Preliminary mechanical characterization of the small bowel for in vivo robotic mobility.

    Terry, Benjamin S; Lyle, Allison B; Schoen, Jonathan A; Rentschler, Mark E

    2011-09-01

    In this work we present test methods, devices, and preliminary results for the mechanical characterization of the small bowel for intra luminal robotic mobility. Both active and passive forces that affect mobility are investigated. Four investigative devices and testing methods to characterize the active and passive forces are presented in this work: (1) a novel manometer and a force sensor array that measure force per cm of axial length generated by the migrating motor complex, (2) a biaxial test apparatus and method for characterizing the biomechanical properties of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, (3) a novel in vitro device and protocol designed to measure the energy required to overcome the self-adhesivity of the mucosa, and (4) a novel tribometer that measures the in vivo coefficient of friction between the mucus membrane and the robot surface. The four devices are tested on a single porcine model to validate the approach and protocols. Mean force readings per cm of axial length of intestine that occurred over a 15 min interval in vivo were 1.34 ± 0.14 and 1.18 ± 0.22 N cm(-1) in the middle and distal regions, respectively. Based on the biaxial stress/stretch tests, the tissue behaves anisotropically with the circumferential direction being more compliant than the axial direction. The mean work per unit area for mucoseparation of the small bowel is 0.08 ± 0.03 mJ cm(-2). The total energy to overcome mucoadhesion over the entire length of the porcine small bowel is approximately 0.55 J. The mean in vivo coefficient of friction (COF) of a curved 6.97 cm(2) polycarbonate sled on live mucosa traveling at 1 mm s(-1) is 0.016 ± 0.002. This is slightly lower than the COF on excised tissue, given the same input parameters. We have initiated a comprehensive program and suite of test devices and protocols for mechanically characterizing the small bowel for in vivo mobility. Results show that each of the four protocols and associated test devices has successfully gathered preliminary data to confirm the validity of our test approach. PMID:22010745

  7. Double-contrast small bowel examination: A methodical comparison between transnasal and peroral probing

    A new flexible probe to be introduced through the nose was used for the intubation of the jejunum for double-contrast small bowel enema. The new probe has a diameter of only 2.8 mm and was better tolerated than the normally applied Camus probe. Nevertheless, the failure rate (intubation of jejunum not successful) with the new probe as compared to the Camus probe was higher (17% versus 1%). We, therefore, conclude that the new probe should mainly be used by experienced examiners. (orig.)

  8. Meckel’s diverticulitis causing small bowel obstruction by a novel mechanism

    Vishalkumar G. Shelat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Meckel’s diverticulum occurs in 2% of the general population and majority of patients remain asymptomatic. Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common presentation in the paediatric population. While asymptomatic and incidentally found Meckel’s diverticulum may be left alone, surgery is essential for treating a symptomatic patient. Despite advances in imaging and technology, pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult. We present a first report of an unusual mechanism of small bowel obstruction due to Meckel’s diverticulitis in a paediatric patient. The diagnosis was only apparent at laparotomy.

  9. Successful treatment of recurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma by cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy: a case report and review of the literature

    Takada Toshiaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Small bowel adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy associated with a poor prognosis and there is little evidence of effective treatment. Recurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma is an intractable disease for which there is little information available regarding its treatment by palliative therapy. We present a case of recurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma successfully treated by cytoreductive surgery and palliative chemotherapy. Case presentation We report the case of a 72-year-old Japanese female who developed a peritoneal metastasis from recurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma after curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 and polysaccharide K. She underwent cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy with folinic acid/fluorouracil/oxaliplatin and folinic acid/fluorouracil/irinotecan with polysaccharide K. Subsequently, no sign of a recurrence was observed 42 months after the second operation. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of the successful treatment of peritoneal metastasis from small bowel adenocarcinoma by cytoreductive surgery and combination chemotherapy (folinic acid/fluorouracil/oxaliplatin and folinic acid/fluorouracil/irinotecan with polysaccharide K.

  10. Apple peel deformity of the small bowel without atresia in a congenital mesenteric defect.

    Llore, Nathaly; Tomita, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Congenital mesenteric defects are rare causes of bowel obstruction. Even rarer are mesenteric defects with an apple peel type of deformity, probably described definitively only once previously. We present a case of a 3 year old boy who presented with a septic-like picture of severe metabolic acidosis and lethargy from a bowel obstruction with bowel ischemia. At laparotomy he was found to have bowel infarction due to herniation through a congenital mesenteric defect with an apple peel type of deformity of the bowel without bowel atresia. PMID:23331843

  11. The dose-volume relationship of acute small bowel toxicity from concurrent 5-FU-based chemotherapy and radiation therapy for rectal cancer

    Purpose: A direct relationship between the volume of small bowel irradiated and the degree of acute small bowel toxicity experienced during concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiotherapy for rectal carcinoma is well recognized but poorly quantified. This study uses three-dimensional treatment-planning tools to more precisely quantify this dose-volume relationship. Methods and Materials: Forty patients receiving concurrent 5-FU-based chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation for rectal carcinoma had treatment-planning CT scans with small bowel contrast. A median isocentric dose of 50.4 Gy was delivered using a posterior-anterior and opposed lateral field arrangement. Bowel exclusion techniques were routinely used, including prone treatment position on a vacuum bag cradle to allow anterior displacement of the abdominal contents and bladder distension. Individual loops of small bowel were contoured on each slice of the planning CT scan, and a small bowel dose-volume histogram was generated for the initial pelvis field receiving 45 Gy. The volume of small bowel receiving each dose between 5 and 40 Gy was recorded at 5-Gy intervals. Results: Ten patients (25%) experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity. A highly statistically significant association between the development of Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity and the volume of small bowel irradiated was found at each dose level. Specific dose-volume threshold levels were found, below which no Grade 3+ toxicity occurred and above which 50-60% of patients developed Grade 3+ toxicity. The volume of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V15) was strongly associated with the degree of toxicity. Univariate analysis of patient and treatment-related factors revealed no other significant predictors of severe toxicity. Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists for the development of Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity in patients receiving concurrent 5-FU-based chemoradiotherapy for rectal carcinoma

  12. Segmental small bowel necrosis associated with antiphospholipid syndrome: a case report.

    Wang, Qun-Ying; Ye, Xiao-Hua; Ding, Jin; Wu, Xiao-Kang

    2015-04-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is a multi-system disease characterized by the formation of thromboembolic complications and/or pregnancy morbidity, and with persistently increased titers of antiphospholipid antibodies. We report the case of a 50-year-old, previously healthy man who presented with fever and new-onset, dull abdominal pain. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed segmental small bowel obstruction, for which an emergency laparotomy was performed. Histopathologic examination of resected tissues revealed multiple intestinal and mesenteric thromboses of small vessels. Laboratory tests for serum antiphospholipid (anticardiolipin IgM) and anti-?2-glycoprotein I antibodies were positive. Despite proactive implementation of anticoagulation, steroid, and antibiotic therapies, the patient's condition rapidly deteriorated, and he died 22 d after admission. This case highlights that antiphospholipid syndrome should be suspected in patients with unexplainable ischemic bowel and intestinal necrosis presenting with insidious clinical features that may be secondary to the disease, as early diagnosis is critical to implement timely treatments in order to ameliorate the disease course. PMID:25852299

  13. Growing indications for CEUS: The kidney, testis, lymph nodes, thyroid, prostate, and small bowel

    Highlights: • Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications. • There is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. • Updated knowledge for proper use of CEUS in uncommon fields is provided. - Abstract: Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications as well, so that nearly all organs have been investigated. Among them, there is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. The possibility to differentiate benign from malignant nodes in cancer patients has been investigated. A new application is in the detection of sentinel nodes after intradermal microbubble injection. The need to distinguish thyroid nodules eligible for fine needle aspiration cytology has led to the use of CEUS in thyroid examinations as well. The potential of CEUS for prostate cancer detection has been extensively investigated, with encouraging initial results. Early promise, however, has not been fulfilled. New perspective regards evaluation of the extent of prostate tissue devascularization following ablative treatments

  14. Recent trends in the treatment of well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the small bowel

    Gilles Poncet, Jean-Luc Faucheron, Thomas Walter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the small bowel are fairly rare neoplasms that present many clinical challenges. They secrete peptides and neuroamines that may cause carcinoid syndrome. However, many are clinically silent until late presentation with major effects. Initial treatment aims to control carcinoid syndrome with somatostatin analogs. Even if there is metastatic spread, surgical resection of the primitive tumor should be discussed in cases of retractile mesenteritis, small bowel ischemia or subocclusive syndrome in order to avoid any acute complication, in particular at the beginning of somatostatin analog treatment. The choice of treatment depends on the symptoms, general health of the patient, tumor burden, degree of uptake of radionuclide, histological features of the tumor, and tumor growth. Management strategies include surgery for cure (which is rarely achieved or for cytoreduction, radiological interventions (transarterial embolization or radiofrequency ablation, and chemotherapy (interferon and somatostatin analogs. New biological agent and radionuclide targeted therapies are under investigation. Diffuse and non-evolving lesions should also be simply monitored. Finally, it has to be emphasized that it is of the utmost importance to enroll these patients with a rare disease in prospective clinical trials assessing new therapeutic strategies.

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: meaningful association or unnecessary hype.

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Srivastava, Deepakshi

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and altered stool form and passage. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which there is overgrowth of bacteria in small bowel in excess of 10⁵ colony forming units per milliliter on culture of the upper gut aspirate. Frequency of SIBO varied from 4%-78% among patients with IBS and from 1%-40% among controls. Higher frequency in some studies might be due to fallacious criteria [post-lactulose breath-hydrogen rise 20 PPM above basal within 90 min (early-peak)]. Glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) has a low sensitivity to diagnose SIBO. Hence, studies based on GHBT might have under-estimated frequency of SIBO. Therefore, it is important to analyze these studies carefully to evaluate whether the reported association between IBS and SIBO is over or under-projected. This review evaluates studies on association between SIBO and IBS, discordance between different studies, their strength and weakness including methodological issues and evidence on therapeutic manipulation of gut flora on symptoms of IBS. PMID:24627585

  16. The stepchild of intestinal diagnostics. Evaluation of radiological methods to diagnose leiomyomas of the small bowel

    Purpose: Various radiological methods to diagnose small bowel neoplasmas and problems of differential diagnosis specially considerating leiomyomas are discussed. Patients and methods: Two patients with leiomyoma of the ileum underwent enteroclysis, computed tomography of the abdomen, intra-arterial DSA and colour Doppler sonography. Another patient with leiomyosarcoma just underwent CT of the abdomen with CT-guided biopsy. Results: Due to the homogenous density and the smooth surface of the tumors in computed tomography and respectively enteroclysis and the presentation of the tumor vascularisation in the angiography and Colour Doppler sonography in both patients a leiomyoma of the small bowel was diagnosed. Postoperatively this diagnosis was histologically confirmed. The CT-findings of the patient with leiomyosarcoma were not suspicious of a malignant tumor. Conclusion: Radiologically it is not possible to determine the dignity of smooth muscle cell tumors safely. That is the reason why the diagnosis has to be achieved operatively. But the histopathological diagnosis based on the mitotic rate may be difficult. Therefore the after care has to be carried out thoroughly. (orig.)

  17. Growing indications for CEUS: The kidney, testis, lymph nodes, thyroid, prostate, and small bowel

    Cantisani, V., E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Department of Radiology, University of Trieste (Italy); Weskott, H.P. [Central Ultrasound Department, Klinikum Siloah , Hannover (Germany); Romanini, L. [University Hospital of Pavia (Italy); Grazhdani, H. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Passamonti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Ospedale di Lodi (Italy); Drudi, F.M.; Malpassini, F. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Isidori, A. [Department of Experimental Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Meloni, F.M. [Dipartimento servizi diagnostici, Ospedale Valduce, Como (Italy); Calliada, F. [University Hospital of Pavia (Italy); D’Ambrosio, F. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications. • There is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. • Updated knowledge for proper use of CEUS in uncommon fields is provided. - Abstract: Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications as well, so that nearly all organs have been investigated. Among them, there is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. The possibility to differentiate benign from malignant nodes in cancer patients has been investigated. A new application is in the detection of sentinel nodes after intradermal microbubble injection. The need to distinguish thyroid nodules eligible for fine needle aspiration cytology has led to the use of CEUS in thyroid examinations as well. The potential of CEUS for prostate cancer detection has been extensively investigated, with encouraging initial results. Early promise, however, has not been fulfilled. New perspective regards evaluation of the extent of prostate tissue devascularization following ablative treatments.

  18. Closed loop obstructions of the small bowel: role of Computed Tomography

    Small bowel obstructions can be distinguished into more simple and closed loop obstructions. The latter is a more severe condition which is often complicated by strangulation with vascular impairment, edema and intramural and mesenteric hemorrhage. Consequent arterial insufficiency rapidly leads to ischemia, infarction and necrosis. The radiologist plays a role in the early recognition of the closed loop obstruction and of any sign of strangulation. The role of CT in the diagnosis and workup of patients with suspected intestinal occlusion has been analyzed in the literature with reported 63% sensitivity, 78% specificity and 66% accuracy. CT is also capable of revealing the causes of occlusion in 73-95% of cases. The above CT signs allow to identify closed loop obstruction and also small bowel strangulation, thus supplying a valuable contribution to diagnosis and accurate preoperative evaluation. The conclusion is that CT can accurately demonstrate the presence of closed loop obstruction and can be the technique of choice in patients in whom obstruction is associated with clinical signs suggestive of strangulation

  19. Evaluation of small bowel blood flow in healthy subjects receiving low-dose aspirin

    Urara Nishida, Mototsugu Kato, Mutsumi Nishida, Go Kamada, Takeshi Yoshida, Shouko Ono, Yuichi Shimizu, Masahiro Asaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between low-dose aspirin-induced small bowel mucosal damage and blood flow, and the effect of rebamipide.METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups: a placebo group given low-dose aspirin plus placebo and a rebamipide group given low-dose aspirin plus rebamipide for a period of 14 d. Capsule endoscopy and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were performed before and after administration of drugs. Areas under the curves and peak value of time-intensity curve were calculated.RESULTS: Absolute differences in areas under the curves were -1102.5 (95% CI: -1980.3 to -224.7, P = 0.0194 in the placebo group and -152.7 (95% CI: -1604.2 to 641.6, P = 0.8172 in the rebamipide group. Peak values of time intensity curves were -148.0 (95% CI: -269.4 to -26.2, P = 0.0225 in the placebo group and 28.3 (95% CI: -269.0 to 325.6, P = 0.8343 in the rebamipide group. Capsule endoscopy showed mucosal breaks only in the placebo group.CONCLUSION: Short-term administration of low-dose aspirin is associated with small bowel injuries and blood flow.

  20. Geriatric Small Bowel Obstruction: An Analysis of Treatment and Outcomes Compared to a Younger Cohort

    Krause, William R.; Webb, Travis P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common condition, but little is known about its presentation, management, and outcomes in geriatric patients. Methods A retrospective review was performed comparing geriatric (≥65 years of age) and non-geriatric patients admitted with SBO. Admission characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were compared. Data analysis included Student’s t test and chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Results Among 80 geriatric and 136 non-geriatric patients no difference was observed between admission characteristics, treatment, time to or type of surgery, length of post-op stay, or overall complications. Cardiac complications (15% vs 0%, p=0.0082) and sub-acute care facility discharge (29% vs 5%, prisk profile and discharge disposition discussion should be encouraged. Summary This study analyzes geriatric patients presenting with small bowel obstruction when cared for by an Acute Care Surgery service. Compared to younger adults, the presentation, treatment response, and outcomes are similar with the exception of cardiac complications and discharge destination. PMID:25048569

  1. Effect of acetylcysteine on adaptation of intestinal smooth muscle after small bowel bypass

    The authors have postulated that the adaptive changes in function and structure of bypassed segments of small bowel are due in part to the change in intestinal contents following operation. The purpose of these experiments was to determine if a mucolytic agent could alter the adaptation. Rats were anesthetized and a 70% jejunoileal bypass was performed. The bypassed segments then were perfused with either saline or acetylcysteine for 3-12 days. Then, either intestinal transit was determined using Cr-51, or segments were taken for morphometric analysis. Transit, as assessed by the geometric center, was increased 32% by acetylcysteine treatment. Treatment also caused a decrease in hypertrophy of the muscularis. Muscle wet weight, muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle layer thickness all were significantly less in those animals infused with acetyl-cysteine. No decreases in hypertrophy were seen in the in-continuity segments. These data indicate that alterations in intestinal content can affect the course of adaptation of intestinal muscle in response to small bowel bypass

  2. Gradient-enhanced volume rendering: an image processing strategy to facilitate whole small bowel imaging with MRI

    Wyss, Michael [Cantonal Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); ETH and University of Zuerich, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M.; Patak, Michael A.; Juli, Christoph F.; Zollikofer, Christoph L. [Cantonal Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Scheidegger, Markus B. [ETH and University of Zuerich, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Wentz, Klaus U. [Cantonal Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); University of Witten Herdecke, Herdecke (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    MRI of the small bowel with positive contrast from orally administered contrast agent is a promising non-invasive imaging method. The aim of our study was to introduce small bowel MRI in a display format that clinicians are accustomed to and that maximizes the amount of information visualized on a single image. Twelve healthy volunteers, median age 32 years (range 18-49 years) participated in the study. A mixture of 20 ml Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), 0.8 g/kg body weight psyllium fibre (Metamucil) and 1.2 l water were sequentially administered over a period of 4 h. Imaging was performed on a 1.5 T unit (Philips Gyroscan, Intera). Fat-saturated, 3D, gradient echo imaging was performed while the patient was in apnea (30 s). Bowel motion was reduced with 40 mg intravenously administered scopolamine (Buscopan). A 3D, gradient-enhanced, volume rendering technique was applied to the 3D data sets. Standard projections [left anterior oblique (LAO), right anterior oblique (RAO), supine and prone] resembling conventional enteroclysis were successfully generated within fewer than 10 min processing time. Reconstructions were reproducible and provided an entire overview of the small bowel. In addition thin-slab volume rendering allowed an overlap-free display of individual structures. Positive contrast from orally administered contrast agent, combined with a gradient enhanced volume rendering method, allows the reconstruction of the small bowel in a pattern resembling conventional double-contrast enteroclysis. Segmental display without overlay is possible. (orig.)

  3. Gradient-enhanced volume rendering: an image processing strategy to facilitate whole small bowel imaging with MRI.

    Wyss, Michael; Froehlich, Johannes M; Patak, Michael A; Juli, Christoph F; Scheidegger, Markus B; Zollikofer, Christoph L; Wentz, Klaus U

    2007-04-01

    MRI of the small bowel with positive contrast from orally administered contrast agent is a promising non-invasive imaging method. The aim of our study was to introduce small bowel MRI in a display format that clinicians are accustomed to and that maximizes the amount of information visualized on a single image. Twelve healthy volunteers, median age 32 years (range 18-49 years) participated in the study. A mixture of 20 ml Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), 0.8 g/kg body weight psyllium fibre (Metamucil) and 1.2 l water were sequentially administered over a period of 4 h. Imaging was performed on a 1.5 T unit (Philips Gyroscan, Intera). Fat-saturated, 3D, gradient echo imaging was performed while the patient was in apnea (30 s). Bowel motion was reduced with 40 mg intravenously administered scopolamine (Buscopan). A 3D, gradient-enhanced, volume rendering technique was applied to the 3D data sets. Standard projections [left anterior oblique (LAO), right anterior oblique (RAO), supine and prone] resembling conventional enteroclysis were successfully generated within fewer than 10 min processing time. Reconstructions were reproducible and provided an entire overview of the small bowel. In addition thin-slab volume rendering allowed an overlap-free display of individual structures. Positive contrast from orally administered contrast agent, combined with a gradient enhanced volume rendering method, allows the reconstruction of the small bowel in a pattern resembling conventional double-contrast enteroclysis. Segmental display without overlay is possible. PMID:17021699

  4. [A case of left-sided Morgagni hernia complicating incarcerated small bowel hernia].

    Kim, Se Won; Jung, Sang Hun; Kang, Su Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Morgagni hernia is an uncommon presentation representing about 3% in incidence and usually located in the right-sided anterior diaphragm. We experienced a case of Morgagni hernia in a seventy four-year-old male who was admitted complaining of intermittent abdominal pain. The diagnosis was made initially by chest and abdominal radiography, and an incarcerated Morgagni hernia was finally diagnosed with abdominal CT scans. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Morgagni foramen was located on the left-sided anterior diaphragm and Morgagni hernia which contained greater omentum and strangulated small intestine was gently reducted. Morgagni foramen measuring 4 x 5 cm was repaired with a Gortex mesh. We reported the experience of left-sided Morgagni hernia complicating incarcerated small bowel hernia in an old male patient. PMID:18349564

  5. [Laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment of early adhesive small bowel obstruction after gynecological surgery].

    Timofeev, M E; Breusenko, V G; Shapoval'iants, S G; Fedorov, E D; Larichev, S E; Kretsu, V N

    2015-01-01

    It is presented the results of diagnostic and curative laparoscopic interventions in 33 patients with acute early adhesive small bowel obstruction. Ileus developed after surgical treatment (laparotomy) of different gynecological diseases. Laparoscopy appeared as the most informative diagnostic method to confirm diagnosis in all patients, to estimate state of abdominal cavity and small pelvis organs what can help to determine method of surgical treatment. Contraindications for laparoscopic surgery were identified in 12 (36.4%) patients and conversion to laparotomy was applied in this group. Postoperative complications were diagnosed in 1 (8.3%) patient. 2 (16.6%) patients died. Early adhesive ileus was resolved laparoscopically in 21 (63.6%) of 33 patients. Recurrent acute early adhesive ileus was detected in 1 (4.7%) patient. PMID:26031952

  6. The Dose-Volume Relationship of Small Bowel Irradiation and Acute Grade 3 Diarrhea During Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Purpose: Previous work has found a highly significant relationship between the irradiated small-bowel volume and development of Grade 3 small-bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer. This study tested the previously defined parameters in a much larger group of patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 96 consecutive patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy for rectal cancer had treatment planning computed tomographic scans with small-bowel contrast that allowed the small bowel to be outlined with calculation of a small-bowel dose-volume histogram for the initial intended pelvic treatment to 45 Gy. Patients with at least one parameter above the previously determined dose-volume parameters were considered high risk, whereas those with all parameters below these levels were low risk. The grade of diarrhea and presence of liquid stool was determined prospectively. Results: There was a highly significant association with small-bowel dose-volume and Grade 3 diarrhea (p ≤ 0.008). The high-risk and low-risk parameters were predictive with Grade 3 diarrhea in 16 of 51 high-risk patients and in 4 of 45 low-risk patients (p = 0.01). Patients who had undergone irradiation preoperatively had a lower incidence of Grade 3 diarrhea than those treated postoperatively (18% vs. 28%; p = 0.31); however, the predictive ability of the high-risk/low-risk parameters was better for preoperatively (p = 0.03) than for postoperatively treated patients (p = 0.15). Revised risk parameters were derived that improved the overall predictive ability (p = 0.004). Conclusions: The highly significant dose-volume relationship and validity of the high-risk and low-risk parameters were confirmed in a large group of patients. The risk parameters provided better modeling for the preoperative patients than for the postoperative patients

  7. Microscopy of bacterial translocation during small bowel obstruction and ischemia in vivo – a new animal model

    Hafner Mathias

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing animal models provide only indirect information about the pathogenesis of infections caused by indigenous gastrointestinal microflora and the kinetics of bacterial translocation. The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model to assess bacterial translocation and intestinal barrier function in vivo. Methods In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, 0.5 ml of a suspension of green fluorescent protein-transfected E. coli was administered by intraluminal injection in a model of small bowel obstruction. Animals were randomly subjected to non-ischemic or ischemic bowel obstruction. Ischemia was induced by selective clamping of the terminal mesenteric vessels feeding the obstructed bowel loop. Time intervals necessary for translocation of E. coli into the submucosal stroma and the muscularis propria was assessed using intravital microscopy. Results Bacterial translocation into the submucosa and muscularis propria took a mean of 36 ± 8 min and 80 ± 10 min, respectively, in small bowel obstruction. Intestinal ischemia significantly accelerated bacterial translocation into the submucosa (11 ± 5 min, p E. coli were visible in frozen sections of small bowel, mesentery, liver and spleen taken two hours after E. coli administration. Conclusions Intravital microscopy of fluorescent bacteria is a novel approach to study bacterial translocation in vivo. We have applied this technique to define minimal bacterial transit time as a functional parameter of intestinal barrier function.

  8. Computed tomography to detect body packing: an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction

    Concealment of illicit drugs within the alimentary tract is now an established method used by both smugglers and traffickers to evade detection by authorities. Those who ingest wrapped packets of drugs to transport them across international borders are known as 'body packers,' whereas those who ingest packages of drugs upon an unexpected encounter with law enforcement agents are known as 'body stuffers' or 'quick swallowers. Although most of these individuals require no medical care, acute drug toxicity (from inadvertent leaking of contents or rupture of the drug packet) and bowel obstruction are recognized hazards of drug packet ingestion. The detection of these packets is a challenge to custom officials and police interested in preventing the import and trafficking of illegal drugs, as well as to physicians who have to treat individuals who have ingested them. We report a case of a 38-year-old intravenous drug abuser who presented with an acute small bowel obstruction secondary to an impacted intraluminal heroin balloon in the mid jejunum. The value of computed tomography (CT) in the patient's diagnostic evaluation is highlighted. (author)

  9. [Small bowel obstruction caused by postoperative adhesions: personal experience and review of the literature].

    Pomata, Mariano; Erdas, Enrico; Casu, Barbara; Pinna, Giovanni; Licheri, Sergio; Pisano, Giuseppe; Daniele, Giovanni Maria

    2006-01-01

    Small bowel obstruction due to postoperative adhesions still remains an important matter in terms of frequency, diagnostic and therapeutic commitment and costs. The Authors report on a series observed over 14 years consisting of 63 patients (71 cumulative hospital admissions). Surgery was required in 42 cases (59.2%), 23 cases were treated in emergency and 19 cases after failure of conservative treatment. In 29 cases (69%) the surgical procedure was limited to adhesiolysis, whereas in 13 cases (31%) an intestinal resection was performed. During operation the mechanisms responsible for obstruction were: strangulation by an adhesive band (39.4%), angulation (34%), bowel loops and volvulus glued together (13.2% in each case). The operative mortality was 4.7% (2 cases). In 29 cases (40.8%), after medical treatment, the obstruction was completely resolved within a mean period of 4.15 days (range: 2-8). The results lead to the conclusion that diagnostic accuracy in cases of obstruction due to postoperative adhesions is still uncertain. The main aspects of treatment and surgical timing are left to the surgeon's personal experience. Medical treatment, however, should be the first therapeutic option and, in case of doubt, further diagnostic investigations are necessary (mainly CT) to identify those cases amenable to surgical treatment. PMID:16999149

  10. Outcome of Jejuno-Ileal Atresia Associated with Intraoperative Finding of Volvulus of Small Bowel

    Shalini Sinha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the outcome of patients with jeuno-ileal atresia (JIA associated with the intraoperative finding of volvulus of small bowel (group A with that of JIA without volvulus (group B. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective observational study conducted at one of the two units of Pediatric Surgery, in a tertiary care public hospital of India, from January 2001 to December 2010. Hospital records were retrieved and analyzed. During this time period, 65 patients with JIA were operated of which 40 (61.5% had ileal atresia (IA and 25 (38.5% had jejunal atresia (JA. Eleven (16.9% patients had associated intraoperative finding of volvulus of small bowel (Group A and were studied and compared with group B- not associated with intraoperative findings of volvulus of small bowel (n=54. The demography, clinical features, operative findings, associated anomalies, anastomotic leakage, and outcome were compared. Results: Group A comprising of 6 boys and 5 girls, had 8 IA and 3 JA; one case each of Type 3b and Type 4 JIA was seen. Associated anomalies included meconium ileus (n=2, Down’s syndrome (n=1 and malrotation (n=1. Anastomotic leak rate was 75% for IA and 66.7% for JA. The mortality was 91% in Group A, 100% for IA and 67% for JA. Group B comprising of 37 boys and 17 girls, had 32 IA and 22 JA; 2 cases of Type 4 and 1 case of Type 3b JIA was seen. Associated anomalies were malrotation (n=2, meconium ileus (n=1, exomphalos (n=1, gastroschisis (n=1 and ileal duplication cyst (n=1. The anastomotic leak rate for JA was 8/21 (38.1% and IA was 3/28 (10.7%; persistent obstruction was seen in 3/21(14.3% JA and 1/28 (3.6% IA patients. In group B, overall mortality rate was 8/22 (36.4% for JA and 9/32 (28% for IA. The morbidity and mortality was significantly higher in group A when compared to group B. Conclusions: JIA associated with volvulus (without malrotation is a sinister entity with a dismal outcome in our experience.

  11. Ileal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting with small bowel obstruction: a case report.

    Kinkade, Zoe; Esan, Olukemi A; Rosado, Flavia G; Craig, Michael; Vos, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT Lymphoma) of the gastrointestinal tract commonly involves the stomach in the setting of concurrent Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Primary ileal MALT lymphoma is rare, and has not been associated with a specific infectious disease. We report a case of a 58-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with constipation and abdominal distension, and signs of an obstructing mass on computed tomography scan. A small bowel resection was performed which revealed an 8cm saccular dilatation with thickened bowel wall and subjacent thickened tan-yellow tissue extending into the mesentery. Histologically, there was a diffuse lymphoid infiltrate consisting of small atypical cells with monocytoid features. These cells were CD20-positive B-lymphocytes that co-expressed BCL-2 and were negative for CD5, CD10, CD43, and cyclin D1 on immunohistochemical studies. Kappa-restricted plasma cells were also identified by in situ hybridization. The overall proliferation index was low with Ki-67 immunoreactivity in approximately 10% of cells. No areas suspicious for large cell or high grade transformation were identified. The pathologic findings were diagnostic of an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma involving the ileum, with early involvement of mesenteric lymph nodes. Small hypermetabolic right mesenteric and bilateral hilar lymph nodes were identified by imaging. The bone marrow biopsy showed no evidence of involvement by lymphoma. The patient was clinically considered advanced stage and opted for therapy with rituximab infusions. After six months of therapy, follow-up radiologic studies demonstrated significant decrease in size of the mesenteric lymph nodes. PMID:26178711

  12. Management of perforated essure with migration into small and large bowel mesentery.

    Braginsky, Lena; George, Sean T; Locher, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The Essure permanent birth control system (Conceptus Inc, San Carlos, CA) is currently the only Food and Drug Administration-approved hysteroscopic sterilization method and has been widely accepted as a safe and effective procedure. We present a rare case of tubal perforation, coil fragmentation, and distal migration into small and large bowel mesentery 8days after the insertion of the Essure device. We describe the successful management of this complication using laparoscopy and intraoperative fluoroscopy. Providers using Essure must be aware of the possibility of fragmentation of the Essure coils. Intraoperative imaging, ideally fluoroscopy, should be strongly considered in the management of Essure migration to ensure localization and full retrieval of Essure material. PMID:25460518

  13. CO2 as a distending medium for gastric and small bowel MRI: a feasibility study

    This work evaluates carbon dioxide as a contrast medium for magnetic resonance imaging of the stomach and small bowel. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent rapid magnetic resonance imaging after oral administration of a carbon dioxide generating agent using a combination of breath-hold and interactive fluoroscopic imaging during breathing. Diagnostic-quality images were obtained in 100% of cases for the stomach and in 92, 75, 67 and 42% of cases for the duodenal segments 1-4, respectively. Visualisation of the jejunum and ileum proved unacceptable for clinical use and anti-peristaltic agents did not significantly influence the results. Further development of fast imaging and magnetic resonance interactive fluoroscopic methods may allow the use of carbon dioxide as a contrast medium for clinical imaging of the stomach and duodenum. (orig.)

  14. Acute small bowel obstruction caused by endometriosis: A case report and review of the literature

    Antonella De Ceglie, Claudio Bilardi, Sabrina Blanchi, Massimo Picasso, Marcello Di Muzio, Alberto Trimarchi, Massimo Conio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement of endometriosis has been found in 3%-37% of menstruating women and exclusive localization on the ileum is very rare (1%-7%. Endometriosis of the distal ileum is an infrequent cause of intestinal obstruction, ranging from 7% to 23% of all cases with intestinal involvement. We report a case in which endometrial infiltration of the small bowel caused acute obstruction requiring emergency surgery, in a woman whose symptoms were not related to menses. Histology of the resected specimen showed that endometriosis was mainly prevalent in the muscularis propria and submucosa and that the mucosa was not ulcerated but had inflammation and glandular alteration. Endometrial lymph node involvement, with a cystic glandular pattern was also detected.

  15. Massive retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma presenting with small bowel obstruction 18 years following initial diagnosis.

    Cronin, E M P

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Ganglioneuroma is a rare tumour of neural crest origin, which arises from maturation of a neuroblastoma. While previously considered to be non-functioning, they are now known to be frequently endocrinologically active. AIMS AND METHODS: We report a case of a massive retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma presenting with small bowel obstruction in an adult, 18 years after initial diagnosis. Urinary dopamine levels were elevated, but other catecholamines were within normal limits. This is the first report in the English-language literature of a retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma presenting with or causing intestinal obstruction. We also review the metabolic, radiological, and histological features of these tumours. Relevant publications were identified from a Medline search using the MeSH headings \\'ganglioneuroma\\

  16. Tumor estromal gastrointestinal de intestino delgado Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of small bowel

    Francisco Marivaldo Benício da Silva

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (gists represent relatively rare lesions that arise from connective tissue elements located along the entire length of the gut. They were initially identified by immunohistochemical investigation, proving their origin from nondifferentiated mesenchymal cells. Only a minority of this lesions, mainly those confined to the esophagus and rectum, have been shown to correspond to mature, well-differentiated types of neoplasms such as leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. The majority of gists corresponds to a heterogeneous group of lesions that have as their common denominator an immature proliferation of epithelioid or spindle cells arising from its muscle layers, or between them, showing partial or incomplete myoide, neural, ganglionic, or mixed features of differentiation. This case report intends to show a gist of small bowel in a male, 46 years old, with a two-year of evolution.

  17. Small bowel perforation due to indistinguishable metastasis of angiosarcoma: case report and brief literature review.

    Uchihara, Tomoyuki; Imamura, Yu; Iwagami, Shiro; Kajihara, Ikko; Kanemaru, Hisashi; Karashima, Ryuichi; Ida, Satoshi; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Baba, Yoshifumi; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Iyama, Ken-Ichi; Ihn, Hironobu; Baba, Hideo

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal metastasis of angiosarcoma is extremely rare. We herein report a case of intestinal perforation due to intestinal metastasis of angiosarcoma. The patient was a 72-year-old Japanese man with multiple recurrent angiosarcomas of the scalp. He developed acute abdominal pain with guarding, and we performed an emergency exploratory laparotomy. An intestinal perforation was found 80 cm from the ligament of Treitz, and partial jejunectomy was successfully performed. Macroscopic inspection revealed no obvious injury, ulcer, or tumor at or around the perforation site. Pathological examination revealed angiosarcoma cells penetrating through all layers of the jejunum at the site of intestinal perforation. This is the first reported case of intestinal perforation caused by indistinguishable intestinal metastasis of angiosarcoma. This case emphasizes intestinal metastasis of angiosarcoma as a possible cause of small bowel perforation in patients with advanced angiosarcoma, even when no visible tumor is present during surgery. PMID:27156097

  18. Seatbelt injury causing small bowel devascularisation: case series and review of the literature.

    O'Dowd, Vincent

    2012-01-31

    The use of seatbelts has increased significantly in the last twenty years, leading to a decrease in mortality from road traffic accidents (RTA). However, this increase in seatbelt use has also led to a change in the spectrum of injuries from RTA; abdominal injuries, particularly intestinal injuries have dramatically increased with the routine use of seatbelts. Such intestinal injuries frequently result from improper placement of the "lap belt". We present 3 cases in which passengers wearing a seatbelt sustained significant devascularisation injuries to the small bowel requiring emergency surgical intervention. A high index of suspicion is crucial in such cases to prevent delays in diagnosis that can lead to severe complications and adverse outcomes. It is evident that while advocating seatbelt use, the importance of education in correct seatbelt placement should also be a focus of public health strategies to reduce RTA morbidity and mortality.

  19. Medical risk factors for small-bowel adenocarcinoma with focus on Crohn's disease

    Kærlev, Linda; Teglbjaerg, P.S.; Sabroe, Svend; Kolstad, H.A.; Ahrens, W.; Eriksson, M.; Guénel, P.; Hardell, L.; Launoy, G.; Merler, E.; Merletti, F.; Stang, A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn disease and biliary diseases have been associated with small-bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA). We examined how medical conditions affect the risk of SBA. METHODS: A population-based European multicentre case-control study during the period 1995-97 including 95 histologically verified...... 3-year period preceding the SBA diagnosis. Previous gallstone surgery, which may be a sign of severe gallstone disease, was not associated with SBA. Liver cirrhosis, hepatitis or medical treatments with radioactive substances or corticosteroid tablets were not associated with this disease. Cases...... with SBA had an increased prevalence of anaemia; OR 15.3 (2.5-92.1). An association between low educational level and SBA was found; OR 1.75 (1.0-3.0). CONCLUSION: This study supports Crohn disease and coeliac disease being strong but rare risk factors for SBA. Previous gallstones were unrelated to SBA...

  20. Prospective study of treatment techniques to minimize the volume of pelvic small bowel with reduction of acute and late effects associated with pelvic irradiation

    The volume, distribution, and mobility of opacified pelvic small bowel (PSB) were determined by fluoroscopy and orthogonal radiographs in 150 consecutive patients undergoing pelvic irradiation. Various techniques including uteropexy, omental transposition, bladder distention, inclining the patient, and anterior abdominal wall compression in the supine and prone treatment position were studied for their effect on the volume and location of small bowel within the pelvis. Abdominal wall compression in the prone position combined with bladder distention was selected for further investigation because of its simplicity, reproducibility, patient comfort, and ability to displace the small bowel. Factors correlating with the volume of pelvic small bowel (PSB) included prior pelvic surgery, pelvic irradiation (XRT), and body mass index. After pelvic surgery, especially following abdominoperineal resection (APR), there was a greater volume of PSB which was also less mobile. The severity of acute gastrointestinal effects positively correlated with the volume of irradiated small bowel. Overall, 67% of patients experienced little or no diarrhea, 30% developed mild diarrhea, and no patient required treatment interruption. Late gastrointestinal effects correlated with the prior pelvic surgery and with the volume of small bowel receiving greater than 45 Gy. Small bowel obstruction was not observed in 75 patients who had no previous pelvic surgery. However, following pelvic surgery excluding APR, 2/50 patients and following APR, 3/25 patients developed small bowel obstruction

  1. Towards a less costly but accurate test of gastric emptying and small bowel transit

    Our aim is to develop a less costly but accurate test of stomach emptying and small bowel transit by utilizing selected scintigraphic observations 1-6 hr after ingestion of a radiolabeled solid meal. These selected data were compared with more detailed analyses that require multiple scans and labor-intensive technical support. A logistic discriminant analysis was used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of selected summaries of scintigraphic transit measurements. We studied 14 patients with motility disorders (eight neuropathic and six myopathic, confirmed by standard gastrointestinal manometry) and 37 healthy subjects. The patient group had abnormal gastric emptying (GE) and small bowel transit time (SBTT). The proportion of radiolabel retained in the stomach from 2 to 4 hr (GE 2 hr, GE 3 hr, GE 4 hr), as well as the proportion filling the colon at 4 and 6 hr (CF 4 hr, CF 6 hr) were individually able to differentiate health from disease (P less than 0.05 for each). From the logistic discriminant model, an estimated sensitivity of 93% resulted in similar specificities for detailed and selected transit parameters for gastric emptying (range: 62-70%). Similarly, combining selected observations, such as GE 4 hr with CF 6 hr, had a specificity of 76%, which was similar to the specificity of combinations of more detailed analyses. Based on the present studies and future confirmation in a larger number of patients, including those with less severe motility disorders, the 2-, 4-, and 6-hr scans with quantitation of proportions of counts in stomach and colon should provide a useful, relatively inexpensive strategy to identify and monitor motility disorders in clinical and epidemiologic studies

  2. Supra-transumbilical laparotomy (STL approach for small bowel atresia repair: Our experience and review of the literature

    Ernesto Leva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supra-Transumbilical Laparotomy (STL has been used in paediatric surgery for a broad spectrum of abdominal procedures. We report our experience with STL approach for small bowel atresia repair in newborns and review previous published series on the topic. Patients and Methods: Fourteen patients with small bowel atresia were treated via STL approach at our Institution over a 5-year period and their charts were retrospectively reviewed. Results: STL procedure was performed at mean age of 3.1 day. No malrotation disorders were detected with pre-operative contrast enema. Eight patients (54.1% presented jejunal atresia, five (35.7% ileal atresia, and one (7.1% multiple ileal and jejunal atresias. Standard repair with primary end-to-back anastomosis was performed in all but one patient. In the newborn with multiple atresia, STL incision was converted in supra-umbilical transverse incision due to difficulty of exposition. After surgery, one patient developed anastomotic stricture, and another developed occlusion due to adhesions: Both infants required second laparotomy. No infections of the umbilical site were recorded, and cosmetic results were excellent in all patients. Conclusions: Increasing evidence suggests that STL approach for small bowel atresia is feasible, safe and provides adequate exposure for small bowel atresia surgery. When malrotation and colonic/multiple atresia are pre-operatively ruled out, STL procedure can be choosen as first approach.

  3. Gorlin syndrome associated with small bowel carcinoma and mesenchymal proliferation of the gastrointestinal tract: case report and review of literature

    Meyer Gnther

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Case Presentation A patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome presented with two unusual clinical features, i.e. adenocarcinoma of the small bowel and extensive mesenchymal proliferation of the lower gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions We discuss the possibility that these two features are pathogenetically linked to the formerly undescribed patient's PTCH germ line mutation.

  4. Gorlin syndrome associated with small bowel carcinoma and mesenchymal proliferation of the gastrointestinal tract: case report and review of literature

    Meyer Gnther; Straka Christian; Mamann Jrg; Sarbia Mario; Prodinger Peter M; Steinlein Ortrud K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background and Case Presentation A patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome) presented with two unusual clinical features, i.e. adenocarcinoma of the small bowel and extensive mesenchymal proliferation of the lower gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions We discuss the possibility that these two features are pathogenetically linked to the formerly undescribed patient's PTCH germ line mutation.

  5. Laparoscopic treatment of acute small bowel obstruction due to left paraduodenal hernia: A case report and literature review

    Zizzo, Maurizio; Smerieri, Nazareno; Barbieri, Italo; Lanaia, Andrea; Bonilauri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Internal hernia is a pathological condition resulting from abnormal protrusion of abdominal viscera through an opening in the intraperitoneal recesses of the abdominal cavity. Small bowel obstruction due to internal hernia is not common (0.25–0.9% of cases). The most common group is that of paraduodenal hernias (53%), of which the left-sided one is the most common type (75%). Presentation of case We report a case of a 43 year-old man with a history of recurrent abdominal pain, who was hospitalized because of an episode of acute small bowel obstruction. He had no previous surgery. Computed tomography revealed an encapsulated circumscribed cluster of jejunal loops in the left upper quadrant, near the ligament of Treitz, and the hernia orifice was adjacent to the left side of the inferior mesenteric vessels. Emergency laparoscopic surgery was performed: the small bowel was found completely herniated under the inferior mesenteric vessels. It was gradually reduced and the hernia space was closed with a running suture. The patient was discharged on the fourth day without complications. Conclusion Left paraduodenal hernia is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction that should be taken into account in a patient with a history of recurrent abdominal pain or intestinal obstruction, and no previous surgery. Computed tomography is the standard for a correct diagnosis. Surgery is treatment of choice, because it reduces the risk of emergency and complications associated to hernia. Laparoscopic approach is feasible and effective, also in emergency situation. PMID:26826933

  6. A prospective study of differences in duodenum compared to remaining small bowel motion between radiation treatments: Implications for radiation dose escalation in carcinoma of the pancreas

    As a foundation for a dose escalation trial, we sought to characterize duodenal and non-duodenal small bowel organ motion between fractions of pancreatic radiation therapy. Nine patients (4 women, 5 men) undergoing radiation therapy were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients had up to four weekly CT scans performed during their course of radiation therapy. Pancreas, duodenum and non-duodenal small bowel were then contoured for each CT scan. On the initial scan, a four-field plan was generated to fully cover the pancreas. This plan was registered to each subsequent CT scan. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) analyses were performed for the duodenum, non-duodenal small bowel, large bowel, and pancreas. With significant individual variation, the volume of duodenum receiving at least 80% of the prescribed dose was consistently greater than the remaining small bowel. In the patient with the largest inter-fraction variation, the fractional volume of non-duodenal small bowel irradiated to at least the 80% isodose line ranged from 1% to 20%. In the patient with the largest inter-fraction variation, the fractional volume of duodenum irradiated to at least the 80% isodose line ranged from 30% to 100%. The volume of small bowel irradiated during four-field pancreatic radiation therapy changes substantially between fractions. This suggests dose escalation may be possible. However, dose limits to the duodenum should be stricter than for other segments of small bowel

  7. Diagnosis of Small-Bowel Diseases: Prospective Comparison of Multi-Detector Row CT Enterography with MR Enterography.

    Masselli, Gabriele; Di Tola, Marco; Casciani, Emanuele; Polettini, Elisabetta; Laghi, Francesca; Monti, Riccardo; Bernieri, Maria Giulia; Gualdi, Gianfranco

    2016-05-01

    Purpose To prospectively compare the accuracies of computed tomographic (CT) enterography and magnetic resonance (MR) enterography for the detection and characterization of small-bowel diseases. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved the study protocol, and informed consent was obtained from all participants. From June 2009 to July 2013, 150 consecutive patients (81 men and 69 women; mean age, 38.8 years; range, 18-74 years), who were suspected of having a small-bowel disease on the basis of clinical findings and whose previous upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy findings were normal, underwent CT and MR enterography. Two independent readers reviewed CT and MR enterographic images for the presence of small-bowel diseases, for differentiating between inflammatory and noninflammatory diseases, and for extraenteric complications. The histopathologic findings of surgical (n = 23) and endoscopic (n = 32) biopsy specimens were used as the reference standard; the results of video-capsule endoscopy (n = 36) and clinical follow-up (n = 59) were used only to confirm the absence of small-bowel disease. Results MR and CT enterography were successfully performed in all 150 patients. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, in identifying patients with small-bowel lesions were 75.9% (41 of 54), 94.8% (91 of 96), and 88.0% (132 of 150) for CT enterography and 92.6% (50 of 54), 99.0% (95 of 96), and 96.7% (145 of 150) for MR enterography. The sensitivity of MR enterography was significantly higher than that of CT enterography for the detection of both overall small-bowel diseases (P = .0159) and neoplastic diseases (P = .0412) but not for the detection of inflammatory diseases (P > .99) or noninflammatory and nonneoplastic diseases (P = .6171). Conclusion MR enterography is more accurate than CT enterography in the detection of small-bowel diseases; MR enterography was more accurate in detecting neoplastic diseases in particular. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26599801

  8. Large bowel obstruction secondary to adhesive bands.

    El-Masry, Nabil S; Geevarghese, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is most commonly due to malignancy, volvulus, hernia, diverticular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. LBO due to adhesions is unusual. A literature review was conducted which revealed that only a few such cases have been reported. We report two cases of LBO secondary to adhesions in patients, one with and one without a past abdominal surgical history. We highlight that while rare, the aetiology of LBO secondary to adhesions must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with obstructive symptoms. PMID:25650387

  9. Value of CT findings to predict surgical ischemia in small bowel obstruction: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Our aim was to assess the diagnostic performance in determining strangulation in small bowel obstruction (SBO) for five CT findings commonly considered in published small bowel obstruction (SBO) management guidelines. Medical databases were searched for ''bowel obstruction'', ''computed tomography'', ''strangulation'', and related terms. Two reviewers independently selected articles for CT findings investigated with surgical or histological reference standards for strangulation. Bivariate random-effects meta-analytical methods were used. A total of 768 patients, including 205 with strangulation from nine studies, were evaluated. The reduced bowel wall enhancement CT sign had the highest specificity (95 %, CI 75-99), with a positive LR of 11.07 (2.27-53.88) and DOR of 22.86 (4.99-104.61). The mesenteric fluid sign had the highest sensitivity (89 %, CI 75-96) with a negative LR of 0.16 (0.07-0.39) and a DOR of 13.9 (5.73-33.75). The bowel wall thickness had a sensitivity of 48 % (CI 41-54), a specificity of 83 % (CI 74-89), a positive LR of 2.84 (1.83-4.41) and a negative LR of 0.62 (0.53-0.72). The other CT findings had lower diagnostic performance. Two CT findings should be used in clinical practice: reduced enhanced bowel wall is highly predictive of ischemia, and absence of mesenteric fluid is a reliable finding to rule out strangulation. (orig.)

  10. Value of CT findings to predict surgical ischemia in small bowel obstruction: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Millet, Ingrid; Taourel, Patrice; Ruyer, Alban [CHU Lapeyronie, From Department of Medical Imaging, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Molinari, Nicolas [CHU Montpellier, From Department of Medical Information, Montpellier (France)

    2015-06-01

    Our aim was to assess the diagnostic performance in determining strangulation in small bowel obstruction (SBO) for five CT findings commonly considered in published small bowel obstruction (SBO) management guidelines. Medical databases were searched for ''bowel obstruction'', ''computed tomography'', ''strangulation'', and related terms. Two reviewers independently selected articles for CT findings investigated with surgical or histological reference standards for strangulation. Bivariate random-effects meta-analytical methods were used. A total of 768 patients, including 205 with strangulation from nine studies, were evaluated. The reduced bowel wall enhancement CT sign had the highest specificity (95 %, CI 75-99), with a positive LR of 11.07 (2.27-53.88) and DOR of 22.86 (4.99-104.61). The mesenteric fluid sign had the highest sensitivity (89 %, CI 75-96) with a negative LR of 0.16 (0.07-0.39) and a DOR of 13.9 (5.73-33.75). The bowel wall thickness had a sensitivity of 48 % (CI 41-54), a specificity of 83 % (CI 74-89), a positive LR of 2.84 (1.83-4.41) and a negative LR of 0.62 (0.53-0.72). The other CT findings had lower diagnostic performance. Two CT findings should be used in clinical practice: reduced enhanced bowel wall is highly predictive of ischemia, and absence of mesenteric fluid is a reliable finding to rule out strangulation. (orig.)

  11. Resultados de la ciruga laparoscpica en el tratamiento electivo de la enfermedad diverticular de colon Results of laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of diverticular disease of the colon

    Francisco Lpez-Kstner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The laparoscopic approach is an alternative for the elective treatment of diverticular colon disease (DCD. Aim: To analyze the results of patients electively operated for DCD using a laparoscopic technique. Material and Methods: Data of patients with DCD operated using laparoscopy at the Catholic University of Chile Clinical Hospital were prospectively recorded from January 1999 to August 2006. Indications for surgery were repetitive crises of acute diverticulitis, the persistence of the symptoms or anatomic deformity after the first crisis and complicated diverticulitis (Hinchey 1-2 that responded to the medical treatment. The laparoscopic technique used five ports and the surgical specimen was extracted through a suprapubic approach. Results: One hundred and six patients aged 32 to 82 years (49% females were operated in the study period. Fifty five percent had a previous abdominal surgery. The mean operative time was 213 minutes (range: 135-360. Four patients were converted to open surgery (3.7%. One or more early post-operative complications were observed in five patients (4.7%. The mean time for passing gases and reinitiate liquid diet was 1.7 and 2.4 days respectively. The median post operative stay after surgery was 4 days. There was no operative mortality. Mean follow-up time was 27 months and only one patient (0.9% had a new episode of acute diverticular disease, with a satisfactory response to medical treatment. No patient has developed bowel obstruction. Conclusions: The laparoscopic approach is a safe alternative in the elective surgical treatment of DCD

  12. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    ... commonly used funding mechanisms, including diversity and small business programs Research Programs & Contacts Research program and staff ... Link Disclaimer Digestive Diseases Irritable Bowel Syndrome Collapse Definition and Facts for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms and ...

  13. No relationship between gastric pH, small bowel bacterial colonisation, and diarrhoea in HIV-1 infected patients

    Wilcox, C; Waites, K; SMITH, P., CUBAS, M., CORRIN, J., TAPIA, J., DE PEDRO, I., RUIZ COBO, J., PEREDA ROSALES, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Background/Aims—Conclusive studies of small bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with HIV-1 infection are limited. The relation was therefore determined between the quantity and species of bacteria in the proximal small intestine of HIV-1 infected patients and the presence of diarrhoea, gastric acidity, severity of immune deficiency, and clinical outcome. 
Methods—Bacteria in the duodenal fluids obtained endoscopically from 32 HIV-1 infected patients, 21 of whom had dia...

  14. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: are there any predictors?

    McCallum Richard W

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is a condition in which excessive levels of bacteria, mainly the colonic-type species are present in the small intestine. Recent data suggest that SIBO may contribute to the pathophysiology of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The purpose of this study was to identify potential predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Methods Adults with IBS based on Rome II criteria who had predominance of bloating and flatulence underwent a glucose breath test (GBT to determine the presence of SIBO. Breath samples were obtained at baseline and at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 50 g of glucose dissolved in 150 mL of water. Results of the glucose breath test, which measures hydrogen and methane levels in the breath, were considered positive for SIBO if 1 the hydrogen or methane peak was >20 ppm when the baseline was Results Ninety-eight patients were identified who underwent a GBT (mean age, 49 y; 78% female. Thirty-five patients (36% had a positive GBT result suggestive of SIBO. A positive GBT result was more likely in patients >55 years of age (odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-9.0 and in females (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-14.5. Hydrogen was detected more frequently in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.4-45, and methane was the main gas detected in patients with constipation-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.3-44. There was no significant correlation between the presence of SIBO and the predominant bowel pattern or concurrent use of tegaserod, proton pump inhibitors, or opiate analgesics. Conclusions Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was present in a sizeable percentage of patients with IBS with predominance of bloating and flatulence. Older age and female sex were predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Identification of possible predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS could aid in the development of successful treatment plans.

  15. Intestinal small bowel lymphomas - diagnosis and treatment; Primaer intestinale Lymphome - Diagnosestellung mittels CT und Therapie

    Goessmann, H.; Reith, H.B. [Klinikum fuer Visceral-, Thorax und Gefaesschirurgie, Klinikum Konstanz (Germany); Goerlitz, T.; Beck, A. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum Konstanz (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Primary intestinal lymphomas are most common in the stomach. The mucosa associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)-lymphoma which is closely associated with helicobacter pylori is very well known. In most cases, these malignancies are from B-cells origin. Another possible point of manifestation, although not well known, is the small bowel. Both tumors have enormous capabilities to enlarge in the abdominal cave. This is responding to their often asymptomatic manifestation. The symptoms, if they occur, are widespread and unspecific. Ileus, diarrhae, abdominal pain or bleeding will be observed, in rare cases also perforation or gastrointestinal or cutaneous fistulas. Diagnostic imaging often demonstrates a tumour of massive size by then, which is echopoor in the abdominal ultrasound. Our report concerns two cases of small intestine lymphomas, which were diagnosed by CT-scanning and treated in our clinic in only a short period of time. The first case was a low malignant jejunal lymphoma which was almost asymptomatic, whereas the second case had an ileus, due to compression of the intestine because of a high malignant lymphoma of the ileocecal region. (orig.)

  16. Diagnosis and Treatment of Small Bowel Cancers Using Radioactive Gold Nanoparticles and Wireless Fluorescence Capsule Endoscopy

    Alizadeh, M.; Qaradaghi, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic and diagnosis properties of radioactive gold nanoparticle (198-AuNPs) cause them to be suitable for detection and treatment of tumors. Objective Electrical and optical properties of PEG-198AuNPs were examined in this paper. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-198 AuNPs can be used for treatment and diagnosis of small intestine tumors. Methods Wireless fluorescence capsule endoscopy will be able to detect emission lights of triggered Au by external light. First, the output electrical field was calculated by DDSCAT software. Secondly, tumor and distribution of PEG-198 gold nanoparticles were modeled using Monte Carlo simulation and finally dose delivered throughout a solid tumor when the PEG-198 gold nanoparticles linked to each cell was calculated. Results Polyethylene Glycol functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possess optimized sizes (30 nm core diameter and 70 nm hydrodynamic diameters) to target individual tumor cells. Surface distribution to receive doses of up to 50Gy was simulated.  Activities and absorbed doses by the tumors with 0.25cm and 0.5cm radius were 187.9mCi and 300mCi and 72 and 118 Gy,respectively. Conclusion Therapeutic and diagnosis properties of 198-AuNPs show that it can be used for treatment and detection of small bowel tumors in early stage of growing. PMID:27026950

  17. The effect of cholecystokinin octapeptide upon the migrating myoelectric complex in the ovine small bowel

    Romanski Krzysztof W.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no evident and precise data regarding the effect of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC in sheep. Thus, in five rams seven bipolar platinum electrodes were implanted in the abomasal antrum and entire small intestine. The strain gauge force transducer was also attached near the duodenal electrode in three of these animals. During the experiments the myoelectric and motor activity was continuously recorded in fasted and non-fasted sheep. During the recordings two normal consecutive phases 3 of the MMC were recorded. Then, slow injections of CCK-OP of 0.02; 0.2 and 2.0 _g/kg of body weight were given intravenously during phase 1, 2a or 2b of the MMC, identified in the duodenum, until next two consecutive phases 3 MMC were recorded. The moderate dose of CCK-OP administered during phase 2a in non-fasted animals shortened the MMC cycles significantly while the highest dose of the hormone increased the cycle duration and inhibited phase 3 MMC in the duodenum. No such effect was observed in the jejunum. However, duration of phase 3 in this region was decreased mostly by the highest dose of CCK-OP. It can be concluded that CCK inhibits the MMC in ovine small bowel and its effect in the duodenum is most pronounced.

  18. Arterial hypertension due to fructose ingestion: model based on intermittent osmotic fluid trapping in the small bowel

    Kurbel Sven

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on recently reported data that fructose ingestion is linked to arterial hypertension, a model of regulatory loops involving the colon role in maintenance of fluid and sodium homeostasis is proposed. In normal digestion of hyperosmolar fluids, also in cases of postprandial hypotension and in patients having the "dumping" syndrome after gastric surgery, any hyperosmolar intestinal content is diluted by water taken from circulation and being trapped in the bowel until reabsorption. High fructose corn sirup (HFCS soft drinks are among common hyperosmolar drinks. Fructose is slowly absorbed through passive carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion, along the entire small bowel, thus preventing absorption of the trapped water for several hours. Here presented interpretation is that ingestion of hyperosmolar HFCS drinks due to a transient fluid shift into the small bowel increases renin secretion and sympathetic activity, leading to rise in ADH and aldosterone secretions. Their actions spare water and sodium in the large bowel and kidneys. Alteration of colon absorption due to hormone exposure depends on cell renewal and takes days to develop, so the momentary capacity of sodium absorption in the colon depends on the average aldosterone and ADH exposure during few previous days. This inertia in modulation of the colon function can make an individual that often takes HFCS drinks prone to sodium retention, until a new balance is reached with an expanded ECF pool and arterial hypertension. In individuals with impaired fructose absorption, even a higher risk of arterial hypertension can be expected.

  19. Arterial hypertension due to fructose ingestion: model based on intermittent osmotic fluid trapping in the small bowel.

    Kurbel, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Based on recently reported data that fructose ingestion is linked to arterial hypertension, a model of regulatory loops involving the colon role in maintenance of fluid and sodium homeostasis is proposed.In normal digestion of hyperosmolar fluids, also in cases of postprandial hypotension and in patients having the "dumping" syndrome after gastric surgery, any hyperosmolar intestinal content is diluted by water taken from circulation and being trapped in the bowel until reabsorption. High fructose corn sirup (HFCS) soft drinks are among common hyperosmolar drinks. Fructose is slowly absorbed through passive carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion, along the entire small bowel, thus preventing absorption of the trapped water for several hours.Here presented interpretation is that ingestion of hyperosmolar HFCS drinks due to a transient fluid shift into the small bowel increases renin secretion and sympathetic activity, leading to rise in ADH and aldosterone secretions. Their actions spare water and sodium in the large bowel and kidneys. Alteration of colon absorption due to hormone exposure depends on cell renewal and takes days to develop, so the momentary capacity of sodium absorption in the colon depends on the average aldosterone and ADH exposure during few previous days. This inertia in modulation of the colon function can make an individual that often takes HFCS drinks prone to sodium retention, until a new balance is reached with an expanded ECF pool and arterial hypertension. In individuals with impaired fructose absorption, even a higher risk of arterial hypertension can be expected. PMID:20579372

  20. Serial intralesional injections of infliximab in small bowel Crohn’s strictures are feasible and might lower inflammation

    Hendel, Jakob; Karstensen, John Gásdal; Vilmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease can cause strictures throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Endoscopic balloon dilatation is a well-established treatment, but recurrence is seen in up to three out of four cases. Infliximab is playing an increasingly important role in the modern systemic treatment of...... severe Crohn's disease. Combining the anti-inflammatory effects of infliximab with the proven effect of endoscopic balloon dilatation could possibly improve outcome. In small studies, intralesional injections in perianal fistulas have been effective and endoscopic injection therapy in colonic strictures...... is feasible. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to assess whether serial intralesional injection of infliximab in small bowel strictures is feasible and reduces local inflammation. METHODS: We included six patients with Crohn's disease and inflammatory small bowel strictures. They were treated with endoscopic...

  1. Optimal Bowel Preparation for Video Capsule Endoscopy

    Hyun Joo Song; Jeong Seop Moon; Ki-Nam Shim

    2016-01-01

    During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), several factors, such as air bubbles, food material in the small bowel, and delayed gastric and small bowel transit time, influence diagnostic yield, small bowel visualization quality, and cecal completion rate. Therefore, bowel preparation before VCE is as essential as bowel preparation before colonoscopy. To date, there have been many comparative studies, consensus, and guidelines regarding different kinds of bowel cleansing agents in bowel preparation ...

  2. The volume effect in radiation-related late small bowel complications. Results of a clinical study of the EORTC Radiotherapy Cooperative Group in patients treated for rectal carcinoma

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the correlation between irradiated small bowel volume and late occurring small bowel complications. Methods: Small bowel volumes in the high-dose region were measured using orthogonal barium films for 203 patients treated for rectal carcinoma with pelvic postoperative radiotherapy to 50 Gy in an EORTC multicentric study. Results: The 5-year estimate of lat pelvic small bowel obstruction requiring surgery was 11%. No correlation between the irradiated small bowel volume and obstruction was detected. The actuarial 5-year estimate of chronic diarrhea varied from 31% in patients with irradiated small bowel volumes below 77 cm3 to 42% in patients with volumes over 328 cm3. This correlation was significant in the univariate and multivariate analysis (p=0.025). The type of rectal surgery significantly influenced the incidence of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption, the actuarial 5-year estimate being 49% and 26% after low anterior resection and abdominoperineal resection, respectively (p=0.04). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that there is a volume-effect in radiation-induced diarrhea atr a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. No volume-effect for small bowel obstruction was detected at this dose-level in pelvic postoperative radiotherapy. A review of the literature data on small bowel obstruction indicates that the volume effect at this dose level can only be demonstrated in patients who were treated with extended field radiotherapy (estimated small bowel volume 800 cm3) after intra-abdominal surgery. (author). 22 refs., 5 tabs

  3. The scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Diffuse disturbance in gastrointestinal motility may be present in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To further investigate small intestinal motility in IBS patients small intestinal transit time (SITT) was determined and related to the symptom status. 11 female patients with IBS (mean age 29 years) were divided into those whose predominate symptom was diarrhea (N=6), and those with only constipation (N=5). All subjects ingested an isosmotic solution of lactulose (10 gm in 150cc of water) labeled with 99m-Tc-DTPA (Sn). The patient was studied supine under a 25 inch gamma camera with data collected at 1 frame per minute for 180 minutes or until activity appeared in the ascending colon. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the small intestinal transit time. SITT in the 5 normal females was 98.7 +- 13 min (mean +- SEM). SITT in the IBS patients with diarrhea, 67.3 +- 7 min was significantly faster (p< 0.08). SITT in the constipated IBS patients, 126 +- 12 min, was slower than normals and significantly different from diarrhea patients (p< 0.001). These studies show that IBS patients with diarrhea have significantly faster SITT than normals while constipated IBS patients have significantly slower SITT than the diarrhea subgroup. Further, this study emphasizes the need to study the various symptomatic subgroups of IBs patients independently and indicates a possible role for abnormal SITT in the pathogenesis of IBS

  4. The scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Marano, A.R.; Caride, V.J.; Shah, R.V.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.J.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Diffuse disturbance in gastrointestinal motility may be present in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To further investigate small intestinal motility in IBS patients small intestinal transit time (SITT) was determined and related to the symptom status. 11 female patients with IBS (mean age 29 years) were divided into those whose predominate symptom was diarrhea (N=6), and those with only constipation (N=5). All subjects ingested an isosmotic solution of lactulose (10 gm in 150cc of water) labeled with 99m-Tc-DTPA (Sn). The patient was studied supine under a 25 inch gamma camera with data collected at 1 frame per minute for 180 minutes or until activity appeared in the ascending colon. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the small intestinal transit time. SITT in the 5 normal females was 98.7 +- 13 min (mean +- SEM). SITT in the IBS patients with diarrhea, 67.3 +- 7 min was significantly faster (p< 0.08). SITT in the constipated IBS patients, 126 +- 12 min, was slower than normals and significantly different from diarrhea patients (p< 0.001). These studies show that IBS patients with diarrhea have significantly faster SITT than normals while constipated IBS patients have significantly slower SITT than the diarrhea subgroup. Further, this study emphasizes the need to study the various symptomatic subgroups of IBs patients independently and indicates a possible role for abnormal SITT in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  5. Small- bowel mucosal changes and antibody responses after low- and moderate-dose gluten challenge in celiac disease

    Lähdeaho Marja-Leena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the restrictive nature of a gluten-free diet, celiac patients are looking for alternative therapies. While drug-development programs include gluten challenges, knowledge regarding the duration of gluten challenge and gluten dosage is insufficient. We challenged adult celiac patients with gluten with a view to assessing the amount needed to cause some small-bowel mucosal deterioration. Methods Twenty-five celiac disease adults were challenged with low (1-3 g or moderate (3-5g doses of gluten daily for 12 weeks. Symptoms, small-bowel morphology, densities of CD3+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs and celiac serology were determined. Results Both moderate and low amounts of gluten induced small-bowel morphological damage in 67% of celiac patients. Moderate gluten doses also triggered mucosal inflammation and more gastrointestinal symptoms leading to premature withdrawals in seven cases. In 22% of those who developed significant small- intestinal damage, symptoms remained absent. Celiac antibodies seroconverted in 43% of the patients. Conclusions Low amounts of gluten can also cause significant mucosal deterioration in the majority of the patients. As there are always some celiac disease patients who will not respond within these conditions, sample sizes must be sufficiently large to attain to statistical power in analysis.

  6. Neuroendocrine tumors of the small bowels are on the rise: Early aspects and management

    Hans Scherbl

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors of the small bowel are on the rise. In the US they have increased by 300%-500% in the last 35 years. At the same time their prognosis is much improved. Today, most neuroendocrine tumors (NETs of the duodenum are detected incidentally and therefore recognized at an early stage. Duodenal NETs which are well differentiated, not larger than 10 mm and limited to the mucosa/submucosa can be endoscopically resected. The management of duodenal NETs ranging between 10 and 20 mm needs an interdisciplinary discussion. Endoscopic ultrasound is the method of choice to determine tumor size and depth of infiltration. Surgery is recommended for well-differentiated duodenal NET tumors greater than 20 mm, for localized sporadic gastrinomas (of any size and for localized poorly differentiated NE cancers. Surgery is recommended for any ileal NET. Advanced ileal NETs with a carcinoid syndrome are treated with long-acting somatostatin analogs. This treatment significantly improves (progression-free survival in patients with metastatic NETs of the ileum. For optimal NET management, tumor biology, type, localization and stage of the neoplasm, as well as the patients individual circumstances have to be taken into account.

  7. Peristalsis gap sign at cine magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosing strangulated small bowel obstruction. Feasibility study

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosing strangulated small bowel obstruction (SBO). This study included 38 patients with clinically confirmed SBO who had undergone cine MRI. Cine MRI scans were evaluated regarding the presence of the 'peristalsis gap sign' (referring to an akinetic or severely hypokinetic closed loop), indicating strangulation. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 34 of 38 patients with (n=25) or without (n=9) contrast enhancement. CT images were evaluated using a combination of criteria (presence of hyperattenuation, poor contrast enhancement, mesenteric edema, wall thickening, massive ascites) indicating strangulation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of cine MRI and CT for the diagnosis of strangulation were calculated and compared using surgical findings and the clinical course as the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of cine MRI were 100%, 92.9%, 83.3%, and 100%, respectively; and those of CT (of which 26.5% was performed without contrast enhancement) were 66.7%, 92.0%, 75.0%, and 88.5%, respectively. There was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between the two methods (P=0.375). Cine MRI is a feasible and promising technique for diagnosing strangulation. (author)

  8. Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance enterography for the detection of mesenteric small bowel tumours

    Amzallag-Bellenger, Elisa; Hoeffel, Christine [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Radiology, Reims Cedex (France); Soyer, Philippe [Hopital Lariboisiere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Barbe, Coralie [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Statistics, Reims Cedex (France); Diebold, Marie-Daniele [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Pathology, Reims Cedex (France); Cadiot, Guillaume [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Gastroenterology, Reims Cedex (France)

    2013-07-15

    To prospectively evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) enterography for detecting mesenteric small-bowel tumours (MSBTs) and assess the added value of gadolinium-chelate injection. Over a 2-year period MR enterography examinations of 75 patients (33 men, 42 women; mean age, 53.8 years; range, 19-85) with suspected MSBT were blindly analysed by two readers for the presence of MSBT. Sensitivities, specificities, predictive positive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs) and accuracies of MR enterography for the detection of MSBT were calculated on per-patient and per-lesion bases. The McNemar test was used to compare sensitivities and specificities of the unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced sets of MR enterographies. Thirty-seven MSBTs were pathologically confirmed in 26 patients. The mean tolerance score of the examinations was 0.7. On a per-patient basis, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy for detection of MSBT were 96 % [95 % CI, 89-100 %], 96 % [90-100 %], 93 % [83-100 %], 98 % [94-100 %] and 96 % [92-100 %], respectively. On a per-lesion basis, sensitivity and PPV were 70 % [56-85 %] and 93 % [83-100 %], respectively. Gadolinium injection yielded higher sensitivities on both bases (P = 0.008). MR enterography is an accurate and well-tolerated imaging modality for detecting MSBT. Intravenous administration of gadolinium-chelate improves sensitivity for MSBT detection. (orig.)

  9. Internal transomental herniation with a trapped small bowel mimicking acute appendicitis☆

    Rudroff, Claudia; Balogh, Adam; Hilswicht, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Internal herniation with subsequent bowel obstruction is uncommon, and making a correct diagnosis prior to surgery is often difficult. PRESENTATION OF CASE In this case report we present a man, who suffered from sudden extreme right-sided abdominal pain. The diagnostic workup was inconclusive. Emergency surgery was indicated with a suspicion of acute appendicitis. We found a strangulated ileus caused by an internal herniation of the small intestine through a hole in the greater omentum. The patient had no history of surgery or other physical disorders explaining this finding. The obstruction was resolved and the postoperative clinical course was uncomplicated. DISCUSSION A thorough diagnostic workup including CT scan would most probably have given the correct diagnosis. However, the clinical course and initiation of the correct treatment would have been delayed significantly. CONCLUSION We suggest that the diagnostic workup of patients with unclear lower abdominal pain should be limited and that acute clinical symptoms require rapid laparoscopic evaluation and surgical treatment. PMID:24291681

  10. Is laparoscopy equal to laparotomy in detecting and treating small bowel injuries in a porcine model?

    Cheng-Xiang Shan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopy compared with laparotomy for diagnosing and treating small bowel injuries (SBIs in a porcine model. METHODS: Twenty-eight female pigs were anesthetized and laid in the left recumbent position. The SBI model was established by shooting at the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. The pigs were then randomized into either the laparotomy group or the laparoscopy group. All pigs underwent routine exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopy to evaluate the abdominal injuries, particularly the types, sites, and numbers of SBIs. Traditional open surgery or therapeutic laparoscopy was then performed. All pigs were kept alive within the observational period (postoperative 72 h. The postoperative recovery of each pig was carefully observed. RESULTS: The vital signs of all pigs were stable within 1-2 h after shooting and none of the pigs died from gunshot wounds or SBIs immediately. The SBI model was successfully established in all pigs and definitively diagnosed with single or multiple SBIs either by exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopy. Compared with exploratory laparotomy, laparoscopy took a significantly longer time for diagnosis (41.27 12.04 min vs 27.64 13.32 min, P = 0.02, but the time for therapeutic laparoscopy was similar to that of open surgery. The length of incision was significantly reduced in the laparoscopy group compared with the laparotomy group (5.27 1.86 cm vs 15.73 1.06 cm, P < 0.01. In the final post-mortem examination 72 h after surgery, both laparotomy and laparoscopy offered a definitive diagnosis with no missed injuries. Postoperative complications occurred in four cases (three following laparotomy and one following laparoscopy, P = 0.326. The average recovery period for bowel function, vital appearance, and food re-intake after laparoscopy was 10.36 4.72 h, 14.91 3.14 h, and 15.00 7.11 h, respectively. All of these were significantly shorter than after laparotomy (21.27 10.17 h, P = 0.004; 27.82 9.61 h, P < 0.001; and 24.55 9.72 h, respectively, P = 0.016. CONCLUSION: Compared with laparotomy, laparoscopy offers equivalent efficacy for diagnosing and treating SBIs, and reduces postoperative complications as well as recovery period.

  11. Comparison of upper gastrointestinal radiographic findings to histopathologic observations: a retrospective study of 41 dogs and cats with suspected small bowel infiltrative disease (1985 to 1990)

    It was the intent of this study to define which, if any, radiographic observations corresponded with specific causes of diffuse infiltrative small bowel disease and if radiographic findings could differentiate inflammatory disease from neoplastic disease and either of them from normal. Bowel spasticity, luminal narrowing, and thumb printing tend to indicate the presence of tumor more often than inflammatory disease. Increased bowel gas in cats and barium adhesion in dogs and cats suggest that a component of enteritis is present. Decreased bowel gas in dogs is more often associated with obstructive disease, but is not helpful in differentiating diffuse inflammatory disease from diffuse neoplastic disease. While several observations that can foster differentiation of neoplastic from inflammatory disease were found, this study also indicated that the UGI lacks a high degree of predictive value other than to indicate the presence of infiltrative small bowel disease

  12. Bowel disease after radiotherapy

    The clinical presentation, operative findings and outcome in 40 patients who required surgery for bowel disease after radiotherapy are presented. The type of presentation varied according to the time after radiotherapy. In the first month, many patients had a proctitis but none required surgery. Five patients were operated on within one month, 2 for radiation-induced acute ileitis and 3 for exacerbations of pre-existing disease (diverticular disease 2, ulcerative colitis 1). The commonest time of presentation was between 3 and 18 months after radiotherapy, when 20 patients needed surgery for bowel disease caused by radiation-induced local ischaemia. Twelve of these patients had chronic perforation, 6 had severe rectal bleeding and 2 had painful anorectal ulceration. Fifteen patients presented between 2 and 24 years after radiotherapy, usually with incomplete intestinal obstruction due to a fibrous stricture, but 2 patients had rectal carcinoma. Wide resection of the involved bowel was the principal method of treatment but any anastomosis was protected by a proximal defunctioning stoma. There was no operative mortality but 10 patients have died subsequently. The danger of dismissing these patients as having incurable malignancy is stressed because, although the condition is infrequent, it is usually amenable to adequate surgery. (author)

  13. Acute small bowel obstruction due to ileal endometriosis: A case report and review of the most recent literature

    Unalp Recai Haluk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endometriosis is defined as the presence of benign endometrial glands and stroma outside the normal anatomical location. Endometriosis of the small bowel, especially symptomatic small bowel involvement, is very unusual. Case report. We presented a 45-year-old woman with acute intestinal obstruction due to ileal endometriosis The patient complained of severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomitting. Immediate laparotomy was carried out. Above the ileocecal valve there was an ulcerated, edematous and fragile segmental lesion that caused intestinal obstruction. Histology of this ileal segment revealed endometriosis and an annular stricture that again showed foci of endometriosis. Conclusion. In reproductiveage women with the symptoms of intestinal obstruction, intestinal endometriosis should be kept in mind.

  14. Frequency of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Chronic Non-Specific Diarrhea

    Uday C Ghoshal; Sunil KUMAR; Mehrotra, Mansi; Lakshmi, CP; Misra, Asha

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs in varying frequency in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We studied the frequency of SIBO in IBS and chronic non-specific diarrhea (CNSD). Methods 129 patients with IBS (Manning's criteria), 73 with CNSD (≥ 4 weeks diarrhea with two of these tests normal [urine D-xylose, fecal fat and duodenal biopsy]) and 51 healthy controls (HC) were evaluated for SIBO using glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT). Diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS) ...

  15. Preoperative Helical Tomotherapy and Megavoltage Computed Tomography for Rectal Cancer: Impact on the Irradiated Volume of Small Bowel

    Purpose: Preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy is considered to be standard of care in locally advanced rectal cancer, but is associated with significant small-bowel toxicity. The aim of this study was to explore to what extent helical tomotherapy and daily megavolt (MV) CT imaging may reduce the irradiated volume of small bowel. Methods and Materials: A 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plan with CTV-PTV margins adjusted for laser-skin marks (15, 15, and 10 mm for X, Y, and Z directions, respectively) was compared with helical tomotherapy (IMRT) using the same CTV-PTV margins, and to helical tomotherapy with margins adapted to daily MV-CT imaging (IMRT/IGRT; 8, 11, 7, and 10 mm for X, Yant, Ypost and Z resp.) for 11 consecutive patients. The planning goals were to prescribe 43.7 Gy to 95% of the PTV, while minimizing the volume of small bowel receiving more than 15 Gy (V15SB). Results: The mean PTV was reduced from 1857.4 ± 256.6 cc to 1462.0 ± 222.3 cc, when the CTV-PTV margins were adapted from laser-skin marks to daily MV-CT imaging (p 15SB decreased from 160.7 ± 102.9 cc to 110.9 ± 74.0 cc with IMRT and to 81.4 ± 53.9 cc with IMRT/IGRT (p < 0.01). The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for developing Grade 2+ diarrhea was reduced from 39.5% to 26.5% with IMRT and to 18.0% with IMRT/IGRT (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The combination of helical tomotherapy and daily MV-CT imaging significantly decreases the irradiated volume of small bowel and its NTCP.

  16. Surveillance of FAP: a prospective blinded comparison of capsule endoscopy and other GI imaging to detect small bowel polyps

    Tescher Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is a hereditary disorder characterized by polyposis along the gastrointestinal tract. Information on adenoma status below the duodenum has previously been restricted due to its inaccessibility in vivo. Capsule Endoscopy (CE may provide a useful adjunct in screening for polyposis in the small bowel in FAP patients. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of CE in the assessment of patients with FAP, compared to other imaging modalities for the detection of small bowel polyps. Method 20 consecutive patients with previously diagnosed FAP and duodenal polyps, presenting for routine surveillance of polyps at The Royal Melbourne Hospital were recruited. Each fasted patient initially underwent a magnetic resonance image (MRI of the abdomen, and a barium small bowel follow-through study. Capsule Endoscopy was performed four weeks later on the fasted patient. An upper gastrointestinal side-viewing endoscopy was done one (1 to two (2 weeks after this. Endoscopists and investigators were blinded to results of other investigations and patient history. Results Within the stomach, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy found more polyps than other forms of imaging. SBFT and MRI generally performed poorly, identifying fewer polyps than both upper gastrointestinal and capsule endoscopy. CE was the only form of imaging that identified polyps in all segments of the small bowel as well as the only form of imaging able to provide multiple findings outside the stomach/duodenum. Conclusion CE provides important information on possible polyp development distal to the duodenum, which may lead to surgical intervention. The place of CE as an adjunct in surveillance of FAP for a specific subset needs consideration and confirmation in replication studies. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000616370

  17. Small- bowel mucosal changes and antibody responses after low- and moderate-dose gluten challenge in celiac disease

    Lähdeaho Marja-Leena; Mäki Markku; Laurila Kaija; Huhtala Heini; Kaukinen Katri

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to the restrictive nature of a gluten-free diet, celiac patients are looking for alternative therapies. While drug-development programs include gluten challenges, knowledge regarding the duration of gluten challenge and gluten dosage is insufficient. We challenged adult celiac patients with gluten with a view to assessing the amount needed to cause some small-bowel mucosal deterioration. Methods Twenty-five celiac disease adults were challenged with low (1-3 g) or mode...

  18. An unusual case of candidemia presenting as acute respiratory distress syndrome after a small bowel bezoar removal operation

    Mun, Yun Su; Lee, Moon-Soo; Park, Joo Seung; Lee, Jun Wan; JUNG, SUN-YOUNG; Yoon, Hee Jung; Han, Hyun-Young

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of sepsis with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by Candida parapsilosis and Candida famata after a small bowel bezoar operation. The patient was successfully treated with intensive care including mechanical ventilation and systemic antifungal therapy. A strong association was observed between the intestinal obstruction caused by the bezoar and candidemia presenting as ARDS. This is the first case in which candidemia has led to ARDS after a bezoar removal...

  19. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy for a patient with an intractable small bowel injury after repeat surgeries: a case report

    Takeyama Hiromitsu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The management of intestinal injury can be challenging, because of the intractable nature of the condition. Surgical treatment for patients with severe adhesions sometimes results in further intestinal injury. We report a conservative management strategy using percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy for an intractable small bowel surgical injury after repeated surgeries. Case presentation A 78-year-old Japanese woman had undergone several abdominal surgeries including urinary cystectomy for bladder cancer. After this operation, she developed peritonitis as a result of a small bowel perforation thought to be due to an injury sustained during the operation, with signs consistent with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: body temperature 38.5°C, heart rate 92 beats/minute, respiratory rate 23 breaths/minute, white blood cell count 11.7 × 109/L (normal range 4-11 × 109/μL. Two further surgical interventions failed to control the leak, and our patient's clinical condition and nutritional status continued to deteriorate. We then performed percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy, and continuous suction was applied as an alternative to a third surgical intervention. With this endoscopic intervention, the intestinal leak gradually closed and oral feeding became possible. Conclusion We suggest that the technique of percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy combined with a somatostatin analog is a feasible alternative to surgical treatment for small bowel leakage, and is less invasive than a nasojejunal tube.

  20. Acute Small Bowel Hemorrhage in Three Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: Diagnosis and Management by Angiographic Intervention

    Three patients who had undergone hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease, presented with acute small bowel hemorrhage,and were treated with superselective transcatheter arterial embolization via coaxial microcatheters. In all patients pre-procedure upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and colonoscopy had failed to demonstrate the source of the hemorrhage. Selective diagnostic angiography revealed frank extravasations of contrast from the small bowel arteries (one jejunal artery and two ileal arteries). After superselection of feeding arteries with a microcatheter, transcatheter embolization using Gelfoam and microcoils was performed in all three patients. Immediate hemostasis was achieved in all patients and the patients were discharged free from symptoms 3-5 days after embolization. No evidence of intestinal ischemia or infarction was noted, with the time from procedure to last follow-up ranging from 4 to 12 months. We conclude that superselective angiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and treating acute small bowel hemorrhage inpatients with end-stage renal disease when endoscopic evaluation has failed

  1. Determining the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing small bowel volume in rectal cancer patients

    The purpose of this treatment planning study was to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial belly board device in reducing the irradiated volume of the small bowel. In this study 10 patients with rectal carcinoma receiving postoperative radiotherapy were included. For each of them we made two computer tomography series in prone position. In the first one the patients were lying on the flat table top, and in the second one they were lying on the belly board device which is under investigation. On both series we calculated and optimized plans according to the standing protocol of our department. From the dose-volume histograms of these plans we compared the volumes of the small bowel irradiated to three dose levels 15, 30 and 45 Gy. The results showed that the absolute irradiated volumes were significantly smaller in the plans with the belly board device. Based on these results we believe that the employment of this belly board device will reduce the acute and late small bowel toxicity. This should be verified with a clinical study.(Author)

  2. Radiographic plain film and CT findings in lipoid pneumonia in infants following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Four children developed lipoid pneumonia following ingestion of mineral oil for the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides whorl. CT of the chest showed negative Hounsfield numbers which may prove useful in diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Effects of a 5-HT3 antagonist, ondansetron, on fasting and postprandial small bowel water content assessed by magnetic resonance imaging

    Marciani, Luca; Wright, Jeff; Foley, Stephen; Hoad, Caroline L.; Totman, John J; Bush, Debbie; Hartley, Caroline; Armstrong, Alexander; Manby, Paul; Blackshaw, Elaine; Perkins, Alan C; Gowland, Penny A.; Spiller, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background 5-HT3 antagonists have been shown to be effective in relieving symptoms of IBS-D. Using a recently validated MRI method we have demonstrated reduced fasting small bowel water content (SBWC) in IBS-D associated with accelerated small bowel transit. We hypothesized that slowing of transit with ondansetron would lead to an increase in SBWC by inhibiting fasting motility. Aim To assess the effects of ondansetron compared with placebo in healthy volunteers o...

  4. Effectiveness of polaprezinc for low-dose aspirin-induced small-bowel mucosal injuries as evaluated by capsule endoscopy: a pilot randomized controlled study

    Watari, Ikue; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Aoyama, Taiki; Imagawa, Hiroki; Shishido, Takayoshi; Yoshida, Shigeto; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment of low-dose aspirin (LDA)-induced small-bowel injury has not been established. Polaprezinc, a chelate of zinc and L-carnosine, may be efficacious for such injury. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled study to investigate whether polaprezinc is effective against LDA-induced small-bowel injuries. Methods Consecutive patients under long-term (>3 months) LDA treatment and who agreed to participate in our study underwent initial capsule endoscopy (CE). Patients with LDA-...

  5. Assessment of dynamic contrast enhancement of the small bowel in active Crohn's disease using 3D MR enterography

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare the dynamic contrast enhancement of the small bowel segments with and without active Crohn's disease at 3D MR enterography (MRE). Materials and methods: Thirteen patients (five men, eight women; mean age 41.2 years; range 29-56) were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner (Sonata, Siemens Medical) with standard MR sequences after having ingested 1000 ml of a 3% mannitol solution. Subsequently, high resolution 3D gradient-echo (volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination = VIBE) data sets were obtained pre-contrast and 20-40 s, 60-80 s, and 120-140 s after i.v. Gd-DOTA administration (0.2 mmol/kg). Signal enhancement was measured on single slices both in normal and histologically confirmed (12/13) inflamed small bowel wall segments as well as in the aorta, the psoas muscle, and the background to calculate signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR). Results: Small bowel wall enhancement was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in inflamed compared to normal segments at 20-40 s (SNR inflamed: 58.7 ± 33.8 vs normal: 36.0 ± 19.8; p = 0.048; CNR inflamed: 34.8 ± 23.4 vs normal: 16.3 ± 11.2; p = 0.017) and at 60-80 s (SNR: 60.3 ± 25.1 vs 41.9 ± 20.0; p = 0.049; CNR: 34.9 ± 15.1 vs 19.3 ± 13.2; p = 0.01) after i.v. contrast administration, respectively. Even at 120-140 s CNR was still increased in inflamed segments (33.7 ± 16.0 vs 18.1 ± 13.2; p = 0.04), while differences in SNR did not attain statistical significance (63.0 ± 26.2 vs 45.3 ± 23.3; p = 0.15). Conclusion: In active Crohn's disease, histologically confirmed inflamed small bowel wall segments demonstrate a significantly increased early uptake of gadolinium on 3D VIBE sequences compared to normal small bowel segments.

  6. Systemic chemotherapy for treatment of advanced small bowel adenocarcinoma with prognostic factor analysis: retrospective study

    Ryoo Baek-Yeol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to evaluate prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS, and to investigate the role of palliative chemotherapy using propensity score-based weighting, in patients with advanced small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA. Methods Data from a total of 91 patients diagnosed with advanced SBA at the Asan Medical Center between January 1989 and December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were split into two groups, those who did and did not receive palliative chemotherapy. Results Overall, 81 patients (89.0% died, at a median survival time of 6.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5 - 7.5 months. The 40 patients receiving chemotherapy showed overall response and disease control rates of 11.1% and 37.0%, respectively, with OS and progression-free survival (PFS of 11.8 months (95% CI, 4.6 - 19.0 months and 5.7 months (95% CI, 3.5 - 8.0 months, respectively. The 41 patients who did not receive chemotherapy had an OS of 4.1 months (95% CI, 3.1 - 5.1 months and a PFS of 1.3 months (95% CI, 0.8 - 1.7 months. Multivariate analysis showed that lack of tumor resection, non-prescription of chemotherapy, liver metastasis, and intra-abdominal lymph node metastasis, were all independently associated with poor survival outcomes. After inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW adjustment, the group that did not receive chemotherapy was at a significantly higher risk of mortality (HR 3.44, 95% CI 2.03 - 5.83, p Conclusion Palliative chemotherapy may improve survival outcomes in patients with advanced SBA.

  7. Reporting small bowel dose in cervix cancer high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    Liao, Yixiang; Dandekar, Virag; Chu, James C H; Turian, Julius; Bernard, Damian; Kiel, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel (SB) is an organ at risk (OAR) that may potentially develop toxicity after radiotherapy for cervix cancer. However, its dose from brachytherapy (BT) is not systematically reported as in other OARs, even with image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT). This study aims to introduce consideration of quantified objectives for SB in BT plan optimization and to evaluate the feasibility of sparing SB while maintaining adequate target coverage. In all, 13 patients were included in this retrospective study. All patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) 45Gy in 25 fractions followed by high dose rate (HDR)-BT boost of 28Gy in 4 fractions using tandem/ring applicator. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained to define the gross tumor volume (GTV), high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and OARs (rectum, bladder, sigmoid colon, and SB). Treatment plans were generated for each patient using GEC-ESTRO recommendations based on the first CT/MRI. Treatment plans were revised to reduce SB dose when the [Formula: see text] dose to SB was > 5Gy, while maintaining other OAR constraints. For the 7 patients with 2 sets of CT and MRI studies, the interfraction variation of the most exposed SB was analyzed. Plan revisions were done in 6 of 13 cases owing to high [Formula: see text] of SB. An average reduction of 19% in [Formula: see text] was achieved. Meeting SB and other OAR constraints resulted in less than optimal target coverage in 2 patients (D90 of HR-CTV < 77Gyαβ10). The highest interfraction variation was observed for SB at 16 ± 59%, as opposed to 28 ± 27% for rectum and 21 ± 16% for bladder. Prospective reporting of SB dose could provide data required to establish a potential correlation with radiation-induced late complication for SB. PMID:26235549

  8. Radiation enteropathy and leucocyte-endothelial cell reactions in a refined small bowel model

    Osman Nadia

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucocyte recruitment and inflammation are key features of high dose radiation-induced tissue injury. The inflammatory response in the gut may be more pronounced following radiotherapy due to its high bacterial load in comparison to the response in other organs. We designed a model to enable us to study the effects of radiation on leucocyte-endothelium interactions and on intestinal microflora in the murine ileum. This model enables us to study specifically the local effects of radiation therapy. Method A midline laparotomy was performed in male C57/Bl6 mice and a five-centimetre segment of ileum is irradiated using the chamber. Leucocyte responses (rolling and adhesion were then analysed in ileal venules 2 – 48 hours after high dose irradiation, made possible by an inverted approach using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, intestinal microflora, myeloperoxidase (MPO and cell histology were analysed. Results The highest and most reproducible increase in leucocyte rolling was exhibited 2 hours after high dose irradiation whereas leucocyte adhesion was greatest after 16 hours. Radiation reduced the intestinal microflora count compared to sham animals with a significant decrease in the aerobic count after 2 hours of radiation. Further, the total aerobic counts, Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus decreased significantly after 16 hours. In the radiation groups, the bacterial count showed a progressive increase from 2 to 24 hours after radiation. Conclusion This study presents a refinement of a previous method of examining mechanisms of radiation enteropathy, and a new approach at investigating radiation induced leucocyte responses in the ileal microcirculation. Radiation induced maximum leucocyte rolling at 2 hours and adhesion peaked at 16 hours. It also reduces the microflora count, which then starts to increase steadily afterwards. This model may be instrumental in developing strategies against pathological recruitment of leucocytes and changes in intestinal microflora in the small bowel after radiotherapy.

  9. Management of small bowel volvulus in a patient with simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT: a case report

    Aydin Unal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are several surgical complications which can occur following simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT. Although intestinal obstruction is known to be a common complication after any type of abdominal surgery, the occurrence of small bowel volvulus, which is one of the rare causes of intestinal obstruction, following SPKT has not been published before. A 24-year-old woman suffering from type I diabetes mellitus with complications of nephropathy resulting in end stage renal disease (ESRD, neuropathy and retinopathy underwent SPKT. On the postoperative month 5, she was brought to the emergency service due to abdominal distention with mild abdominal pain. After laboratory research and diagnostic radiological tests had been carried out, she underwent exploratory laparotomy to determine the pathology for acute abdominal symptoms. Intra-operative observation revealed the presence of an almost totally ischemic small bowel which had occurred due to clockwise rotation of the mesentery. Initially, simple derotation was performed to avoid intestinal resection because of her risky condition, particularly for short bowel syndrome, and subsequent intestinal response was favorable. Thus, surgical treatment was successfully employed to solve the problem without any resection procedure. The patient's postoperative follow-up was uneventful and she was discharged from hospital on postoperative day 7. According to our clinical viewpoint, this study emphasizes that if there is even just a suspicion of acute abdominal problem in a patient with SPKT, surgical intervention should be promptly performed to avoid any irreversible result and to achieve a positive outcome.

  10. IMPAIRED SMALL BOWEL BARRIER INTEGRITY IN THE PRESENCE OF LUMENAL PANCREATIC DIGESTIVE ENZYMES LEADS TO CIRCULATORY SHOCK

    Kistler, Erik B.; Alsaigh, Tom; Chang, Marisol; Schmid-Schnbein, Geert W.

    2012-01-01

    In bowel ischemia, impaired mucosal integrity may allow intestinal pancreatic enzyme products to become systemic and precipitate irreversible shock and death. This can be attenuated by pancreatic enzyme inhibition in the small bowel lumen. It is unresolved, however, whether ischemically-mediated mucosal disruption is the key event allowing pancreatic enzyme products systemic access, and whether intestinal digestive enzyme activity in concert with increased mucosal permeability leads to shock in the absence of ischemia. To test this possibility, the small intestinal lumen of non-ischemic rats was perfused for two hours with either digestive enzymes, a mucin disruption strategy (i.e., mucolytics) designed to increase mucosal permeability, or both, and animals were observed for shock. Digestive enzymes perfused included trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, amylase and lipase. Control (n=6) and experimental animals perfused with pancreatic enzymes only (n=6) or single enzymes (n=3 for each of the five enzyme groups) maintained stable hemodynamics. After mucin disruption using a combination of enteral N-acetylcysteine, atropine, and increased flow rates, rats (n=6) developed mild hypotension (pshock and increase systemic protease activation in the absence of ischemia, implicating bowel mucin disruption as a key event in early ischemia. Digestive enzymes and their products, if allowed to penetrate the gut wall may trigger multiorgan failure and death. PMID:22576000

  11. Acute small bowel toxicity and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: Investigating dose-volume relationships and role for inverse planning

    Purpose: The relationship between volume of irradiated small bowel (VSB) and acute toxicity in rectal cancer radiotherapy is poorly quantified, particularly in patients receiving concurrent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Using treatment planning data, we studied a series of such patients. Methods and Materials: Details of 41 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were reviewed. All received 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, 3-4 fields three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with daily 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid during Weeks 1 and 5. Toxicity was assessed prospectively in a weekly clinic. Using computed tomography planning software, the VSB was determined at 5 Gy dose intervals (V5, V1, etc.). Eight patients with maximal VSB had dosimetry and radiobiological modeling outcomes compared between inverse and conformal three-dimensional planning. Results: VSB correlated strongly with diarrheal severity at every dose level (p 5 and V15. Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists between VSB and acute diarrhea at all dose levels during preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Our constructed model may be useful in predicting toxicity, and this has been derived without the confounding influence of surgical excision on bowel function. Inverse planning can reduce calculated dose to small bowel and late NTCP, and its clinical role warrants further investigation

  12. A rare case of small bowel volvulus after jenjunoileal bariatric bypass requiring emergency surgery: a case report

    Patel Pranav H

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bariatric surgery is on the increase throughout the world. Jejunoileal bypass bariatric procedures have fallen out of favor in western surgical centers due to the high rate of associated complications. They are, however, performed routinely in other centers and as a consequence of health tourism, management of complications related to these procedures may still be encountered. Case presentation We describe a rare case of small bowel obstruction in a 45-year-old British Caucasian woman, secondary to a volvulus of the jejunoileal anastomosis following bariatric bypass surgery. The pre-operative diagnosis was confirmed by radiology. We describe a successful surgical technique for this rare complication. Conclusions Bariatric surgery may be complicated by bowel obstruction. Early imaging is vital for diagnosis and effective management. The use of our surgical technique provides a simple and effective approach for the successful management of this bariatric complication.

  13. Differentiation between active and chronic Crohn's disease using MRI small-bowel motility examinations — Initial experience

    Aim: To evaluate the influence of locally active Crohn's disease on systemic small-bowel motility in patients with chronic Crohn's disease compared to healthy individuals. Material and methods: Fifteen healthy individuals (11 men, four women; mean age 37 years) and 20 patients with histopathologically proven active (n = 15; 10 women, 5 men; mean age 45 years) or chronic (n = 5; four women, one man; mean age 48 years) Crohn's disease were included in this institutional review board-approved, retrospective study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 1.5 T) was performed after standardized preparation. Two-dimensional (2D) cine sequences for motility acquisition were performed in apnoea (27 s). Motility assessment was performed using dedicated software in three randomly chosen areas of the small-bowel outside known Crohn's disease-affected hotspots. The main quantitative characteristics (frequency, amplitude, occlusion rate) were compared using Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Three randomly chosen segments were analysed in each participant. Patients with active Crohn's disease had significantly (p < 0.05) reduced contraction frequencies (active Crohn's disease: 2.86/min; chronic: 4.14/min; healthy: 4.53/min) and luminal occlusion rates (active: 0.43; chronic: 0.70; healthy: 0.73) compared to healthy individuals and patients with chronic Crohn's disease. Contraction amplitudes were significantly reduced during active Crohn's disease (6.71 mm) compared to healthy participants (10.14 mm), but this only reached borderline significance in comparison to chronic Crohn's disease (8.87 mm). Mean bowel lumen diameter was significantly (p = 0.04) higher in patients with active Crohn's disease (16.91 mm) compared to healthy participants (14.79 mm) but not in comparison to patients with chronic Crohn's disease (13.68). Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that local inflammatory activity of small-bowel segments in patients with active Crohn's disease alters small-bowel motility in distant, non-affected segments. The motility patterns revealed reduced contraction-wave frequencies, amplitudes, and decreased luminal occlusion rates. Thus evaluation of these characteristics potentially helps to differentiate between chronic and active Crohn's disease

  14. The Relationship between Small-Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Intestinal Permeability in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Won, Kyoung Hee; Park, Soon Min

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a frequent finding in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Many patients with IBS also have abnormal intestinal permeability, which is probably due to low-grade inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. Our aim was to verify the relationship between SIBO and small-intestinal permeability in IBS patients. Methods A cohort of 38 IBS patients (20 women and 18 men; age range 16-70 years; mean age 40.2 years) with symptoms that ...

  15. Small bowel perforation 17 months after robotic surgery for endometrial cancer: A case report

    Faro, Jonathan P.; Graybill, Whitney S.; Tung, Celestine S.; JHINGRAN, Anuja; Pedro T. Ramirez; Kathleen M. Schmeler

    2011-01-01

    ► Robotic surgery offers several advantages in the management of endometrial cancer. ► No long-term data exist regarding recurrence in patients undergoing robotic surgery. ► Metastasis or recurrence may result in bowel obstruction post surgery.

  16. Small bowel video capsule endoscopy in Crohns disease: What have we learned in the last ten years?

    Alfredo J Lucendo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE has become the most important advance in the study of small bowel disease, including Crohns disease (CD. This technique has been demonstrated to be superior to all other current forms of radiological investigation in detecting mucosal abnormalities of small bowel nonstricturing CD. CE has proven to be extremely useful in diagnosing CD in patients with inconclusive findings from ileocolonoscopy and x-ray-based studies. Almost half of all patients with CD involving the ileum also present lesions in proximal intestinal segments, with the small bowel being exclusively involved in up to 30% of all CD cases. Despite the widespread use of CE, several questions concerning the utility of this technique remain unanswered. The lack of commonly agreed diagnostic criteria for defining CD lesions with the aid of CE may have had an influence on the variation in diagnostic results for CE reported in the literature. The utility of CE in monitoring CD and in guiding therapy has also been proposed. Furthermore, CE could be a useful second-line technique for patients with an established diagnosis of CD and unexplained symptoms. Finally, as no threshold for CD diagnosis has been agreed upon, a severity scale of mucosal disease activity has not been universally followed. None of the available activity indexes based on CE findings has been independently validated. This article discusses several cutting-edge aspects of the usefulness of CE in CD 10 years after its introduction as a sensible method to study the small intestine.

  17. Indications for Detection, Completion, and Retention Rates of Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy Based on the 10-Year Data from the Korean Capsule Endoscopy Registry

    Lim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Oh Young; JEEN, YOON TAE; Lim, Chi Yeon; Cheung, Dae Young; Cheon, Jae Hee; Ye, Byong Duk; Song, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Su; Do, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Kwang Jae; Shim, Ki-Nam; Chang, Dong Kyung; Park, Cheol Hee; Jang, Byung Ik

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Capsule endoscopy (CE) is widely used. However, CE has limitations including incomplete examination, inadequate bowel preparation, and retention. The aim of this study was to estimate the indications for and detection, completion, and retention rates of small intestine CE based on the 10-year data from the Korean Capsule Endoscopy Registry. Methods Twenty-four hospitals participated in this study. Clinical information, such as reasons for CE, method and quality of bowel prepar...

  18. Small-bowel MRI in children and young adults with Crohn disease: retrospective head-to-head comparison of contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI

    Neubauer, Henning; Evangelista, Laura; Wirth, Clemens; Beer, Meinrad [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Pabst, Thomas; Machann, Wolfram; Koestler, Herbert; Hahn, Dietbert [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Dick, Anke [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Paediatrics, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Small-bowel MRI based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences has been challenged by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of inflammatory bowel lesions and complications in patients with Crohn disease. To evaluate free-breathing DWI, as compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, in children, adolescents and young adults with Crohn disease. This retrospective study included 33 children and young adults with Crohn disease ages 17 {+-} 3 years (mean {+-} standard deviation) and 27 matched controls who underwent small-bowel MRI with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences and DWI at 1.5 T. The detectability of Crohn manifestations was determined. Concurrent colonoscopy as reference was available in two-thirds of the children with Crohn disease. DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI correctly identified 32 and 31 patients, respectively. All 22 small-bowel lesions and all Crohn complications were detected. False-positive findings (two on DWI, one on contrast-enhanced MRI), compared to colonoscopy, were a result of large-bowel lumen collapse. Inflammatory wall thickening was comparable on DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI. DWI was superior to contrast-enhanced MRI for detection of lesions in 27% of the assessed bowel segments and equal to contrast-enhanced MRI in 71% of segments. DWI facilitates fast, accurate and comprehensive workup in Crohn disease without the need for intravenous administration of contrast medium. Contrast-enhanced MRI is superior in terms of spatial resolution and multiplanar acquisition. (orig.)

  19. Small-bowel MRI in children and young adults with Crohn disease: retrospective head-to-head comparison of contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI

    Small-bowel MRI based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences has been challenged by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of inflammatory bowel lesions and complications in patients with Crohn disease. To evaluate free-breathing DWI, as compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, in children, adolescents and young adults with Crohn disease. This retrospective study included 33 children and young adults with Crohn disease ages 17 ± 3 years (mean ± standard deviation) and 27 matched controls who underwent small-bowel MRI with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences and DWI at 1.5 T. The detectability of Crohn manifestations was determined. Concurrent colonoscopy as reference was available in two-thirds of the children with Crohn disease. DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI correctly identified 32 and 31 patients, respectively. All 22 small-bowel lesions and all Crohn complications were detected. False-positive findings (two on DWI, one on contrast-enhanced MRI), compared to colonoscopy, were a result of large-bowel lumen collapse. Inflammatory wall thickening was comparable on DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI. DWI was superior to contrast-enhanced MRI for detection of lesions in 27% of the assessed bowel segments and equal to contrast-enhanced MRI in 71% of segments. DWI facilitates fast, accurate and comprehensive workup in Crohn disease without the need for intravenous administration of contrast medium. Contrast-enhanced MRI is superior in terms of spatial resolution and multiplanar acquisition. (orig.)

  20. An unusual case of candidemia presenting as acute respiratory distress syndrome after a small bowel bezoar removal operation.

    Mun, Yun Su; Lee, Moon-Soo; Park, Joo Seung; Lee, Jun Wan; Jung, Sun-Young; Yoon, Hee Jung; Han, Hyun-Young

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of sepsis with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by Candida parapsilosis and Candida famata after a small bowel bezoar operation. The patient was successfully treated with intensive care including mechanical ventilation and systemic antifungal therapy. A strong association was observed between the intestinal obstruction caused by the bezoar and candidemia presenting as ARDS. This is the first case in which candidemia has led to ARDS after a bezoar removal operation in a patient who was neither immunocompromised nor self-administering an illicit intravenous drug. PMID:25553325

  1. Gangrenous small bowel obstruction secondary to congenital internal herniation: a case report.

    Tan, Y L; Alhagi, Muthu V

    2012-02-01

    Congenital internal herniation is a rare condition presenting as recurrent abdominal pain or acute intestinal obstruction. In cases in which bowel incarceration or strangulation develop, rapid progression to bowel ischemia, necrosis or perforation is inevitable. Mortality in such cases has been reported to be as high as 50%. Despite advances in imaging modalities, arriving at a pre-operative diagnosis of a congenital internal herniation remains a challenge. We report such a case where imaging was unsuccessful in determining the cause of intestinal obstruction in a 3 year old child. Congenital internal herniation may result in disastrous consequences if not addressed in a timely fashion due to its rarity. Hence a high index of clinical suspicion is needed to avoid missing this diagnosis in a child presenting with recurrent abdominal pain or acute intestinal obstruction. PMID:22582563

  2. Post-radiation injury of the ileal small bowel: clinical and pathological report of 12 cases

    At the Institut Gustave-Roussy we have collected a series of 12 cases studied both on clinical and pathological grounds. These patients underwent ileal resection for acute abdominal symptoms occuring after radiation therapy for genital cancer. Ileal lesions after radiation of gynecological cancer are rare: one per cent at the Institut Gustave-Roussy. These complications occur when certain technical types of radiation therapy are employed, and especially when dose exceeds 50 Gy or when a particular clinical condition is present. Gross examination of the bowel segment shows a stiffness of the digestive wall frequent stenosis, sometimes in assocciation with perforation or fistula. Histological lesions of radiated bowel are essentially located in the submucosa. They are non specific, mainly represented by obliterative angiopathy and fibrosis of the ileal wall

  3. Crohn's disease at the small bowel imaging by the ultrasound-enteroclysis

    Summary: Crohn's disease is more likely a systemic disease governed by a shift in the immune response, thus affecting the whole MALT system. Its treatment should be as conservative as possible and surgery is usually taking place after complications like indolent fistulations, stenoses, bleeding, or bowel perforation started. Standard radiological methods to check the extent of the disease are loaded either with certain radiation exposure (enteroclysis, CT) or lack standardization (ultrasound). The aim of this small study was to evaluate the worth of ultrasound-enteroclysis in detecting the extent and complications of the Crohn's disease in surgically treated patients. Material and methods: Since 1997, when we started with the ultrasound-enteroclysis, 246 surgical performances were involved into our study. Out of them, 181 had conventional abdominal intestinal ultrasound as well as conventional enteroclysis within 1 week. Remaining 65 cases were diagnosed by the ultrasound-enteroclysis. Intestinal ultrasound was performed on the Ultramark 3000 HDI device with autofocussable convex 5 MHz and linear 7.5 MHz probes or nowadays ATL 5000 HDI, 7-12 MHz linear probe. No contrast enhancement was used. Enteroclysis was done with the Micropaque suspension diluted 1:1 with HP-7000 300 ml with its application rate up to 75 ml/min followed by HP-7000 solution 2000 ml, application rate of 120 ml/min. The patients with ultrasound-enteroclysis were applied HP 7000 solution only (2000 ml, rate 100 ml/s) via an enteroclysis catheter. All investigations were video-recorded. Results: Consent with the per-operative finding was reached in 162 from 181 enteroclyses and in 169 of 181 ultrasounds. Ultrasound-enteroclysis was precise in 61 cases from 65. Among these, 60 patients had the recurrence during the treatment proved by clinical and laboratory results. This re-activation was clearly revealed in 38 from 43 cases by enteroclysis, 41 from 43 by US and in 16 from 17 by ultrasound-enteroclysis. From 30 patients that developed acute complication non-responding to the conservative therapy (abscesses, fistulas and intestinal obstructions) there were 18 from 20 accurately diagnosed by enteroclysis, only 12 from 20 by US and 9 from 10 by US-enteroclysis. The differences were either statistically non-significant or there were too small numbers to give sensible statistical results, but low sensitivity of ultrasound in complications (p = 0.05). Conclusion: US-enteroclysis seems to became the standard examination of patients with Crohn's disease mainly in those with unclear conventional ultrasound. The most important fact is that this examination significantly decreases the radiation load when maintaining high sensitivity. This is very important namely in patients with Crohn's disease that require life-long observation and repeated examinations. This examination is much more easy to standardize than the conventional US

  4. Crohn's disease at the small bowel imaging by the ultrasound-enteroclysis

    Valek, Vlastimil [Department of Radiology, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: v.valek@fnbrno.cz; Kysela, Petr [Department of Surgery, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: pkysel@email.cz; Vavrikova, Marketa [Department of Radiology, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Summary: Crohn's disease is more likely a systemic disease governed by a shift in the immune response, thus affecting the whole MALT system. Its treatment should be as conservative as possible and surgery is usually taking place after complications like indolent fistulations, stenoses, bleeding, or bowel perforation started. Standard radiological methods to check the extent of the disease are loaded either with certain radiation exposure (enteroclysis, CT) or lack standardization (ultrasound). The aim of this small study was to evaluate the worth of ultrasound-enteroclysis in detecting the extent and complications of the Crohn's disease in surgically treated patients. Material and methods: Since 1997, when we started with the ultrasound-enteroclysis, 246 surgical performances were involved into our study. Out of them, 181 had conventional abdominal intestinal ultrasound as well as conventional enteroclysis within 1 week. Remaining 65 cases were diagnosed by the ultrasound-enteroclysis. Intestinal ultrasound was performed on the Ultramark 3000 HDI device with autofocussable convex 5 MHz and linear 7.5 MHz probes or nowadays ATL 5000 HDI, 7-12 MHz linear probe. No contrast enhancement was used. Enteroclysis was done with the Micropaque suspension diluted 1:1 with HP-7000 300 ml with its application rate up to 75 ml/min followed by HP-7000 solution 2000 ml, application rate of 120 ml/min. The patients with ultrasound-enteroclysis were applied HP 7000 solution only (2000 ml, rate 100 ml/s) via an enteroclysis catheter. All investigations were video-recorded. Results: Consent with the per-operative finding was reached in 162 from 181 enteroclyses and in 169 of 181 ultrasounds. Ultrasound-enteroclysis was precise in 61 cases from 65. Among these, 60 patients had the recurrence during the treatment proved by clinical and laboratory results. This re-activation was clearly revealed in 38 from 43 cases by enteroclysis, 41 from 43 by US and in 16 from 17 by ultrasound-enteroclysis. From 30 patients that developed acute complication non-responding to the conservative therapy (abscesses, fistulas and intestinal obstructions) there were 18 from 20 accurately diagnosed by enteroclysis, only 12 from 20 by US and 9 from 10 by US-enteroclysis. The differences were either statistically non-significant or there were too small numbers to give sensible statistical results, but low sensitivity of ultrasound in complications (p = 0.05). Conclusion: US-enteroclysis seems to became the standard examination of patients with Crohn's disease mainly in those with unclear conventional ultrasound. The most important fact is that this examination significantly decreases the radiation load when maintaining high sensitivity. This is very important namely in patients with Crohn's disease that require life-long observation and repeated examinations. This examination is much more easy to standardize than the conventional US.

  5. Patients' selection for treatment of caliceal diverticular stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Symptoms of caliceal diverticular stones are commonly associated with pain, recurrent urinary tract infection and hematuria. The aim of this study is to select the proper patient for the application of more successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) as a treatment of caliceal diverticular stone. 16 patients with caliceal diverticular stones were treated with ESWL, and all patients had single caliceal diverticulum. The diagnosis of caliceal diverticulum with stones was made by intraveneous pyelography to all patients. On these intravenous pyelogram, we also classified diverticular type, whether the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, diverticular site and stone number and size. All patients were followed after ESWL by plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder and interviewed. Of all patients 44% was shown stone-free completely, also 83% was rendered symptom-free. All patients whose diverticular neck connected with urinary tract patently on the intraveneous pyelogram became stone-free. Of solitary stone 60% and multiple stones (more than 2) 17% became symptom-free. The patients with infection before ESWL 75% had residual stones, of these patients 33% had slightly flank pain, and 25% of patients with stones recurred become stone-free. We propose that more successful ESWL for patients with caliceal diverticular stones select satisfactory patients including that the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, solitary stone and no infection simultaneously

  6. 14C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had 14C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested 14C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of the intestinal wall being changed by small bowel obstruction in rabbits: Correlation with histopathology

    Nam, Deok Ho; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Kim, Youn Wha [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To evaluate the change of the wall of obstructed small bowel loop on ultrasonography (US), the changes of pre- and post-obstructed segments were examined by using US and correlated with histopathologic findings. Small bowel loops of seven rabbits were caused to be obstructed by surgery. One of them was sacrificed after 12 hours, and six were after 24 hours. The bowel loop of about 10 cm in length was cut and removed from obstructed site for evaluation with US and correlation with histopathologic findings. One control was also included and correlated by the same way, without bowel obstruction. After US examination, the bowel loops were opened at the mesenteric border. They were mounted into hard paper, and put in a plastic pail filled with 2 liters of physiologic saline. The specimens were imaged with 10 MHz linear array transducer with high definition zoom. After sonographic examination, the specimens were fixed with 10% formalin solution and stained by hematoxylin-eosin. The segments of small bowel showed three layers on US, which were hyperechoic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic from the mucosal surface. The total thickness of the pre-obstructed segments was 1.65 {+-} 0.15 mm, and of post-obstructed was 1.62 {+-} 0.14 mm; there was no significant difference (p>0.05). The ratio of the second hypoechoic layer to total thickness was 23% at pre-obstructed segments, 17% at post-obstructed, and 7% at the control. Under microscopic examination, the total thickness of the pre-obstructed segments were measured as 0.95 {+-} 0.12 mm, and that of the post-obstructed was measured as 0.9{+-} 0.11 mm; there was no significant difference (p>0.05). The total thickness on US was about 0.7 mm thicker than in microscopic findings, so considering the ratio of each layers, the first hyperechoic and the second hypoechoic layers were assumed to be mucosal layer, and the third hyperechoic layer was assumed to be submucosal and muscle layers. Histopathologic findings of both pre- and post-obstructed segments revealed increased goblet cells, lymphatic dilatation of villi at the mucosal layer, fibrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and infiltration of inflammatory cells at the submucosal layer. Only in pre-obstructed segments, the muscle layer showed muscle cell hypertrophy, a decreasing of interspace between inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle layers and also among intermuscular fibers. Hemorrhage, edema,and inflammatory cells infiltration were also observed in the muscle layer. There was no increased wall thickness of the pre-observed segments, and the proportion of the second hyperechoic layer was increased. The histopathologic findings of it corresponded to the lymphatic dilatation of the mucosal layer.

  8. Optimal Bowel Preparation for Video Capsule Endoscopy

    Song, Hyun Joo; Moon, Jeong Seop; Shim, Ki-Nam

    2016-01-01

    During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), several factors, such as air bubbles, food material in the small bowel, and delayed gastric and small bowel transit time, influence diagnostic yield, small bowel visualization quality, and cecal completion rate. Therefore, bowel preparation before VCE is as essential as bowel preparation before colonoscopy. To date, there have been many comparative studies, consensus, and guidelines regarding different kinds of bowel cleansing agents in bowel preparation for small bowel VCE. Presently, polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) based regimens are given primary recommendation. Sodium picosulphate-based regimens are secondarily recommended, as their cleansing efficacy is less than that of PEG-based regimens. Sodium phosphate as well as complementary simethicone and prokinetics use are considered. In this paper, we reviewed previous studies regarding bowel preparation for small bowel VCE and suggested optimal bowel preparation of VCE. PMID:26880894

  9. Chromium-51-EDTA and technetium-99m-DTPA excretion for assessment of small bowel Crohn's disease

    In the present study, 4 patients with radiologically documented Crohn's disease were given 100 ?Ci of Cr-51-EDTA and 5 mCi of Tc-99m-DTPA together orally in 10ml of water, and urine was collected during the following 24 hr period. Sequential imaging of the stomach and the GI tract was done with a LFOV gamma camera at 10 min intervals until the activity cleared the small bowel. The images failed to show any localization of the activity in any disease process and no extraintestinal accumulation site was observed scintigraphically. Mean 24 hr urinary excretion for Tc-99m-DTPA was 4.8 +- 2.6% comparable to that of Cr-51-EDTA in these patients. This study suggests that a comparable oral dose of Tc-99m-DTPA could be substituted for Cr-51-EDTA as a far more readily available agent for documenting small bowel Crohn's disease by quantitative assessment of its urinary excretion

  10. Small bowel capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators: Outcome analysis using telemetry review

    Gerard A Isenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine if there were any interactions between cardiac devices and small bowel capsules secondary to electromagnetic interference (EMI in patients who have undergone small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE. METHODS: Authors conducted a chart review of 20 patients with a cardiac pacemaker (CP or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD who underwent continuous electrocardiographic monitoring during their SBCE from 2003-2008. authors searched for unexplained electrocardiogram (ECG findings, changes in CP and ICD set parameters, any abnormality in transmitted capsule data, and adverse clinical events. RESULTS: There were no adverse events or hemodynamically significant arrhythmias reported. CP and ICD set parameters were preserved. The majority of ECG abnormalities were also found in pre- or post- SBCE ECG tracings and the CP behavior during arrhythmias appeared appropriate. Two patients seemed to have episodes of undersensing by the CP. However, similar findings were documented in ECGs taken outside the time frame of the SBCE. One patient was observed to have a low signal encountered from the capsule resulting in lack of localization, but no images were lost. CONCLUSION: Capsule-induced EMI remains a possibility but is unlikely to be clinically important. CP-induced interference of SBCE is also possible, but is infrequent and does not result in loss of images transmitted by the capsule.

  11. Indicaciones resultados alejados del tratamiento quirrgico electivo de la enfermedad diverticular del colon sigmoides Indications and long term results of elective surgery for sigmoid diverticular disease

    Guillermo Bannura C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no clear guidelines for the indication of elective surgery in sigmoid diverticular disease. Aim: To analyze the indications and long term results of elective surgery in sigmoid diverticular disease. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of 100 patients (age range 25-86 years, 51 male with sigmoid diverticular disease, operated in a lapse of 22 years. Sixty seven patients answered a survey about their disease at the end of follow up. Results: Among patients aged more than 70 years, there was a higher proportion of women. The main indication for surgery was recurrent diverticulitis in 54 patients, followed by diverticular fistula in 19. A sigmoidectomy was performed in 91 patients. Stapled anastomosis was performed in half of these patients. No patient died or required reoperation in the immediate postoperative period. During a follow up ranging from 8 to 280 months, 28 patients died for causes not associated with diverticular disease and five were lost. Those patients that answered the survey were free of symptoms related to diverticular disease and did not require new operations. Conclusions: In patients with sigmoid diverticular disease and recurrent diverticulitis or with fistulae, the long term results of surgery are satisfactory (Rev Md Chile 2005; 133: 1037-42

  12. Short bowel syndrome

    This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)

  13. Effects of Bolus and Continuous Nasogastric Feeding on Gastric Emptying, Small Bowel Water Content, Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow, and Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Adults

    Chowdhury, Abeed H.; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L.; Costigan, Carolyn; Marciani, Luca; Macdonald, Ian A.; Bowling, Timothy E.; Lobo, Dileep N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of continuous or bolus nasogastric feeding on gastric emptying, small bowel water content, and splanchnic blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the context of changes in plasma gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Background: Nasogastric/nasoenteral tube feeding is often complicated by diarrhea but the contribution of feeding strategy to the etiology is unclear. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male participants who underwent nasogastric intubation before a baseline MRI scan, received 400 mL of Resource Energy (Nestle) as a bolus over 5 minutes or continuously over 4 hours via pump in this randomized crossover study. Changes in gastric volume, small bowel water content, and superior mesenteric artery blood flow and velocity were measured over 4 hours using MRI and blood glucose and plasma concentrations of insulin, peptide YY, and ghrelin were assayed every 30 minutes. Results: Bolus nasogastric feeding led to significant elevations in gastric volume (P < 0.0001), superior mesenteric artery blood flow (P < 0.0001), and velocity (P = 0.0011) compared with continuous feeding. Both types of feeding reduced small bowel water content, although there was an increase in small bowel water content with bolus feeding after 90 minutes (P < 0.0068). Similarly, both types of feeding led to a fall in plasma ghrelin concentration although this fall was greater with bolus feeding (P < 0.0001). Bolus feeding also led to an increase in concentrations of insulin (P = 0.0024) and peptide YY (P < 0.0001), not seen with continuous feeding. Conclusion: Continuous nasogastric feeding does not increase small bowel water content, thus fluid flux within the small bowel is not a major contributor to the etiology of tube feeding-related diarrhea. PMID:25549202

  14. Use of a tissue expander to protect small bowel during radiotherapy in a cervical cancer patient with severe Crohn's disease

    Sarah Ravn; Robert Pearcey; Valerie Capstick

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • Inflammatory bowel disease increases the risk of radiation enteritis. • Tissue expanders displace bowel from the radiation field. • Thromboembolism and fistulae may be risks associated with tissue expander placement. A Vicryl mesh hammock may prevent bowel from entering the radiation field.

  15. Use of a tissue expander to protect small bowel during radiotherapy in a cervical cancer patient with severe Crohn's disease.

    Ravn, Sarah; Pearcey, Robert; Capstick, Valerie

    2015-11-01

    •Inflammatory bowel disease increases the risk of radiation enteritis.•Tissue expanders displace bowel from the radiation field.•Thromboembolism and fistulae may be risks associated with tissue expander placement.A Vicryl mesh hammock may prevent bowel from entering the radiation field. PMID:26793765

  16. Effects of water-soluble contrast media on luminal distension and blood flow in closed loops of small bowel in minipigs

    Stordahl, A.; Laerum, F.; Lunde, O.C.; Aase, S.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of iohexol, sodium diatrizoate and physiologic saline on intestinal distension and circulation were observed for 8 h in nine minipigs with closed-loop obstruction of the small bowel. The two contrast media led to an elevation of intraluminal pressures when initially instilled at pressures above 35 mm Hg. These elevated pressures were not high enough to cause rupture of the bowel wall. Both contrast media caused severe mucosal ischaemia as judged from histologic sections, loops containing sodium diatrizoate more so than iohexol. The blood circulation of the bowel wall, examined by laser Doppler flowmetry, was after 6 to 8 h reduced to about 10% of the values of non-obstructed bowel at intraluminal pressures of about 70 mm Hg in the loops with iohexol and sodium diatrizoate. The correlation to osmolality was obvious when compared with concurrent observations in the loops with physiologic saline. In the bowel loops filled with physiologic saline, the pressure fell to 5 mm Hg after 8 h, regaining approximately one-third of pre-instillation levels of blood flow. On microscopy these bowel loops had a nearly normal mucosa.

  17. Small bowel obstruction secondary to strangulation through a defect in the falciform ligament after blunt abdominal trauma in a pediatric patient.

    Sykes, Joseph A; Norton, Karen I; Bhattacharya, Nishith; Stombaugh, Lauretta

    2010-06-01

    Obstruction caused by strangulation internal hernia secondary to incarceration within the falciform ligament, although rare, has been previously reported in the literature. These cases, however, were unrelated to trauma. We report on the first case in the pediatric literature of a strangulated internal hernia secondary to incarceration in the falciform ligament precipitated by blunt abdominal trauma. A 12-year-old girl presented to the emergency room less than 24 hours after sustaining a kick to the right upper quadrant. She described sharp, nonradiating, right-upper-quadrant abdominal pain, which was associated with nausea and vomiting. A KUB (kidney, ureter, bladder) view showed a paucity of bowel in the right upper quadrant with distended adjacent bowel. An ultrasound showed a small amount of abdominal ascites and a prominent liver. Computed tomography scan revealed a linear hypodensity at the tip of the right lobe of the liver, suggestive of a laceration. Moderate abdominal and pelvic ascites and multiple collapsed small-bowel loops with diffuse wall thickening and poor enhancement were seen in the right upper quadrant. Significantly, pneumatosis was noted, raising the question of obstruction/volvulus and/or bowel ischemia. An exploratory laparotomy revealed incarcerated small bowel herniated into a defect in the falciform ligament, which was resected. The defect was repaired. Seemingly trivial trauma may play a precipitating role in strangulation in a patient who already has a defect in the falciform ligament. PMID:20531130

  18. Simultaneous measurement of gastric emptying, small bowel residence and colonic filling of a solid meal by the use of the gamma camera.

    Read, N W; Al-Janabi, M N; Holgate, A M; Barber, D C; Edwards, C A

    1986-01-01

    A method for determining the profiles of gastric emptying, small intestinal residence, and colonic filling of a solid test meal, labelled with 250 microCi 99mTechnetium sulphur colloid has been evaluated in nine healthy volunteers and six patients with a disturbance in bowel habit. Mean small bowel transit time was determined by deconvolving the rate of colonic filling with the rate of gastric emptying. In normal subjects, the stomach appeared to empty exponentially with a half time of 1.2 +/...

  19. Biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) after massive small bowel resection in rats

    Purpose: To evaluate the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in organs and tissues, the morphometry of remnant intestinal mucosa and ponderal evolution in rats subjected to massive resection of the small intestine. Methods:Twenty-one Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 7 animals each. The short bowel (SB) group was subjected to massive resection of the small intestine; the control group (C) rats were not operated on, and soft intestinal handling was performed in sham rats. The animals were weighed weekly. On the 30th postoperative day, 0.1 mL of Na99mTcO4, with mean activity of 0.66 MBq was injected intravenously into the orbital plexus. After 30 minutes, the rats were killed with an overdose of anesthetic, and fragments of the liver, spleen, pancreas, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, thyroid, lung, heart, kidney, bladder, muscle, femur and brain were harvested. The biopsies were washed with 0.9% NaCl.,The radioactivity was counted using Gamma Counter WizardTM 1470, Perkin-Elmer. The percentage of radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ATI/g) was calculated. Biopsies of the remaining jejunum were analysed by HE staining to obtain mucosal thickness. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test for multiple comparisons were used, considering p99mTcO4 in the organs of the groups studied (p>0.05). An increase in the weight of the SB rats was observed after the second postoperative week. The jejunal mucosal thickness of the SB rats was significantly greater than that of C and sham rats (p99mTcO4 was not affected by massive intestinal resection, suggesting that short bowel syndrome is not the cause of misleading interpretation, if an examination using this radiopharmaceutical is indicated. (author)

  20. Laparoscopic surgery for complicated diverticular disease: a single-centre experience.

    Royds, J

    2012-10-01

    The role of laparoscopic surgery in the management of patients with diverticular disease is still not universally accepted. The aim of our study was to evaluate the results of laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease in a centre with a specialist interest in minimally invasive surgery.

  1. Radiologic contribution to the extracorporeal lithotripsy treatment of calyceal diverticular calculi

    The authors reviewed the radiologic studies in 19 patients with calyceal diverticular calculi treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (EL) in order to establish criteria predicting successful outcome. Pre-EL imaging was performed to evaluate the size of calculus in relation to the diverticular cavity, and the width of the connection of the diverticulum to the adjacent calyx. Post-EL studies were performed to assess fragmentation and passage of fragments. EL fragmented calculi in 15 diverticula with cavities larger than stone volume. Complete passage of fragments was shown in five patients and partial passage in two, all with wide diverticular necks. No passage was seen in eight diverticular with fragmented calculi, five of which had narrow or nondemonstrable necks. The radiologic demonstration of large diverticular correlates well with effective EL fragmentation, and a wide neck results in satisfactory fragment passage. Calculi in tight, narrowly communicating diverticula are unlikely to respond to EL

  2. Breath test for differential diagnosis between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel disease: An observation on non-absorbable antibiotics

    Esposito, I; Leone, A.; Gregorio, G Di; Giaquinto, S; de Magistris, L; Ferrieri, A; G. Riegler

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) among patients with an earlier diagnosis of irritable bowel disease (IBS) in our geographical area, and to collect information on the use of locally acting non-absorbable antibiotics in the management of SIBO.

  3. Intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation following small bowel transplantation in the rat

    In addition to its role in absorbing nutrients, the intestinal mucosa provides an important barrier against toxins and bacteria in the bowel lumen. The present study evaluated gut barrier function following orthotopic (in continuity) intestinal grafting in rats. Graft histology, intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation to the grafted mesenteric lymph nodes, the host's liver, and the host's spleen were assessed on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th postoperative days. The study group received no immunosuppression after allotransplantation. The two control groups included rats with isografts and rats with cyclosporine-treated allografts. On the 7th POD, the study animals had moderate transmural inflammation due to rejection, with normal histology in the isografts and CsA-treated allografts; increased intestinal permeability, measured by urinary excretion of oral 51Cr-EDTA (P less than 0.01); and increased number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen (P less than 0.05). The number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen of the study group positively correlated with the changes in intestinal permeability (P less than 0.05). Rejection of the orthotopic intestinal graft leads to increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation from the lumen of the graft to the host's reticuloendothelial system. Measures to improve gut barrier function and antibiotic therapy during rejection episodes may help reduce the incidence of septic complications after intestinal grafting

  4. Conservative management of small bowel perforation in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV

    Satya Allaparthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders caused by collagen synthesis defects. EDS type IV, or vascular EDS, is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the type III pro-collagen gene (COL3A1. Common complications of EDS type IV include gastrointestinal bleeding and bowel perforations, posing diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas for both surgeons and gastroenterologists. Here, we describe a complicated case of EDS type IV in a 35-year-old caucasian female who presented with overt gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient had a prior history of spontaneous colonic perforation, and an uncomplicated upper endoscopy was performed. A careful ileoscopy was terminated early due to tachycardia and severe abdominal pain, and a subsequent computed tomography scan confirmed the diagnosis of ileal perforation. The patient was managed conservatively, and demonstrated daily improvement. At the time of hospital discharge, no further episodes of gastrointestinal blood loss had occurred. This case highlights the benefit of conservative management for EDS patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It is recommended that surgical treatment should be reserved for patients who fail conservative treatment or in cases of hemodynamic instability. Finally, this case demonstrates the necessity for a higher threshold of operative or endoscopic interventions in EDS type IV patients.

  5. Intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation following small bowel transplantation in the rat

    Grant, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Zhong, R.; Wang, P.Z.; Chen, H.F.; Garcia, B.; Behme, R.; Stiller, C.; Duff, J. (University of Western Ontario (Canada))

    1991-08-01

    In addition to its role in absorbing nutrients, the intestinal mucosa provides an important barrier against toxins and bacteria in the bowel lumen. The present study evaluated gut barrier function following orthotopic (in continuity) intestinal grafting in rats. Graft histology, intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation to the grafted mesenteric lymph nodes, the host's liver, and the host's spleen were assessed on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th postoperative days. The study group received no immunosuppression after allotransplantation. The two control groups included rats with isografts and rats with cyclosporine-treated allografts. On the 7th POD, the study animals had moderate transmural inflammation due to rejection, with normal histology in the isografts and CsA-treated allografts; increased intestinal permeability, measured by urinary excretion of oral 51Cr-EDTA (P less than 0.01); and increased number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen (P less than 0.05). The number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen of the study group positively correlated with the changes in intestinal permeability (P less than 0.05). Rejection of the orthotopic intestinal graft leads to increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation from the lumen of the graft to the host's reticuloendothelial system. Measures to improve gut barrier function and antibiotic therapy during rejection episodes may help reduce the incidence of septic complications after intestinal grafting.

  6. Open table-top device positioning technique to reduce small bowel obstruction. Positioning accuracy and impact on conformal radiation therapy techniques

    The immobilization error of patients positioned on the opern table-top device in prone prosition as well as the movement of the small bowel out of the pelvis by this positioning technique was determined. The positioning error is of special importance for the 3-dimensional treatment planning for conformal radiotherapy. The positioning error was determined by superposing 106 portal films with the corresponding simultor films from 21 patients with carcinoma of the rectum who received 3D-planned conformal radiotherapy (o-field technique with irregular blocks). The movement of the small bowel out of the pelvis was studied by comparing simulator films after barium swallow in supine and open table-top position as well with 3D-treatment plans of the same patient in both positions in 3 cases. The positioning error along the medio-lateral, dorso-ventral und cranio-caudal axis was 1.4/-0.6/1.8 mm and the standard deviation 4.4/6.8/6.3 mm, respectively. In comparison to the supine position more rotation errors in the sagittal view were observed (37% and 9% respectively) with a media of 5.1 . Six out of 22 patients showed no adhesions of the small bowel and a complete movement out of the tratment field was achieved. 14 out of 16 Patients with adhesions revealed a partial movement of the small bowel out of the treatment field. Comparing 3D-treatment plans in both positions again demonstrated a marked reduction of the irradiated small bowel volume with the use of the open table-top decive. (orig.)

  7. Correlation between morphological expansion and impairment of intra- and prelesionary motility in inflammatory small bowel lesions in patients with Crohn's disease – Preliminary data

    Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Wurnig, Moritz; Boss, Andreas [University Hospital Zürich, Department of Radiology, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zürich (Switzerland); Patak, Michael A., E-mail: Michael.Patak@patak.ch [University Hospital Zürich, Department of Radiology, Rämistrasse 100, 8091 Zürich (Switzerland); Hirslanden Clinic, Radiology, Witellikerstrasse 40, 8032 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate if alterations of intra- and prelesionary motility in inflamed small-bowel segments correlate with length, wall-thickness and prelesionary dilatation of inflammatory small bowel lesions in patients suffering from Crohn's disease assessed with MRI. Methods and materials: This retrospective IRB approved study included 25 patients (12 males, 18–77y) with inflammatory lesions examined using (MRE) magnetic resonance imaging enterography. Cine MRE was performed using a coronal 2D steady-state free precession sequence (TR 2.9, TE 1.25) on a 1.5T MRI scanner. Small bowel motility was examined using a dedicated MR-motility assessment software (Motasso, Vers. 1.0, Sohard AG, Bern, Switzerland). Motility patterns (contraction frequency, relative occlusion rate and mean diameter) were assessed in correlation to wall thickness, length and prelesionary dilatation of the lesions. Statistical analysis was performed by calculation of the Pearson's-Correlation coefficient. Results: The length of the inflammatory segments, the wall thickening and prelesionary dilatation did not correlate with the frequency of the contractions (r = 0.17, p = 0.477; r = 0.316, p = 0.123; r = 0.161, p = 0.441) or the impairment of luminal occlusion (r = 0.274, p = 0.184; r = 0.199, p = .0339; r = 0.015, p = 0.945) and only the prelesionary dilatation (r = 0.410, p = 0.042) correlated to the mean luminal diameter of the segment. Conclusion: The degree of motility impairment within inflammatory small bowel lesions does not significantly correlate with the extent of the lesion but with the motility measured in prelesionary, non-affected segments, suggesting an interdependent functional aspect of inflammation even in morphologically non-affected small bowel segments.

  8. 14C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had 14C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested 14C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05). In Group II, the percentage reductions were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p greater than 0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption

  9. An atypical presentation of small bowel obstruction and perforation secondary to sporadic synchronous intra-abdominal desmoid tumours

    Abdalla, Sala; Wilkinson, Michelle; Wilsher, Mark; Uzkalnis, Aleksandras

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Desmoid tumours (DTs) are rare, soft tissue tumours which account for 0.03% of all neoplasms. They are characteristically locally invasive but do not metastasize. There is frequent association with females of reproductive age, a history of abdominal surgery or trauma and a family history of fibromatoses. Intra-abdominal DTs are infrequently sporadic and more commonly associated with inherited disorders such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), attenuated FAP and Gardener’s syndrome. Presentation of case The authors report a rare case of small bowel obstruction and perforation secondary to sporadic, synchronous intra-abdominal DTs in a 54-year old man with atypical symptoms and no risk factors or family history. Discussion Intra-abdominal DTs have a worse prognosis as they can cause intestinal bleeding, obstruction and perforation. Due to the rarity of these tumours there are no clear guidelines on their management and this is instead based on small case series from specialist centres. In the non-acute setting patients with sporadic intra-abdominal DTs should be managed in a specialist sarcoma unit by a multidisciplinary team. In the presence of FAP or other polyposis syndromes patients with DTs should be managed at a specialist colorectal unit. Emergent presentations require emergency surgery in suitable candidates. Conclusion In non-emergency presentations of DTs, it is essential to exclude FAP, AFAP and other hereditary polyposis syndromes since this affects treatment and subsequent follow-up. PMID:26866881

  10. The effect on the small bowel of 5-FU and oxaliplatin in combination with radiation using a microcolony survival assay

    In locally advanced rectal cancer, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation is the standard treatment. The main acute toxicity of this treatment is enteritis. Due to its potential radiosensitizing properties, oxaliplatin has recently been incorporated in many clinical chemoradiation protocols. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 5-FU and oxaliplatin influence the radiation (RT) induced small bowel mucosal damage when given in conjunction with single or split dose RT. Immune competent balb-c mice were treated with varying doses of 5-FU, oxaliplatin (given intraperitoneally) and total body RT, alone or in different combinations in a series of experiments. The small bowel damage was studied by a microcolony survival assay. The treatment effect was evaluated using the inverse of the slope (D0) of the exponential part of the dose-response curve. In two separate experiments the dose-response relations were determined for single doses of RT alone, yielding D0 values of 2.79 Gy (95% CI: 2.65 - 2.95) and 2.98 Gy (2.66 - 3.39), for doses in the intervals of 5-17 Gy and 5-10 Gy, respectively. Equitoxic low doses (IC5) of the two drugs in combination with RT caused a decrease in jejunal crypt count with significantly lower D0: 2.30 Gy (2.10 - 2.56) for RT+5-FU and 2.27 Gy (2.08 - 2.49) for RT+oxaliplatin. Adding both drugs to RT did not further decrease D0: 2.28 Gy (1.97 - 2.71) for RT+5-FU+oxaliplatin. A clearly higher crypt survival was noted for split course radiation (3 × 2.5 Gy) compared to a single fraction of 7.5 Gy. The same difference was seen when 5-FU and/or oxaliplatin were added. Combining 5-FU or oxaliplatin with RT lead to an increase in mucosal damage as compared to RT alone in our experimental setting. No additional reduction of jejunal crypt counts was noted when both drugs were combined with single dose RT. The higher crypt survival with split dose radiation indicates a substantial recovery between radiation fractions. This mucosal-sparing effect achieved by fractionation was maintained also when chemotherapy was added

  11. Evaluation of small-bowel transit for solid and liquid test meal in healthy men and women

    Evaluation of severe functional gastrointestinal motility disorders requires an investigation of the entire gastrointestinal tract. This should be possible with a single radionuclide imaging study. The purpose of this study was (1) to define normal values of small-bowel transit in men and women and (2) to assess a possible difference between gender or test meal, since it has been shown that women have slower gastric emptying than men, and gastric emptying of solids is slower than liquids. A standard gastric-emptying test for a solid (technetium-99m sulphur colloids, 230 Kcal) and liquid (indium-111 DTPA water) test meal was performed in 12 healthy male and 12 healthy female volunteers. After 135 min, the volunteer was place in the supine position for static imaging of the abdomen every 15 min for 6 h. Decay and crossover-corrected geometric mean gastric-emptying data were fit to a modified power exponential function to determine the 10% stomach emptying time for solids and liquids separately. An ROI was drawn around the caecum and ascending colon to determine the arrival time of at least 10% of the solid and liquid test meal. Ten percent small-bowel transit time (10% SBTT) and orocaecal transit time (OCTT) were calculated. The OCTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 294.6±18.8; 301.3±24.5; 294.6±18.8 and 301.3±24.5 min. The 10% SBTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 280.3±18.4; 280.6±24.0; 288.2±18.9 and 297.4±24.4 (means±SEM) min. We observed a simultaneous transfer of solids and liquids from the terminal ileum to caecum (correlation coefficient 0.90). There is no statistically significant difference in SBTT between gender or solids and liquids. In contrast to the gastric-emptying time, the SBTT of solids and liquids were not significantly different nor was a gender difference found. Determination of the OCTT seems to be the simplest and most accurate approach to measure SBTT. Since ileocaecal transfer occurs as a bolus phenomenon, a 111In-labelled test meal can also be used for the determination of colon transit in a single imaging study protocol. (orig.)

  12. The 3-Dimensional Analysis of the Efficacy of a Belly-Board Device for the Displacement of Small Bowel During Pelvic Irradiation

    To evaluate the efficacy of a belly-board device (BBD) in reducing the volume of small bowel during four-field pelvic irradiation. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two cancer patients (14 uterine cervical cancer, 6 rectal cancer, and 2 endometrial cancer) scheduled to receive pelvic irradiation were selected for this study. Two sets of CT images were taken with and without the belly-board device using the Siemens 16 channel CT scanner. All patients were set in the prone position. The CT images were transferred to a treatment planning system for dose calculation and volume measurements. The external surfaces of small bowel and the bladder were contoured on all CT scans and the 4-pelvic fields were added. The dose-volume-histogram of the bladder and small bowel, with and without the BBD, were plotted and analyzed. Results: In all patients, the total small bowel volume included in the irradiated fields was reduced when the BBD was used. The mean volume reduction was 35% (range, 1-79%) and was statistically significant (p<0.001). The reduction in small bowel volume receiving 10-100% of the prescribed dose was statistically significant when the BBD was used in all cases. Almost no change in the total bladder volume involved was observed in the field (<8 cc, p=0.762). However, the bladder volume receiving 90% of the prescribed dose was 100% in 15/22 patients (68%) and 90-99% in 7/22 patients (32%) with the BBD. In comparison, the bladder volume receiving 90% of the prescribed dose was 100% in 10/22 patients (45%), 90-99% in 7/22 patients (32%), and 80-89% in 5/22 patients (23%) without the BBD. When the BBD was used, an increase in the bladder volume receiving a high dose range was observed Conclusion: This study shows that the use of a BBD for the treatment of cancer in the pelvic area significantly improves small bowel sparing. However, since the BBD pushed the bladder into the treatment field, the bladder volume receiving the high dose could increase. Therefore it is recommended to be considerate in using the BBD when bladder damage is of concern

  13. Comparison of the belly board device method and the distended bladder method for reducing irradiated small bowel volumes in preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer patients

    Purpose: To determine the most effective method to reduce the irradiated small bowel volume when using a belly board device (BBD), a distended bladder (DB), or both in patients with rectal cancer undergoing preoperative pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The study involved 20 patients with rectal cancer who were scheduled to receive preoperative pelvic RT. Patients were asked to empty their bladders and then drink 300 mL of water 2 h before the treatment planning computed tomographic (CT) scan. To identify the small bowel, an oral contrast solution (450 mL) was given 1 h before the CT scan. Two sets of transverse images were taken at 1-cm-thickness intervals with patients in the prone position with or without the BBD. After voiding, two additional sets of CT scans were obtained in prone positions with or without BBD. The conventional three-field treatment plan, composed of a 6-MV photon posterior-anterior field and 15-MV photon opposed lateral fields with wedges of 45 degrees, was made using a three-dimensional treatment planning system. The beam weights of the three-field plan were equal. The volume of irradiated small bowel was calculated for doses between 10% and 100% of the prescribed dose at 10% intervals. For each 10% dose increment, the effect of the BBD and the DB on the irradiated volume was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Results: All patients underwent four sets of CT scan under the conditions of four different methods as follows: Group I = empty bladder without the use of belly board; Group II empty bladder with the use of belly board; Group III = distended bladder without the use of belly board; Group IV = distended bladder with the use of belly board. We found that the volume of irradiated small bowel decreased in the order of Group I, Group II, Group III, and Group IV at all dose levels (p 3), in Group III it varied between 48.1% and 82.0% (21.6-163.1 cm3), and in Group IV between 51.4% and 96.4% (28.6-167.1 cm3). Conclusions: The DB was more effective than the BBD for reducing the volume of irradiated small bowel in rectal cancer patients receiving pelvic RT. The combination of the BBD and DB showed an additive effect and was the most effective method for reducing the irradiated small bowel volume

  14. Bowel Movement

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  15. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms: Experience with Rifaximin

    Peralta, Sergio; Cottone, Claudia; Doveri, Tiziana; Almasio, Piero Luigi; Craxi, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in our geographical area (Western Sicily, Italy) by means of an observational study, and to gather information on the use of locally active, non-absorbable antibiotics for treatment of SIBO.

  16. Limitations of indirect methods of estimating small bowel transit in man

    Experiments were carried out in healthy volunteers to explore the utility of a new [14C]lactulose breath test for measuring small intestinal transit time in man and to use this procedure to test whether two antidiarrheal agents, codeine and clonidine, alter small intestinal transit time during digestion of a liquid meal. In an initial validation study performed in 12 subjects, a liquid test meal containing 10 g [14C]lactulose was administered and the colonic entry time estimated from the time course of 14CO2 excretion in breath compared with that of H2 excretion. There was a fair correlation (r = 0.77; P less than 0.001) between results obtained by the two methods; both methods gave similar results, but 14CO2 output was delayed when compared to H2 output and was incomplete. The meal also contained xylose and [13C]glycine, permitting the duodenal entry time of the meal to be estimated by the appearance of xylose in blood and 13CO2 in breath, respectively. The same liquid meal was then used to examine the effect on small intestinal transit time (colonic entry time minus duodenal entry time) of codeine or clonidine. 99Tc-sulfur colloid was also added to the meal to permit a comparison of small intestinal transit estimated by imaging with that estimated by the 14CO2-lactulose breath test. 99Tc radioactivity appeared in the cecum (as assessed using gamma scintigraphy) about 2 hr before 14CO2 radioactivity appeared in breath; the correlation between transit time estimated by the two methods was moderate (r = 0.61; P less than 0.05). Based on the [14C]lactulose data, small intestinal transit time ranged from less than 1 to 3 hr for a liquid meal containing 10 g lactulose; within-subject variation was considerably less than between-subject variation

  17. Acute changes in canine small bowel muscle prostaglandin synthesis and function after x-irradiation with 9.38 Gy

    Abdominal radiotherapy is often limited by radiation-induced enteritis. Prostaglandin (PG) synthesis may play a role in the altered function of small bowel (SB) muscle and mucosa. Therefore, the authors have investigated the effects of X-radiation on PG synthesis, and other aspects of canine SB smooth muscle function. Canine SB received 9.38 Gy of 250 kVp X-radiation in situ. Electrodes were used to monitor spike burst and propagation of electrical activity in the SB muscle pre- and post-exposure. Animals were sacrificed prior to irradiation and at 1 and 4 days post-irradiation. Serum PG levels were assayed from mesenteric artery and vein samples, and SB muscle was removed for analysis of PG synthesis. SB muscle myoelectric activity decreased after irradiation until sacrifice (day 4). The PG synthesis in irradiated SB muscle at days 1 and 4 increased in PGE/sub 2/ and PGF/sub 2/α and in thromboxane A/sub 2/ metabolite, while the PGI/sub 2/ metabolite decreased. PG levels in venous blood indicate similar changes after passage through the intestine. Although causality is not established, radiation does induce changes in PG synthesis which correlate with changes in myoelectric activity (motility)

  18. Effect of a selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 on the small bowel of rats

    A.Z.A., Leite; A.M., Sipahi; A.O.M.C., Damio; A.T., Garcez; C.A., Buchpiguel; F.P., Lopasso; M.L.L., Lordello; C.L.O., Agostinho; A.A., Laudanna.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) enteropathy is a complex process involving the uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX). Rofecoxib, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, has shown less gastric damage, but the same benefici [...] al effect is not clear in the case of the small bowel. Fifty-seven male Wistar rats (250-350 g) were divided into three groups (N = 19 each) to evaluate the effect of this NSAID on the rat intestine. The groups received 2.5 mg/kg rofecoxib, 7.5 mg/kg indomethacin or water with 5% DMSO (control) given as a single dose by gavage 24 h before the beginning of the experiment. A macroscopic score was used to quantify intestinal lesions and intestinal permeability was measured using [51Cr]-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ([51Cr]-EDTA). The extent of intestinal lesion, indicated by a macroscopic score, was significantly lower when rofecoxib was administered compared to indomethacin (rofecoxib = 0.0 vs indomethacin = 63.6 25.9; P

  19. Automatic detection of small bowel tumors in endoscopic capsule images by ROI selection based on discarded lightness information.

    Vieira, Pedro M; Ramos, Jaime; Lima, Carlos S

    2015-08-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automatic detection of tumoral frames in endoscopic capsule videos by using features directly extracted from the color space. We show that tumor can be appropriately discriminated from normal tissue by using only color information histogram measures from the Lab color space and that light saturated regions are usually classified as tumoral regions when color based discriminative procedures are used. These regions are correctly classified if lightening is discarded becoming the tissue classifier based only on the color differences a and b of the Lab color space. While current state of the art systems for small bowel tumor detection usually rely on the processing of the whole frame regarding features extraction this paper proposes the use of fully automatic segmentation in order to select regions likely to contain tumoral tissue. Classification is performed by using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) by using features from color channels a and b of the Lab color space. The proposed algorithm outperforms in more than 5% a series of other algorithms based on features obtained from the higher frequency components selected from Wavelets and Curvelets transforms while saving important computational resources. In a matter of fact the proposed algorithm is more than 25 times faster than algorithms requiring wavelet/curvelet and co-occurrence computations. PMID:26736929

  20. Decreased risk of surgery for small bowel obstruction after laparoscopic colon cancer surgery compared with open surgery

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Andersen, Peter; Erichsen, Rune; Scheike, Thomas; Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Krarup, Peter-Martin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of surgical approach on the incidence of small bowel obstruction (SBO) is unclear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the long-term risk of surgery for SBO after open and laparoscopic surgery and to assess how subsequent SBO surgery impacts on mortality after colonic...... database and followed through May 2014 in the Danish National Patient Register. The primary endpoint was surgery for SBO. Secondarily, mortality among patients who subsequently underwent SBO surgery and those who did not was compared. RESULTS: Among the 8583 included patients, 251 (2.9 %) underwent surgery...... for SBO during follow-up (median 8.8 years). The 3-year cumulative incidence of SBO surgery was 1.5 %; 1.2 % after laparoscopic and 1.6 % after open surgery. Laparoscopic surgery was associated with a decreased risk of SBO (hazard ratio [HR] 0.61 (CI 0.37 to 0.99, P = 0.048) compared with open surgery...

  1. Bowel Dysfunction

    ... Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Bowel Dysfunction Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile ... immodium) can be used to help with loose bowel movements. Increasing fiber intake through whole grains, fruits and vegetables, or fiber supplements can ... Prostate Cancer Research Faces of Prostate Cancer About PCF Take ...

  2. Rifaximin for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients without irritable bowel syndrome

    Boltin, Doron; Perets, Tsachi Tsadok; Shporn, Einav; Aizic, Shoshana; LEVY, SIGAL; Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Background Rifaximin is a minimally absorbed antibiotic with high luminal activity, used to treat various gastrointestinal diseases. Although rifaximin has been proposed as first line treatment for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), few data are available regarding its efficacy in non-IBS subjects. We aimed to assess the ability of rifaximin to normalize lactulose-H2 breath tests in non-IBS subjects with symptoms suggestive of SIBO. Materials and methods Consecutive non-IBS patient...

  3. Dose-related effects of cerulein short infusions on proximal small bowel motility in sheep

    K.W. Romanski

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) upon the intestinal motility has not been entirely explored in ruminants. The aim of this study was to examine the precise effects of CCK amphibian analogue, cerulein, on small-intestinal myoelectric activity in rams in the course of chronic experiments. Five rams underwent implantation of bipolar platinum electrodes to the duodenal bulb, the distal duodenum and jejunum. During continuous myoelectrical and motor recordings, 0.15 M NaCl or the various doses ...

  4. A Prospective Study on the Gastrografin Contrast Radiology in the Management of Small Bowel Obstruction

    Rakesh Kumar Gupta; Chandra Sekhar Agrawal; Om Prakash Pathania; Rohit Prasad Yadav; Panna Lal Shah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of the hyperosmolar water-soluble contrast medium Gastrografin and reg; in choosing which patients with small-intestine obstruction, caused by post-operative adhesions, to treat conservatively. Summary Background Data: Post-operative abdominal adhesions represent the main aetiological factor for intestinal obstruction. The mortality rate from intestinal obstruction has been quoted at 5 and ndash; 10% . The most effective way to...

  5. Significance of reduction of AP-diameter in the frame of a new method of protecting the small bowel during the radiotherapy of malignant tumors in the uterus

    Radiotherapy of uterine malignancies means that the considerable volume of normal tissue is inevitably being irradiated, including a part of the small bowel. Reducing the AP-diameter of the pelvis, it is possible to reduce the volume of high dose irradiation, simultaneously the small bowel volume within. On one specially constructed patient-table , on our own request ('Jugorendgen' Ei-Nis), at the Clinic of oncology-Nis we have prepared for irradiation 89 patients, under nonstandard conditions, in the period of one year. We have achieved the AP-diameter reduction of 1-7 cm (4.35-26.92 %) or, on the average, 2.97 cm (13.49 %), i.e.,the high dose volume reduction of the same proportion. (author)

  6. Limitations of indirect methods of estimating small bowel transit in man

    Pressman, J.H.; Hofmann, A.F.; Witztum, K.F.; Gertler, S.L.; Steinbach, J.H.; Stokes, K.; Kelts, D.G.; Stone, D.M.; Jones, B.R.; Dharmsathaphorn, K.

    1987-07-01

    Experiments were carried out in healthy volunteers to explore the utility of a new (/sup 14/C)lactulose breath test for measuring small intestinal transit time in man and to use this procedure to test whether two antidiarrheal agents, codeine and clonidine, alter small intestinal transit time during digestion of a liquid meal. In an initial validation study performed in 12 subjects, a liquid test meal containing 10 g (/sup 14/C)lactulose was administered and the colonic entry time estimated from the time course of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ excretion in breath compared with that of H/sub 2/ excretion. There was a fair correlation (r = 0.77; P less than 0.001) between results obtained by the two methods; both methods gave similar results, but /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ output was delayed when compared to H/sub 2/ output and was incomplete. The meal also contained xylose and (/sup 13/C)glycine, permitting the duodenal entry time of the meal to be estimated by the appearance of xylose in blood and /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ in breath, respectively. The same liquid meal was then used to examine the effect on small intestinal transit time (colonic entry time minus duodenal entry time) of codeine or clonidine. 99Tc-sulfur colloid was also added to the meal to permit a comparison of small intestinal transit estimated by imaging with that estimated by the /sup 14/CO/sub 2/-lactulose breath test. /sup 99/Tc radioactivity appeared in the cecum (as assessed using gamma scintigraphy) about 2 hr before /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ radioactivity appeared in breath; the correlation between transit time estimated by the two methods was moderate (r = 0.61; P less than 0.05). Based on the (/sup 14/C)lactulose data, small intestinal transit time ranged from less than 1 to 3 hr for a liquid meal containing 10 g lactulose; within-subject variation was considerably less than between-subject variation.

  7. Correlation between bladder volume and irradiated dose of small bowel in CT-based planning of intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of bladder volume on the dose distribution of intracavitary brachytherapy in computed tomography-based treatment planning for cervical cancer. Ten patients with cervical cancer were treated with high-dose rate radiation brachytherapy. For the three-dimensional analysis, pelvic computed tomographic scans were obtained from patients with indwelling catheters in place and from patients who received 50, 100, 150 and 200 cc injections of sterile water into their bladders ('200 cc' was defined as a full bladder). Additionally, scans were made in the prone position with the full bladder. Bladder fullness significantly affected the dose to the small bowel and bladder. The median of maximal doses to the small bowel was significantly greater with an empty bladder in all factors of hot spot (480 vs. 256 cGy on D-2cc). Although dosimetry revealed lower doses for larger volumes of bladder (D-50 and V-25%), the median maximal dose to the bladder was significantly greater with a full bladder (420 vs. 775 cGy on D-2cc). The rectosigmoid doses were not affected by bladder distension (476 vs. 467 cGy on D-2cc). After changing to the prone position, the hot spot dose of small bowel did not change but that of the bladder significantly decreased, although this procedure was very difficult. An increase in bladder volume resulted in a significant reduction in the hot spot dose of the small bowel at the expense of an increase in that of the bladder without changing the dose distribution of the rectosigmoid. (author)

  8. Effects of Bolus and Continuous Nasogastric Feeding on Gastric Emptying, Small Bowel Water Content, Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow, and Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Adults

    Chowdhury, Abeed H.; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L.; Costigan, Carolyn; Marciani, Luca; Macdonald, Ian A.; Bowling, Timothy E.; Lobo, Dileep N

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of continuous or bolus nasogastric feeding on gastric emptying, small bowel water content, and splanchnic blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the context of changes in plasma gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Background: Nasogastric/nasoenteral tube feeding is often complicated by diarrhea but the contribution of feeding strategy to the etiology is unclear. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male participants who underwent naso...

  9. An obscure cause of gastrointestinal bleeding: Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the small bowel

    Robyn L. Gorski; Salah Abdel Jalil; Manver Razick; Ala' Abdel Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the small intestine is a rare condition. It usually results in gastrointestinal bleeding and it could happen many years after the diagnosis with renal cell cancer. Treatment includes surgery as well as targeted agents such as tyrosine kinases. We report here the case of an 82-year-old man with a past medical history of high-grade renal cell carcinoma and right nephrectomy 6 years earlier, who presented with recurrent episodes of syncope and black stools. He ...

  10. Risk factors for colonic diverticular bleeding: A Westernized community based hospital study

    Antje Jansen, Sabine Harenberg, Uwe Grenda, Christoph Elsing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the risk factors-other than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-for colonic diverticular bleeding in a westernized population.METHODS: One hundred and forty patients, treated for symptomatic diverticular disease in a community based hospital, were included. Thirty (21% had signs of diverticular bleeding. Age, gender, and the results of colonoscopy were collected and compared to a group of patients with nonbleeding symptomatic diverticulosis. Records were reviewed for comorbidities, such as obesity, alcohol consumption, smoking habits and metabolic diseases. Special emphasis was put on arterial hypertension, cardiovascular events, diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia and hypercholesterinemia.RESULTS: There was no difference between patients with diverticular hemorrhage and those with nonbleeding symptomatic diverticulosis regarding gender ratio (male/female 9/21 vs 47/63 and diverticular localisation. Bleeding patients differed in respect to age (73.4 9.9 vs 67. 8 13.0, P < 0.013. Significant differences were found between both groups regarding the presence of hyperuricemia and use of steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients with three concomitant metabolic diseases were also identified as being at risk of bleeding. A forward stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed steroids, hyperuricemia and the use of calcium-channel blockers as independent risk factors of bleeding.CONCLUSION: Beside nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory steroid drug use, antihypertensive medication and concomitant arteriosclerotic diseases are risk factors for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Our results support the hypothesis of an altered arteriosclerotic vessel as the source of bleeding.

  11. Preoperative Radiation Treatment for Rectal Cancer: Comparison of Target Coverage and Small Bowel NTCP in Conventional vs. 3D-Conformal Planning

    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the improvement in rectal cancer radiation treatment achieved with the implementation of target delineation for conformal radiotherapy, replacing conventional technique using standard radiological anatomy for target volume definition. In 10 patients receiving preoperative pelvic irradiation for rectal cancer, a 3-field technique was designed by a 3-dimensional (3D) planning system. Two plans were simulated for each patient, one with the fields designed in the conventional way based on radiological anatomy, and the other with the fields designed on the basis of a computed tomography (CT) delineated planning target volume (PTV). A total dose of 45 Gy in 25-daily fractions of 1.8 Gy in 5 weeks was planned. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of PTV, small bowel, anal sphincter, and urinary bladder were analyzed to compare plans. The minimum, maximum, and mean dose in the PTV and in critical organs were also evaluated. The inhomogeneity coefficient (IC) and the target coverage (TC) were calculated. The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for each organ at risk (OAR) was determined. NTCP for small bowel and urinary bladder was not statistically different, while the PTV coverage was significantly lower with conventional treatment relative to conformal treatment (median IC = 7.2, median TC = 0.91 vs. median IC = 0.14 and median TC = 1, p < 0.005). The 3D conformal treatment plan in preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer improves target coverage without significantly affecting small bowel and urinary bladder NTCP

  12. LAPAROSCOPIC SIGMOIDECTOMY FOR COLONIC DIVERTICULAR DISEASE – CASE REPORT

    C. Bradea

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this presentation is to show the feasibility of resection and stappled anastomosis using laparoscopic technique. Material and method: A 48 years old male was admitted in our clinic with a colonoscopic diagnosis of diverticular disease limited to the sigmoid colon The symptoms included abdominal pain in the left lower quadrant, vomiting and flatulence lasting for a couple of months. The operation started with laparoscopic diagnosis, followed by the insertion of the additional trocars. We dissected the sigmoid mesentery using by-polar cautery, followed by transection of the recto-sigmoid junction with a linear laparoscopic stappler. Resection of the colon was completed outside the abdomen and the operation was finished using a transanal stappled colorectal anastomosis, inside the abdomen, under laparoscopic control.

  13. Embolization for Acute Small-Bowel Bleeding from the Collateral Artery of the Superior Mesenteric Left Deep Circumflex Iliac Artery Associated with Narrowing of the Bilateral Common External Iliac Arteries

    We present a case of acute small-bowel bleeding from the collateral artery of the superior mesenteric-left deep circumflex iliac artery that was successfully managed by transarterial coil embolization.

  14. An obscure cause of gastrointestinal bleeding: Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the small bowel

    Robyn L. Gorski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the small intestine is a rare condition. It usually results in gastrointestinal bleeding and it could happen many years after the diagnosis with renal cell cancer. Treatment includes surgery as well as targeted agents such as tyrosine kinases. We report here the case of an 82-year-old man with a past medical history of high-grade renal cell carcinoma and right nephrectomy 6 years earlier, who presented with recurrent episodes of syncope and black stools. He underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD and colonoscopy without evident source of bleeding. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE showed three bleeding lesions in the jejunum and ileum. Push enteroscopy revealed a proximal jejunum bleeding mass that was suspicious for malignancy. Histopathology demonstrated poorly differentiated carcinoma. Given the patient’s history of high-grade renal cell carcinoma, and similarity of histologic changes to the old renal cell cancer specimen, metastatic renal cell carcinoma was felt to be the responsible etiology.

  15. Dose-related effects of cerulein short infusions on proximal small bowel motility in sheep

    K. W. Romanski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cholecystokinin (CCK upon the intestinal motility has not been entirely explored in ruminants. The aim of this study was to examine the precise effects of CCK amphibian analogue, cerulein, on small-intestinal myoelectric activity in rams in the course of chronic experiments. Five rams underwent implantation of bipolar platinum electrodes to the duodenal bulb, the distal duodenum and jejunum. During continuous myoelectrical and motor recordings, 0.15 M NaCl or the various doses of cerulein were administered intravenously. Short infusions of the smallest dose of cerulein exerted a slight and mostly insignificant effect on the duodenal bulb and the duodenal myoelectric activity index (MAI values. In the duodenal bulb, the effects of cerulein on myoelectric activity were dose-dependent and closely related to the phase of the MMC. In the duodenum, the higher doses of the hormone evoked short stimulatory response followed by longer inhibitory biphasic effects on MAI. These effects were inversely related to the duration of hormone injection. Infusions of hormones at the higher doses caused a less pronounced biphasic effect. It is concluded that cerulein exerts an inhibitory effect upon the myoelectric activity of the duodenal bulb and a strong stimulatory and inhibitory (biphasic effect on duodenal motility in sheep.

  16. [GIST of the small bowel in neurofibromatosis terrain as a source of massive bleeding].

    Slov?ek, R; Adamov, Z; Mi?ulka, P

    2014-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type I (Morbus Von Recklinghausen) is an autosomal dominant disorder. The major diagnostic criteria include multiple cutaneous neurofibromas, caf au lait spots, that are rarely found in the gastrointestinal tract. 5-25% of these lesions, however, may develop into gastrointestinal stromal tumours. We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with Von Recklinghausen disease. She was admitted due to gastrointestinal bleeding. During surgery we found, among multiple neurofibromatic intestinal lesions, macroscopically different bleeding tumours. They were completely removed. Histological examination revealed gastrointestinal stromal tumour. Using an immunohistological assay, we examined stored specimens from previous operations on the same patient: one anal polyp removed a year ago and tumours removed 32 years ago and regarded as polyps then were re-classified as gastrointestinal stromal tumours. In the discussion, the authors address the issue of which examination of the intestine would be appropriate to find out the source of bleeding in the small intestine and how to distinguish intestinal stromal tumours in the terrain of intestinal neurofibromatosis. Another issue addressed is a screening examination in patients with skin forms of Recklinghausens disease. To successfully manage intestinal bleeding, close cooperation among the surgeon, the endoscopist and the radiologist is indispensable. In order to quickly establish the right diagnosis and subsequently target treatment promptly, it is very helpful to know the patients exact personal medical history and also the possible complications of chronic diseases. PMID:24720718

  17. Treatment with a belly-board device significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated and results in low acute toxicity in adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer: results of a prospective study

    Background and purpose: To determine whether treatment prone on a belly-board significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated in women receiving adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer, and to prospectively study acute small bowel toxicity using an accepted recording instrument. Material and methods: Thirty-two gynecologic patients underwent simulation with CT scanning supine and prone. Small bowel was delineated on every CT slice, and treatment was prone on the belly-board using 3-5 fields-typically Anterior, Right and Left Lateral, plus or minus Lateral Boosts. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy and all treatments were delivered in 1.8 Gy fractions. Concomitant Cisplatin was administered in 13 patients with cervical carcinoma. Comparison of small bowel dose-volumes was made between supine and prone, with each subject acting as their own matched pair. Acute small bowel toxicity was prospectively measured using the Common Toxicity Criteria: Version 2.0. Results: Treatment prone on the belly-board significantly reduced the volume of small bowel receiving ≥100; ≥95; ≥90; and ≥80% of the prescribed dose, but not ≥50%. This was found whether volume was defined in cubic centimeters or % of total small bowel volume. Of 29 evaluable subjects, 2 (7%) experienced 1 episode each of grade 3 diarrhoea. All other toxicity events were grade 2 or less and comprised diarrhoea (59%), abdominal pain or cramping (48%), nausea (38%), anorexia (17%), vomiting (10%). There were no Grade 4 events and no treatment days were lost due to toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment prone on a belly-board device results in significant small bowel sparing, during adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. The absence of Grade 4 events or Treatment Days Lost compares favorably with the published literature

  18. Spectrum of chronic small bowel diarrhea with malabsorption in Indian subcontinent: is the trend really changing?

    Ingle, Meghraj; Rathi, Chetan; Poddar, Prateik; Pandav, Nilesh; Sawant, Prabha

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to document the recent etiological spectrum of chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and also to compare features that differentiate tropical sprue from parasitic infections, the two most common etiologies of malabsorption in the tropics. Methods We analyzed 203 consecutive patients with malabsorption. The etiological spectrum and factors that differentiated tropical sprue from parasitic infections were analyzed. Results The most common etiology was tropical sprue (n=98, 48.3%) followed by parasitic infections (n=25, 12.3%) and tuberculosis (n=22, 10.8%). Other causes were immunodeficiency (n=15, 7.3%; 12 with human immunodeficiency virus and 3 with hypogammaglobulinemia), celiac disease (n=11, 5.4%), Crohn's disease (n=11, 5.4%), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (n=11, 5.4%), hyperthyroidism (n=4, 1.9%), diabetic diarrhea (n=4, 1.9%), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=3, 1.4%), metastatic carcinoid (n=1, 0.5%) and Burkitt's lymphoma (n=1, 0.5%). On multivariate analysis, features that best differentiated tropical sprue from parasitic infections were larger stool volume (P=0.009), severe weight loss (P=0.02), knuckle hyperpigmentation (P=0.008), low serum B12 levels (P=0.05), high mean corpuscular volume (P=0.003), reduced height or scalloping of the duodenal folds on endoscopy (P=0.003) and villous atrophy on histology (P=0.04). Presence of upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms like bloating, nausea and vomiting predicted parasitic infections (P=0.01). Conclusions Tropical sprue and parasitic infections still dominate the spectrum of malabsorption in India. Severe symptoms and florid malabsorption indicate tropical sprue while the presence of upper GI symptoms indicates parasitic infections.

  19. Value of multidetector CT in decision making regarding surgery in patients with small-bowel obstruction due to adhesion

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of use of multidetector CT (MDCT) to predict the need for subsequent surgery in patients with small-bowel obstruction (SBO) due to adhesion. During a 3-year period, 128 patients with an SBO due to adhesion were enrolled in this prospective study. Initially, all patients were treated conservatively. Surgery was performed in patients who developed signs of strangulation or did not improve, despite a conservative treatment for at least 5 days. Of the 128 patients, 37 patients eventually underwent surgery. Two radiologists interpreted MDCT findings regarded as predictive indicators for subsequent surgery in consensus. The findings included degree of SBO, presence of transition zone, and an abnormal vascular course. These findings were statistically compared between the group operated on and the group not operated on. A higher degree of SBO, an abnormal vascular course, and the presence of transition zone were more frequently seen in the group of patients operated on (p<0.001). Sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values, and risks for the use of MDCT to predict the need for surgery were 100%, 46.1%, 43%, 100%, and 1.9 (1.5 ≤ 95% confidence interval (CI) ≤ 2.2) for a high-grade obstruction; 100%, 23%, 34.5%, 100%, and 1.3 (1.2 ≤ 95% CI ≤ 1.5) for the presence of a transition zone; and 70.2%, 90.1%, 74.2%, 88.1%, and 7.1 (3.7 ≤ 95% CI ≤ 13.7) for the presence of an abnormal course of the mesenteric vessels, respectively. The presence of a high degree of SBO and an abnormal vascular course around transition zone are useful indicators on MDCT to predict the need for surgery in patients with an SBO due to adhesion. (orig.)

  20. Occupational risk factors for small bowel carcinoid tumor: a European population-based case-control study.

    Kaerlev, Linda; Teglbjaerg, Peter Stubbe; Sabroe, Svend; Kolstad, Henrik A; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Hardell, Lennart; Cyr, Diane; Ballard, Terri; Zambon, Paola; Morales Suárez-Varela, María M; Stang, Andreas; Olsen, Jorn

    2002-06-01

    Small bowel carcinoid tumor (SBC) is a rare disease of unknown etiology but with an age-, sex-, and place-specific occurrence that may indicate an occupational origin. A European multicenter population-based case-control study was conducted from 1995 through 1997. Incident SBC cases between 35 and 69 years of age (n = 101) were identified, together with 3335 controls sampled from the catchment area of the cases. Histological review performed by a reference pathologist left 99 cases for study; 84 cases and 2070 population controls were interviewed. The industries most closely associated (a twofold or more odds ratio [OR]) with SBC, taking into account a 10-year time lag after exposure were, among women, employment in wholesale industry of food and beverages (OR, 8.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 34.9]) and among men, manufacture of motor vehicle bodies (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 22.4), footwear (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 0.9 to 16.1), and metal structures (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 10.4). The identified high-risk occupations with an OR above 2 were shoemakers, structural metal preparers, construction painters and other construction workers, bookkeepers, machine fitters, and welders (men). The OR for regular occupational use of organic solvents for at least half a year was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0 to 4.2). Exposure to rust-preventive paint containing lead was suggested as another potential occupational exposure (OR, 9.1; 95% CI, 0.8 to 107). This explorative study suggests an association between certain occupational exposures and SBC, but some of these associations could be attributable to chance. All findings should be regarded as tentative. PMID:12085477

  1. Blue mode imaging may improve the detection and visualization of small-bowel lesions: A capsule endoscopy study

    Usama M Abdelaal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diagnostic miss rate and time consumption are the two challenging limitations of small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE. In this study, we aimed to know whether using of the blue mode (BM combined with QuickView (QV at a high reviewing speed could influence SBCE interpretation and accuracy. Materials and Methods: Seventy CE procedures were totally reviewed in four different ways; (1 using the conventional white light, (2 using the BM, [on a viewing speed at 10 frames per second (fps], (3 using white light, and (4 using the BM (on a viewing speed at 20 fps. In study A, the results of (1 were compared with those of (2, and in study B, the results of (3 and (4 were separately compared with those of (1. Results: In study A, the total number of the vascular (P < 0.001 and the inflammatory lesions (P = 0.005 detected by BM was significantly higher than that detected by the white light. No lesion was found using the white light that was not detected by the BM. Moreover, the BM highly improved the image quality of all the vascular lesions and the erythematous ones from the nonvascular lesions. In study B, the total number of only the vascular lesions, detected by the BM on a rapid speed of viewing at 20 fps was significantly higher than that detected by the white light (P = 0.035. However, the true miss rate for the BM was 4%. Conclusion: BM imaging is a new method that improved the detection and visualization of the vascular and erythematous nonvascular lesions of SB as compared with the conventional white light imaging. Using of the BM at a slow viewing speed, markedly reduced the diagnostic miss rate of CE.

  2. Elemental enteral nutrition preserves the mucosal barrier and improves the trophism of the villi after small bowel transplantation in piglets.

    Zonta, S; Doni, M; Alessiani, M; Lovisetto, F; Vigano, J; Mazzilli, M; Dominioni, T; Podetta, M; De Martino, M; Scaglione, M; Vicini, E; Bottazzi, A; Villa, C; Morbini, P; Dionigi, P

    2007-01-01

    The main goals for a successful small bowel transplantation (SBTx) are the control of acute rejection and maintenance of the mucosal barrier, which plays a key role in preventing bacterial translocation and preserving absorptive capacity. According to recent evidence that sustaining enteral nutrition (EN) as rehabilitative therapy improves the integrity of the mucosal barrier after SBTx, we studied the trophic effect of a new elemental enteral solution whose proteinic supply is represented by oligomeric-aminoacidic chains. In a swine SBTx model we studied three groups, divided by the different postoperative feeding: group 1 (n = 5): standard swine chow, group 2 (n = 5): polymeric enteral solution, group 3 (n = 5): elemental enteral solution (Peptamen, Nestlè Corp). All animals were immunosuppressed with a tacrolimus/FK778 combined oral therapy. The nutritional indices evaluated were: body weight, episodes of diarrhea, D-xylose absorption test, and histopatological and villi morphometric analysis. Three pigs died before the end of the study, two in group 1 (pneumonia and sepsis), one in group 2 (pneumonia). Mean days of diarrhea were 15, 10, and 3 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P < .05). The final/starting weight ratio was 1.08 for group 3 and 0.92 for group 2 (P < .05); the D-xylose curves showed a statistically significant difference for group 3 versus the groups 2 and 1 (P < .05), as well as for the villi height (P < .01) and width (P < .05). In conclusion, elemental enteral solution, with its basic protein supply, does not require a very complex enzymatic system to be metabolized. Thus, it may contribute to a faster recovery of the mucosal barrier and to limit the hypercatabolic state. PMID:17692682

  3. Early outcome of different steroid-free regimens in small bowel transplantation: a large-animal study.

    Doni, M; Cobianchi, L; Alessiani, M; Zonta, S; Abbiati, F; Morbini, P; Bardone, M; Mazzilli, M; Viganò, J; De Martino, M; Dominioni, T; Dionigi, B; Molinaro, M D; Bottazzi, A; Dionigi, P

    2006-01-01

    The intestine is a highly immunogenic organ that requires heavy immunosuppression (IS); therefore corticosteroid withdrawal after clinical small bowel transplantation (SBT) has not been standardized. In this study, we compared different immunosuppressive regimens (none with steroid or induction treatment) in a SBT pig model. Large White unrelated piglets were transplanted and divided into four groups as follow: group 1 (n = 3): no IS; group 2 (n = 10): IS with tacrolimus only; group 3 (n = 10): IS with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil; group 4 (n = 5): IS with tacrolimus and rapamycin. Follow-up time was 30 days. All IS drugs were given orally; tacrolimus whole blood levels ranged between 5 and 15 ng/mL in all groups except for group 2 whose tacrolimus whole blood levels ranged between 15 and 25 ng/mL. Group 1 pigs died of graft acute rejection (ACR) after a median of 12 days. Overall survival in groups 2, 3, and 4 at day 30 was 40%, 80%, and 60%, respectively. Biochemical parameters, including glycemia and cholesterol, were into the normal range with no significant differences between groups. At the end of the study, one animal in group 2 and another one in group 4 showed histological signs of moderate to severe ACR. The incidence of infection was higher in group 2 (2.1 episodes/pig) compared to group 3 (1.25) and group 4 (1.6). This large-animal study demonstrates that tacrolimus-based IS without corticosteroids allows, in the early postoperative period (30 days) after SBT, good survival rates without an increased risk in the incidence of rejection. PMID:16908289

  4. Effects of the Paclitaxel and Radiation in the Mucosa of the Small Bowel of Rat

    Purpose : Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent with potent microtublue stablelizing activity that arrests cell cycle in G2-M. Because G2-M is the most radiosensitive phase of the cell cycle. Paclitaxel has potential as a cell cycle- specic radio sensitizer. This study was design to investigate the ablity of paclitaxel to increase the radiotoxicity in normal small bowl mucosa of the rat. Methods and Materials : A single intraperitoneal infusion of paciltaxel(10mg/kg). And a single irradiation(8 Gy, x-ray) to the whole abdomen and combination of radiation(8 Gy, x-ray) 24 hours after paclitaxel infusion in the rats were done. The changes of jejunal mucosa. And kinetics of mitotic arrest and apoptosis in the jejunal crypt were defined at 6 hours ? 5 days after each treatment histologically. Results : Paclitaxel blocked jejunal crypt cell in mitosis and induced minmal apoptosis. Mitotic arrest by paclitaxel was peaked at 6 hours after infusion and returned to normal by 24 hours. Radiation induced apoptosis and peaked at 6 hours and returned to normal by 24 hours. Combination of paclitaxel and radiation blocked crypt cell in mitosis at 3 days and induced apoptosis slightly at 6 hours and 24 hours and returned to normal by 3 days. The incidence of apopsis in combined group at 6hours was slightly higher than normal control buy significantly lower than radiation alone group. The major changes of jejunal mucosa were nuclear vesicle and atypia which were appered at 6 hours ? 3 days and returned to normal by 5 days. The degree of mucosal changes are no different in 3 groups except for absence of inflmatory reaction in radiation group. Conclusion : Mitotic arrest by paclitaxel was peaked at 6hours and returned to normal by 24 hours and paclitaxel induced minimal apoptosis. Radiation induced apoptosis, Peaked at 6 hours and returned to normal by 24 hours. Radiation induced apoptosis was less in combined group which suggested that paclitaxel have a radioprotective effech when radiation was given 24 hours after paclitaxel infusion

  5. Small bowel toxicity after high dose spot scanning-based proton beam therapy for paraspinal/retroperitoneal neoplasms

    Purpose: Mesenchymal tumours require high-dose radiation therapy (RT). Small bowel (SB) dose constraints have historically limited dose delivery to paraspinal and retroperitoneal targets. This retrospective study correlated SB dose-volume histograms with side-effects after proton radiation therapy (PT). Patients and methods: Between 1997 and 2008, 31 patients (mean age 52.1 years) underwent spot scanning-based PT for paraspinal/retroperitoneal chordomas (81 %), sarcomas (16 %) and meningiom (3 %). Mean total prescribed dose was 72.3 Gy (relative biologic effectiveness, RBE) delivered in 1.8-2 Gy (RBE) fractions. Mean follow-up was 3.8 years. Based on the pretreatment planning CT, SB dose distributions were reanalysed. Results: Planning target volume (PTV) was defined as gross tumour volume (GTV) plus 5-7 mm margins. Mean PTV was 560.22 cm3. A mean of 93.2 % of the PTV was covered by at least 90 % of the prescribed dose. SB volumes (cm3) receiving doses of 5, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 75 and 80 Gy (RBE) were calculated to give V5, V20, V30, V40, V50, V60, V70, V75 and V80 respectively. In 7/31 patients, PT was accomplished without any significant SB irradiation (V5 = 0). In 24/31 patients, mean maximum dose (Dmax) to SB was 64.1 Gy (RBE). Despite target doses of > 70 Gy (RBE), SB received > 50 and > 60 Gy (RBE) in only 61 and 54 % of patients, respectively. Mean SB volumes (cm3) covered by different dose levels (Gy, RBE) were: V20 (n = 24): 45.1, V50 (n = 19): 17.7, V60 (n = 17): 7.6 and V70 (n = 12): 2.4. No acute toxicity ≥ grade 2 or late SB sequelae were observed. Conclusion: Small noncircumferential volumes of SB tolerated doses in excess of 60 Gy (RBE) without any clinically-significant late adverse effects. This small retrospective study has limited statistical power but encourages further efforts with higher patient numbers to define and establish high-dose threshold models for SB toxicity in modern radiation oncology. (orig.)

  6. Surgical therapy of radiation-induced small-bowel lesions. Report of 34 cases with a high share of patients with combined chemotherapy

    Operations on irradiation-injured bowel are rare, bear a high postoperative mortality, and the procedure of choice (resection vs bypass) is still controversial. Thirty-seven operations on small bowel for late effects of irradiation in 16 years were analyzed retrospectively. Fifty-one percent of the operations were performed in the last four years. Ovarian cancer treated by a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy was the most frequent underlying disease of 20 patients (58%) followed by carcinoma of the cervix (eight [24%] of the patients). The median latent period between irradiation and surgery was eight months after the combined radiotherapy/chemotherapy, and 12 months after radiotherapy alone. Thirty operations (81%) were done for small-bowel stricture, four for fistula, and three for perforation. Bypass was performed in 17 patients and resection in 16. Complications (fistula, peritonitis, perforation) occurred after 13 operations (35%). All three patients who developed peritonitis died (mortality, 8.1%): two after resection and one after bypass. Suture-associated complications occurred in three (23%) of 13 cases after single-layer and in three (35%) of 17 cases after two-layer anastomoses. Ten patients are still alive two to 76 months (median, 32 months) after operation, six of them free of tumor. All are underweight and suffer from diarrhea (four to 12 stools per day). Pernicious anemia developed in all six patients surviving more than two years

  7. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT: differences in target volumes and improvement in clinically relevant doses to small bowel in rectal carcinoma

    Delclos Marc E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong dose-volume relationship exists between the amount of small bowel receiving low- to intermediate-doses of radiation and the rates of acute, severe gastrointestinal toxicity, principally diarrhea. There is considerable interest in the application of highly conformal treatment approaches, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, to reduce dose to adjacent organs-at-risk in the treatment of carcinoma of the rectum. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive dosimetric evaluation of IMRT compared to 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT in standard, preoperative treatment for rectal cancer. Methods Using RTOG consensus anorectal contouring guidelines, treatment volumes were generated for ten patients treated preoperatively at our institution for rectal carcinoma, with IMRT plans compared to plans derived from classic anatomic landmarks, as well as 3DCRT plans treating the RTOG consensus volume. The patients were all T3, were node-negative (N = 1 or node-positive (N = 9, and were planned to a total dose of 45-Gy. Pairwise comparisons were made between IMRT and 3DCRT plans with respect to dose-volume histogram parameters. Results IMRT plans had superior PTV coverage, dose homogeneity, and conformality in treatment of the gross disease and at-risk nodal volume, in comparison to 3DCRT. Additionally, in comparison to the 3DCRT plans, IMRT achieved a concomitant reduction in doses to the bowel (small bowel mean dose: 18.6-Gy IMRT versus 25.2-Gy 3DCRT; p = 0.005, bladder (V40Gy: 56.8% IMRT versus 75.4% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, pelvic bones (V40Gy: 47.0% IMRT versus 56.9% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, and femoral heads (V40Gy: 3.4% IMRT versus 9.1% 3DCRT; p = 0.005, with an improvement in absolute volumes of small bowel receiving dose levels known to induce clinically-relevant acute toxicity (small bowel V15Gy: 138-cc IMRT versus 157-cc 3DCRT; p = 0.005. We found that the IMRT treatment volumes were typically larger than that covered by classic bony landmark-derived fields, without incurring penalty with respect to adjacent organs-at-risk. Conclusions For rectal carcinoma, IMRT, compared to 3DCRT, yielded plans superior with respect to target coverage, homogeneity, and conformality, while lowering dose to adjacent organs-at-risk. This is achieved despite treating larger volumes, raising the possibility of a clinically-relevant improvement in the therapeutic ratio through the use of IMRT with a belly-board apparatus.

  8. Diverticulite do intestino delgado, uma causa incomum de abdome agudo inflamatório =Diverticulitis of the small bowel, an unusual cause of inflamatory acute abdomen

    Leão, Ari BenHur Stefani et al.

    2012-01-01

    Conclusões: A localização da doença diverticular no intestino delgado é pouco comum, e sua apresentação com complicações como perfuração, obstrução e hemorragia a tornam de grande importância clínica, pela dificuldade de se estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial com outras moléstias abdominais.

  9. Small bowel resection - discharge

    ... ready when you can be active around the house for 8 hours and still feel ok when you wake up the next morning. You may want to start back part-time and on light duty at first. Your doctor can write a ...

  10. Eating and Bowel Control

    ... Home Living with Bowel Control Problems Resources Bowel Control Awareness Campaign Home Resources for Health Care Providers ... Home : Eating and Bowel Control Eating and Bowel Control Some bowel control problems improve simply by changing ...

  11. Prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal en pacientes apendicectomizados por apendicitis aguda Diverticular disease of the appendix in appendectomies

    César Muñoz C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal es un hallazgo infrecuente en apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar la prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal en pacientes apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Material y Método: Diseño de estudio: Estudio de corte transversal. Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Período de estudio: enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2008. Muestreo: No probabilístico de casos consecutivos. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión de los registros clínicos y de las piezas quirúrgicas de los pacientes sometidos a apendicectomía por diagnóstico clínico de apendicitis aguda. Resultados: Se estudiaron 11.472 apendicectomías. Noventa y cuatro pacientes presentaron enfermedad diverticular del apéndice (0,8%. La mediana de edad fue 40 años y el 62,8% fue género masculino. La enfermedad se presentó como: diverticulitis apendicular (45,7%, diverticulosis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (28,7%, diverticulitis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (17,0%, diverticulosis apendicular (5,3% y pseudodiverticulosis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (3,2%. La morbilidad operatoria fue 12,7%. Un paciente presentó un adenocarcinoma del apéndice cecal asociado a la enfermedad diverticular del apéndice. Conclusión: La prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal es baja en nuestra población y con características que difieren a lo reportado por otros autores.Introduction: Diverticular disease of the appendix is an infrequent finding in the study of surgical specimens from patients operated on for clinically suspected acute appendicitis. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of diverticular disease of the appendix in patients who underwent appendectomies based on the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Material and Method: Design: Cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria: Patients who underwent appendectomies based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Studyperiod: january 2000 to december 2008. Sampling: Non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases. Methodology: A review was conducted of the clinical records and surgical specimens from patients who underwent appendectomies based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Results: Within the study period, 11.472 appendectomies were performed based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ninety-four patients presented diverticular disease of the appendix (0.8%. The median age was 40 years and 62.8% were male. The disease appeared as: appendicular diverticulitis (45.7%, appendicular diverticulosis with acute appendicitis (28.7%, appendicular diverticulitis with acute appendicitis (17.0%, appendicular diverticulosis (5.3%, and appendicular pseudodiverticulosis with acute appendicitis (3.2%. Operative morbidity was 12.7%. One patient presented an adenocarcinoma of the appendix associated with diverticular disease. Conclusion: The prevalence of diverticular disease of the appendix is low in our population and the characteristics are different to reported by other authors.

  12. The small bowel flora in individuals with cecoileal reflux / Estudo da flora do delgado em doentes com refluxo cecoileal

    Wellington Monteiro, Machado; Jos Ricardo Arruda, Miranda; Jos, Morceli; Carlos Roberto, Padovani.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Fato de observao no rara, o encontro de refluxo cecoileal durante realizao de enema opaco. As causas e conseqncias deste achado tm sido pouco estudadas. OBJETIVOS: Sabendo que a juno ileocecal exerce funo de barreira e proteo contra a invaso do delgado pela flora colnica, [...] realizou-se o presente estudo com a finalidade de investigar se existe contaminao ileal em indivduos com refluxo cecoileal ao enema opaco. MTODOS: Investigaram-se 36 indivduos, 30 mulheres e 6 homens, idade mdia de 54 anos, 25 com e 11 com ausncia refluxo cecoileal. Todos submetidos a pesquisa de contaminao bacteriana do delgado por intermdio de teste respiratrio com lactulose-H2 e a determinao do tempo de trnsito orocecal por meio de biossusceptometria de corrente alternada. A caracterizao da contaminao do delgado foi baseada no encurtamento do tempo de trnsito orocecal medido pelo teste da lactulose-H2. RESULTADOS: A comparao dos valores basais do H2, do tempo de trnsito orocecal-H2 e tempo de trnsito orocecal-biossusceptometria de corrente alternada no diferiram estatisticamente entre os grupos com e sem refluxo cecoileal. Quando comparados os tempo de trnsito orocecal-H2 e tempo de trnsito orocecal-biossusceptometria, foi observado aumento de tendncia de reduo do primeiro em relao ao ltimo nos grupos com refluxo cecoileal e correlao significante entre os dois mtodos apenas no grupo-controle, inexistindo nos com refluxo cecoileal. CONCLUSO: Encurtamento do tempo de trnsito orocecal-H2 e sua perda de correlao com o tempo de trnsito orocecal-biossusceptometria observado em indivduos com refluxo cecoileal, sugerem comportamento diferenciado deste grupo em relao ao grupo-controle. Possvel explicao para as diferenas registradas entre os grupos, seria a presena de flora anmala nos indivduos com refluxo cecoileal. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The observation of cecoileal reflux to barium enema is not rare; however, its causes and consequences have not been widely investigated. Considering that ileocecal junction exerts a function as barrier to invasion of bacteria from colon to small bowel, it seems interesting to study the i [...] ntestinal microflora in subjects carrying cecoileal reflux. AIMS: This study aims at evaluating the ileal flora in individuals with cecoileal reflux. METHODS: A group of 36 subjects comprising 30 females and 6 males with a mean age of 54 years was assessed. Twenty-five individuals with cecoileal reflux and 11 without cecoileal reflux were submitted to small intestine contamination evaluation through the breath test with lactulose-H2 and measurement of the orocecal transit time by means of alternate current biosusceptometry. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth was characterized by orocecal transit time-H2 shortening. RESULTS: Comparison of basal H2, orocecal transit time-H2 and orocecal transit time-alternate current biosusceptometry measurements did not statistically differ between the groups with and without cecoileal reflux. Orocecal transit time-H2 was significantly smaller than orocecal transit time-alternate current biosusceptometry, particularly in individuals with cecoileal reflux. A significant correlation between the two methods was observed only in relation to control, not existing in relation to cecoileal reflux group. CONCLUSIONS: Smaller orocecal transit time-H2 and the loss of correlation with orocecal transit time-alternate current biosusceptometry observed in the individuals with cecoileal reflux suggest a differentiated behavior for such group relative to control, which could be associated with small intestine bacterial overgrowth.

  13. Reduction of irradiated small bowel volume and accurate patient positioning by use of a bellyboard device in pelvic radiotherapy of gynecological cancer patients

    Purpose: To reduce the volume of small bowel within pelvic treatment fields for gynecological cancer using a bellyboard device and to determine the accuracy of the prone treatment position. Materials and methods: Fifteen consecutive patients with a gynecologic malignancy who were treated with postoperative pelvic radiotherapy were selected for this study. The volume of small bowel within the treatment fields was calculated for both the supine and prone treatment positions. The patients were treated in the prone position in a so-called bellyboard device. During treatment sessions electronic portal images were obtained. An off-line setup verification and correction protocol was used and the setup accuracy of the positioning in the bellyboard was determined. Results: The average volume of small bowel within the treatment fields was 229 cm3 and 66 cm3 in the supine and prone treatment, respectively, which means an average volume reduction in the prone position of 64% (95% CI 56-72%), as compared with the supine position. For the position of the patient in the field, the systematic error defined by the standard deviation (SD) of the mean difference per patient between simulation and treatment images was 1.7 mm in the lateral direction, 2.1 mm in the craniocaudal direction and 1.7 mm in the ventrodorsal direction. On average, only 0.4 setup correction per patient was required to achieve this accuracy. The random day-to-day variations were 1.9 (1SD), 2.6 and 2.3 mm, respectively. Standard deviations of the systematic differences between patient positioning relative to the bellyboard were 6.2 mm in lateral direction and 9.1 mm in craniocaudal direction. Conclusions: Treatment of gynecological cancer patients in the prone position using a bellyboard reduces the volume of irradiated small bowel. An off-line verification and correction protocol ensures accurate patient positioning. Daily setup variations using the bellyboard were small (1 SD<3 mm). Therefore for pelvic radiotherapy in patients with a gynecological malignancy, the use of a bellyboard is recommended

  14. Influence of bellyboard on the volume and dose of small bowel in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of post-operative Stage II + III rectum cancer

    Objective: To prospectively assess the effect of bellyboard on volume and dose of small bowel in post-operative stage II + III rectum cancer patient treated with three-dimensional conformal radio- therapy. Methods: Nine patients with rectum cancer after radical operation were examined by sim-CT scan. Two sets of images were taken for the whole pelvis with or without bellyboard. A three-beam treatment plan of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy was made by the XioCMS treatment planning system. The max dose, the mean dose and the dose on V5, V10, V15, V20, V25, V30, V35, V40, V45, V50, V55 were evaluated in the plan of two positions. Results: Of the two sets of plans, the mean dose of the plan with bellyboard was lower than without bellyboard (1749.4 cGy vs 2124.8 cGy, P=0.023). And the high-dose volume of the plan with bellyboard was smaller than without bellyboard (V50: 51.4 cm3 vs 57.7 cm3, P 0.319). However, the low dose volume was signicantly larger than that in the plan with bellyboard(V5: 376.3 cm3 vs 230.1 cm3, P =0.001). And the mean dose(3557.0 cGy vs 4036.1 cGy, P=0.001)and V15-V50 of the bladder were significantly reduced by the bellyboard. Conclusion: The use of bellyboard signicantly reducess the mean dose in small bowel and bladder, and increases the low-dose volume of small bowel for post-operative stage II + III rectum cancer patient when treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. (authors)

  15. Germ line mutations of mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients with small bowel cancer: International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours Collaborative Study

    Park, Jae-Gahb; Kim, Duck-Woo; Hong, Chang Won; Nam, Byung-Ho; Shin, Young-Kyoung; Hong, Sung-Hye; Kim, Il-Jin; Lim, Seok-Byung; Aronson, Melyssa; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Brown, Gregor J; Burn, John; Chow, Elizabeth; Conrad, Peggy; Douglas, Fiona; Dunlop, Malcolm; Ford, James; Greenblatt, Marc S; Heikki, Jarvinen; Heinimann, Karl; Lynch, Elly L; Macrae, Finlay; McKinnon, Wendy C; Meslein, Gabriela; Rossi, Benedito Mauro; Rozen, Paul; Schofield, Lyn; Vaccaro, Carlos; Vasen, Hans; Velthuizen, Mary; Viel, Alessandra; Wijnen, Juul

    PURPOSE: The aim of study was to determine the clinical characteristics and mutational profiles of the mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients with small bowel cancer (SBC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A questionnaire was mailed to 55 members of the Internatio.......8%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In HNPCC patients, SBC can be the first and only cancer and may develop as soon as the early teens. The distribution of MSH2 mutations found in patients with HNPCC-associated SBCs significantly differed from that found in the control group (P < 0.001)....

  16. 75Se HCAT test in the detection of bile acid malabsorption in functional diarrhoea and its correlation with small bowel transit.

    Sciarretta, G; Fagioli, G; Furno, A.; Vicini, G; Cecchetti, L; B. Grigolo; Verri, A.; Malaguti, P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether bile acid malabsorption assessed by the 75SeHCAT test, had a pathogenetic role in functional chronic diarrhoea and to ascertain whether the small bowel transit time (SBTT) could be correlated with the 75SeHCAT test results. The test was based on the counting of the abdominal retention of a 75-selenium labelled homotaurocholic acid. The 75SeHCAT test was carried out in a control group of 23 healthy adults and in 46 patients, 38 of whom were suf...

  17. Morpho-functional evaluation of small bowel using wireless motility capsule and video capsule endoscopy in patients with known or suspected Crohn’s disease: pilot study

    Yung, Diana; Douglas, Sarah; Hobson, Anthony R.; Giannakou, Andry; Plevris, John N.; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: SmartPill® (Given Imaging Corp.,Yoqneam,Israel) is an ingestible, non-imaging capsule that records physiological data including contractions and pH throughout the gastrointestinal tract. There are scarce data looking at SmartPill® assessment of patients with known/suspected small-bowel Crohn’s Disease (CD). This pilot study aims to investigate feasibility and safety of SmartPill® to assess gut motility in this group.  Patients and methods: Over 1 year, patients with known/suspected CD, referred for small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE), were invited to participate and 12 were recruited (7 female, 5 male, mean age 44.2 ± 16.6 years). They underwent hydrogen breath test to exclude small-bowel bacterial overgrowth, patency capsule (Agile®), and provided stool samples for fecal calprotectin (FC). Patients ingested PillCam®SB2 and SmartPill® 4 hours apart. Using unpublished data, 33 healthy controls also were identified for the study. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 12 patients enrolled, 10 underwent complete Smartpill® examination (1 stomach retention, 1 dropout). Pillcam® was complete in 10 (1 dropout, 1 stomach retention). Mean fecal calprotectin was 340 ± 307.71 mcg/g. The study group had longer transit times and lower gut motility index than did the controls. The difference in motility appears to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Longer transit times for SmartPill® (not statistically significant) may have been due to different specifications between the capsules. Limitations included transient Smartpill® signal loss (5/10 studies). Conclusions: This is the first pilot to attempt combining SBCE and SmartPill® to assess small-bowel CD. Data on motility in CD are scarce. Multimodal information can provide a clearer clinical picture. Despite concerns about capsule retention in CD patients, SmartPill® seems safe for use if a patency capsule is employed beforehand. PMID:27092333

  18. Analysis of a grading system to assess the quality of small-bowel preparation for capsule endoscopy: in search of the Holy Grail

    Goyal, Jatinder; Goel, Anshum; McGwin, Gerald; Weber, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy is vulnerable to inadequate visualization related to residual bile or chyme remaining in the lumen despite intestinal lavage. It has been challenging to determine the optimal lavage preparation of the bowel and patient diet before capsule endoscopy, as well as the timing of the procedure, because no well-accepted, validated grading system for assessing the quality of intestinal lavage before capsule endoscopy is available. There remains no consensus on the reliability of qualitative, quantitative, or computer-derived assessments of the quality of preparation for capsule endoscopy. This study evaluates intra-observer and interobserver agreement for a previously validated scale. Materials and methods: The digital images of 34 patients who underwent capsule endoscopy were independently reviewed by two blinded physicians according to a previously validated grading scale. One of the physicians reviewed and graded the patients a second time. The quality of the bowel luminal preparation was assessed with a qualitative parameter (fluid transparency) and a more quantitative parameter (mucosal invisibility) for each of three small-intestinal segments, and an overall small-bowel score for each parameter was assigned as well. A weighted kappa coefficient was used to calculate intra-observer (observer 1A and 1B) and interobserver (observer 1A and observer 2) agreement. A kappa value of 0.60 or more suggests strong agreement, 0.40 to 0.60 moderate agreement, and less than 0.40 poor agreement. Results: The intra-observer weighted kappa index for both fluid transparency and mucosal visibility was 0.52, which is consistent with moderate agreement. The interobserver weighted kappa indices for fluid transparency and mucosal invisibility were 0.29 and 0.42, respectively, demonstrating suboptimal interobserver agreement. The individual segment interobserver kappa indices were better for mucosal visibility (0.52, 0.39, and 0.47 for small-bowel segments 1, 2, and 3, respectively) than for fluid transparency (0.18, 0.38, and 0.31). Conclusions: The proposed grading scale for assessing the quality of preparation for capsule endoscopy has inadequate interobserver and intra-observer agreement. Capsule endoscopy preparation grading scales that focus more on quantitative than on qualitative assessment may demonstrate more reliable performance characteristics. Optimizing the quality of preparation and diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy will first require the development of a well-validated grading scale. PMID:26134966

  19. [Role of vascular erosion in massive colonic hemorrhage of diverticular origin. Apropos of a case].

    Delattre, J F; Palot, J P; Casola, M; Baudrillard, J C; Denis, J P

    1986-01-01

    A case of massive hemorrhage from colon of diverticular origin is reported. A complete study of operative specimen allowed precise localization of diverticulum responsible and guidance of histopathologists in their search for the arterial erosion. Histology showed loss of arterial substance with total communication with diverticular lumen. A literature review emphasized vascular relations of diverticuli and the role of stercoliths in the mechanical agression responsible for the massive hemorrhage. It also illustrated the predominance of arteriography in the modern diagnostic and therapeutic approach to these lesions. PMID:3490484

  20. New trends in the management of diverticulitis and colonic diverticular disease

    Francisco Javier Medina-Fernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Colonic diverticular disease is a chronic disorder presenting with a variety of abdominal symptoms and recurrent episodes of acute diverticulitis. It is close linked to age so its prevalence has risen notably during the last decades in western countries, increasing costs related to medical attention. Recently, several works have provided evidence to a series of measures that could improve the outcomes as well as reduce expenses associated to this process. The aim of the present review is to expose a view of the new trends in the management of diverticulitis and colonic diverticular disease, based on the highest clinical evidence available.

  1. S2k guidelines for diverticular disease and diverticulitis. Diagnosis, classification, and therapy for the radiologist

    Diverticular disease and diverticulitis represent an increasingly common disease especially in patients with advanced age. The German Society of Digestive and Metabolic Diseases (DGVS) as well as the German Society of General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) in collaboration with the German Radiology Society (DRG) created and published S2k guidelines regarding this topic. Knowledge of the diagnosis and therapy of this common disease is extremely important for the radiologist for the daily clinical routine. In this article we review and discuss the most important clinical situations and algorithms of this disease focusing on radiological topics. Additionally, we introduce the new CCD (classification of diverticular disease) system regarding radiology.

  2. Increased Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients With Diverticular Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Diverticular disease and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are common disorders that share several risk factors. Few researchers have evaluated the association between diverticular disease and ACS. We aimed to assess the risk of ACS in patients with diverticular disease. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. All patients aged ≥20 years with a diagnosis of diverticular disease from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011, were included in this study. For comparison, patients without diverticular disease were randomly selected and matched with the study cohort at a 4:1 ratio according to age, sex, and the year of the diagnosis of diverticular disease. Patients with incomplete age or sex information and a history of cardiovascular diseases were excluded from the study. All patients were followed until an ACS event, withdrawal from the insurance program, or December 31, 2011. In this study, 52,681 patients with diverticular disease and 210,724 patients without diverticular disease were included. Men accounted for 56.1% of patients and 57.8% of patients were ≥50 years old. The overall incidence density of ACS in patients with diverticular disease (45.5 per 10,000 person-years) was significantly higher than in those without diverticular disease (30.3 per 10,000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.32) after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities. The cumulative incidence of ACS in patients with diverticular disease was significantly higher than that in the control cohort (log-rank test, P < 0.001). The adjusted HRs for the development of ACS were 1.25 (95% CI, 1.15-1.37) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.07-1.32) in patients with diverticulitis and diverticulosis, respectively. The adjusted HRs of ACS in patients with diverticular disease additionally increased from 1.97 (95% CI, 1.73-2.23) in patients with 1 comorbidity to 5.51 (95% CI, 3.88-7.84) in those with ≥5 comorbidities. This large population-based retrospective study revealed an association between diverticular disease and ACS. Further research is warranted to determine the exact mechanism of the link between these diseases. PMID:26559302

  3. The small bowel flora in individuals with cecoileal reflux Estudo da flora do delgado em doentes com refluxo cecoileal

    Wellington Monteiro Machado

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The observation of cecoileal reflux to barium enema is not rare; however, its causes and consequences have not been widely investigated. Considering that ileocecal junction exerts a function as barrier to invasion of bacteria from colon to small bowel, it seems interesting to study the intestinal microflora in subjects carrying cecoileal reflux. AIMS: This study aims at evaluating the ileal flora in individuals with cecoileal reflux. METHODS: A group of 36 subjects comprising 30 females and 6 males with a mean age of 54 years was assessed. Twenty-five individuals with cecoileal reflux and 11 without cecoileal reflux were submitted to small intestine contamination evaluation through the breath test with lactulose-H2 and measurement of the orocecal transit time by means of alternate current biosusceptometry. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth was characterized by orocecal transit time-H2 shortening. RESULTS: Comparison of basal H2, orocecal transit time-H2 and orocecal transit time-alternate current biosusceptometry measurements did not statistically differ between the groups with and without cecoileal reflux. Orocecal transit time-H2 was significantly smaller than orocecal transit time-alternate current biosusceptometry, particularly in individuals with cecoileal reflux. A significant correlation between the two methods was observed only in relation to control, not existing in relation to cecoileal reflux group. CONCLUSIONS: Smaller orocecal transit time-H2 and the loss of correlation with orocecal transit time-alternate current biosusceptometry observed in the individuals with cecoileal reflux suggest a differentiated behavior for such group relative to control, which could be associated with small intestine bacterial overgrowth.RACIONAL: Fato de observação não rara, é o encontro de refluxo cecoileal durante realização de enema opaco. As causas e conseqüências deste achado têm sido pouco estudadas. OBJETIVOS: Sabendo que a junção ileocecal exerce função de barreira e proteção contra a invasão do delgado pela flora colônica, realizou-se o presente estudo com a finalidade de investigar se existe contaminação ileal em indivíduos com refluxo cecoileal ao enema opaco. MÉTODOS: Investigaram-se 36 indivíduos, 30 mulheres e 6 homens, idade média de 54 anos, 25 com e 11 com ausência refluxo cecoileal. Todos submetidos a pesquisa de contaminação bacteriana do delgado por intermédio de teste respiratório com lactulose-H2 e a determinação do tempo de trânsito orocecal por meio de biossusceptometria de corrente alternada. A caracterização da contaminação do delgado foi baseada no encurtamento do tempo de trânsito orocecal medido pelo teste da lactulose-H2. RESULTADOS: A comparação dos valores basais do H2, do tempo de trânsito orocecal-H2 e tempo de trânsito orocecal-biossusceptometria de corrente alternada não diferiram estatisticamente entre os grupos com e sem refluxo cecoileal. Quando comparados os tempo de trânsito orocecal-H2 e tempo de trânsito orocecal-biossusceptometria, foi observado aumento de tendência de redução do primeiro em relação ao último nos grupos com refluxo cecoileal e correlação significante entre os dois métodos apenas no grupo-controle, inexistindo nos com refluxo cecoileal. CONCLUSÃO: Encurtamento do tempo de trânsito orocecal-H2 e sua perda de correlação com o tempo de trânsito orocecal-biossusceptometria observado em indivíduos com refluxo cecoileal, sugerem comportamento diferenciado deste grupo em relação ao grupo-controle. Possível explicação para as diferenças registradas entre os grupos, seria a presença de flora anômala nos indivíduos com refluxo cecoileal.

  4. Role of capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    Kopylov, Uri; Seidman, Ernest G.

    2014-01-01

    Videocapsule endoscopy (VCE) has revolutionized our ability to visualize the small bowel mucosa. This modality is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of obscure small bowel Crohns disease (CD), and can also be used for monitoring of disease activity in patients with established small-bowel CD, detection of complications such as obscure bleeding and neoplasms, evaluation of response to anti-inflammatory treatment and postoperative recurrence following small bowel resection. VCE could also be an...

  5. Melanoma metasttico causando intussuscepo do intestino delgado: diagnstico por 18F-FDG PET/TC Metastatic melanoma causing small bowel intussusception: diagnosis by 18F-FDG PET/CT

    Frederico Ferreira de Souza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma maligno uma doena comum e agressiva que frequentemente causa metstase para o intestino delgado. Este estudo ilustra um caso de intussuscepo do intestino delgado causada por uma leso metasttica de melanoma visualizada 18F-FDG PET/TC em uma paciente de 48 anos idade que realizou exame de reestadiamento.Malignant melanoma is a common and aggressive disease that frequently causes metastases to the small bowel. This study illustrates a case of small bowel intussusception secondary to metastatic melanoma visualized at 18F-FDG PET/CT in a 48-year-old woman who had this examination for restaging purposes.

  6. Visceral fat: A key factor in diverticular disease of the colon Obesidade visceral: factor de risco para doença diverticular do cólon

    Miguel Afonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Diverticular disease of the colon is a common disease, representing na important health problem in Western countries. The authors aimed to study the visceral fat and parameters of obesity in the diverticular disease of the colon. Methods: Case-control study of unselected medium-risk subjects who underwent colonoscopy for screening of colorectal cancer during 1 year. Subjects were inquired by a nutritionist about nutritional habits. Anthropometric variables were evaluated. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed by ultrasound by the same gastroenterologist. Statistics: x², t test, logistic multivariate regression, odds ratio (OR. Results: Included 303 individuals, 46.9% female, mean age 60±6.6 years. Sixty-four (21% individual had diverticular disease of the colon. People with diverticula were signifi cantly older (P=0.01, had more visceral fat (P Introdução e objectivos: A doença diverticular do cólon é uma doença comum, representando um importante problema de saúde nos países ocidentais. Os autores pretenderam estudar a relação da gordura visceral e outros parâmetros de obesidade na doença diverticular do cólon. Métodos: Estudo de indivíduos não seleccionados, de médio risco que efectuaram colonoscopia para rastreio de cancro colorectal, durante um ano. Os indivíduos responderam a inquérito nutricional por nutricionista. Foram avaliadas variáveis antropométricas. A gordura visceral e subcutânea foram avaliadas através de ecografia abdominal efectuada pelo mesmo gastroenterologista. Análise estatística: x², teste t, regressão logística multivariada, odds ratio (OR. Resultados: Incluídos 303 indivíduos, 46,9% eram do sexo feminino, idade média 60 ± 6,6 anos. Sessenta e quatro (21% apresentavam doença diverticular do cólon. Os indivíduos com diverticulose eram mais idosos (p = 0,01, tinham mais gordura visceral (p 63 anos do que naqueles com menos de 56 anos (1.º tercil - OR = 3,1, IC 95% 1,5-6,5. Relativamente à gordura visceral, os indivíduos no 3.º tercil tiveram um risco duas vezes maior (OR 2,3, IC 95% 1,02-5,2 do que aqueles no 1.º tercil. Não houve diferença significativa quanto ao sexo, índice de massa corporal, gordura subcutânea ou consumo de fibra. Conclusão: A idade e a gordura visceral foram fatores de risco independentes para a ocorrência de doença diverticular do cólon

  7. Germ line mutations of mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients with small bowel cancer: International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours Collaborative Study

    Park, Jae-Gahb; Kim, Duck-Woo; Hong, Chang Won; Nam, Byung-Ho; Shin, Young-Kyoung; Hong, Sung-Hye; Kim, Il-Jin; Lim, Seok-Byung; Aronson, Melyssa; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Brown, Gregor J; Burn, John; Chow, Elizabeth; Conrad, Peggy; Douglas, Fiona; Dunlop, Malcolm; Ford, James; Greenblatt, Marc S; Heikki, Jarvinen; Heinimann, Karl; Lynch, Elly L; Macrae, Finlay; McKinnon, Wendy C; Möeslein, Gabriela; Rossi, Benedito Mauro; Rozen, Paul; Schofield, Lyn; Vaccaro, Carlos; Vasen, Hans; Velthuizen, Mary; Viel, Alessandra; Wijnen, Juul

    PURPOSE: The aim of study was to determine the clinical characteristics and mutational profiles of the mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients with small bowel cancer (SBC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A questionnaire was mailed to 55 members of the...... HNPCC-associated malignancy in 14 of 41 (34.1%) patients for whom a personal history of HNPCC-associated cancers was available. The study population harbored 69 different germ line mismatch repair gene mutations, including 31 mutations in MLH1, 34 in MSH2, 3 in MSH6, and 1 in PMS2. We compared the.......8%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In HNPCC patients, SBC can be the first and only cancer and may develop as soon as the early teens. The distribution of MSH2 mutations found in patients with HNPCC-associated SBCs significantly differed from that found in the control group (P < 0.001)....

  8. Noninvasive Multidetector Computed Tomography Enterography in Patients with Small-Bowel Crohn's Disease: Is a 40-Second Delay Better than 70 Seconds?

    Background: Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) enterography combines neutral enteric contrast with intravenously administered contrast material. The optimal intravenous (IV) contrast material protocol has still not been established. Purpose: To determine the optimal delay time to image patients with small-bowel Crohn's disease during MDCT enterography. Material and Methods: After oral administration of 1350 ml of neutral contrast medium, 26 patients with small-bowel Crohn's disease underwent MDCT enterography; scans were obtained 40 s (enteric phase) and 70 s (parenchymal phase) after IV administration of 100 ml of iodinated contrast material. Three radiologists, blinded to clinical and pathological findings, independently and retrospectively evaluated each scan in two separate reading sessions for the presence or absence of CT features of Crohn's disease activity. The interobserver agreement was evaluated, and the efficacy of each phase in detecting active disease in the terminal ileum for each reader was determined. The gold standard was pathology (n = 13), endoscopy (n = 3), and clinical evaluation (n 10). Results: No statistically significant difference was present between the enteric and the parenchymal phase for each reader in each segment regarding the presence or absence of CT features of Crohn's disease. The interobserver agreement for the presence of five main features of active Crohn's disease in the terminal ileum ranged from poor to excellent. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy for active Crohn's disease in the terminal ileum ranged from 40 to 90%, 88 to 100%, 70 to 94%, 44 to 100%, and 69 to 96%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two phases for each reader. Conclusion: MDCT enterography in patients with suspected active Crohn's disease can be obtained at either 40 s or 70 s after IV contrast material

  9. Indicaciones, técnicas y resultados del trasplante de intestino delgado Indications, techniques and outcomes of small bowel transplant

    M. López Santamaría

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados más recientes del trasplante intestinal (TI, con una supervivencia inmediata al procedimiento superior al 80% de los casos, y una gran proporción de supervivientes que consiguen autonomía digestiva completa y desempeñan actividades acordes con su edad, permiten considerar el TI como el tratamiento de elección en enfermos con fallo intestinal irreversible en los que es previsible una mala evolución con nutrición parenteral. El daño hepático asociado a la administración de nutrición parenteral es la indicación más frecuente de TI, especialmente en los niños, más susceptibles que los adultos a desarrollar esta complicación. Otras indicaciones aceptadas de TI son el fallo intestinal irreversible asociado a pérdida significativa de accesos venosos profundos, infecciones graves con riesgo vital asociadas al uso de catéteres centrales, y casos de fracaso intestinal que conducen habitualmente a muerte precoz, como cuadros de intestino ultracorto, diarreas intratables, y fallo intestinal asociado a elevada morbilidad y mala calidad de vida. El TI se practica en clínica humana bajo tres modalidades técnicas: trasplante de intestino aislado, trasplante combinado de hígado intestino y trasplante multivisceral. Refinamientos de las técnicas originales, que incluyen reducciones de los injertos hepáticos y/o intestinales, la opción con injerto de donante vivo, etc. permiten actualmente cubrir las diferentes necesidades, a la vez que incrementar la probabilidad de acceso al trasplante, objetivo especialmente necesario en niños muy pequeños o de muy bajo peso candidatos a trasplante hepatointestinal. Uno de los aspectos más interesantes de los programas de TI es haber permitido la evolución hacia Unidades de Rehabilitación Intestinal, que integran en un equipo multidisciplinar las tres modalidades de tratamiento: soporte nutricional, farmacoterapia y cirugía. Estas Unidades optimizan los resultados, minimizan los costes y permiten ofrecer un tratamiento individualizado y adaptado a las necesidades individuales.The most recent outcomes on bowel transplantation (BT, with a survival rate immediately after transplant higher than 80% and a great rate of survivors achieving complete digestive autonomy and able to carry out activities according to their age allow for considering BT as the first choice therapy in patients with irreversible intestinal failure in whom poor prognosis with parenteral nutrition is foreseen. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver damage is the most frequent indication for BT, especially in children that are more susceptible than adults to develop this complication. Other accepted indications for BT are irreversible intestinal failure in association with loss of deep venous accesses, life-threatening severe infections associated with the use of central catheters, and those cases of intestinal failure usually leading to early death, such as ultra-short bowel syndromes, refractory diarrheas, and intestinal failure associated to high morbidity and poor quality of life. BT is performed in human clinical practice under three technical modalities: isolated bowel transplant, combined liver-bowel transplant, and multi-visceral transplantation. Currently, refinements of original techniques including reduction of liver and/or intestinal grafts, grafts from living donors, etc., allow for overcoming the different needs as well as increasing the likelihood of having access to transplantation, which is a desirable goal specially in very young or very low-weighted children candidate to liver-bowel transplant. One of the most interesting issues in BT programs is having given access to the Intestinal Rehabilitation Units, which comprise the three therapeutic modalities by means of a multidisciplinary team: nutritional support, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. These Units optimize the outcomes, minimize costs, and allow for offering a management adapted to individual needs.

  10. The Different Volume Effects of Small-Bowel Toxicity During Pelvic Irradiation Between Gynecologic Patients With and Without Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Study With Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of abdominal surgery on the volume effects of small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From May 2003 through November 2006, 80 gynecologic patients without (Group I) or with (Group II) prior abdominal surgery were analyzed. We used a computed tomography (CT) planning system to measure the small-bowel volume and dosimetry. We acquired the range of small-bowel volume in 10% (V10) to 100% (V100) of dose, at 10% intervals. The onset and grade of diarrhea during whole-pelvic irradiation were recorded as small-bowel toxicity up to 39.6 Gy in 22 fractions. Results: The volume effect of Grade 2-3 diarrhea existed from V10 to V100 in Group I patients and from V60 to V100 in Group II patients on univariate analyses. The V40 of Group I and the V100 of Group II achieved most statistical significance. The mean V40 was 281 ± 27 cm3 and 489 ± 34 cm3 (p 3 and 132 ± 19 cm3 (p = 0.003). Multivariate analyses revealed that V40 (p = 0.001) and V100 (p = 0.027) were independent factors for the development of Grade 2-3 diarrhea in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Gynecologic patients without and with abdominal surgery have different volume effects on small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation. Low-dose volume can be used as a predictive index of Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients without abdominal surgery. Full-dose volume is more important than low-dose volume for Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients with abdominal surgery

  11. Nutritive support in short Bowel syndrome (sbs

    Simi? Duica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Short bowel syndrome most commonly result after bowel resection for necrosis of the bowel. It may be caused by arterial or venous thrombosis, volvolus and in children, necrotizing enterocolitis. The other causes are Crohn,s disease intestinal atresia. The factors influencing the risk on short bowel syndrome are the remaining length of the small bowel, the age of onset, the length of the colon, the presence or absence of the ileo-coecal valve and the time after resection. Besides nutritional deficiencies there some other consequences of extensive resections of the small intestine (gastric acid hypersecretion, d-lactic acidosis, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, which must be diagnosed, treated, and if possible, prevented. With current therapy most patients with short bowel have normal body mass index and good quality of life.

  12. Changes in Enteric Neurons of Small Intestine in a Rat Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea

    Li, Shan; Fei, Guijun; Fang, Xiucai; Yang, Xilin; Sun, Xiaohong; Qian, Jiaming; Wood, Jackie D; Ke, Meiyun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Physical and/or emotional stresses are important factors in the exacerbation of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several lines of evidence support that a major impact of stress on the gastrointestinal tract occurs via the enteric nervous system. We aimed to evaluate histological changes in the submucosal plexus (SMP) and myenteric plexus (MP) of the distal ileum in concert with the intestinal motor function in a rat model of IBS with diarrhea. Methods The rat model was induced by heterotypic chronic and acute stress (CAS). The intestinal transit was measured by administering powdered carbon by gastric gavage. Double immunohistochemical fluorescence staining with whole-mount preparations of SMP and MP of enteric nervous system was used to assess changes in expression of choline acetyltransferase, vasoactive intestinal peptide, or nitric oxide synthase in relation to the pan neuronal marker, anti-Hu. Results The intestinal transit ratio increased significantly from control values of 50.8% to 60.6% in the CAS group. The numbers of enteric ganglia and neurons in the SMP were increased in the CAS group. The proportions of choline acetyltransferase- and vasoactive intestinal peptide-immunoreactive neurons in the SMP were increased (82.1 ± 4.3% vs. 76.0 ± 5.0%, P = 0.021; 40.5 ± 5.9% vs 28.9 ± 3.7%, P = 0.001), while nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive neurons in the MP were decreased compared with controls (23.3 ± 4.5% vs 32.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.002). Conclusions These morphological changes in enteric neurons to CAS might contribute to the dysfunction in motility and secretion in IBS with diarrhea. PMID:26645247

  13. Transrectal drainage of a diverticular abscess using a pigtail catheter without radiological guidance: a case report

    Lawson John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Percutaneous or endocavitory drainage of a diverticular abscess under radiological guidance often enables one to perform a one-staged resection and anastomosis (without stoma formation instead of a two-staged procedure. It reduces the significant postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with the conventional emergency surgical management. However, radiological guidance is not always available due to limited resources during out-of-hours. Case presentation A 78-year-old Caucasian woman underwent transrectal drainage of a diverticular abscess performed with a pigtail catheter without radiological guidance. Technical details of the procedure are described and alternative options discussed. Conclusion In carefully selected patients, per-rectal drainage using a pigtail catheter can be performed without radiological guidance and the procedure offers a simple and effective way of controlling sepsis.

  14. Post-double-contrast sigmoid flush: An adjuvant technique in imaging diverticular disease

    The sigmoid colon is the most difficult colonic segment to examine radiographically, especially when it is involved by diverticular disease. In a prospective study, infusion of a low-density contrast agent was evaluated as an adjuvant technique to high-density double-contrast sigmoid imaging. After a double-contrast barium enema, 52 consecutive patients with sigmoid diverticulosis received an additional 500-ml enema either with water or with a 1.5% CT barium suspension. Rectosigmoid films were compared and evaluated for luminal distention, visualization of the interhaustral space, definition of diverticula, and display of polypoid defects. Sigmoid flush, particularly with the 1.5% CT barium suspension, is a simple adjunct to the double-contrast examination that improves visualization of the diverticular sigmoid and increases diagnostic specificity

  15. Diverticular disease of the colon: New perspectives in symptom development and treatment

    Colecchia, Antonio; Sandri, Lorenza; Capodicasa, Simona; Vestito, Amanda; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Staniscia, Tommaso; Roda, Enrico; Festi, Davide

    2003-01-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon is a common disease worldwide. Although the disease is asymptomatic in about 70%-80% of patients, it represents, at least in Western countries, one of the most important gastrointestinal diseases in terms of direct and indirect health costs. Pathogenesis of the disease is still unknown. However, it is the result of complex interactions between colonic structure, intestinal motility, diet and genetic factors. Whilst efficacious preventive strategies remain to ...

  16. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

    Keeling, Aoife N. [Department of Academic Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Wang, Tim T. [Department of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology, Surgical Epidemiology and Quality Unit, Imperial College London, St. Mary' s Hospital, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Lee, Michael J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Department of Academic Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2011-02-15

    Aim: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient's quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. Results: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  17. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2012-02-01

    AIM: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient\\'s quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. RESULTS: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. CONCLUSION: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  18. Percutaneous balloon dilatation of stenotic calyceal diverticular infundibula in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections

    Aim: Renal calyceal diverticula are usually detected as incidental findings on intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) and rarely manifest any clinical signs or symptoms. However, they can interfere with patient's quality of life in a number of instances causing pain, recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), abscess, systemic sepsis and calculus formation. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical indications, procedure technique and clinical outcome in all patients referred to Interventional Radiology for the percutaneous management of renal calyceal diverticula. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all patients treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation of calyceal diverticular infundibula in the Interventional Radiology Department over a 10-year period was performed. Data collected included clinical details, laboratory indices, IVP and CT findings, procedure details and clinical outcome. Results: A total of three patients were treated over the course of the study period. All patients were young females who presented as a result of recurrent urinary tract infections. The calyceal diverticula were diagnosed incidentally on routine IVPs, with CT eloquently confirming the plain film findings in two cases. Technical procedure success was achieved in all cases, avoiding surgical intervention. Clinical follow-up revealed no further UTIs following dilatation. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous balloon dilatation of renal calyceal diverticular infundibula following direct diverticular puncture is a safe and well tolerated method to reduce UTI and potentially avoid future stone formation.

  19. Absorbable synthetic mesh (910-polyglactin) intestinal sling to reduce radiation-induced small bowel injury in patients with pelvic malignancies

    Absorbable synthetic mesh (910-polyglactin) was used to create an intestinal sling in six patients undergoing surgical staging of pelvic malignancies prior to radiation therapy. All patients had effective compartmentalization of small intestine out of the pelvis which persisted throughout the duration of radiation therapy. None of the patients developed complications related to the intestinal sling. This technique is well tolerated and has the potential to minimize chronic small intestinal complications caused by radiation therapy for pelvic malignancies

  20. Short bowel syndrome.

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2012-02-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.