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1

[A case of diverticular gastric heterotopy of the small intestine].  

Science.gov (United States)

Report of an observation of a small intestine diverticulum with colic and gastric heterotopy in a seven year old girl. Unrecognized for many years, the lesion was at the origin of a severe digestive hemorrhage for which an urgent operation was necessary. A propos of this new enough case (30 published cases), characteristics of diverticular gastric heterotopy are remembered from diagnostic, nosologic and therapeutic point of view. Their individualization with regard to Meckel's diverticulum and remainders of omphalo-mesenteric canal is emphasized. PMID:3936016

de Marliave, H; Chouraqui, J P; Bacle, B; Muller, P; Dyon, J F

1985-03-01

2

Small bowel faeces sign in patients without small bowel obstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To evaluate frequency and clinical relevance of the 'small bowel faeces' sign (SBFS) on computed tomography (CT) in patients with and without small bowel obstruction (SBO) presenting with acute abdominal or acute abdominal and flank pain. Methods: Abdominal CTs of consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with abdominal or flank pain over a 6 month period were retrospectively reviewed by six radiologists, independently, for the presence of the SBFS. Examinations with positive SBFS were further evaluated in consensus by three radiologists, blinded to the final diagnosis. The small bowel was graded as non-dilated (4 cm) dilated. The location of SBFS and presence of distal small bowel collapse indicative of SBO was recorded. Imaging findings were subsequently correlated with the final diagnosis via chart review and compared between patients with and without SBO. Results: Of 1642 CT examinations, a positive SBFS was found in 100 (6%) studies. Of 100 patients with a positive SBFS, 32 (32%) had documented SBO. The remaining 68 patients had other non-obstructive diagnoses. SBFS was located in proximal, central, distal and multisegmental bowel loops in one (3.1%), eight (25.0%), 21 (65.6%) and two (6.3%) patients with SBO, and in zero (0%), 10 (14.7%), 53 (77.9%) and five (7.4%) of patients without SBO (p < 0.273). The small bowel was non-dilated and mildly, moderately or severely dilated in one (3%), five (16%), 20 (62%) and six (19%) patients with SBO, and in 61(90%), seven (10%), zero (0%) and zero (0%) patients without SBO. Normal or mildly dilated small bowel was seen in all (100%) patients without SBO, but only in six (19%) of 32 patients with SBO (p < 0.0001). Moderate or severe small bowel dilatation was seen in 26 (81%) patients with SBO (p < 0.0001), but it was absent in patients without SBO. Distal small bowel collapse was found in 27 (84.4%) of 32 patients with SBO, but not in patients without SBO (p < 0.0001). A combination of SBFS, moderate or severe small bowel distension and distal collapse was found in 23 (71.9%) patients with SBO (p < 0.0001), but was not found in patients without SBO. Conclusion: A SBFS is more frequent in patients presenting with acute abdominal/flank pain without bowel obstruction. When seen in association with moderate or severe small bowel dilatation, a SBFS is significantly more common in patients with SBO. When a SBFS is associated with normal or mildly dilated small bowel, the majority of patients have no bowel obstruction

3

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth  

Science.gov (United States)

... is a Billroth II type of stomach removal ( gastrectomy ). Some cases of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) ... Semrad CE. Approach to the patient with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: ... 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap ...

4

Scintigraphic pattern of small bowel bleeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction: Small intestine is the longest part of gastrointestinal tract. Intra-luminal haemorrhage occurring anywhere in its long and tortuous course is difficult to trace. It is relatively inaccessible to endoscopic evaluation. Upper GI endoscopy can see only up to distal duodenum, whereas colonoscope can view maximum of 30 centimeters of terminal ileum after negotiating the scope through ileo-caecal valve. Hence, localization of bleeding source from small bowel remains a difficult clinical problem. This group of patients can be evaluated with scintigraphy for localizing the site of bleeding before undergoing either angiography or surgery. To our best of knowledge, there is no study, which has utilized scintigraphy for evaluation of small bowel bleed exclusively. The present study has been designed to know the efficacy of 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy in detecting small bowel bleed and to know whether it can differentiate between jejunal and ileal bleeding ? Materials and methods: Thirteen patients presenting with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (malena) were enrolled for the study. In all cases, upper GI endoscopy (UGIE) was unremarkable. Colonoscopic examination was either negative or suspected bleeding occurring proximal to ileo-caecal valve. Thus, in these patients, it is presumed clinically that bleeding is originating from small bowel. Barium meal follow through (BMFT) studies, however, could not delineate any etiological lesion in these patients. There were 8 menlesion in these patients. There were 8 men and 5 women (mean age 48 years). All patients were anemic (Hb- 6 gm%) and mean 3 units of blood were transfused.These patients were subjected to Tc-99m labeled red blood cells scintigraphy (15 mci, in-vivo method) for localization of source of bleeding. The scintiscan was acquired in two phases. A first pass phase acquired at a rate of 2 seconds per frame for 60 seconds followed by acquisition of static abdominal images (500 K, 256 x 256 matrix) at 5 minutes intervals up to 90 minutes on LFOV gamma camera fitted with LEAP collimator. Delayed imaging up to 6 hours was optional and was undertaken only when first 90 minutes images did not reveal any site of bleeding. Two nuclear physicians reviewed the sequential static images for 1) First appearance of focus of activity in a particular quadrant/region of abdomen and 2) looking for its migration pattern. Scintigraphic results were prospectively compared with surgical outcome in 10 patients. Results: Tc-99m RBC Scan localized site of bleeding in 10 of 13 patient evaluated (77%). Ten scan positive patients underwent exploratory laprotomy. On surgical exploration, five culprit lesions were identified in jejunum and as many number of lesions were detected in ileum. Etiological lesions were mainly inflammatory or ulcerative (n=5) followed by neoplastic and vascular ectasias in 2 patients each. One patient showed diverticular disease of jejunum as the source of haemorrhage.Tc-99m RBC Scan was able to distinguish between proximal (jejunal) and distal (ileal) small bowel bleeding in 8 of 10 scan positive cases (80%). Scintigraphy correctly localized bleeding in jejunum and ileum in 3 and 5 patients respectively. In majority of patients (7/10, 70%), scan became positive within 3 hours. Six types of scan patterns were noticed in thirteen patients evaluated with Tc-99m RBCs scan. Five scintigraphic patterns were representative of small bowel bleeding. A serpentine appearance of bowel loops in mid abdomen, focal tracer appearance in right iliac region with subsequent outlining of ascending colon on delayed images, and a focus of activity showing distal extension in circular fashion on sequential static images were characteristic of ileal bleeding. Visualization of fixed loop in left flank region corroborated with jejunal lesion (Leiomyoma) in our series. An abnormal blush and early localization of diffuse activity in left upper quadrant followed by its centripetal extension/movement, was seen in patient with jejunitis. Scintigraphy was false negative in cases of systemic diseases

5

Analysis of small bowel tumors.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Overall, the prognosis for patients with small intestinal tumors is poor. The duodenum as a site of the small bowel tumors was the only significant risk factor with regard to case fatality rate. Despite current advanced diagnostic modalities, the small intestine remains a difficult area to image with both radiographs and the endoscope.

Maad M. Abdul-Rahman

2004-12-01

6

Torsion of Meckel's diverticulum as a cause of small bowel obstruction: A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Axial torsion and necrosis of Meckel's diverticulum causing simultaneous mechanical small bowel obstruction are the rarest complications of this congenital anomaly. This kind of pathology has been reported only eleven times. Our case report presents this very unusual case of Meckel's diverticulum. A 41-year-old man presented at the emergency department with complaints of crampy abdominal pain, nausea and retention of stool and gases. Clinical diagnosis was small bowel obstruction. Because the origin of obstruction was unknown, computer tomography was indicated. Computed tomography (CT)-scan revealed dilated small bowel loops with multiple air-fluid levels; the oral contrast medium had reached the jejunum and proximal parts of the ileum but not the distal small bowel loops or the large bowel; in the right mid-abdomen there was a 11 cm × 6.4 cm × 7.8 cm fluid containing cavity with thickened wall, which was considered a dilated bowel-loop or cyst or diverticulum. Initially the patient was treated conservatively. Because of persistent abdominal pain emergency laparotomy was indicated. Abdominal exploration revealed distended small bowel loops proximal to the obstruction, and a large (12 cm × 14 cm) Meckel's diverticulum at the site of obstruction. Meckel's diverticulum was axially rotated by 720°, which caused small bowel obstruction and diverticular necrosis. About 20 cm of the small bowel with Meckel's diverticulum was resected. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the fifth postoperative day. We recommend CT-scan as the most useful diagnostic tool in bowel obstruction of unknown origin. In cases of Meckel's diverticulum causing small bowel obstruction, prompt surgical treatment is indicated; delay in diagnosis and in adequate treatment may lead to bowel necrosis and peritonitis. PMID:25346803

Murruste, Marko; Rajaste, Geidi; Kase, Karri

2014-10-27

7

Imaging the small bowel.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Radiologic investigations continue to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the small intestine despite enhancement of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy. Imaging techniques continue to evolve and new techniques in MRI in particular, are being developed.

Murphy, Kevin P

2014-03-01

8

CT enteroclysis in small bowel Crohn's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diagnostic evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease has changed dramatically over the last decade. The introduction of wireless capsule endoscopy, double balloon endoscopy and the introduction of newer therapeutic agents have changed the role of imaging in the small bowel. Additionally, advances in multidetector CT technology have further changed how radiologic investigations are utilized in the diagnosis and management of small bowel Crohn's disease. This article describes how we perform CT enteroclysis in the investigation of small bowel Crohn's disease and discusses the role of CT enteroclysis in the current management of small bowel Crohn's disease.

9

Scintigraphic diagnosis of small-bowel disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide studies have an established place in the evaluation of small bowel disease; in particular they allow the demonstration of active bowel bleeding with the aid of labeled erythrocytes and the diagnosis of an inflammatory bowel process or formation of an abscess with the aid of labeled leukocytes. (orig.)

10

Endoscopic band ligation for bleeding lesions in the small bowel  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for bleeding lesions in the small bowel. METHODS: This is a retrospective study evaluating EBL in six consecutive patients (three males, three females, 46-86 years of age) treated between May 2009 and February 2014: duodenal vascular ectasia; 1, jejunal bleeding diverticulum; 1, ileal Dieulafoy’s lesion; 1 and ileal bleeding diverticula; 3. The success of the initial hemostasis was evaluated, and patients were observed for early rebleeding (within 30 d after EBL), and complications such as perforation and abscess formation. Follow-up endoscopies were performed in four patients. RESULTS: Initial hemostasis was successfully achieved with EBL in all six patients. Eversion was not sufficient in four diverticular lesions. Early rebleeding occurred three days after EBL in one ileal diverticulum, and a repeat endoscopy revealed dislodgement of the O-band and ulcer formation at the banded site. This rebleeding was managed conservatively. Late rebleeding occurred in this case (13 and 21 mo after initial EBL), and re-EBL was performed. Follow-up endoscopies revealed scar formation and the disappearance of vascular lesions at the banded site in the case with a duodenal bleeding lesion, and unresolved ileal diverticula in three cases. Surgery or transarterial embolization was not required without any complications during the median follow-up period of 45 (range, 2-83) mo. CONCLUSION: EBL is a safe and effective endoscopic treatment for hemostasis of bleeding lesions in the small bowel. PMID:25324920

Ikeya, Takashi; Ishii, Naoki; Shimamura, Yuto; Nakano, Kaoru; Ego, Mai; Nakamura, Kenji; Takagi, Koichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

2014-01-01

11

Disturbances in small bowel motility.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Recently, the small intestine has become the focus of investigation as a potential site of dysmotility in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number of motor abnormalities have been defined in some studies, and include \\'clustered\\' contractions, exaggerated post-prandial motor response and disturbances in intestinal transit. The significance of these findings remains unclear. The interpretation of available studies is complicated by differences in subject selection, the direct influence of certain symptoms, such as diarrhoea and constipation, and the interference of compounding factors, such as stress and psychopathology. Dysmotility could also reflect autonomic dysfunction, disturbed CNS control and the response to heightened visceral sensation or central perception. While motor abnormalities may not explain all symptoms in IBS, sensorimotor interactions may be important in symptom pathogenesis and deserve further study.

Quigley, E M

2012-02-03

12

Jejunal diverticular disease complicated by enteroliths: Report of two different presentations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jejunal diverticula are quite rare. Furthermore, small bowel diverticular disease resulting in enteroliths can lead to complications necessitating surgical intervention. In this manuscript, we report two presentations of jejunal diverticulum with complications from enteroliths followed by a review of the literature. The first case was that of a 79-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain and was found, on computed tomography (CT scan, to have evidence of intestinal perforation. A laparotomy showed that he had perforated jejunal diverticulitis. The second case was that of an 89-year-old female who presented with recurrent episodes of bowel obstruction. A laparotomy showed that she had an enterolith impacted in her jejunum in the presence of significant diverticular disease. Although a rare entity, familiarity with jejunal diverticular disease, its complications, and its management, should be part of every surgeon’ s base of knowledge when considering abdominal pathology.

Paul Chugay

2010-01-01

13

Small bowel neoplastic disease: demonstration by MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study demonstrates the appearance of small bowel tumors on MR images. Sixteen patients with tumors involving small bowel were studied by MRI. All tumors were proven with histopathology. Eleven patients had primary tumors of the small bowel, which included the following: four carcinoid tumors, three adenocarcinomas, two lymphomas, one leiomyosarcoma, and one leiomyoma. Five patients had recurrent or metastatic disease to small bowel: two patients had colon cancer, one patient had pancreatic cancer, one patient had uterine leiomyosarcoma, and one patient had chloroma (leukemia). MR examination included breath-hold T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (all patients), immediate postgadolinium-spoiled gradient echo (10 patients), and 2 to 4 minutes postgadolinium T1-weighted, fat-suppressed images (all patients). Tumor size, local extent, signal intensity, and enhancement features of tumor and adjacent tissue were determined. Tumor ranged in diameter from 1 to 9 cm (mean, 4.0 cm). Tumors had similar signal intensity to normal small bowel on precontrast images. Fourteen malignant tumors showed heterogeneous enhancement greater than adjacent bowel on gadolinium-enhanced images. Tumor local extent was best shown on precontrast-spoiled gradient-echo images and postgadolinium T1-weighted fat-suppressed images. Image quality was most consistent on breath-hold images. The results of this study show that small bowel tumors are demonstrable on MR images. Precontrast breath-hold T1-weighted spoiled gradient-echo images and gadolinium-enhanced fat suppressed images demonstrate tumor extent most reliably. PMID:8956128

Semelka, R C; John, G; Kelekis, N L; Burdeny, D A; Ascher, S M

1996-01-01

14

Diverticulosis of the small bowel with Diverticulitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Case report of diverticulosis of the small bowel complicated by diverticulitis. Radiography is the method of choice to demonstrate this finding preoperatively. This entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of right lower quadrant abdominal pecin. (orig.)

15

Diagnosing small bowel malabsorption: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malabsorption encompasses dysfunctions occurring during the digestion and absorption of nutrients. A small proportion of patients presents with chronic diarrhoea. A clinical history supportive of malabsorption may guide investigations toward either the small bowel or pancreas. Serological testing for coeliac disease will determine most cases without invasive investigations. In the clinical context of persisting weight loss and malnutrition, small bowel enteropathy may be investigated with small intestinal biopsies. Small bowel absorptive capacity and permeability might be measured by oral sugar-mix ingestion. Further, approaches to the investigation of malabsorption might also involve the detection in faeces of a substance that has not been absorbed. A variation of the latter is the use of breath testing which relies on the breakdown of the malabsorbed test substance by colonic flora. Measurement of protein absorption is difficult and unreliable; it is, therefore, rarely advocated in clinical settings. No single biological marker confirming a diagnosis of small bowel malabsorption or small bowel integrity is presently available in clinical practice. Plasma citrulline concentration, an amino acid not incorporated into endogenous or exogenous proteins, has been extensively used in research studies and supportive results are establishing its concentration as a reliable quantitative biomarker of enterocyte absorptive capacity. PMID:23179329

Papadia, Cinzia; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Corazza, Gino Roberto; Forbes, Alastair

2014-02-01

16

Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal permeability. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with CC and chronic diarrhoea participated in the study. Coeliac disease was excluded by small-bowel biopsy and/or serology. Intestinal permeability was assessed as urinary excretion (ratios) 2, 4 and 6 h after ingestion of 14C-labelled mannitol (14C-mannitol) and 99mTc-labelled diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA). Data were compared with the results from healthy controls. RESULTS: No difference was found between groups in urinary excretion of 14C-mannitol and 99mTc-DTPA after 2, 4 or 6 h, respectively. Likewise, no significant differences in the 99mTc-DTPA/14C-mannitol ratios between patients and controls were detected after 2 h: 0.030 (0.008-0.130) versus 0.020 (0.007-0.030), p = 0.19, after 4 h: 0.040 (0.009-0.180) versus 0.020 (0.008-0.040), p = 0.14 or after 6 h: 0.040 (0.012-0.180) versus 0.020 (0.010-0.040), p = 0.17. CONCLUSIONS: No alterations in intestinal permeability in patients with CC could be demonstrated. Impairment of the integrity of the mucosa of the small bowel and the presence of a general dysfunction of the small intestine in patients with CC seem unlikely.

Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

2006-01-01

17

Changes of smooth muscle contractile filaments in small bowel atresia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate morphological changes of intestinal smooth muscle contractile fibres in small bowel atresia patients. METHODS: Resected small bowel specimens from small bowel atresia patients (n = 12 were divided into three sections (proximal, atretic and distal. Standard histology hematoxylin-eosin staining and enzyme immunohistochemistry was performed to visualize smooth muscle contractile markers ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA and desmin using conventional paraffin sections of the proximal and distal bowel. Small bowel from age-matched patients (n = 2 undergoing Meckel’s diverticulum resection served as controls. RESULTS: The smooth muscle coat in the proximal bowel of small bowel atresia patients was thickened compared with control tissue, but the distal bowel was unchanged. Expression of smooth muscle contractile fibres SMA and desmin within the proximal bowel was slightly reduced compared with the distal bowel and control tissue. There were no major differences in the architecture of the smooth muscle within the proximal bowel and the distal bowel. The proximal and distal bowel in small bowel atresia patients revealed only minimal differences regarding smooth muscle morphology and the presence of smooth muscle contractile filament markers. CONCLUSION: Changes in smooth muscle contractile filaments do not appear to play a major role in postoperative motility disorders in small bowel atresia.

Udo Rolle

2012-01-01

18

Unusual causes of mechanical small bowel obstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We herein report our experience regarding unusual causes of bowel obstruction to increase the awareness of surgeons regarding this disease. From 1991 to 2003, we had experience at the University affiliated hospitals, northern Jordan with 24 patients with small bowel obstruction resulting from unusual causes. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these patients with regards to the mode of presentation, cause of obstruction, radiological and operative findings, management and outcome. We recorded 15 patients who underwent previous abdominal surgery. Preoperative diagnosis was correct in only one patient with an internal hernia, but the abdominal CT scan suggested the diagnosis in 5 of the 9 patients who had the scan. The final diagnosis was internal hernias in 11 patients, foreign bodies in 5, ischemic strictures in 3, carcinoid tumors in 2, endometriosis in 2, and metastatic deposit from interstitial bladder carcinoma in one patient. Nine of the 12 patients with recurrent obstruction had either short course or recurrence obstruction during the same hospital admission. W carried out bowel resections in 15 patients (5 resections were due to bowel strangulation). Post operative death occurred in 4 patients. Awareness of these rare causes of intestinal obstruction even in patients with previous abdominal operation might improve the outcome. The tentative diagnosis of adhesion obstruction in patients with unusual obstructive etiology might lead to a higher ratective etiology might lead to a higher rate of gangrenous complications. Rigorous preoperative evaluation including careful history and early abdominal CT may show the obstructive cause. (author)

19

Small bowel imaging in managing Crohn's disease patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The small bowel is essential to sustain alimentation and small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) may severely limit its function. Small bowel imaging is a crucial element in diagnosing small bowel CD, and treatment control with imaging is increasingly used to optimize the patients outcome. Thereby, capsule endoscopy, Balloon-assisted enteroscopy, and Magnetic resonance imaging have become key players to manage CD patients. In this review, role of small bowel imaging is detailed discussed for use in diagnosing and managing Crohn's disease patients. PMID:22474438

Albert, Jörg G

2012-01-01

20

Metoclopramide-ceruletide-assisted small bowel examination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated the feasibility of performing a combined upper gastrointestinal and small bowel examination. Metoclopramide was given at the start of the examination and ceruletide was injected to hasten small bowel transit. The quality and duration of fifty examinations (group I) was compared to that of fifty patients receiving metoclopramide alone (group II) and fifty patients undergoing unaided examinations (group III). The mean duration of the entire study was 29.3 minutes for group I patients, 37.6 minutes for patients in group II and 69.1 minutes for group III subjects. The combination of agents produced contracted fold patterns in the jejunum and ileum that rendered individual loops more accessible to individual study under fluoroscopy in approximately 50% of subjects.

Grumbach, K.; Herlinger, H.; Laufer, I.; Levine, M.S.

1988-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Metoclopramide-ceruletide-assisted small bowel examination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the feasibility of performing a combined upper gastrointestinal and small bowel examination. Metoclopramide was given at the start of the examination and ceruletide was injected to hasten small bowel transit. The quality and duration of fifty examinations (group I) was compared to that of fifty patients receiving metoclopramide alone (group II) and fifty patients undergoing unaided examinations (group III). The mean duration of the entire study was 29.3 minutes for group I patients, 37.6 minutes for patients in group II and 69.1 minutes for group III subjects. The combination of agents produced contracted fold patterns in the jejunum and ileum that rendered individual loops more accessible to individual study under fluoroscopy in approximately 50% of subjects. (orig.)

22

Transplante de intestino delgado / Small bowel transplantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado, em razão de sua complexidade, apresentou evolução mais lenta que os demais órgãos sólidos. Diversos avanços permitiram sua aplicação clínica. OBJETIVO: Revisão da evolução do transplante de intestino delgado e seu estado atual. MÉTODO: levantamento bib [...] liográfico nas bases de dados MEDLINE e ScIELO. Os termos usados como descritores foram: intestinal failure, intestinal transplant, small bowel transplant, multivisceral transplant. Foram analisados dados sobre evolução histórica, centros, indicações, tipos de enxertos, seleção e captação de órgãos, manejo pós-operatório, complicações e resultados. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de desenvolvimento mais lento, o transplante intestinal é hoje a terapia para pacientes portadores de falência intestinal irreversível que apresentam complicações da nutrição parenteral. Envolve algumas modalidades: intestino delgado isolado, fígado-intestino, multivisceral e multivisceral modificado. Atualmente a sobrevida é semelhante aos demais órgãos sólidos. A maioria dos pacientes fica livre da nutrição parenteral. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Small bowel transplantation evolution, because of its complexity, was slower than other solid organs. Several advances have enabled its clinical application. AIM: To review intestinal transplantation evolution and its current status. METHOD: Search in MEDLINE and ScIELO literature. The t [...] erms used as descriptors were: intestinal failure, intestinal transplantation, small bowel transplantation, multivisceral transplantation. Were analyzed data on historical evolution, centers experience, indications, types of grafts, selection and organ procurement, postoperative management, complications and results. CONCLUSION: Despite a slower evolution, intestinal transplantation is currently the standard therapy for patients with intestinal failure and life-threatening parenteral nutrition complications. It involves some modalities: small bowel transplantation, liver-intestinal transplantation, multivisceral transplantation and modified multivisceral transplantation. Currently, survival rate is similar to other solid organs. Most of the patients become free of parenteral nutrition.

Rafael Antonio Arruda, Pécora; André Ibrahim, David; André Dong, Lee; Flávio Henrique, Galvão; Ruy Jorge, Cruz-Junior; Luiz Augusto Carneiro, D' Albuquerque.

2013-09-01

23

Transplante de intestino delgado / Small bowel transplantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado, em razão de sua complexidade, apresentou evolução mais lenta que os demais órgãos sólidos. Diversos avanços permitiram sua aplicação clínica. OBJETIVO: Revisão da evolução do transplante de intestino delgado e seu estado atual. MÉTODO: levantamento bib [...] liográfico nas bases de dados MEDLINE e ScIELO. Os termos usados como descritores foram: intestinal failure, intestinal transplant, small bowel transplant, multivisceral transplant. Foram analisados dados sobre evolução histórica, centros, indicações, tipos de enxertos, seleção e captação de órgãos, manejo pós-operatório, complicações e resultados. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de desenvolvimento mais lento, o transplante intestinal é hoje a terapia para pacientes portadores de falência intestinal irreversível que apresentam complicações da nutrição parenteral. Envolve algumas modalidades: intestino delgado isolado, fígado-intestino, multivisceral e multivisceral modificado. Atualmente a sobrevida é semelhante aos demais órgãos sólidos. A maioria dos pacientes fica livre da nutrição parenteral. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Small bowel transplantation evolution, because of its complexity, was slower than other solid organs. Several advances have enabled its clinical application. AIM: To review intestinal transplantation evolution and its current status. METHOD: Search in MEDLINE and ScIELO literature. The t [...] erms used as descriptors were: intestinal failure, intestinal transplantation, small bowel transplantation, multivisceral transplantation. Were analyzed data on historical evolution, centers experience, indications, types of grafts, selection and organ procurement, postoperative management, complications and results. CONCLUSION: Despite a slower evolution, intestinal transplantation is currently the standard therapy for patients with intestinal failure and life-threatening parenteral nutrition complications. It involves some modalities: small bowel transplantation, liver-intestinal transplantation, multivisceral transplantation and modified multivisceral transplantation. Currently, survival rate is similar to other solid organs. Most of the patients become free of parenteral nutrition.

Rafael Antonio Arruda, Pécora; André Ibrahim, David; André Dong, Lee; Flávio Henrique, Galvão; Ruy Jorge, Cruz-Junior; Luiz Augusto Carneiro, D' Albuquerque.

24

Use of CT Enterography for Small Bowel Pathology:Experience and Findings in 90 Patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proper evaluation of the small intestine is achieved with the combination of intravenous contrast medium and large volume of neutral contrast medium administered orally to stretch the intestinal lumen and produce images for the assessment of the lumen, thickness and pattern of enhancement of the small intestine walls. Materials and methods: Between May 2007 and February 2009 we retrospectively collected 90 cases of mainly outpatients who consulted our clinic. They were prepared taking a liquid diet for 24 hours that had no residue and complete fasting 4 hours prior to the examination. A total of 2000 cc of water was administrated orally (divided in 500 cc, 75, 65, 25 and 15 minutes prior to the examination). Then 100 cc of contrast medium (OptirayTM ) were administered intravenously, at a rate of 4 cc/sec. An early arterial phase was performed 20 seconds after injection, and a portal phase 60 seconds after IV contrast administration. The studies were performed in a 16 channels, General Electric multidetector scanner, with 3.0 mm slices, with multiplanar reconstructions and MIP. Results: The studies were interpreted by a group body imaging radiologists. The most frequent findings were: diverticular disease, cystic lesions, neoplasia, Crohn's disease,ileitis, mechanical obstruction, hiatal hernia, cholelithiasis, hepatic hemangiomas, duodenal diverticulum, polyposis, intestinal mal rotation, and active bleeding. Conclusions: CT enterography is a useful and noninvasive technique for diagnosing small bowel disorders, allowing, in most cases, a satisfactory distension of the small bowel without the use of an enteral tube.

25

The radiolesions of the small bowel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The irradiation of the pelvic abdominal cancers extends beyond the centre of the tumour and may induce actinic digestive lesions. The bowel and more rarely the small bowel -which is the subject-matter of our study- are concerned by those radiolesions that are favoured by therapeutic overdose, post-operative adhesions fastening the bows, radio-surgical or chemicostatic associations, and lastly by vascular or nutritive deficiencies. One may distinguish between two kinds of lesions, depending on the lapse of time before their coming out and on the symptoms. The early or acute types are characterized by a radio-mucitis and give an exsudative enteropathy with anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of weight, of which the diagnosis is easy because it occurs during the irradiation and lessens at the end of the treatment. The late radiolesions of the small bowel are characterized by sclerosis and chronic endarteritis and, after a longlasting period of latency, give varied symptoms: disordered intestinal transit which sometimes is irreversible, perforation, fistula, syndrome of malabsorption, giving often rise to be mistaken for a recurrence of the cancer. The treatment varies whether the lesion is segmental or diffuse. In the first case, the failure of the medical means accounts for the surgical cutting away or the internal derivation; in the second case, the digestive mutilation which would result from an enlargement of the lesion commands to be more cautious and to call for the methods of parenteral feeding and digestive setting to rest

26

Pathophysiology of acute small bowel disease with CT correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this article is to review the pathophysiology of acute small bowel diseases, and to correlate the mechanisms of disease with computed tomography (CT) findings. Disease entities will be classified into the following: immune mediated and infectious causes, vascular causes, mechanical causes, trauma, and others. Having an understanding of acute small bowel pathophysiology is a useful teaching tool, and can lead to imaging clues to the most likely diagnosis of acute small bowel disorders.

27

Small bowel angiodysplasia and novel disease associations: a cohort study.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias recurrently bleed, accounting for 3-5% of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The advent of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has led to an increased recognition of small bowel angiodysplasias (SBAs) but little is known about their etiology. Previous small cohorts and case reports suggest an equal gender incidence and associations with cardiovascular disease, renal impairment, and coagulopathies.

Holleran, Grainne

2013-04-01

28

Cellobiose: mannitol differential permeability in small bowel disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cellobiose and mannitol absorption were studied in patients with suspected abnormal function of the small bowel mucosa. The urinary cellobiose:mannitol ratio was increased in subtotal villous atrophy, iron deficiency anaemia, and small intestinal Crohn's disease. The test seems a sensitive indicator of the integrity of small bowel mucosa.

Hodges, S.; Ashmore, S. P.; Patel, H. R.; Tanner, M. S.

1989-01-01

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Small bowel adaptation with growth hormone and glutamine after massive resection of rat's small bowel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of glutamine (GLN) and growth hormone (GH) improves intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS). The present study aimed to assess the effect of a diet rich in glutamine and the use of GH on intestinal adaptation in experimental SBS. 80 Wistar rats (240 g) were randomized into 6 groups: 1) RGLN (20)--95% small bowel resection and fed on GLN diet; 2) RGLNGH (20)--95% SBR, GLN diet and GH; 3) RC (10)--95% SBR and fed on a low GLN control diet (C); 4) RCGH (10)--95% SBR and C diet and GH; 5) TAGLIN (10)--intestinal transection and anastomosis (Ta) and fed on a GLN diet; 6) TAGLNGH (10)--Ta and GLN diet and GH. GH was given SC at a dose of 0.14 mg/kg/day. The rats were weighed daily and nitrogen balance was made. Rats were sacrificed after 15 days and mucosa cell proliferation was studied with PC10 antibody. Statistical analysis was performed. All SBR rats lost weight as compared to their initial weight (8% to 13%). GH improved Ta rats weight (18.98 x 5.04%). The use of GLN diet and GH improved nitrogen balance and bowel growth on SBR groups, as compared to controls, but not cell proliferation. In conclusion, the use of GLN enriched diet and GH improves intestinal adaptation after massive resection of the small bowel in rats. PMID:10364785

Waitzberg, D L; Cukier, C; Mucerino, D R; Logulo, A F; Torrinhas, R S; de Castro, I

1999-01-01

30

Contrast enema depiction of small-bowel volvulus in complicated neonatal bowel obstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About one-half of patients with meconium ileus (MI) present with a complication such as volvulus, atresia, meconium peritonitis or giant cystic meconium peritonitis. The treatment of these complications requires surgery. However, the preoperative diagnosis of complicated MI is difficult. We describe two neonates with complicated small-bowel obstruction, one with MI related to cystic fibrosis and the other not related to cystic fibrosis. In both, contrast enema depicted a spiral appearance of the distal small bowel, which at surgery proved to be the result of volvulus associated with antenatal bowel perforation. This appearance of the small bowel on contrast enema in this clinical setting has not been previously described. The recognition of this spiral appearance of the distal small bowel suggests the need for surgery. (orig.)

31

Contrast enema depiction of small-bowel volvulus in complicated neonatal bowel obstruction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About one-half of patients with meconium ileus (MI) present with a complication such as volvulus, atresia, meconium peritonitis or giant cystic meconium peritonitis. The treatment of these complications requires surgery. However, the preoperative diagnosis of complicated MI is difficult. We describe two neonates with complicated small-bowel obstruction, one with MI related to cystic fibrosis and the other not related to cystic fibrosis. In both, contrast enema depicted a spiral appearance of the distal small bowel, which at surgery proved to be the result of volvulus associated with antenatal bowel perforation. This appearance of the small bowel on contrast enema in this clinical setting has not been previously described. The recognition of this spiral appearance of the distal small bowel suggests the need for surgery. (orig.)

Navarro, Oscar M.; Daneman, Alan; Miller, Stephen F. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2004-12-01

32

CT findings of small bowel rupture after abdominal trauma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accuracy of CT in the detection of injuries of the solid visceral organ is well established, but the value of CT in diagnosing small bowel rupture after abdominal trauma is controversal. This study was conducted to ascertain CT finding of small bowel rupture result from abdominal trauma. A retrospective analysis of preoperative abdominal CT findings in 40 patients was performed. Small bowel rupture was confirmed by surgery. Precontrast and postcontrast enhanced CT images were obtained in all patients. Diagnostic findings of small bowel rupture including pneumoperitoneum or retroperitoneal air, discontinuity of the bowel wall and extravasation of oral contrast materials were observed in 33 cases(83%). Intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal free air was seen in 31 cases(78%) and intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal free fluid collection was seen in 38 patients(95%). Small bowel wall was thickened in 31 cases(78%), bowel wall was enhanced in 12 cases(30%) and bowel wall discontinuity and extravasation of oral contrast material was seen in 5 cases, respectively. The CT scan is sensitive and effective modality for evaluation of small bowel rupture after abdominal trauma, because of high detectability of diagnostic and suggestive CT findings.

Oh, Jin Hwan; Kim, Young Ju; Park, Joong Wha; Shim, Soo Yeun; Sung, Ki Joon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

1995-05-15

33

CT findings of small bowel rupture after abdominal trauma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accuracy of CT in the detection of injuries of the solid visceral organ is well established, but the value of CT in diagnosing small bowel rupture after abdominal trauma is controversal. This study was conducted to ascertain CT finding of small bowel rupture result from abdominal trauma. A retrospective analysis of preoperative abdominal CT findings in 40 patients was performed. Small bowel rupture was confirmed by surgery. Precontrast and postcontrast enhanced CT images were obtained in all patients. Diagnostic findings of small bowel rupture including pneumoperitoneum or retroperitoneal air, discontinuity of the bowel wall and extravasation of oral contrast materials were observed in 33 cases(83%). Intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal free air was seen in 31 cases(78%) and intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal free fluid collection was seen in 38 patients(95%). Small bowel wall was thickened in 31 cases(78%), bowel wall was enhanced in 12 cases(30%) and bowel wall discontinuity and extravasation of oral contrast material was seen in 5 cases, respectively. The CT scan is sensitive and effective modality for evaluation of small bowel rupture after abdominal trauma, because of high detectability of diagnostic and suggestive CT findings

34

Acute appendicitis presenting as small bowel obstruction: two case reports  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acute appendicitis is a common surgical problem however the diagnosis is often overlooked when it presents as a small bowel obstruction. In this report we present two cases of elderly patients who presented with small bowel obstruction and raised inflammatory markers. Both patients were successfully treated with a laparotomy, adhesiolysis and appendicectomy and went on to make a good recovery.

Harrison, Sanjay; Mahawar, Kamal; Brown, Dougal; Boobis, Leslie; Small, Peter

2009-01-01

35

Rapunzel Syndrome: a rare cause of acute small bowel obstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Rapunzel syndrome is a very rare condition where trichobezoar has extended up to the small bowel. Here we are reporting a rare case of Rapunzel syndrome in an adolescent girl with history of trichophagia who presented with small bowel obstruction. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and bezoar was removed through gastrotomy. Post-operative course was unremarkable.

Dr. Vipul D Yagnik

2010-07-01

36

Multiphasic MDCT in small bowel volvulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: Evaluate the use of MDCT with 3D CT angiography (CTA) and CT portal venography (CTPV) reconstruction for the diagnosis of small bowel volvulus (SBV). Methods: Multiphasic MDCT findings in nine patients (seven males and two females, age range 2-70) with surgically proven SBV were retrospectively reviewed. Non-contrast and double phase contrast enhanced MDCT including 3D CTA and CTPV reconstruction were performed in all the patients. Two experienced abdominal radiologists evaluated the images and defined the location, direction and degree of SBV. Results: On axial MDCT images, all cases show segmental or global dilatation of small intestine. Other findings include circumferential bowel wall thickening in eight cases, halo appearance and hyperemia in seven cases, whirl sign in six cases, beak-like appearance in six cases, closed loops in six cases and ascites in one case. CTA/CTPV showed abnormal courses involving main trunks of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) in seven cases, with or without distortion of their tributaries. Normal course of SMA but abnormal course of SMV was seen in the other two cases. Of all the nine cases, whirl sign was seen in six cases and barber's pole sign in five cases. Dilated SMV was observed in eight cases and abrupt termination of SMA was found in one case. Compared with surgical findings, the location, direction and degree of SBV were correctly estimated in all cases based on CTA/CTPV. Conclusion: Multiphasic MDCT with CTA/CTPV reconstruction can play an important role in the diagnosis of SBV. The location, direction and degree of SBV can all be defined preoperatively using this method.

Feng Shiting, E-mail: fst1977@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chan Tao, E-mail: taochan@hku.hk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Hong Kong, Room 406, Block K, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Sun Canhui, E-mail: canhuisun@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Li Ziping, E-mail: liziping163@tom.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Guo Huanyi, E-mail: guohuanyi@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Yang Guangqi, E-mail: shwy03@126.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Peng Zhenpeng, E-mail: ppzhen@21cn.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Meng Quanfei, E-mail: mzycoco@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

2010-11-15

37

Perfuração de intestino delgado por doença diverticular jejunal Intestinal perforation in consequence of small intestine's diverticulitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small Intestine's diverticulosis is an uncommon pathology of intestine. It's more evident at jejune and can be complicated by intestinal perforation, obstruction or diverticulitis, increasing the mortality. We describe a forty years old female patient that arrived at emergency service complained of diffuse abdominal pain. There aren't signals of peritonitis and the radiological evaluation showed small intestine's distension. Surgical intervention was performed revealing multiples diverticulums at jejune and intestinal perforation. The aim of this article is present a case of Small Intestine's diverticulosis and its complications that had precise intervention resulting in a favorable resolution.

Vilmar Moura Leal

2010-02-01

38

Perfuração de intestino delgado por doença diverticular jejunal / Intestinal perforation in consequence of small intestine's diverticulitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Small Intestine's diverticulosis is an uncommon pathology of intestine. It's more evident at jejune and can be complicated by intestinal perforation, obstruction or diverticulitis, increasing the mortality. We describe a forty years old female patient that arrived at emergency service complained of [...] diffuse abdominal pain. There aren't signals of peritonitis and the radiological evaluation showed small intestine's distension. Surgical intervention was performed revealing multiples diverticulums at jejune and intestinal perforation. The aim of this article is present a case of Small Intestine's diverticulosis and its complications that had precise intervention resulting in a favorable resolution.

Vilmar Moura, Leal; Ana Paula Santos de, Andrade; Cléciton Braga, Tavares; Kelson James Silva de, Almeida.

39

Intestinal small bowel lymphomas - diagnosis and treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary intestinal lymphomas are most common in the stomach. The mucosa associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)-lymphoma which is closely associated with helicobacter pylori is very well known. In most cases, these malignancies are from B-cells origin. Another possible point of manifestation, although not well known, is the small bowel. Both tumors have enormous capabilities to enlarge in the abdominal cave. This is responding to their often asymptomatic manifestation. The symptoms, if they occur, are widespread and unspecific. Ileus, diarrhae, abdominal pain or bleeding will be observed, in rare cases also perforation or gastrointestinal or cutaneous fistulas. Diagnostic imaging often demonstrates a tumour of massive size by then, which is echopoor in the abdominal ultrasound. Our report concerns two cases of small intestine lymphomas, which were diagnosed by CT-scanning and treated in our clinic in only a short period of time. The first case was a low malignant jejunal lymphoma which was almost asymptomatic, whereas the second case had an ileus, due to compression of the intestine because of a high malignant lymphoma of the ileocecal region. (orig.)

40

MRI of the small bowel: can sufficient bowel distension be achieved with small volumes of oral contrast?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sufficient luminal distension is mandatory for small bowel imaging. However, patients often are unable to ingest volumes of currently applied oral contrast compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate if administration of low doses of an oral contrast agent with high-osmolarity leads to sufficient and diagnostic bowel distension. Six healthy volunteers ingested at different occasions 150, 300 and 450 ml of a commercially available oral contrast agent (Banana Smoothie Readi-Cat, E-Z-EM; 194 mOsmol/l). Two-dimensional TrueFISP data sets were acquired in 5-min intervals up to 45 min after contrast ingestion. Small bowel distension was quantified using a visual five-grade ranking (5 = very good distension, 1 = collapsed bowel). Results were statistically compared using a Wilcoxon-Rank test. Ingestion of 450 ml and 300 ml resulted in a significantly better distension than 150 ml. The all-over average distension value for 450 ml amounted to 3.4 (300 ml: 3.0, 150 ml: 2.3) and diagnostic bowel distension could be found throughout the small intestine. Even 45 min after ingestion of 450 ml the jejunum and ileum could be reliably analyzed. Small bowel imaging with low doses of contrast leads to diagnostic distension values in healthy subjects when a high-osmolarity substance is applied. These findings may help to further refine small bowel MRI techniques, but need to be confirmed in patients with small bowel disorders. (orig.)

Kinner, Sonja; Kuehle, Christiane A.; Ladd, Susanne C.; Barkhausen, Joerg [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Herbig, Sebastian [University Hospital Essen, Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Services, Essen (Germany); Haag, Sebastian [University Hospital Essen, Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Essen (Germany); Lauenstein, Thomas C. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2008-11-15

 
 
 
 
41

MRI of the small bowel: can sufficient bowel distension be achieved with small volumes of oral contrast?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sufficient luminal distension is mandatory for small bowel imaging. However, patients often are unable to ingest volumes of currently applied oral contrast compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate if administration of low doses of an oral contrast agent with high-osmolarity leads to sufficient and diagnostic bowel distension. Six healthy volunteers ingested at different occasions 150, 300 and 450 ml of a commercially available oral contrast agent (Banana Smoothie Readi-Cat, E-Z-EM; 194 mOsmol/l). Two-dimensional TrueFISP data sets were acquired in 5-min intervals up to 45 min after contrast ingestion. Small bowel distension was quantified using a visual five-grade ranking (5 very good distension, 1 = collapsed bowel). Results were statistically compared using a Wilcoxon-Rank test. Ingestion of 450 ml and 300 ml resulted in a significantly better distension than 150 ml. The all-over average distension value for 450 ml amounted to 3.4 (300 ml: 3.0, 150 ml: 2.3) and diagnostic bowel distension could be found throughout the small intestine. Even 45 min after ingestion of 450 ml the jejunum and ileum could be reliably analyzed. Small bowel imaging with low doses of contrast leads to diagnostic distension values in healthy subjects when a high-osmolarity substance is applied. These findings may help to further refine small bowel MRI techniques, but need to be confirmed in patients with small bowel disorders. (orig.)

42

Radical surgical approach to radiation injury of the small bowel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During a period of 12 years, 52 patients without tumor recurrence were treated for chronic radiation injury to the small bowel. Eighteen patients also had concomitant large bowel injuries. Forty-seven patients were treated surgically, 42 of whom presented with obstruction, necrosis, or perforation of the bowel and had emergency operations. Thirty-eight patients underwent wide resection of the injured bowel, and six had bypass procedures. Anastomotic leakage occurred in 6 percent of the patients. The operative morbidity rate was 34 percent, and the mortality rate, 9 percent. Based on this experience, when surgery for small intestinal radiation injury is mandatory, the procedure should be a generous small bowel resection whenever possible, and probably should be performed only by experienced surgeons

43

Transient small-bowel intussusception in children on CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the frequency and significance of small-bowel intussusception identified in children on CT. All abdomen CT reports between July 1995 and April 2002 were reviewed to identify patients with small-bowel intussusception. Intussusceptions were identified as an intraluminal mass with a characteristic layered appearance and/or continuity with adjacent mesenteric fat. Ileocolic intussusceptions and intussusceptions related to feeding tubes were excluded. Imaging studies and medical records were reviewed. Twenty-five pediatric patients (16 boys, 9 girls; mean age 11.2 years) were identified with small-bowel intussusception on CT. No patient had a persistent intussusception requiring surgery. Fourteen had limited immediate repeat CT images as part of the same examination, ten of which demonstrated resolution of the CT abnormality. Follow-up CT [n=13 (6 within 24 h)], ultrasound (n=3), small-bowel follow-through (n=4) and surgery (n=3) showed no intussusception. In four patients with persistent symptoms, underlying pathology was identified requiring treatment (giardiasis, 2; small-bowel inflammation/strictures, 1; abscess and partial small-bowel obstruction after perforated appendicitis, 1). In 21 other patients, direct correlation of symptoms to CT abnormality was absent or questionable, no treatment was required, and there was no clinical or imaging evidence of persistence or recurrence. Most small-bowel intussusceptions identified in children by CT are transient dentified in children by CT are transient and of no clinical significance. (orig.)

44

Small bowel feces sign in association with occlusive mesenteric ischemia  

Science.gov (United States)

Small bowel feces sign (SBFS) is a computed tomography (CT) finding that appears as fecal like material in dilated small bowel loops. This sign is usually seen in association with gradually progressive small bowel obstruction. We present a case of occlusive mesenteric ischemia in which the SBFS appeared on CT scan early on in the course of the disease. We put forward a suggested alternative mechanism to the appearance of this sign in association with mesenteric ischemia. The SBFS might have the potential to serve as an early sign of mesenteric ischemia on CT scan. PMID:25298875

Bismar, Hayan A; Hamid, Abdullgabbar M

2014-01-01

45

Small bowel enteroclysis using a hemodialysis blood pump  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to describe the usefulness of small bowel enteroclysis using a hemodialysis blood pump. Over 1 16 month period, 135 double contrast small bowel enteroclysis examinations were performed in 132 patients using a hemodialysis blood pump. Following incubation of the proximal jejunum, barium at a dilution of 50 % and 0.5 %-methylcellulose were infused at a constant rate using a hemodialysis blood pump and multiple spot films of the small intestine were obtained. Success rate, quality of radiographs, positive findings, fluoroscopic time and complications were evaluated. It spite of the long fluoroscopic time and invasiveness, double contrast small bowel enteroclysis is useful for the evaluation of small bowel disease. The infusion of barium and methylcellulose using a hemodialysis blood pump give radiographs of good quality. (author). 18 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

46

Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance. (orig.)

Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C.; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Debatin, Joerg F.; Lauenstein, Thomas C. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122, Essen (Germany); Schneemann, Hubert [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany)

2004-03-01

47

Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance. (orig.)

48

Oral contrast agents for small bowel distension in MRI: influence of the osmolarity for small bowel distention  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the effect of the osmolarity for small bowel distension in MRI, ten volunteers ingested at two separate occasions negative oral contrast agents with different quantity and osmolarity: (1) a water solution combined with 2.0% sorbitol and 0.2% locus bean gum (LBG) with a quantity of 1500 ml and an osmolarity of 148 mOsmol/l, (2) a water solution combined with 2.0% sorbitol and 2.0% barium sulphate with a quantity of 1000 ml and an osmolarity of 194 mOsmol/l. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D-TrueFISP images by measuring the small bowel diameters. There were no statistically significant differences in mean small bowel diameter between both contrast agents. The mean small bowel distension was 19.2 mm after ingestion of 1500 ml of sorbitol-LBG solution and 19.0 mm after ingestion of 1000-ml sorbitol-barium sulphate solution. Furthermore, all volunteers found the ingestion of 1000-ml solution more pleasant than the 1500-ml solution. The ingestion of 1000 ml of sorbitol-barium sulphate solution led to a sufficient small bowel distension compared to 1500 ml of sorbitol-LBG solution. The side effect rate of both solutions was low. Based on these data, we recommend a quantity of 1000 ml of sorbitol-barium sulphate solution as an alternative for 1500-ml sorbitol-LBG solution for optimal bowel distension. (orig.)

49

Metastatic choriocarcinoma in the small bowel: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: In abnormal postpartum hemorrhage, we should consider the possibility of choriocarcinoma. Although, it is important to note rare manifestations of metastatic choriocarcinoma of small bowel in massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

Zohreh Yousefi

2014-08-01

50

ENETS TNM Staging Predicts Prognosis in Small Bowel Neuroendocrine Tumours  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Small bowel neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are the most common type of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours. The incidence and prevalence of these tumours are on the rise. The aims of this study were to determine prognostic clinicopathological features and whether the ENETS TNM staging system predicts prognosis and also. Method. Clinical data was collected retrospectively from 138 patients with histologically proven small bowel NETs managed at King's College Hospital. Histolog...

Rajaventhan Srirajaskanthan; Ahmed, A.; Prachialias, A.; Srinivasan, P.; Heaton, N.; Jervis, N.; Quaglia, A.; Vivian, G.; Ramage, J. K.

2013-01-01

51

[Actual role of MR in the small bowel studies: dynamic sequences and bowel distension].  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance (MR) is even more becoming important in the evaluation of the small bowel, thanks to the technologic advances of the machines and thanks to the improvement of specific diagnostic protocols of study. MR is a pivotal in identifying acute stenosis and alterations of the bowel wall and in differentiating between inflammatory and fibrotic alterations. Diffusion techniques and dynamic MRI allows the assessment of the degree of disease activity of IBD, although nuclear medicine represents the gold standard. PMID:23096724

Stabile Ianora, Antonio Amato; Losco, Matteo; Fonio, Paolo; Zeppa, Pio; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Cuccurullo, Vincenzo

2012-11-01

52

Diverticular disease: eat your fiber!  

Science.gov (United States)

In industrialized nations, diverticular disease affects up to 70% of individuals by 60 years of age, with symptoms that can range from mild gastrointestinal disturbance to incapacitating pain. Diverticular disease appears to be related to increasing affluence and changed diet: Current theory holds that diverticular disease's origin is low-fiber diet. This explains why its incidence is highest and accelerating in the more prosperous countries where intake of fiber has decreased and intake of milled grains and refined sugars has increased over time. Not all patients develop symptoms, but if they do, the most frequent complaints associated with diverticulosis are cramping in the left-lower quadrant, bloating, constipation, and soiling. If diverticula perforate the gut's wall into the pericolic tissue, small and large abscesses, accompanied by bleeding, can form. Fistulization, when it occurs, most often penetrates to the bladder. Treatment addresses symptoms and may require hospitalization. During symptomatic periods, patients do best on low-fiber, bland diets. Once the acute episode or highly symptomatic period resolves or chronic disease is managed, patients should gradually increase dietary fiber to 20 to 30 grams daily or take dietary fiber in the form of bulk stimulants like psyllium. PMID:22982746

Wick, Jeannette Y

2012-09-01

53

CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer. Of the 1468 patients with primary lung cancer between 1990 and 2000, 13 patients who had metastasis to the small intestine were collected. Of these 13 patients, nine who underwent CT scan were included for analysis. The pathologic diagnoses of primary lung cancer in these nine patients were squamous cell carcinoma in six, adenocarcinoma in two, and large cell carcinoma in one. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the site and patterns (intraluminal mass/bowel wall thickening/bowel implants) of metastatic masses, and the presence or absence of complication such as intussusception, obstruction, or perforation of the small bowel. The medical records of the patients were also reviewed retrospectively for evaluation of presenting abdominal symptom and time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Metastatic lesions were distributed throughout the small intestine: the duodenum in five, the jejunum in four, the ileum in six, and both jejunum and ileum in one patient. The size of metastatic masses of small bowel ranged from 1.3 cm to 5.0 cm (mean size, 2.6 cm) On CT, the small bowel was involved with intraluminal masses (mean size, 3.4 cm) in eight patients, diffuse wall thickening (mean thickness, 1.6 cm) in five, and bowel implants (mean size, 2.2 cm) in two. Complications occurred in seven patients, including intussusceptions without obstruction in two patients and with obstruction in two, obstruction without intussusceptions in two, and bowel perforation in one. Of 9 patients, 6 had at least one symptom referable to the small bowel including abdominal pain in 4, anemia in 3, vomiting in 1, and jaundice in 1. Lung cancer and small bowel lesions were detected simultaneously in four patients and the time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer ranged from 10 days to 30 months (median interval, 54 days) in patients. CT helps in defining the extent and pattern of small bowel metastases as well as in demonstrating their complication.

Kim, Jae Wook; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Gab Choul; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-11-01

54

CT Findings of Small Bowel Anisakiasis: Analysis of Four Cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We wanted to describe the CT findings of small bowel anisakiasis with the pathologic correlation. Four patients with surgically and pathologically proven small bowel anisakiasis were included in this retrospective study. They were three men and one woman and their ages ranged from 28 to 43 years (mean age: 38 years). We evaluated their clinical, CT and histological findings. All the patients had a history of ingesting raw fish within 24 hours from the time of symptom onset. They complained of abdominal pain (n=4), nausea (n=4), vomiting (n=2) and diarrhea (n=1). Physical examination revealed tenderness (n=4), rebound tenderness (n=4) and increased bowel sounds (n=3). Leukocytosis was noted in all the patients on the laboratory examination. None of the patients showed eosinophilia. The CT findings were segmental small bowel wall thickening with preserved layering (n=4), focal segmental luminal narrowing with proximal dilatation (n=4), peritoneal thickening (n=3), mesenteric or omental infiltration (n=4) and varying degrees of ascites (n=4). On the histopathologic examination, they revealed an infiltration of eosinophils (n=4) in all layers of the bowel wall with severe edema. The larvae were found on surgico-pathologic examination in all the cases. The CT findings may be helpful to make the specific diagnosis of small bowel anisakiasis in a patient with the clinical findings of an acute abdomen and a history of eating raw fish

55

CT Findings of Small Bowel Anisakiasis: Analysis of Four Cases  

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We wanted to describe the CT findings of small bowel anisakiasis with the pathologic correlation. Four patients with surgically and pathologically proven small bowel anisakiasis were included in this retrospective study. They were three men and one woman and their ages ranged from 28 to 43 years (mean age: 38 years). We evaluated their clinical, CT and histological findings. All the patients had a history of ingesting raw fish within 24 hours from the time of symptom onset. They complained of abdominal pain (n=4), nausea (n=4), vomiting (n=2) and diarrhea (n=1). Physical examination revealed tenderness (n=4), rebound tenderness (n=4) and increased bowel sounds (n=3). Leukocytosis was noted in all the patients on the laboratory examination. None of the patients showed eosinophilia. The CT findings were segmental small bowel wall thickening with preserved layering (n=4), focal segmental luminal narrowing with proximal dilatation (n=4), peritoneal thickening (n=3), mesenteric or omental infiltration (n=4) and varying degrees of ascites (n=4). On the histopathologic examination, they revealed an infiltration of eosinophils (n=4) in all layers of the bowel wall with severe edema. The larvae were found on surgico-pathologic examination in all the cases. The CT findings may be helpful to make the specific diagnosis of small bowel anisakiasis in a patient with the clinical findings of an acute abdomen and a history of eating raw fish

Kim, Wee Kyoung; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo; Jung, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Min Yeong [Hanyang University Guri Hospital, College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

2011-02-15

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Small bowel perforation secondary to accidental dental plate ingestion  

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The majority of ingested foreign bodies will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without incident, with less than 1% of cases resulting in complications. Herein we present a case of small bowel perforation secondary to the accidental ingestion of a dental plate. A diagnosis of perforation was made by CT imaging, but the exact cause could only be determined after resection of the affected bowel and histo-pathological examination. We re-iterate the importance of accurate and thorough histor...

Webster, P. J.; Peckham-cooper, A.; Lansdown, M.

2011-01-01

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Whirl sign as CT finding in small-bowel volvulus  

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In three patients with ileus CT showed a whirl sign in which the bowel and mesenteric folds encircled the superior mesenteric vein in a whirl-like pattern. Two patients were confirmed surgically to have small-bowel volvulus arising from postoperative adhesions. The whirl sign is useful in decision-making about the need for surgery. A CT examination should be performed for patients with ileus of unknown cause. (orig.)

Fujimoto, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka City Univ. Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Nakamura, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka City Univ. Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Nishio, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka City Univ. Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Takashima, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka City Univ. Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Minakuchi, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka City Univ. Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Onoyama, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka City Univ. Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Nomura, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Higashi-Osaka Ikeda Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Hayata, S. [Dept. of Surgery, Higashi-Osaka Ikeda Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

1995-12-31

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SMALL BOWELL BURKITT LYMPHOMA AT THE CHILD. CASE REPORT  

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Full Text Available Burkitt lymphoma localised at the small bowell is very rare. We present the case of a 7 years old child admitted into the hospital for acute appendicitis. During the surgical procedure we found a tumor localised on the last segment of the small bowell. We performed appendectomy associated with segmental resection of intestine were the tumor was, with end to end eneteroenterostomy. The microscopic pathological exam showed the infiltration of the intestinal wall with lymphocytes and macrophages with an overall appearance of „starry sky”. Immunehistochemistry revealed malignant B type lymphocytes CD 20 positive, CD 68 positive macrophages and a Ki-67 proliferation index rate of 85%. These findings certified the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion: The Burkitt lymphoma of the small bowell can be a „surprising” intraoperatively diagnosis. The treatment of this tumor is surgical procedure (resection of the intestine associated with chemotherapy.

?t. C. Chico?

2007-01-01

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Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the small bowel mesentery  

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Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is an uncommon cutaneous malignant tumor that presents as a rapidly growing skin nodule on sun-exposed areas of the body. MCC is aggressive with regional nodal and distant metastases to the skin, lung, and bones. There have been no reports of metastatic MCC to the mesentery and 6 reports describing metastasis to the small intestine. We present a case of metastatic MCC to the mesentery with infiltration to the small bowel, 8 years after original tumor resection. This is the 5th metastasis and it encased the small bowel resulting in a hair-pin loop contributing to the unusual clinical presentation. Although MCC metastatic to the bowel is uncommon, it is not rare. It is important to recognize the unusual manifestations of this disease as they are becoming more common in the future. Routine radiologic surveillance and thorough review of systems are important to patient follow-up.

Jeffrey D. Wayne

2011-03-01

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Primary Small Bowel Tumour Presenting as Bowel Obstruction in a Patient with a Virgin Abdomen  

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Full Text Available Primary malignancies of the small bowel are rare and usually present with vague, non-specific symptoms. This leads to diagnostic difficulties for both physician and radiologists alike. We present a case of a 54-year-old lady with a virgin abdomen who initially presented to hospital with vague abdominal symptoms suggestive of gastroenteritis. She responded partially to conservative treatment but represented to hospital 3 weeks later with obstructive symptoms. Contrast CT was inconclusive with regards to diagnosis. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed, revealing an infiltrative growth. Consequently, she underwent segmental laparoscopic-assisted small bowel resection and recovered well post-operatively. After further histological and endoscopic investigations, a final diagnosis of primary small bowel adenocarcinoma was given. As the prognosis of small bowel malignancy is stage-dependent, this case demonstrates a high index of suspicion is necessary to reach early diagnosis, especially for symptoms non-responsive to conventional treatment. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be considered early as a definitive diagnostic tool.

Xilin Wu

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
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Primary Small Bowel Tumour Presenting as Bowel Obstruction in a Patient with a Virgin Abdomen  

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Full Text Available Primary malignancies of the small bowel are rare and usually present with vague, non-specific symptoms. This leads to diagnostic difficulties for both physician and radiologists alike. We present a case of a 54-year-old lady with a virgin abdomen who initially presented to hospital with vague abdominal symptoms suggestive of gastroenteritis. She responded partially to conservative treatment but represented to hospital 3 weeks later with obstructive symptoms. Contrast CT was inconclusive with regards to diagnosis. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed, revealing an infiltrative growth. Consequently, she underwent segmental laparoscopic-assisted small bowel resection and recovered well post-operatively. After further histological and endoscopic investigations, a final diagnosis of primary small bowel adenocarcinoma was given. As the prognosis of small bowel malignancy is stage-dependent, this case demonstrates a high index of suspicion is necessary to reach early diagnosis, especially for symptoms non-responsive to conventional treatment. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be considered early as a definitive diagnostic tool.

Xilin Wu

2013-06-01

62

Enteroscopy in small bowel Crohn’s disease: A review  

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Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract resulting in inflammation, stricturing and fistulae secondary to transmural inflammation. Diagnosis relies on clinical history, abnormal laboratory parameters, characteristic radiologic and endoscopic changes within the gastrointestinal tract and most importantly a supportive histology. The article is intended mainly for the general gastroenterologist and for other interested physicians. Management of small bowel CD has been suboptimal and limited due to the inaccessibility of the small bowel. Enteroscopy has had a significant renaissance recently, thereby extending the reach of the endoscopist, aiding diagnosis and enabling therapeutic interventions in the small bowel. Radiologic imaging is used as the first line modality to visualise the small bowel. If the clinical suspicion is high, wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE is used to rule out superficial and early disease, despite the above investigations being normal. This is followed by push enteroscopy or device assisted enteroscopy (DAE as is appropriate. This approach has been found to be the most cost effective and least invasive. DAE includes balloon-assisted enteroscopy, [double balloon enteroscopy (DBE, single balloon enteroscopy (SBE and more recently spiral enteroscopy (SE]. This review is not going to cover the various other indications of enteroscopy, radiological small bowel investigations nor WCE and limited only to enteroscopy in small bowel Crohn’s. These excluded topics already have comprehensive reviews. Evidence available from randomized controlled trials comparing the various modalities is limited and at best regarded as Grade C or D (based on expert opinion. The evidence suggests that all three DAE modalities have comparable insertion depths, diagnostic and therapeutic efficacies and complication rates, though most favour DBE due to higher rates of total enteroscopy. SE is quicker than DBE, but lower complete enteroscopy rates. SBE has quicker procedural times and is evolving but the least available DAE today. Larger prospective randomised controlled trial’s in the future could help us understand some unanswered areas including the role of BAE in small bowel screening and comparative studies between the main types of enteroscopy in small bowel CD.

Benjamin Tharian

2013-01-01

63

Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Small bowel  

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The small bowel is a hollow organ involved in the transit and absorption of food. In relation to its anatomical location, a significant amount of this organ is exposed in whole or in part to ionizing radiation in external radiotherapy during abdominal or pelvic irradiation either for primary cancers or metastasis. The acute functional changes during external beam radiation are mainly leading to diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating. The main late side effects of irradiation of the small intestine are chronic diarrhea, malabsorption with steatorrhoea, abdominal spasms, intestinal obstruction, bleeding and fistulas. The architecture of the small intestine may be considered as parallel with a significant correlation between the irradiated volume of small bowel and the likelihood of acute toxicity, whatever the dose. The literature analysis recommends to consider the volume of small bowel receiving 15 Gy (threshold of 100 to 200 cm3) but also 30 and 50 Gy (thresholds of 35 to 300 cm3, depending on the level of dose considered). Modern techniques of conformal radiotherapy with modulated intensity will probably have beneficial impact on small bowel toxicity. (authors)

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MR enterography in the evaluation of small bowel dilation  

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Magnetic reasonance (MR) enterography enables high contrast resolution depiction of the location and cause of bowel obstruction through a combination of predictable luminal distension and multiplanar imaging capabilities. Furthermore, because the patient is not exposed to ionizing radiation, sequential 'dynamic' MR imaging can be performed repeatedly over time further facilitating depiction of the site and/or the cause of obstruction. With increasing availability of MR imaging and standardization of the oral contrast medium regimens, it is likely that this technique will assume an ever-increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel dilation in the coming years. We illustrate the utility of MR enterography in the evaluation of small bowel dilation, whether it be mechanical, functional (e.g., ileus), or related to infiltrative mural disease.

Cronin, C.G. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: carmelcronin2000@hotmail.com; Lohan, D.G.; Browne, A.M.; Alhajeri, A.N.; Roche, C.; Murphy, J.M. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)

2009-10-15

65

Single-port laparoscopic management of adhesive small bowel obstruction.  

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Laparoscopic adhesiolysis has been the focus of much recent attention; however, the role of single-port laparoscopic surgery for adhesive small bowel obstruction remains unclear. We report our experience of performing single-port laparoscopic surgery for adhesive small bowel obstruction through a retrospective review of 15 consecutive patients who underwent single-port laparoscopic surgery for single adhesive small bowel obstruction between 2010 and 2012. We analyzed data on patient demographics, operating time, conversion, and surgical morbidity. Surgery was completed successfully without conversion to laparotomy or the need for additional intraoperative ports in 14 patients, but the remaining patient had peritoneal dissemination from colon cancer. The median operative time was 49 (25-148) min, and the estimated blood loss was 19 (2-182) ml. There were no major postoperative complications. We conclude that single-port laparoscopic surgery is a technically feasible approach for selected patients with adhesive small bowel obstruction when preoperative imaging identifies a single adhesive obstruction. PMID:24048766

Hiro, Junichiro; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Kawamoto, Aya; Okita, Yoshiki; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

2014-03-01

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Obstructive Small Bowel Metastasis from Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: A Case Report  

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Background. Uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare and aggressive gynecologic malignancy with an overall poor prognosis. Lungs, bones, and brain are common sites of metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma. Metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma to the small bowel are extremely rare, and only four case reports have been published to date. Case presentation. A 55-year-old Saudi woman diagnosed with a case of uterine leiomyosarcoma treated with total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingooophorectomy (BSO) presented in emergency room after sixteen months with acute abdomen. Subsequent work-up showed a jejunal mass for which resection and end-to-end anastomosis were performed. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of small bowel metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma. Further staging work-up showed wide spread metastasis in lungs and brain. After palliative cranial irradiation, systemic chemotherapy based on single agent doxorubicin was started. Conclusion. Metastatic leiomyosarcoma of small bowel from uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare entity and is sign of advanced disease. It should be differentiated from primary leiomyosarcoma of small bowel as both are treated with different systemic chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24716034

Tunio, Mutahir A.; AlAsiri, Mushabbab; Saleh, Rasha M.; Akbar, Shomaila Amir; Ali, Nagoud M.; Senosy Hassan, Mohamed Abdalazez

2014-01-01

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Resection of peritoneal metastases causing malignant small bowel obstruction  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Resection of peritoneal metastases has been shown to improve survival in patients with abdominal metastatic disease from abdominal or extra abdominal malignancy. This study evaluates the benefit of peritoneal metastatic resection in patients with malignant small bowel obstruction and a past history of treated cancer. Patients and methods Patients undergoing laparotomy for resection of peritoneal metastases from recurrence of previous cancer between 1992–2003 were reviewed retrospectively. Data were collected about type of primary cancer, interval to recurrence, extent of the disease and completeness of resection, morbidity and mortality and long-term survival. Results Between 1992 and 2003 there were 79 patients (median age 62, range 19–91 who had laparotomy for small bowel obstruction due to recurrent cancer. The primary cancer was colorectal (31, gynaecologic cancer (19, melanoma (16 and others (13. Overall, the rate of complications was 35% and mortality was 10%. Median survival was 5 months; patients with history of colorectal cancer had better survival than other cancer (median survival 7 months vs. 4 months; p = 0.02. Multivariate analysis showed that the extent of recurrent disease was the only factor that affected overall survival. Conclusion Laparotomy for small bowel obstruction is a worthwhile option for patients with malignant small bowel obstruction. Although it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality it offers a reasonable survival benefit in particular for patients with completely resectable disease.

Merrie Arend EH

2007-10-01

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A radiologist's guide to small bowel and multivisceral transplantation  

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This review will describe the indications for the various small bowel containing transplants. The importance of early referral will be highlighted. Radiologists play a central role in assessing these complex patients prior to transplantation. Furthermore, in the postoperative period, radiologists play an important part in diagnosing and treating complications

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Small bowel ultrasound in patients with celiac disease  

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Objective: Celiac disease (CD) is a common, lifelong disease with small bowel malabsorption based on genetically conditioned gluten intolerance. The clinical manifestation could be very heterogeneous. The proof of celiac disease is now based mainly on clinical and laboratory (antibodies and enterobiopsy) signs, which are in some cases problematic and inconvenient. Materials and methods: In our study we have examined 250 patients with suspection or with proven celiac disease and we evaluated specific ultrasound small bowel changes in this group. In the next step, we chose 59 patients with laboratory proved celiac disease and we statistically compared ultrasound, other laboratory and clinical findings in different forms and stages of the disease. Results: Specific small bowel pathologies in patients with celiac disease (like changes of intestinal villi in different parts of small bowel, abnormal peristalsis and mesenterial lymphadenopathy) can be well visualized by ultrasound and in combination with clinical and laboratory signs ultrasound examination could have an important role in screening, determination of diagnosis and monitoring of patients with different forms of celiac disease

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Langerhan's cell histiocytosis complicating small bowel Crohn's disease.  

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Langerhan's cell histiocytosis is a rare infiltrative disorder of unknown aetiology. A variety of tissues may be affected, but clinically evident intestinal involvement is unusual. An adult patient is described with Crohn's disease of the terminal ileum who subsequently developed Langerhan's cell histiocytosis with extensive infiltration of the small bowel.

Lee-elliott, C.; Alexander, J.; Gould, A.; Talbot, R.; Snook, J. A.

1996-01-01

71

Right-Sided Sigmoid Diverticular Perforation  

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Full Text Available Diverticulosis is a common disorder among geriatric patients, of whom 10% to 25% go on to develop diverticulitis. Known complications of diverticulitis include formation of phlegmon, fistula, bowel obstruction, bleeding, perforation, and colonic abscess. A less common complication is perforation with formation of an extra-abdominal necrotizing abscess. This case is a report of an 83-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with a necrotizing abdominal wall abscess secondary to right-sided diverticular microperforation. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(1:103–105.

Andrew Little

2012-04-01

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Transrectal small bowel evisceration after abdominal crush injury.  

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Transrectal small bowel evisceration (TSBE) is a rare entity that can occur after traumatic injuries. It has been described after impalement, sexual assault, blunt abdominal trauma, and swimming pool drain suction. The authors encountered such a case in a 4-year-old by following a crush abdominal injury. A laparotomy was performed. The eviscerated bowel was pulled inside the abdominal cavity, revealing the rectal perforation. A portion of devascularized ileum was resected, a primary bowel anastomosis was performed, and the longitudinal rectal laceration was repaired with a two-layered closure. There was no fecal soilage, and no protective colostomy was performed. The mortality and morbidity of TSBE are usually related with the severity and type of trauma. The mesenteric laceration and concomitant injuries can cause significant bleeding leading to a hemorrhagic shock and multiorgan failure. PMID:23164034

Gelas, Thomas; Combet, Sylvie; Perinel, Julie; Javouhey, Etienne; Mure, Pierre-Yves

2012-11-01

73

Small bowel anisakiosis: A report of two cases  

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Small bowel stenosis is a serious complication of intestinal anisakiosis. The aim of this report is to investigate whether severe stenosis of the small intestine can be conservatively managed. We treated two patients with severe stenosis of the small intestine caused by anisakiosis. Surgical intervention was eventually performed on the 23rd and 35th in the hospital, respectively. Histopathological examination of the resected specimens revealed that the intestinal wall had been completely damaged by the inflammatory reaction of anisakiosis, and that the damage was irreversible, thereby suggesting that laparotomy is needed in cases of severe small bowel stenosis caused by intestinal anisakiosis, even if a long period of conservative treatment for the intestinal anisakiosis allowed the patient to pass successfully through the acute phase. PMID:16810773

Matsuo, Shigetoshi; Azuma, Takashi; Susumu, Seiya; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Obata, Shirou; Hayashi, Tomayoshi

2006-01-01

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MR imaging of the small bowel in Crohn's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MR and CT techniques optimized for small bowel imaging are playing an increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel disorders. Several studies have shown the advantage of these techniques over tradition barium fluoroscopic examinations secondary to improvements in spatial and temporal resolution combined with improved bowel distending agents. The preference of MR vs. CT has been geographical and based on expertise and public policy. With the increasing awareness of radiation exposure, there has been a more global interest in implementing techniques that either reduce or eliminate radiation exposure [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. This is especially important in patients with chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease who may require multiple studies over a lifetime or in studies that require sequential imaging time points such as in assessment of gastrointestinal motility [Froehlich JM, Patak MA, von Weymarn C, Juli CF, Zollikofer CL, Wentz KU. Small bowel motility assessment with magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2005;21:370-75]. A recent study showed that certain subgroups of patients with Crohn's disease may be exposed to higher doses of radiation; those diagnosed at an early age, those with upper tract inflammation, penetrating disease, requirement of intravenous steroids, infliximab or multiple surgeries [Desmond AN, O'Regan K, Curran C, et al. Crohn'snd AN, O'Regan K, Curran C, et al. Crohn's disease: factors associated with exposure to high levels of diagnostic radiation. Gut 2008;57:1524-29]. Therefore it has been suggested that techniques that can reduce or eliminate radiation exposure should be considered for imaging [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. Owing to the excellent softtissue contrast, direct multiplanar imaging capabilities, new ultrafast breath-holding pulse sequences, lack of ionizing radiation and availability of a variety of oral contrast agents, MR is well suited to play a critical role in the imaging of small bowel disorders. In this article we will review the technical issues related to the performance of MR enterography and enteroclysis and discuss the role and controversies of using MR in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease.

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Oral purgative and simethicone before small bowel capsule endoscopy  

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Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate small bowel cleansing quality, diagnostic yield and transit time, comparing three cleansing protocols prior to capsule endoscopy. METHODS: Sixty patients were prospectively enrolled and randomized to one of the following cleansing protocols: patients in Group A underwent a 24 h liquid diet and overnight fasting; patients in Group B followed protocol A and subsequently were administered 2 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG the evening before the procedure; patients in Group C followed protocol B and were additionally administered 100 mg of simethicone 30 min prior to capsule ingestion. Small bowel cleansing was independently assessed by two experienced endoscopists and classified as poor, fair, good or excellent according to the proportion of small bowel mucosa under perfect conditions for visualization. When there was no agreement between the two endoscopists, the images were reviewed and discussed until a consensus was reached. The preparation was considered acceptable if > 50% or adequate if > 75% of the mucosa was in perfect cleansing condition. The amount of bubbles was assessed independently and it was considered significant if it prevented a correct interpretation of the images. Positive endoscopic findings, gastric emptying time (GET and small bowel transit time (SBTT were recorded for each examination. RESULTS: There was a trend favoring Group B in achieving an acceptable (including fair, good or excellent level of cleansing (Group A: 65%; Group B: 83.3%; Group C: 68.4% [P = not significant (NS] and favoring Group C in attaining an excellent level of cleansing (Group A: 10%; Group B: 16.7%; Group C: 21.1% (P = NS. The number of patients with an adequate cleansing of the small bowel, corresponding to an excellent or good classification, was 5 (25% in Group A, 5 (27.8% in Group B and 4 (21.1% in Group C (P = 0.892. Conversely, 7 patients (35% in Group A, 3 patients (16.7% in Group B and 6 patients (31.6% in Group C were considered to have poor small bowel cleansing (P = 0.417, with significant fluid or debris such that the examination was unreliable. The proportion of patients with a significant amount of bubbles was 50% in Group A, 27.8% in Group B and 15.8% in Group C (P = 0.065. This was significantly lower in Group C when compared to Group A (P = 0.026. The mean GET was 27.8 min for Group A, 27.2 min for Group B and 40.7 min for Group C (P = 0.381. The mean SBTT was 256.4 min for Group A, 256.1 min for Group B and 258.1 min for Group C (P = 0.998. Regarding to the rate of complete examinations, the capsule reached the cecum in 20 patients (100% in Group A, 16 patients (88.9% in Group B and 17 patients (89.5% in Group C (P = 0.312. A definite diagnosis based on relevant small bowel endoscopic lesions was established in 60% of the patients in Group A (12 patients, 44.4% in Group B (8 patients and 57.8% in Group C (11 patients (P = 0.587. CONCLUSION: Preparation with 2 L of PEG before small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE may improve small bowel cleansing and the quality of visualization. Simethicone may further reduce intraluminal bubbles. No significant differences were found regarding GET, SBTT and the proportion of complete exploration or diagnostic yield among the three different cleansing protocols.

Bruno Joel Ferreira Rosa

2013-01-01

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New strategies for the management of diverticular disease: insights for the clinician  

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Diverticulosis is one of the most common gastrointestinal conditions affecting the general population in the Western world. It is estimated that over 2.5 million people are affected by diverticular disease in the United States. The spectrum of clinical manifestations of diverticulosis ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to complicated diverticulitis. Treatment for symptomatic diverticular disease is largely based on symptoms. Traditional therapy includes fiber, bowel rest, antibiotics, pa...

Boynton, Wen; Floch, Martin

2013-01-01

77

Detection of surgical lesions of the small bowel by enteroclysis.  

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Enteroclysis is an examination in which barium is infused directly into the small intestine, and compression radiographs are taken on each segment. This method eliminates many of the inherent limitations of the conventional small bowel follow-through examination. This report concerns 45 patients with 48 small bowel lesions. They were missed on the conventional examination but detected within 3 months by subsequent enteroclysis and confirmed surgically. There were 15 patients with Meckel's diverticula, 7 with obstructive adhesive bands, 5 with Crohn's disease, 5 with blind pouch syndrome (1 with a leiomyoma inside the blind pouch), 2 with other leiomyomas, 3 with metastatic carcinoma, two with primary carcinoma 3 with radiation stricture, two with sinus tract lesions and fistulas, and 1 with another lesion. Improved intubation techniques and better barium mixtures make enteroclysis possible in most hospitals. As surgeons appreciate the value of enteroclysis, they can request this examination for appropriate patients to sooner find many surgical lesions of the small bowel which frequently go undiagnosed. PMID:6696196

Maglinte, D D; Hall, R; Miller, R E; Chernish, S M; Rosenak, B; Elmore, M; Burney, B T

1984-02-01

78

Small Bowel Volvulus Induced by Mesenteric Lymphangioma in an Adult: a Case Report  

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Mesenteric lymphangiomas are rare abdominal masses that are seldom associated with small bowel volvulus, and especially in adult patients. We report here on an unusual case of small bowel volvulus that was induced by a mesenteric lymphangioma in a 43-year-old man who suffered from repeated bouts of abdominal pain. At multidetector CT, we noticed whirling of the cystic mesenteric mass and the adjacent small bowel around the superior mesenteric artery. Small bowel volvulus induced by the rotation of the mesenteric lymphangioma was found on exploratory laparotomy. Lymphangioma should be considered as a rare cause of small bowel volvulus in adult patients.

Jang, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Lim; Ku, Young Mi; An, Chang Hyeok; Chang, Eun Deok [Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

2009-06-15

79

Small Bowel Volvulus Induced by Mesenteric Lymphangioma in an Adult: a Case Report  

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Mesenteric lymphangiomas are rare abdominal masses that are seldom associated with small bowel volvulus, and especially in adult patients. We report here on an unusual case of small bowel volvulus that was induced by a mesenteric lymphangioma in a 43-year-old man who suffered from repeated bouts of abdominal pain. At multidetector CT, we noticed whirling of the cystic mesenteric mass and the adjacent small bowel around the superior mesenteric artery. Small bowel volvulus induced by the rotation of the mesenteric lymphangioma was found on exploratory laparotomy. Lymphangioma should be considered as a rare cause of small bowel volvulus in adult patients

80

Small bowel hemangiomas: Diagnostic role of capsule endoscopy  

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Full Text Available Vascular anomalies involving the small bowel are an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in childhood. We present here an 11-year-old boy who presented with severe anemia and malena. The routine investigations did not reveal any pathology. A capsule endoscopy study was performed, which clinched the diagnosis and identified two intestinal hemangiomas. The hemangiomas were resected and the child recovered.

Khanna Sanat

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Sonographic diagnosis of ascariasis causing small bowel obstruction.  

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Acute right lower quadrant pain is a common, but nonspecific presenting symptom of a wide variety of diseases in children. Sonography (US) can play a significant role in the accurate and early diagnosis of right lower quadrant pain. In this article, we report a case of small bowel obstruction due to intestinal ascariasis diagnosed at bedside US and confirmed by MRI and describe a new US sign of intestinal ascariasis. PMID:24132881

Aydin, Ramazan; Bekci, Tumay; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Polat, Ahmet Veysel

2014-05-01

82

Blind bedside insertion of small bowel feeding tubes.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The use of Naso-Jejunal (NJ) feeding is limited by difficulty in feeding tube placement. Patients have traditionally required transfer to Endoscopy or Radiology for insertion of small bowel feeding tubes, with clear resource implications. We hypothesised that the adoption of a simple bedside procedure would be effective and reduce cost. Clinical nutrition and nurse specialist personnel were trained in the 10\\/10\\/10 method of blind bedside NJ insertion.

Duggan, S

2009-12-01

83

Recent advances in small bowel diseases: Part II  

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Full Text Available As is the case in all areas of gastroenterology and hepatology, in 2009 and 2010 there were many advances in our knowledge and understanding of small intestinal diseases. Over 1000 publications were reviewed, and the important advances in basic science as well as clinical applications were considered. In Part II we review six topics: absorption, short bowel syndrome, smooth muscle function and intestinal motility, tumors, diagnostic imaging, and cystic fibrosis.

Alan BR Thomson

2012-01-01

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Efficacy of small bowel follow-through with oral administration of methylcellulose in the diagnosis of small bowel disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the usefulness of modified Small Bowel Follow Through (SBFT) with oral administration of methylcellulose in patients with small bowel diseases. Mean transit time was 142 minutes, and the maximum diameter of the jejunum and ileum was 2.9 cm and 2.1 cm respectively: in 45 patients (63%) the examination was concluded within 2 hours. The quality of images was excellent in 29 cases (41%), good in 30 (42%), fair in 8 (11%), and poor in 3 (4%). Images related to the inflammatory and vascular disease were graded as 'good' or 'excellent' in 92% and 89% of cases, respectively, and the image quality of lesions of the jejunum and ileum were graded, respectively, as 'good' or 'excellent' in 96 % and 63% of cases. Using this modified technique, sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 99%, respectively. Modified SBFT with the oral administration of methylcellulose is a simple but highly sensitive method of evaluating small bowel diseases. It is especially valuable in cases of inflammatory and vascular disease of the small intestine and lesions in the jejunum. (author). 15 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

85

[Acute small bowel obstruction: conservative or surgical treatment?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common clinical syndrome caused mainly by postoperative adhesions. In complement to clinical and biological evaluations, CT scan has emerged as a valuable imaging modality and may provide reliable information. The early recognition of signs suggesting bowel ischemia is essential for urgent operation. However appropriate management of SBO remains a common clinical challenge. Although a conservative approach can be successful in a substantial percentage of selected patients, regular and close re-assessement is mandatory. Any persistance or progression of the critical symptoms and signs should indeed lead to surgical exploration. Here we review the principles of adhesive SBO management and suggest a decision procedure for conservative versus surgical treatment. PMID:21815533

Schwenter, F; Dominguez, S; Meier, R; Oulhaci-de Saussure, W; Platon, A; Gervaz, P; Morel, P

2011-06-22

86

Combined small and large bowel MR imaging in patients with Crohn's disease: a feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MRI of the small bowel is a new method for the assessment of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, inflammatory bowel disease can affect both the small and large bowel. Therefore, our goal was to assess the feasibility of displaying the small bowel and colon simultaneously by MR imaging. Eighteen patients with inflammatory bowel disease were studied. For small bowel distension, patients ingested a solution containing mannitol and locust bean gum. Furthermore, the colon was rectally filled with water. MR examinations were performed on a 1.5-T system. Before and after intravenous gadolinium administration, a T1w data set was collected. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy as a standard of reference. The oral ingestion and the rectal application of water allowed an assessment of the small bowel and colon in all patients. By means of MRI (endoscopy), 19 (13) inflamed bowel segments in the colon and terminal ileum were detected. Furthermore, eight additional inflammatory lesions in the jejunum and proximal ileum that had not been endoscopically accessible were found by MRI. The simultaneous display of the small and large bowel by MRI is feasible. Major advantages of the proposed MR concept are related to its non-invasive character as well as to the potential to visualize parts of the small bowel that cannot be reached by endoscopy. (orig.)

87

Small bowel enema in non-responsive coeliac disease.  

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A small bowel enema was performed in patients with non-responsive coeliac disease, in coeliac patients on a normal diet (untreated) and those who had shown a good response to a gluten free diet, and in control subjects to determine whether there were any specific radiological features of the non-responsive state. A significant reduction in the average number of jejunal folds and an increase in the number of ileal folds (reversal of the jejunoileal fold pattern) was found in eight of nine non-...

Mike, N.; Udeshi, U.; Asquith, P.; Ferrando, J.

1990-01-01

88

Giant small bowel diverticulum presenting after percutaneous gastrostomy: case report  

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The standard technique for percutaneous gastrostomy requires insufflation of air into the stomach via a nasogastric tube before percutaneous gastric puncture. We present a previously undescribed complication in which the insertion of a percutaneous gastrostomy tube resulted in the distention of a previously undiagnosed giant small bowel diverticulum. This led to discomfort for the patient, further radiologic investigation and a delay in discharge. Symptoms resolved with conservative management. We suggest a strategy for avoiding this complication, as well as for reducing the incidence of post-procedure ileus. (author)

89

Giant small bowel diverticulum presenting after percutaneous gastrostomy: case report  

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The standard technique for percutaneous gastrostomy requires insufflation of air into the stomach via a nasogastric tube before percutaneous gastric puncture. We present a previously undescribed complication in which the insertion of a percutaneous gastrostomy tube resulted in the distention of a previously undiagnosed giant small bowel diverticulum. This led to discomfort for the patient, further radiologic investigation and a delay in discharge. Symptoms resolved with conservative management. We suggest a strategy for avoiding this complication, as well as for reducing the incidence of post-procedure ileus. (author)

Robinson, G.J.; Clark, J.A.; Pugash, R.A. [St. Michael' s Hospital, Wellesley Central Site, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2000-10-01

90

Intestinal anisakiasis as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction.  

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Anisakiasis, a parasitic infection by larvae of the nematode Anisakis found in raw or undercooked saltwater fish, mostly involves stomach but rarely small intestine. We report a rare case of a 61-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain and developed small bowel obstruction caused by intestinal anisakiasis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed segmental edema of the intestinal wall with proximal dilatation. The patient underwent urgent laparotomy because strangulated small bowel obstruction was suspected. A localized portion of the intestine around jejunoileal junction was found to be erythematous, edematous, and hardened, which was resected. The resected specimen showed a linear whitish worm, Anisakis simplex, penetrating into the intestinal mucosa. It is often clinically challenging to consider intestinal anisakiasis in the differential diagnosis because of its nonspecific abdominal symptoms and findings. Although gastrointestinal anisakiasis is still rare in the United States, the incidence is expected to rise given the growing popularity of Japanese cuisine such as sushi or sashimi. Anisakiasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in patients with nonspecific abdominal symptoms after consumption of raw or undercooked fish. PMID:23786678

Kojima, Gotaro; Usuki, Shinichiro; Mizokami, Ken; Tanabe, Marianne; Machi, Junji

2013-09-01

91

Pyogenic granuloma: An unusual cause of massive gastrointestinal bleeding from the small bowel  

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Small bowel hemorrhage is responsible for approximately 4% of all cases of gastrointestinal bleeding. The etiology of bleeding from the small bowel is a tumour in approximately 10% of cases. Pyogenic granuloma is a common inflammatory vascular tumour of the dermis, which rarely occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. Pyogenic granuloma is a rare cause of overt or obscure small bowel bleeding. The present paper reports the first case of pyogenic granuloma presenting as a massive gastrointestinal...

Moffatt, Dana C.; Warwryko, Paul; Singh, Harminder

2009-01-01

92

Phytobezoar in a jejunal diverticulum as a cause of small bowel obstruction: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Phytobezoars are concretions of poorly digested fruit and vegetable fibers found in the alimentary tract. Previous gastric resection, gastrojejunostomy, or pyloroplasty predispose people to bezoar formation. Small-bowel bezoars normally come from the stomach, and primary small-bowel bezoars are very rare. They are seen only in patients with underlying small-bowel diseases such as diverticula, strictures, or tumors. Primary small-bowel bezoars almost always present as intestinal obstructions, although it is a very rare cause, being responsible for less than 3% of all small-bowel obstructions in one series. Jejunal diverticula are rare, with an incidence of less than 0.5%. They are usually asymptomatic pseudodiverticula of pulsion type, and complications are reported in 10% to 30% of patients. A phytobezoar in a jejunal diverticulum is an extremely rare presentation. Case presentation A 78-year-old Pakistani man presented to our clinic with small-bowel obstruction. Upon exploration, we found a primary small-bowel bezoar originating in a jejunal diverticulum and causing jejunal obstruction. Resection and anastomosis of the jejunal segment harboring the diverticulum was performed, and our patient had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion Primary small-bowel bezoars are very rare but must be kept in mind as a possible cause of small-bowel obstruction.

Rauf Fozia

2011-09-01

93

Direct diverticular inguinal hernia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nineteen patients with direct diverticular inguinal hernia (DDIH) were examined with herniography and surgically explored. A lump medially in the groin and pain were the prominent clinical manifestations in 18 patients. Physical examination indicated the presence of a DDIH in 6 patients. In 16 patients herniography revealed hernial sacs protruding from the supravesical fossa in 5 and from the medial inguinal fossa in 11. At operation a circumscribed defect was found in the transverse fascia laterally and cranially to the pubic tubercle in all patients. In 16 patients peritoneal hernial sacs were demonstrated at surgery while in 3 only lipomas (fatty hernia) were contained within the defect. In our opinion DDIH is a specific variety of inguinal hernia with a fairly typical clinical presentation and radiographic appearance but probably often overlooked at surgery. (orig.)

94

Laparoscopic treatment for acute diverticular disease  

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Full Text Available Diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon involves more than 50% of population over 60 years, and much more in people older than 80 years. Most patients remain asymptomatic, but, about 10-20% develop complications requiring surgery. Colonic diverticulitis represents an acute bowel inflammation, in many cases, confined only to the sigmoid and descending colon. Recurrent attacks and complications of diverticulitis require surgical procedure, although most cases can be managed medically. The cause of acute diverticulitis remains obscure. It has been speculated that obstruction at the mouth of the diverticulum results in diverticulitis, similar to appendicitis, but this is no longer the accepted theory, and some feel that chronic inflammation precedes clinical diverticulitis. .

Pignata Giusto

2006-01-01

95

Metastatic phyllodes tumor causing small-bowel obstruction.  

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Cystosarcoma phyllodes is an important but relatively uncommon fibroepithelial breast neoplasm that accounts for 0.5%-1.0% of female breast carcinomas. Malignant forms comprise nearly 25% of cases. These usually metastasize to the lung, pleura, bone, and liver. Metastases to the small intestine are extremely rare, with only 1 case of metastatic spread to the duodenum reported in the literature. No previous reports of metastatic spread to the ileum have been published. This report highlights a unique case of a metastatic phyllodes breast tumor leading to small bowel obstruction. Phyllodes tumors are generally classified into histologic subtypes of benign, intermediate, and malignant, using agreed classification systems. The tumor characteristics that can lead to the dedifferentiation of a relatively benign phenotype to an overt malignant process are discussed. Chemotherapeutic regimens that might be effective treatments are discussed, and the importance of regular clinical and radiologic follow-up in patients with poor prognostic factors is outlined. PMID:19661046

Kelly, Ronan J; Barrett, Ciara; Swan, Niall; McDermott, Ray

2009-08-01

96

[Evaluation of the small bowel with computed tomography enteroclysis: technical applications and clinical indications].  

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CT enteroclysis is an imaging technique that allows better visualization of the small bowel than standard abdomino-pelvic CT. It is more accurate than CT enterography and provides complementary diagnostic information to digestive endoscopy. Multiplanar reconstruction allows better evaluation of the diseases arising from the small bowel wall, or from surrounding organs, resulting in increased accuracy and effectiveness of this imaging technique. CT enteroclysis often enables a comprehensive assessment of small bowel disease, allowing a definite diagnosis and characterization of intestinal bowel disease, or of other related pathological conditions. PMID:23096731

Cioce, Fabrizio; Raucci, Antonio; Fontanarosa, Antonio; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Cuccurullo, Vincenzo; Stabile Ianora, Antonio Amato; Rubini, Giuseppe

2012-11-01

97

Recurrent small bowel obstruction caused by a benign tumor. A report of two cases.  

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Two cases of primary small bowel tumors causing an acute intussusception are presented. In one case two polyps were found and in the other case a lipoma in the wall of the jejunum. In both cases there were symptoms of recurrent bowel obstruction for several months before the acute condition. Although intussusception caused by a benign tumor of the small bowel is a rare condition it should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain of doubtful origin. PMID:706994

Ketonen, P; Virkkula, L; Ketonen, L; Mattila, S

1978-01-01

98

Small bowel obstruction in children: usefulness of CT for diagnosis and localization  

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To evaluate the usefulness of CT for the diagnosis of the cause and localization of small bowel obstruction. Out of a group of children who underwent a CT examination for a suspected small bowel obstruction, 19 patients with confirmed underlying disorders were identified and included in the study. Neonates and patients with duodenal obstruction were excluded from the study. The CT findings were analyzed for the location of obstruction site, abnormalities of the mesentery and mesenteric vessels, bowel wall thickening, closed loop obstruction, and strangulation. The obstruction site was divided into five parts. The preoperative CT diagnosis was compared with the final diagnosis. Causes of small bowel obstruction were intussusception (n = 6), appendiceal perforation (n = 4), transmesenteric internal hernia (n = 2), postoperative bands (n = 1), idiopathic multiple bands (n = 1), a foreign body (n = 1), a small bowel adenocarcinoma (n = 1), Meckel's diverticulitis (n = 1), tuberculous peritonitis (n = 1) and Salmonella enteritis with bowel perforation (n = 1). The CT findings showed mesenteric vascular prominence (n = 13), omental or mesenteric infiltration (n = 10), localized bowel wall thickening (n = 7) closed loops obstruction (n = 3) and strangulation (n = 1). The obstruction site was identified in all cases. The causes of obstruction could be diagnosed preoperatively in 14 cases, but a preoperative diagnosis was difficult in 5 cases. The causes of small bowel obstruction in children are variable, and CT is useful for evaluating the cause and localization of small bowel obstruction.

Lee, Young Cheol; Kim, Young Tong; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

2007-12-15

99

Utility of CT in the diagnosis and management of small-bowel obstruction in children  

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CT is often used in the diagnosis and management of small-bowel obstruction in children. To determine sensitivity of CT in delineating presence, site and cause of small-bowel obstruction in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 47 children with surgically proven small-bowel obstruction. We noted any findings of obstruction and the site and cause of obstruction. Presence, absence or equivocal findings of bowel obstruction on abdominal radiographs performed prior to CT were also noted. We reviewed patient charts for clinical details and surgical findings, including bowel resection. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher exact test to determine which CT findings might predict bowel resection. CT correctly diagnosed small-bowel obstruction in 43/47 (91.5%) cases. CT correctly indicated site of obstruction in 37/47 (78.7%) cases and cause of obstruction in 32/47 (68.1%) cases. Small-bowel feces sign was significantly associated with bowel resection at surgery (P = 0.0091). No other CT finding was predictive of bowel resection. Out of 41 children who had abdominal radiographs before CT, 29 (70.7%) showed unequivocal obstruction, six (14.6%) showed equivocal findings and six (14.6%) were unremarkable. CT is highly sensitive in diagnosing small-bowel obstruction in children and is helpful in determining the presence of small-bowel obstruction in many clinically suspected cases with equivocal or normal plain radiographs. CT also helps to determine the site and cause of the obstruction with good sensitivity. (orig.)

Wang, Qiuyan; Chavhan, Govind B. [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Babyn, Paul S. [Royal University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon (Canada); Tomlinson, George [Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Public Health Sciences, Toronto (Canada); Langer, Jacob C. [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Division of General and Thoracic Surgery, Toronto (Canada)

2012-12-15

100

[Indications and results of small bowel transplantation in adults].  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimised home parenteral nutrition is still, after 35 years of progress, the "gold standard "for benign but chronic intestinal failure. better recognition of chronic intestinal failure, in its multiple facets, is needed to improve Home Parenteral Nutrition by adding associated treatments such as intestinal trophic factors, rehabilitative surgery (reestablishment of colonic continuity, reverse jejunal segment in severe short gut type II) and/or reconstructive surgery (intestinal transplantation for end-stage intestinal failure). Intestinal transplantation is now a mature therapy with formal indications, especially in case of failure of Home Parenteral Nutrition (mainly Home Parenteral Nutrition-associated severe liver disease), where combined Liver-intestine transplantation is indicated before end-stage liver failure occurs. For high-risk patients, 'preemptive' intestinal transplantation alone should be discussed before home parenteral nutrition-related complications occur. Even, if the results in terms of patient survival have improved over the past 20 years, the 5-year survival rate still does not exceed 50%. Thus, each case should be discussed in a dedicated tertiary center. The ESPEN Home Artificial Nutrition Working Group conducted a survey in 2004 to assess potential candidates for intestinal transplantation in France, among the adult population of patients with home parenteral nutrition. The prevalence of potential candidates for intestinal transplantation was estimated at about 20% (about 40 new adult cases per year). Even though surgical techniques for isolated intestine, liver-intestine, and multivisceral transplantation were developed in the 1960s, very few patients were transplanted before 1990, because of inadequate initial immunosuppressive regimens. most patients died within days or months after Intestine transplantation. The discouraging results of the first clinical trials were due to technical complications, sepsis, and the failure of conventional immunosuppression to control rejection. By 1990, the development of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression, as well as improved surgical techniques, the increased array of potent immunosuppressive medications, infection prophylaxis, and better patient selection helped to improve actuarial graft and patient survival rates for all types of intestine transplantation. In adult intestinal transplantation, three kinds of graft can be proposed: isolated small bowel, combined liver and small bowel, and multivisceral transplantation. In isolated small bowel transplantation, the length of the graft ranges between 1.5 and 2 meters, but depends on the size of the recipient (and the abdominal cavity volume, which is reduced). The graft is anastomosed with the recipient's duodenum or remnant proximal jejunum. the distal part of the small bowel graft is on a temporary stoma, in order to allow biopsies for early detection of rejection. Vascular anastomoses are usually performed directly on the aorta for the superior mesenteric artery and either the recipient's portal vein or vena cava for the donor superior mesenteric vein. In combined liver and intestinal transplantation, one venous anastomosis is avoided because the graft is in one piece. Finally, one specificity of this transplantation is the fact that it usually concerns patients with numerous previous abdominal operations and with total or subtotal enterectomy. Thus, the residual abdominal cavity is usually very small, and this can be a major problem for graft insertion. For this reason, abdominal closure is performed with a temporary prosthesis, because even cutaneous closure remains impossible if a compartment syndrome is to be avoided. PMID:23420959

Joly, Francisca; Panis, Yves

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Removal of a phytobezoar through exploratory laparoscopy: a case of small bowel obstruction  

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Full Text Available Brian Nguyen1, Andrew Barleben2, Brian S Buchberg2, Michael J Stamos2, Steven Mills21Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of California, Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Small bowel obstruction due to bezoars occurs rarely. Traditionally, laparotomy has been the preferred approach to obstruction secondary to bezoars. We report on an 81-year-old female who presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain and vomiting. Computed tomography (CT scan showed evidence of a small bowel obstruction and laparoscopic exploration of the transition point found on CT revealed a phytobezoar. The small bowel obstruction was managed with laparoscopy and a small access site for specimen removal. In select patients with small bowel obstruction, laparoscopy may be used as a diagnostic and possibly therapeutic technique.Keywords: laparoscopy, phytobezoar, small bowel obstruction, laparotomy

Brian Nguyen

2010-07-01

102

Small Bowel Perforation due to Gossypiboma Caused Acute Abdomen.  

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Gossypiboma, an infrequent surgical complication, is a mass lesion due to a retained surgical sponge surrounded by foreign body reaction. In this case report, we describe gossypiboma in the abdominal cavity which was detected 14 months after the hysterectomy due to acute abdominal pain. Gossypiboma was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). The CT findings were a rounded mass with a dense central part and an enhancing wall. In explorative laparotomy, small bowel loops were seen to be perforated due to inflammation of long standing gossypiboma. Jejunal resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The patient was discharged whithout complication. This case was presented to point to retained foreign body (RFB) complications and we believed that the possibility of a retained foreign body should be considered in the differential diagnosis of who had previous surgery and complained of pain, infection, or palpable mass. PMID:24288645

Colak, Tahsin; Olmez, Tolga; Turkmenoglu, Ozgur; Dag, Ahmet

2013-01-01

103

The Nectarine Pit as a Cause for Small Bowel Obstruction and Perforation: A Case Report  

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Ingestion of a foreign body is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. Ingested foreign bodies will usually pass without clinical sequelae, however on occasion can contribute to significant morbidity. Here we present an unusual case of small bowel obstruction and perforation as a result of accidental ingestion of a nectarine pit.

Mahmoud Al-Najjar; Thomas Arthur

2013-01-01

104

Inter-observer agreement for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease with capsule endoscopy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Compared to other modalities, capsule endoscopy (CE) has a high diagnostic yield for diagnosing small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to determine the inter-observer agreement for detection of small bowel CD with predefined diagnostic criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty patients with suspected or known CD were included in the study. Observers were blind to patient histories, the results of ileo-colonoscopies, and small bowel examinations. More than three ulcerations (aphthous lesions or ulcers) or the presence of stenosis caused by inflammation or fibrosis was diagnostic of small bowel CD. Three observers with experience in gastrointestinal endoscopy and CE participated in the study. RESULTS: The presence or absence of small bowel CD was determined with complete agreement in 23 patients, nine patients with and 14 without small bowel CD. The inter-observer agreement was substantial for the diagnosis (kappa = 0.68) and moderate for the localization of CD (kappa = 0.44). Aphthous lesions were detected with only fair agreement (kappa = 0.38). The time intervals to passage of the pylorus and ileo-caecal valve were detected with excellent intra-class correlation. CONCLUSIONS: CE is performed with substantial inter-observer agreement for detection of small bowel CD. In the majority of patients, the presence or absence of small bowel CD is unequivocal. However, in patients with few or minor lesions, the diagnosis is observer dependent.

Jensen, Michael Dam; Nathan, Torben

2010-01-01

105

Metastatic melanoma causing small bowel intussusception: diagnosis by 18F-FDG PET/CT  

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Malignant melanoma is a common and aggressive disease that frequently causes metastases to the small bowel. This study illustrates a case of small bowel intussusception secondary to metastatic melanoma visualized at 18F-FDG PET/CT in a 48-year-old woman who had this examination for restaging purposes. (author)

106

An unusual cause of small bowel obstruction: Gossypiboma – case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The term "gossypiboma" denotes a mass of cotton that is retained in the body following surgery. Gossypiboma is a medico-legal problem especially for surgeons. To the best of our knowledge, the patient presented herein is the second reported patient in whom the exact site of migration of a retained surgical textile material into the intestinal lumen could be demonstrated by preoperative imaging studies. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman presented with symptoms of small bowel obstruction due to incomplete intraluminal migration of a laparotomy towel 3 years after open cholecystectomy and umbilical hernia repair. Plain abdominal radiography did not show any sign of a radio-opaque marker in the abdomen. However, contrast enhanced abdominal computerized tomography revealed a round, well-defined soft-tissue mass with a dense, enhanced wall, containing an internal high-density area with air-bubbles in the mid-abdomen. A fistula between the abscess cavity containing the suspicious mass and gastrointestinal tract was identified by upper gastrointestinal series. The presence of a foreign body was considered. It was surgically removed with a partial small bowel resection followed by anastomosis. Conclusions Although gossypiboma is rarely seen in daily clinical practice, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction in patients who underwent laparotomy previously. The best approach in the prevention of this condition can be achieved by meticulous count of surgical materials in addition to thorough exploration of surgical site at the conclusion of operations and also by routine use of surgical textile materials impregnated with a radio-opaque marker.

Inceoglu Resit

2003-09-01

107

The effect of barium infusion rate on the diagnostic value of small bowel enteroclysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although enteroclysis may have many advantages over the conventional methods of small bowel examination, the contrast material is not always infused at a rate appropriate to gain maximum diagnostic information. In this study, 190 patients were examined by small bowell enteroclysis at five contrast infusion rates ranging from 50 to 150 ml/min using a newly designed infusion pump system. The results show that at rates above 75 ml/min, motility disturbances are masked by small bowel dilatation and paralysis, transit times are extended and morphological detail is obscured. At rates below 75 ml/min, incomplete filling of the loops renders optimal diagnostic evaluation impossible. An infusion rate of 75 ml/min was found to be optimal for initiating small bowel studies. This rate can be adjusted for individual cases when pathology or drugs affect the motility of the small bowel. 13 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

108

Technical quality of CT colonography in relation with diverticular disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The aim of the study is to explore how the technical quality of the examination was affected by diverticular disease. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated a consecutive series of 78 subjects who underwent CTC for screening (n = 58) or staging (n = 20) colorectal cancer, 38 of them (49%) after an incomplete optical colonoscopy. Patients were administered a mild laxative and a iodinated contrast material for fecal tagging. We scored both the bowel preparation and the overall colon distension as poor, good, or optimal and measured the mean sigmoid colon diameter. We counted the number of diverticula and classified patients as having or not a severe diverticular disease (SDD). The number of the prompts of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) per patient was also considered. Mann–Whitney U and ?2 tests were performed. Results: No CTC complications occurred. The bowel cleansing was poor in 8 (10%) patients, good in 29 (37%) and optimal in 41 (53%); colon distension was poor in 7 (9%) patients, good in 38 (49%), and optimal in 33 (42%). Fifty-four (69%) showed diverticula and 30 (38%) had an SDD. Bowel cleansing and distension were not significantly impaired by neither diverticula (p > 0.590) nor the SDD (p > 0.110). Mean sigmoid colon diameter was reduced in presence of diverticula (28 mm versus 23 mm, p = 0.009) or SDD (26 mm versus 22 mm, p = 0.016). The mean number of CAD prompts per patient was not significantly increased by the presenc significantly increased by the presence of SDD (p = 0.829). Conclusions: Bowel cleansing and distension at CTC were not influenced by the presence of diverticular disease.

109

Biomagnetic Techniques for Assessing Gastric and Small Bowel Electrical Activity  

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Recent advances in electrophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract have emphasized the need for methods of noninvasive assessment of gastric and small intestinal electrical activity (GEA and IEA). While the cutaneous electrogastrogram (EGG) may reveal the frequency dynamics of gastric electrical activity, other parameters important for characterizing the propagating electrical activity are not available from EGG recordings. Recent studies on the electroenterogram (EENG) are promising, but low-conductivity abdominal layers have complicated the identification of small intestinal electrical rhythms in cutaneous recordings. The magnetogastrogram (MGG) and magnetoenterogram (MENG) are able to characterize gastric and intestinal electrical activity noninvasively in terms of its frequency, power and characteristics of its propagation. Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers are used to detect the minute magnetic fields associated with electrical activity of the gastrointestinal syncytium formed by interstitial cells of Cajal and smooth muscle networks. Changes in GEA and IEA that occur in response to disease or abnormal conditions are reflected in MGG and MENG signals. Magnetic methods for assessing the electrical activity of the stomach and small bowel thus show great clinical promise.

Bradshaw, L. Alan

2004-09-01

110

Interobserver and intermodality agreement for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease with MR enterography and CT enterography  

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Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) visualizes small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) and its complications with high accuracy. The aim of this study was to determine the interobserver and intermodality agreement for detection of small bowel CD.

Jensen, Michael D; Ormstrup, Tina

2011-01-01

111

Leukocyte scintigraphy compared to intraoperative small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings in Crohn's disease  

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Background: Leukocyte scintigraphy is a noninvasive investigation to assess inflammation. We evaluated the utility of labeled leukocytes to detect small bowel inflammation and disease complications in Crohn's disease and compared it to whole small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings. Methods: Scintigraphy with technetium-99m exametazime-labeled leukocytes was prospectively performed in 48 patients with Crohn's disease a few days before laparotomy; 41 also had an intraoperative small bowel enteroscopy. The same procedures were performed in 8 control patients. Independent grading of scans was compared with the results of enteroscopy and with surgical, histopathologic, and clinical data. Results: In the 8 control patients leukocyte scan, endoscopy, and histopathology were all negative for the small bowel. In patients with Crohn's disease and small bowel inflammation seen at enteroscopy and/or laparotomy (n = 39) the scan was positive in 33. In 8 patients without macroscopic small bowel inflammation, the scan was positive for the small bowel in 3 patients; at histology, 2 of 3 had inflammation. When combining results for patients and controls, the sensitivity of leukocyte scan for macroscopically evident small bowel inflammation was 0.85, specificity 0.81, accuracy 0.84, positive predictive value 0.92, and negative predictive value 0.68. Scintigraphy detected inflammatory lesions not known before laparotomy in 16 of 47 (34%) Crohn's disease patients and showed uptake in 25 of 35 (71%) bowel strictures. It was diagnostic regarding 4 of 8 abscesses and 9 of 15 fistulas. In 6 patients (13%) lesions first demonstrated by leukocyte scintigraphy were treated during the surgery performed. Conclusions: Leukocyte scintigraphy reliably detects small bowel inflammation in Crohn's disease. It gives additional information on the presence of inflammatory lesions in a fraction of patients planned for surgery.

Almen, Sven; Granerus, Göran

2007-01-01

112

Minimization of small bowel volume within treatment fields utilizing customized belly boards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty consecutive patients with pelvic malignancies were evaluated prospectively for the impact of a novel bowel minimization device (belly board) on the volume of small bowel included within a four field pelvic radiation plan. A customized polyurethane and styrofoam bowel immobilization mold was created for each patient in the prone position. Using contrast enhanced CT scanning on a dedicated radiation treatment planning scanner, we imaged the location of the small intestine in the supine position and the prone position aided by the belly board. Custom in-house interactive image analysis software was developed to allow volumetric determination of small bowel within the treatment portals. The mean small bowel volume was reduced by 66% (299 cm3 to 102 cm3), comparing the standard supine position to the prone position assisted by the belly board. In 13 patients without prior pelvic surgery, the small bowel volume reduction was a more dramatic 74% (334 cm3 to 88 cm3). All patients were found to benefit from this prone belly board setup regardless of body habitus, weight, and age. Compliance with the set-up including use of bladder distension was excellent. All patients completed their pelvic radiotherapy without requiring a treatment break. Weight loss at completion averaged less than 5%. Seventy-six percent of patients experienced little or no diarrhea. This technique is comfortable, inexpensive, highly reproducible, and permits maximal bowel displacement from standards maximal bowel displacement from standard pelvic radiotherapy fields

113

Intestinal gangrene due to small bowel volvulus masquerading as strangulated inguinal hernia – A diagnostic dilemma.  

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Full Text Available Complicated inguinal hernia is a common surgical emergency. Rarely, hernias may pose a great surprise and complexity in their management.We report a 55 year old gentleman witha long standing history of irreducible right inguinal hernia who presented in shock with sudden increase in size of scrotum and obstipation for 1 day.A diagnosis of strangulated inguinal hernia was made and the patient was taken up for emergency surgery.On exploration the content in the sac was normal small bowel and faeculant smelling fluid. Abdomen was explored for inspecting the proximal bowel and to facilitate reduction of contents.But as a surprise small bowel volvuluswith gangrenous bowel was noted. Resection and anastomosis was done.This paper stresses the importance of having a high index of suspicion in all cases of strangulated hernia of a concomitant small bowel volvulus as its recognition and early surgical intervention is paramount in reducing the mortality associated with it.

Nischal Krishnappa

2013-08-01

114

Mesenteric vasculature-guided small bowel segmentation on 3-D CT.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to its importance and possible applications in visualization, tumor detection and preoperative planning, automatic small bowel segmentation is essential for computer-aided diagnosis of small bowel pathology. However, segmenting the small bowel directly on computed tomography (CT) scans is very difficult because of the low image contrast on CT scans and high tortuosity of the small bowel and its close proximity to other abdominal organs. Motivated by the intensity characteristics of abdominal CT images, the anatomic relationship between the mesenteric vasculature and the small bowel, and potential usefulness of the mesenteric vasculature for establishing the path of the small bowel, we propose a novel mesenteric vasculature map-guided method for small bowel segmentation on high-resolution CT angiography scans. The major mesenteric arteries are first segmented using a vessel tracing method based on multi-linear subspace vessel model and Bayesian inference. Second, multi-view, multi-scale vesselness enhancement filters are used to segment small vessels, and vessels directly or indirectly connecting to the superior mesenteric artery are classified as mesenteric vessels. Third, a mesenteric vasculature map is built by linking vessel bifurcation points, and the small bowel is segmented by employing the mesenteric vessel map and fuzzy connectness. The method was evaluated on 11 abdominal CT scans of patients suspected of having carcinoid tumors with manually labeled reference standard. The result, 82.5% volume overlap accuracy compared with the reference standard, shows it is feasible to segment the small bowel on CT scans using the mesenteric vasculature as a roadmap. PMID:23807437

Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Jiamin; Yao, Jianhua; Louie, Adeline; Nguyen, Tan B; Wank, Stephen; Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Summers, Ronald M

2013-11-01

115

Uterine Perforation With Subtotal Small Bowel Prolapse – A Rare Complication of Dilatation and Curettage  

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Full Text Available Uterine perforation is the well known complication of induced abortion. We report a rare case of uterine perforation with subtotal prolapse of small bowel following first trimester abortion by an unqualified physician. Early surgical exploration with resection and anastomosis of bowel performed. Patient discharged uneventfully after postoperative recovery.

Jagannath Mala Sherigar

2005-05-01

116

[Cases of Crohn's disease involving the small bowel, diagnosed by the barium contrast agent ENTERO-VU].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper deals with the capacities of X-ray diagnosis of Cronh's disease involving the small bowel, using the barium contract agent Entero-VU specially designed to examine the bowel. It describes 3 cases of Crohn's disease presented by its different stages and localization in the small bowel. In the author's opinion, the barium contrast agent Entero-VU designed to examine the small bowel has two basic advantages: it is easy-to-use and highly diagnostically effective. PMID:16583805

Petukhova, N Iu

2005-01-01

117

Goblet Cell Carcinoid Tumor of the Appendix with Small Bowel Obstruction: A Case Report  

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Goblet cell carcinoid tumor of the appendix (GCTA) is a tumor with histological features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors. The most common clinical presentation of GCTA is acute appendicitis, although small bowel obstruction has been reported as a rare clinical symptom of GCTA. However, to the best of our knowledge, the CT feature of small bowel obstructions in patients with GCTA has not been reported to date. Here, we present a case of small bowel obstruction in a patient with GCTA caused by extensive tumor infiltration at the terminal ileum and distal ileum.

Hwang, Su Yeon; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Min Jeong; Koh, Sung Hye; Jeon, Eui Yong; Min, Kwang Seon; Seo, Jin Won; Park, Hyoung Chul [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

2009-09-15

118

Radiological aspects of diagnosis and staging of small bowel lymphoma - a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report a case of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the small bowel, presenting with ulcerative lesions on radiological studies. primary intestinal lymphoma is considered a rare entity and its diagnosis criteria are quiet strict. The secondary form of the disease - involvement of the small bowel by systemic lymphoma - constitutes an infrequent clinical presentation of these neoplasms and must be considered when the criteria for primary disease are not fulfilled. Diagnosis is based on small bowel series studies and/or computed tomography findings, but the definitive diagnosis is established by biopsy. (author)

119

Goblet Cell Carcinoid Tumor of the Appendix with Small Bowel Obstruction: A Case Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Goblet cell carcinoid tumor of the appendix (GCTA) is a tumor with histological features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors. The most common clinical presentation of GCTA is acute appendicitis, although small bowel obstruction has been reported as a rare clinical symptom of GCTA. However, to the best of our knowledge, the CT feature of small bowel obstructions in patients with GCTA has not been reported to date. Here, we present a case of small bowel obstruction in a patient with GCTA caused by extensive tumor infiltration at the terminal ileum and distal ileum

120

Strangulated small bowel hernia through the port site: A case report  

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Full Text Available Port site hernia develops through a fascial or peritoneal layer that was inadequate or not repaired. It is a rare complication of laparoscopic surgery which may lead to serious problems. Here, we present a 77-year-old female, diagnosed with a small bowel hernia through a 10-mm port site. We had performed ten cases of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy before this case. The patient complained of left lower abdominal pain with a palpable mass. Abdominal CT showed an incarcerated small bowel hernia and the patient underwent segmental resection of the strangulated small bowel through a minimally extended port site incision.

Jun Hyun Lee, Wook Kim

2008-11-01

 
 
 
 
121

Small bowel MRI enteroclysis or follow through: Which is optimal?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To determine if a nasojejunal tube (NJT is required for optimal examination of enteroclysis and if patients can be examined only in the supine position.METHODS: Data were collected from all patients undergoing small bowel (SB magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination over a 32-mo period. Patients either underwent a magnetic resonance (MR follow-through (MRFT or a MR enteroclysis (MRE in the supine position. The quality of proximal and distal SB distension as well as the presence of motion artefact and image quality were assessed by 2 radiologists.RESULTS: One hundred and fourteen MR studies were undertaken (MRFT-49, MRE-65 in 108 patients in the supine position only. Image artefact was more frequent in MRE than in MRFT (29.2% vs 18.4%, but was not statistically significant (P = 0.30. Adequate distension of the distal SB was obtained in 97.8% of MRFT examinations and in 95.4% of MRE examinations, respectively. Proximal SB distension was, however, less frequently optimal in MRFT than in MRE (P = 0.0036, particularly in patients over the age of 50 years (P = 0.0099. Image quality was good in all examinations.CONCLUSION: All patients could be successfully imaged in the supine position. MRE and MRFT are equivalent for distal SB distension and artefact effects. Proximal SB distension is frequently less optimal in MRFT than in MRE. MRE is, therefore, the preferred MR examination method of the SB.

Ian C Lawrance, Christopher J Welman, Peter Shipman, Kevin Murray

2009-11-01

122

Coffee Enema for Preparation for Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

2014-01-01

123

Coffee enema for preparation for small bowel video capsule endoscopy: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

Kim, Eun Sun; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

2014-07-01

124

Ultrasound in Crohn's disease of the small bowel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The purpose of this work is to prospectively evaluate high resolution ultrasonography with graded compression in the ability to detect Crohn's disease of the small bowel (CDSB) together with its complications and activity signs, compared with enteroclysis, CT and immunoscintigraphy in the mirror of the final diagnosis. Methods and material: In a series of 73 consecutive patients, who were referred for enteroclysis with suspected Crohn's disease of the small bowel computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), immunoscintigraphy with 99mTc labeled monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody (AGAb) examinations were performed within 10 days from each other. For the final evaluation the diagnosis of CDSB was based on combination of clinical and enteroclysis findings (73 cases) and in 17 cases additional surgical and pathological data were available. The results of other modalities were blinded to the radiologists performing and reading out the exams. The diagnostic values of each modality was assessed also in those 18 patients, who had early Crohn's disease. In the group of 43 patients with proven CDSB who had all the four imaging modalities, the modalities were compared in their ability to demonstrate various pathological conditions related to CD. Increased (>500 ml/min) flow measured by Doppler US in the superior mesenteric artery and increased color signs in the gut wall seen by power Doppler sonography were compared to CDAI. Results: Of the 73 patients the to CDAI. Results: Of the 73 patients the combination of enteroclysis and clinical tests demonstrated CDSB in 47. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasound were 88.4, 93.3 and 90.4%, respectively. Enteroclysis was the most accurate method. CT was more sensitive than US, but less specific. The accuracy of US, CT and scintigraphy were similar. In the group of 18 patients, who had early CDSB, the sensitivity of US decreased to only 67%, CT and scintigraphy had higher values. Intra- and perimural abscesses, and sinus tracts were also more frequently visualized by US, especially if they were small. US was superior than CT in detecting stenoses and skip lesions, but inferior to enteroclysis. US and CT detected more fistulas, than enteroclysis. Compared to CT, US detected more cases with mesenteric lymphadenopathy, equal cases with abscesses and free peritoneal fluids. In detecting mesenteric inflammatory proliferation CT, and in detecting colonic involvement CT and immunoscintigraphy were slightly superior than graded compression US. Patterns of mural stratification detected by ultrasound correlated well with the enteroclysis severity stages. There was only 59% agreement between increased superior mesenteric artery flow detected by Doppler sonography and CDAI, and 60.5% agreement between increased number of Color pixels in the gut wall measured by power Doppler and increased CDAI. Conclusion: High resolution graded compression sonography is a valuable tool for detecting small intestinal Crohn's disease. It has similar diagnostic values as CT. However in early disease the sensitivity substantially decreases. In known Crohn's disease for following disease course, evaluating relapses and extramural manifestations US is an excellent tool. Doppler and Power Doppler activity measurements do not correlate well with the more widespread clinical activity index

125

Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel in children with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease: evaluation of disease activity  

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Examinations using ionizing radiation are frequently used in the evaluation of disease activity in children affected by idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an MR imaging protocol without the need for fluoroscopic insertion of an enteral tube and to assess the disease activity in children with IBD. Included in the study were 37 children (22 girls and 15 boys; age range 7-15 years, mean 11.67 years) with IBD who underwent MR imaging of the small bowel. Of these 37 children, 32 had Crohn disease and 5 had indeterminate colitis. A water solution containing herbal fibres was administered orally or through a nasogastric tube. Patients were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner with T1-weighted and {tau}2-weighted sequences followed by a dynamic study using 3-D T1-W images after intravenous administration of gadolinium. The percentage enhancement of the bowel wall was significantly increased in patients with abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) values compared to patients with CRP values in the normal range (P<0.001). A relatively weak but significant correlation between percentage enhancement of the bowel wall and CRP values was noted during all phases of enhancement. This MR imaging protocol is a safe and well-tolerated method for evaluating disease activity and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD in children. (orig.)

Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Loggitsi, Dimitra; Economopoulos, Nikos; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Kelekis, Nikolaos L. [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, General University Hospital, Second Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Roma, Eleftheria; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Pahoula, Ioanna [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aghia Sofia Children' s Hospital, First Department of Paediatrics, Athens (Greece)

2009-08-15

126

Mesenteric Pseudocyst of the Small Bowel in Gastric Cancer Patient: A Case Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesenteric pseudocyst is rare. This term is used to describe the abdominal cystic mass, without the origin of abdominal organ. We presented a case of mesenteric pseudocyst of the small bowel in a 70-year-old man. Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy showed a 3.5 cm sized excavated lesion on the posterior wall of angle. Endocopic biopsy confirmed a histologic diagnosis of the poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, which includes the signet ring cell component. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a focal mucosal enhancement in the posterior wall of angle of the stomach, a 2.4 cm sized enhancing mass on the distal small bowel loop, without distant metastases or ascites in rectal shelf, and multiple gallbladder stones. The patient underwent subtotal gastrectomy with gastroduodenostomy, segmental resection of the small bowel, and cholecystectomy. The final pathological diagnosis was mesenteric pseudocyst. This is the first case report describing incidentally detected mesenteric pseudocyst of the small bowel in gastric cancer patients. PMID:22500263

Lee, Sang Eok; Choi, In Seok; Yoon, Dae Sung; Moon, Ju Ik; Ra, Yu Mi; Min, Hyun Sik; Kim, Yong Seok; Kim, Sun Moon; Sohn, Jang Sihn; Lee, Bong Soo

2012-01-01

127

Squamous cell carcinoma arising from ovarian mature cystic teratoma and causing small bowel obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma (MCT) is a rare phenomenon with incidence of approximately 1-3%. We report a 48-year-old woman who presented to the emergency room with symptoms of bowel obstruction. She underwent computed tomography scan for the evaluation of obstruction, which demonstrated diffuse ascites accompanying a cystic pelvic to lower abdominal mass which had invaded into the adjacent small bowel causing partial small bowel obstruction. Histologically, the mass demonstrated a MCT within which aroused a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Exploratory laparotomy was performed to confirm the diagnosis and debulking of the mass was performed. PMID:25313782

Yarmohammadi, Hooman; Mansoori, Bahar; Wong, Vince; Tacher, Vania; Wilkins, Luke R; Pavlidakey, Peter G; Haaga, John R

2014-01-01

128

Manual Physical Therapy for Non-Surgical Treatment of Adhesion-Related Small Bowel Obstructions: Two Case Reports  

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Background: Adhesion formation is a widely acknowledged risk following abdominal or pelvic surgery. Adhesions in the abdomen or pelvis can cause or contribute to partial or total small bowel obstruction (SBO). These adhesions deter or prevent the passage of nutrients through the digestive tract, and may bind the bowel to the peritoneum, or other organs. Small bowel obstructions can quickly become life-threatening, requiring immediate surgery to resect the bowel, or lyse any adhesions the surg...

Rice, Amanda D.; Richard King; Avy Reed, Evette D.; Kimberley Patterson; Wurn, Belinda F.; Wurn, Lawrence J.

2013-01-01

129

Small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar formation within meckel diverticulum: CT findings  

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Intestinal obstruction due to a phytobezoar within a Meckel diverticulum is exceedingly rare, with only seven reported cases in the surgical literature. The most important precipitating factor is the ingestion of agents high in fiber and cellulose. Small bowel obstruction in all but one case was due to retrograde propagation of the bezoar into the small bowel lumen. We report the clinical and CT findings in such a patient following a vegetarian diet. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Frazzini, V.I. Jr.; English, W.J.; Bashist, B.; Moore, E. [Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States)

1996-05-01

130

Bowel Perforation after Erlotinib Treatment in a Patient with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

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Erlotinib is accepted as a standard second-line chemotherapeutic agent in patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are refractory or resistant to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. There has been no previous report of bowel perforation with or without gastrointestinal metastases related to erlotinib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The exact mechanism of bowel perforation in patients who received erlotinib remains unclear. In this report, we report the first case of enter...

Cheon, Yun-hong; Kim, Moon Jin; Kang, Min Gyu; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Sang Su; Kim, Cha Young; Jeon, Dae-hong; Kim, Yu Eun; Lee, Gyeong-won

2011-01-01

131

Ultrasonographic findings of ascaris in the small bowel: A case report  

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Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic disease worldwide and evoked variable clinical manifestations by the migration of worm in the alimentary and biliary tract. The ultrasonographic detection of ascaris in the small bowel is relatively difficult, and no report on the ultrasonographic findings have been published in Korea. On abdominal ultrasonography, ascaris is seen as an intraluminal tubular structure with 4 linear echogenic stripes and movement. We report a case of ascaris in the small bowel detected by abdominal ultrasonography.

Kim, Hyun Cheol; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Jin [Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University college of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

2003-12-15

132

Whipple's disease demonstrated by double contrast small bowel enema with barium and methylcellulose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiologic findings on small bowel enema examination using barium and methylcellulose (SBE+Ba+MC) in a patient with Whipple's disease before and after treatment are described. The changes on SBE+Ba+MC corresponded well to the clinical and morphologic picture. The advantages of this double contrast technique compared to the enteroclysis with barium alone are demonstrated. The SBE+Ba+MC is a good method to demonstrate the manifestations of Whipple's disease involving the small bowel and the mesentery. (orig.)

133

Tumor de intestino delgado / Tumor of small bowel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta el caso de una mujer joven, que tuvo varios episodios de sangrado digestivo oscuro manifiesto por lo que requirió soporte transfusional, realización de dos esofagogastroduodenoscopias y dos colonoscopias, en las que no se identificó causa del sangrado. Se realizó enteroscopia de doble ba [...] lón encontrando una lesión subepitelial, ulcerada, de aspecto neoplásico en el íleon, la cual se marcó con tinta china y se tomaron biopsias que no fueron diagnósticas. Después de realizar estudios de extensión que fueron negativos, se llevó a laparotomía diagnóstica y terapéutica resecando el segmento de ileon comprometido por la lesión y cuyo diagnóstico histopatológico y por inmunohistoquímica fue conclusivo de carcinoma neuroendocrino mal diferenciado de alto grado de célula grande. Al final presentamos además, una revisión de sangrado oscuro manifiesto y tumor neuroendocrino de intestino delgado. Abstract in english Young woman who is having episodes of overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding that requires transfusions. The endoscopic study consists of 2 endoscopies of the upper digestive system and two colonoscopies. The tests do not find the cause of the digestive hemorrhage. A double-balloon enteroscopy is p [...] erformed and it is found that the Ileum has an ulcerate subepitelial lesion with neoplasic appearance which is marked with Chinese ink and biopsies are taken from the tissue which are not diagnosed. Studies of staging are performed ant the result is negative. A laparatomy is performed for diagnosis and treatment which includes the intestinal resection of ileum where the tumor is placed. The result of the test shows to be a neuroendocrine carcinoma of high degree of large cells undifferentiated. One appears in addition a revision to overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and neuroendocrine tumor of small bowel.

Elmer Jair, Ruiz Lobo; Rómulo, Vargas Rubio; Albis Cecilia, Hani; Jaime, Alvarado Bestene; Alberto, Rodríguez Varón; Yanette, Suárez Quintero; Raúl, Cañadas Garrido; Diana del Pilar, Torres Pabón; Julio Eduardo, Zuleta Muñoz; Mauricio, Sepúlveda Copete; Paola Andrea, Roa Ballestas.

2009-06-30

134

Non-emergency small bowel obstruction: assessment of CT findings that predict need for surgery  

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To identify CT findings predictive of surgical management in non-emergency small bowel obstruction (SBO). Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT of 129 patients with non-emergency SBO were evaluated for small bowel luminal diameter, wall thickness, presence of the small bowel faeces sign (intraluminal particulate matter in a dilated small bowel) and length, transition point, submucosal oedema, mesenteric stranding, ascites and degree of obstruction (low grade partial, high grade partial and complete obstruction). Medical records were reviewed for age, gender, management and history of abdominal surgery, abdominal malignancy, or SBO. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata Release 9.2. Degree of obstruction was the only predictor of need for surgery. Whereas 18.0% of patients with low-grade partial obstruction (n = 50) underwent surgery, 32.5% of patients with high-grade partial obstruction (n = 77) and 100% of patients with complete obstruction (n = 2) required surgery (P = 0.004). The small bowel faeces sign was inversely predictive of surgery (P = 0.018). In non-emergency SBO patients with contrast-enhanced CT imaging, grade of obstruction predicts surgery, while the small bowel faeces sign inversely predicts need for surgery. (orig.)

Deshmukh, Swati D.; Shin, David S.; Willmann, Juergen K.; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Shin, Lewis; Jeffrey, R.B. [Stanford University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

2011-05-15

135

Developing a new measure of small bowel peristalsis with dynamic MR: a proof of concept study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. Small bowel peristalsis is a complex of many individual motion elements. Although each element of peristalsis can be measured there is no current global measure of peristalsis. Purpose. To examine the feasibility of automated computerized assessment of global small bowel motility using simple computational methods. Material and Methods. Coronal dynamic MR images were obtained from five healthy volunteers who had fasted for 9 h and drunk 1.5 L of water. Images were taken using single breath-hold and ECG triggering. Acquisitions were repeated at 10 and 20 min after an intramuscular injection of hyoscine butylbromide. Parametric maps were generated representing the mean change in signal amplitude (MSA) per voxel for each dynamic acquisition. Two observers independently assessed thresholding for optimal segmentation of small bowel from other sources of signal. Total voxel activity (TVA) for each study was calculated as a sum of MSA per slice and whole examination and TVA profiles were generated. Results. Independent observations suggest that the automated segmentation method described usefully segments small bowel activity from other signal. Small bowel movement represented as TVA varied three-fold in the five volunteers and was inhibited by anti-muscarinic injection. Conclusion. It is possible to develop a new measure, based on automated segmentation of mean signal amplitude changes, of small bowel peristalsis using dynamic MR

136

Differential changes in intrinsic innervation and interstitial cells of Cajal in small bowel atresia in newborns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate morphological changes of the enteric nervous system (ENS and the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs in small bowel atresia.METHODS: Resected small bowel specimens from affected patients (n = 7 were divided into three parts (proximal, atretic, distal. Standard histology and enzyme immunohistochemistry anti-S100, anti-protein gene product (PGP 9.5, anti-neurofilament (NF, anti-c-kit-receptor (CD117 was carried out on conventional paraffin sections of the proximal and distal part.RESULTS: The neuronal and glial markers (PGP 9.5, NF, S-100 were expressed in hypertrophied ganglia and nerve fibres within the myenteric and submucosal plexuses. Furthermore, the submucous plexus contained typical giant ganglia. The innervation pattern of the proximal bowel resembled intestinal neuronal dysplasia. The density of myenteric ICCs was clearly reduced in the proximal bowel, whereas a moderate number of muscular ICCs were found. The anti-CD117 immunoreaction revealed additional numerous mast cells. The distal bowel demonstrated normal morphology and density of the ENS, the ICCs and the mast cells.CONCLUSION: The proximal and distal bowel in small bowel atresia revealed clear changes in morphology and density of the ENS and ICCs.

Stefan Gfroerer, Roman Metzger, Henning Fiegel, Priya Ramachandran, Udo Rolle

2010-12-01

137

Combined small and large bowel MR imaging in patients with Crohn's disease: a feasibility study  

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MRI of the small bowel is a new method for the assessment of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, inflammatory bowel disease can affect both the small and large bowel. Therefore, our goal was to assess the feasibility of displaying the small bowel and colon simultaneously by MR imaging. Eighteen patients with inflammatory bowel disease were studied. For small bowel distension, patients ingested a solution containing mannitol and locust bean gum. Furthermore, the colon was rectally filled with water. MR examinations were performed on a 1.5-T system. Before and after intravenous gadolinium administration, a T1w data set was collected. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy as a standard of reference. The oral ingestion and the rectal application of water allowed an assessment of the small bowel and colon in all patients. By means of MRI (endoscopy), 19 (13) inflamed bowel segments in the colon and terminal ileum were detected. Furthermore, eight additional inflammatory lesions in the jejunum and proximal ileum that had not been endoscopically accessible were found by MRI. The simultaneous display of the small and large bowel by MRI is feasible. Major advantages of the proposed MR concept are related to its non-invasive character as well as to the potential to visualize parts of the small bowel that cannot be reached by endoscopy. (orig.)

Narin, Burcu; Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne; Lauenstein, Thomas C. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122, Essen (Germany); Langhorst, Jost; Gerken, Guido [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany); Akgoez, Haldun [Siyami Ersek Hastanesi, Istanbul (Turkey); Ruehm, Stefan G. [Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles (United States)

2004-09-01

138

Audit on complicated diverticular disease  

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Seventy-three patients were seen between 1970 and 1983 with complicated diverticular disease. There were only six hospital deaths (8%). Two out of 7 patients with faecal peritonitis died, 2 of 27 patients with purulent peritonitis died and there was one death each associated with an inflammatory mass and a peridiverticular abscess. Five of the six hospital deaths were from cardiorespiratory disease and only one was from sepsis. Three of the early deaths were in patients who were receiving ste...

Shephard, A. A.; Keighley, M. R.

1986-01-01

139

Diverticular disease in CT colonography  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate findings on CT colonography (CTC) in patients with diverticular disease. In a retrospective analysis of 160 consecutive patients, who underwent CTC and conventional colonoscopy (CC), patients with diverticular disease were retrieved. The CTC images were compared with CC and, if possible, with pathology. Findings on both 2D and 3D images are illustrated with emphasis on diagnostic problems and the possible solutions to overcome these problems. Several aspects of diverticulosis were detected: prediverticulosis (3%); global (55.6%); and focal wall thickening (4%) caused by thickened haustral folds, fibrosis, inflammation and adenocarcinoma; diverticula (52%); pseudopolypoid lesions caused by diverticular fecaliths (39%); inverted diverticula (1.2%); and mucosal prolapse (0.6%). Solutions to overcome pitfalls are described as abdominal windowing, content of the pseudopolypoid lesion, comparison of 2D and 3D images, prone-supine imaging and the aspect of the pericolic fat. In this series there were equivocal findings in case of mucosal prolapse (0.6%) and focal wall thickening (4%). Diverticulosis is a challenge for CTC to avoid false-positive diagnosis of polypoid and tumoral disease. Knowledge of possible false causes of polypoid disease and comparison of 2D and 3D images are necessary to avoid false-positive diagnosis. In case of equivocal findings additional conventional colonoscopy should be advised whenever a clinically significant lesion ({>=}1 cm) is suspected. (orig.)

Lefere, P.; Gryspeerdt, S.; Baekelandt, M.; Holsbeeck, B. van [Dept. of Radiology, Roeselare (Belgium); Dewyspelaere, J. [Dept. of Gastroenterology, Roeselare (Belgium)

2003-12-01

140

Diverticular disease in CT colonography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate findings on CT colonography (CTC) in patients with diverticular disease. In a retrospective analysis of 160 consecutive patients, who underwent CTC and conventional colonoscopy (CC), patients with diverticular disease were retrieved. The CTC images were compared with CC and, if possible, with pathology. Findings on both 2D and 3D images are illustrated with emphasis on diagnostic problems and the possible solutions to overcome these problems. Several aspects of diverticulosis were detected: prediverticulosis (3%); global (55.6%); and focal wall thickening (4%) caused by thickened haustral folds, fibrosis, inflammation and adenocarcinoma; diverticula (52%); pseudopolypoid lesions caused by diverticular fecaliths (39%); inverted diverticula (1.2%); and mucosal prolapse (0.6%). Solutions to overcome pitfalls are described as abdominal windowing, content of the pseudopolypoid lesion, comparison of 2D and 3D images, prone-supine imaging and the aspect of the pericolic fat. In this series there were equivocal findings in case of mucosal prolapse (0.6%) and focal wall thickening (4%). Diverticulosis is a challenge for CTC to avoid false-positive diagnosis of polypoid and tumoral disease. Knowledge of possible false causes of polypoid disease and comparison of 2D and 3D images are necessary to avoid false-positive diagnosis. In case of equivocal findings additional conventional colonoscopy should be advised whenever a clinically significabe advised whenever a clinically significant lesion (?1 cm) is suspected. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
141

Online adaptive radiotherapy of the bladder: Small bowel irradiated-volume reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess the potential reduction of small bowel volume receiving high-dose radiation by using kilovoltage X-ray cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and quantized margin selection for adaptive bladder cancer treatment. Methods and Materials: Twenty bladder patients were planned conformally using a four-field, 15-mm uniform margin technique. Two additional planning target volumes (PTVs) were created using margins quantized to 5 and 10 mm in the superior direction only. CBCTs (?8 scans/patient) were acquired during treatment. CBCT volumes were registered with CT planning scans to determine setup errors and to select the appropriate PTV of the day. Margin reduction in other directions was considered. Outlining of small bowel in every fraction is required to properly quantify the volume of small bowel spared from high doses. In the case of CBCT this is not always possible owing to artifacts created by small bowel movement and the presence of gas. A simpler method was adopted by considering the volume difference between PTVs created using uniform and adapted margins, which corresponds to the potential volume of small bowel sparing. Results: The average small bowel volume that can be spared by this form of adaptive radiotherapy is 31 ± 23 cm3 (±1 SD). The bladder for 1 patient was systematically smaller than the planning scan and hence demonstrated the largest average reduction of 76 cm3. The clinical target volume to PTV margins in other directions can be safely reduced to 10 mm except in the anterior direction where, like the superior direction, the bladder showed significant variation. Conclusions: Online CBCT-assisted plan selection based on quantized margins can significantly reduce the volume of small bowel receiving high doses for some bladder patients. CBCT allows the 15-mm margins used in some directions to be safely reduced to 10 mm

142

Fecal impaction: a cause of isolated small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs  

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of isolated small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs in patients with colonic fecal impaction and also to elucidate the cause of this finding. Methods: A computerized search of radiology files revealed 515 patients with colonic fecal impaction on abdominal radiographs. The radiologic reports described isolated small bowel dilatation not related to other known causes of ileus or obstruction in 18 (3.5%) of the 515 patients. The films were reviewed to determine the distribution of fecal impaction and the degree and extent of small bowel dilatation. In 16 cases, medical records were reviewed to determine the clinical presentation, treatment, and course. Finally, follow-up radiographs were reviewed in four cases to determine the response to treatment of the impaction. Results: All 16 patients with available medical records had abdominal symptoms. The average diameter of the dilated small bowel on abdominal radiographs was 3.7 cm. Fourteen patients (78%) had a diffuse colonic fecal impaction (nine) or a predominantly right-sided fecal impaction (five) that involved the cecum, and the remaining four (22%) had a left-sided colonic fecal impaction. All 12 patients with clinical follow-up had resolution of symptoms and all four with follow-up radiographs had resolution of small bowel dilatation after treatment of the underlying impaction. Conclusion: Fecal impaction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of small bowel dilatation on abdominal radiographs, as treatment of the underlying impaction usually produces a dramatic clinical response with resolution of the small bowel dilatation on follow-up radiographs.

Torigian, Drew A.; Levine, Marc S. E-mail: levine@oasis.rad.upenn.edu; Rubesin, Stephen E.; Laufer, Igor

2001-10-01

143

Spectrum of imaging findings on MDCT enterography in patients with small bowel tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is the sixth most common extrapulmonary site of involvement. The sites of involvement in abdominal tuberculosis, in descending order of frequency, are lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity, and gastrointestinal tract. The radiological armamentarium for evaluating tuberculosis of the small bowel (SBTB) includes barium studies (small bowel follow-through, SBFT), CT (multidetector CT, CT enterography, and CT enteroclysis), ultrasound (sonoenteroclysis), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; enterography and enteroclysis). In this review, we illustrate the abnormalities at MDCT enterography in 20 consecutive patients with SB TB and also describe extraluminal findings in these patients. MDCT enterography allows non-invasive good-quality assessment of well-distended bowel loops and the adjacent soft tissues. It displays the thickness and enhancement of the entire bowel wall in all three planes and allows examination of all bowel loops, especially the ileal loops, which are mostly superimposed. The terminal ileum and ileocaecal junction are the most common sites of small bowel involvement in intestinal TB. The most common abnormality is short-segment strictures with symmetrical concentric mural thickening and homogeneous mural enhancement. Other findings include lymphadenopathy, ascites, enteroliths, peritoneal thickening, and enhancement. In conclusion, MDCT enterography is a comprehensive te

144

Prenatal diagnosis of small bowel atresia: A case report  

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Full Text Available In this paper we report a case of jejunal atresia that was detected pre-nataly. Polyhydramnios and multiple dilated bowel loops in the lower part of fetal abdomen in ulterasonography helped us to diagnose this abnormality. Post-natal barium enema showed it and also it was confirmed by laparotomy confirmed it. Pre-natal diagnosis is important in these cases to facilitate delivery in centers where expert team of specialists are available to allow optimal neonatal care.

Jamal A

2000-09-01

145

Small Bowel Dose Parameters Predicting Grade ?3 Acute Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: An Independent Validation Study Comparing Peritoneal Space Versus Small Bowel Loop Contouring Techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine whether volumes based on contours of the peritoneal space can be used instead of individual small bowel loops to predict for grade ?3 acute small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A standardized contouring method was developed for the peritoneal space and retrospectively applied to the radiation treatment plans of 67 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data were extracted and analyzed against patient toxicity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were carried out for both contouring methods. Results: Grade ?3 small bowel toxicity occurred in 16% (11/67) of patients in the study. A highly significant dose-volume relationship between small bowel irradiation and acute small bowel toxicity was supported by the use of both small bowel loop and peritoneal space contouring techniques. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that, for both contouring methods, the greatest sensitivity for predicting toxicity was associated with the volume receiving between 15 and 25 Gy. Conclusion: DVH analysis of peritoneal space volumes accurately predicts grade ?3 small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, suggesting that the contours of the peritoneal space provide a reasonable surrogate for the contours of individual small bowel loops. The study finds that a small bowel V15 less than 275 cc and a peritoneal space V15 less than 830 cc are associated with a less than 10% risk of grade ?3 acute toxicity

146

Small Bowel Dose Parameters Predicting Grade ?3 Acute Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: An Independent Validation Study Comparing Peritoneal Space Versus Small Bowel Loop Contouring Techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To determine whether volumes based on contours of the peritoneal space can be used instead of individual small bowel loops to predict for grade ?3 acute small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A standardized contouring method was developed for the peritoneal space and retrospectively applied to the radiation treatment plans of 67 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data were extracted and analyzed against patient toxicity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were carried out for both contouring methods. Results: Grade ?3 small bowel toxicity occurred in 16% (11/67) of patients in the study. A highly significant dose-volume relationship between small bowel irradiation and acute small bowel toxicity was supported by the use of both small bowel loop and peritoneal space contouring techniques. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that, for both contouring methods, the greatest sensitivity for predicting toxicity was associated with the volume receiving between 15 and 25 Gy. Conclusion: DVH analysis of peritoneal space volumes accurately predicts grade ?3 small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, suggesting that the contours of the peritoneal space provide a reasonable surrogate for the contours of individual small bowel loops. The study finds that a small bowel V15 less than 275 cc and a peritoneal space V15 less than 830 cc are associated with a less than 10% risk of grade ?3 acute toxicity.

Banerjee, Robyn, E-mail: robynbanerjee@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Chakraborty, Santam; Nygren, Ian; Sinha, Richie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

2013-04-01

147

X-ray findings of small bowel taeniasis: A clinical and experimental study  

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Unlike ascariasis of the small bowel, taeniasis can be detected radiologically with much difficulty because of the basic difference between the morphological features of each helminth. However once the characteristics of tape worms are appreciated and kept in mind, radiological diagnosis is fairly accurately made. In the present study we have reported typical radiological features of the small bowel taeniasis as observed in 6 adults patients seen at the Department of Radiology of St. Mary's Hospital and Holy Family Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Tapering tape-like or ribbon -like radiolucent shadows in distal small bowel appear unique. Compression spot film study of the ileum is most important in revealing such findings. An animal experiment using the swine small intestine and parasitological specimen of evacuated worm of taenia saginata was designed to help understand radiological manifestation in vivo.

Kim, Hong Soo; Kang, Hee Woong; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1972-12-15

148

X-ray findings of small bowel taeniasis: A clinical and experimental study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike ascariasis of the small bowel, taeniasis can be detected radiologically with much difficulty because of the basic difference between the morphological features of each helminth. However once the characteristics of tape worms are appreciated and kept in mind, radiological diagnosis is fairly accurately made. In the present study we have reported typical radiological features of the small bowel taeniasis as observed in 6 adults patients seen at the Department of Radiology of St. Mary's Hospital and Holy Family Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Tapering tape-like or ribbon -like radiolucent shadows in distal small bowel appear unique. Compression spot film study of the ileum is most important in revealing such findings. An animal experiment using the swine small intestine and parasitological specimen of evacuated worm of taenia saginata was designed to help understand radiological manifestation in vivo

149

Evaluation and management of small-bowel tumors in the era of deep enteroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In summary, small-intestine tumors are a rare phenomenon, but they are being discovered more frequently with newer diagnostic techniques. Prior studies of the small bowel were limited, making the diagnosis difficult. With the advent of CE and deep enteroscopy, gastroenterologists are finding these tumors at an earlier stage, thereby offering better management options for these patients. Although the incidence of small-bowel tumors has increased, the survival rates have remained the same. This may be a lag-time bias but could be a future area of research in this emerging field. PMID:24365041

Islam, R Sameer; Leighton, Jonathan A; Pasha, Shabana F

2014-05-01

150

CT findings in acute small bowel diverticulitis; Computertomographie bei akuter Duenndarmdivertikulitis  

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Small bowel diverticulitis is a rare cause of an acute abdomen. Originating from acquired diverticula of the jejunum, less often of the ileum, or Meckel diverticulum, the symptoms are non-specific, simulating other acute inflammatory disorders, such as appendicitis, cholecystitis or colonic diverticulitis. The diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis is solely based on radiologic findings, with computed tomography (CT) regarded as the method of choice. In recent years, a number of case reports have described the spectrum of the CT features in acute small bowel diverticulitis and its dependence on the severity of the inflammatory process. Typical findings are an inflamed diverticulum, inflammatory mesenteric infiltration, extraluminal gas collection and mural edema of adjacent small bowel loops with resultant separation of bowel loops. An enterolith is rarely found in an inflamed diverticulum. Complications include abscesses, fistulae, small bowel obstruction and free perforation with peritonitis. Small bowel diverticulitis can be a diagnostic problem if it involves the terminal ileum or Meckel's diverticulum. For preoperative confirmation of the presumed diagnosis of small bowel diverticulitis on CT, an enteroclysis for acquired diverticula or a technetium scan for Meckel's diverticulum should be performed. We present the CT findings in three patients of acute small bowel diverticulitis, two affecting the jejunum and one a Meckel's diverticulum. (orig.) [German] Die akute Duenndarmdivertikulitis ist eine seltene Ursache eines akuten Abdomens. Ausgehend von den erworbenen Divertikeln des Jejunums, seltener des Ileums, oder von einem Meckel-Divertikel, manifestiert sich die Divertikulitis klinisch durch eine unspezifische Symptomatik, die zuerst an die haeufigeren, akutentzuendlichen Erkrankungen des Abdomens wie z. B. Appendizitis, Cholezystitis oder Kolondivertikulitis denken laesst. Die Duenndarmdivertikulitis kann praeoperativ nur durch radiologische Verfahren gesichert werden, wobei die CT die Methode der Wahl darstellt. Das vorwiegend in Form von Kasuistiken beschriebene Spektrum der CT-Morphologie der akuten Duenndarmdivertikulitis variiert je nach Ausmass des Entzuendungsprozesses. Als typische CT-Befunde finden sich ein entzuendetes Divertikel, peridivertikulaere Fettgewebsinfiltrationen, extraluminale Luftansammlungen als Zeichen einer gedeckten Perforation und ein Wandoedem des betroffenen Duenndarmsegmentes mit vermehrter Distanzierung der Darmschlingen. In sehr seltenen Faellen kann auch ein Enterolith in einem entzuendeten Divertikel nachweisbar sein. An Komplikationen koennen Abszesse, Fisteln, ein Ileus und eine freie Perforation mit Peritonitis auftreten. Diagnostische Probleme bereitet die Duenndarmdivertikulitis von allem bei Lokalisation im terminalen Ileum und im Meckel-Divertikel. Zur Sicherung der computertomographischen Verdachtsdiagnose einer akuten Duenndarmdivertikulitis koennen ein Enteroklysma bzw. beim Meckel-Divertikel eine 99m-Technetium-Pertechnetat-Szintigraphie eingesetzt werden. Wir beschreiben die CT-Befunde zweier Patientinnen mit akuter Jejunumdivertikulitis und eines Patienten mit Meckel-Divertikulitis und vergleichen die Ergebnisse mit den Angaben aus der Literatur. (orig.)

Ferstl, F.J.; Obert, R. [Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinisches Zentrum (RNZ) am St. Theresienkrankenhaus Nuernberg (Germany)

2004-02-01

151

Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations  

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Full Text Available AIM: To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE completion rate (CECR including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status. METHODS: We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005. Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure. CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses. After retrospective analysis, 21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction, prior gastric surgery, endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data. Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP, 70 in-patient (IP], CE indications, findings, location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU vs general medical floor (GMF] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed. Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL. Chi-square, t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams. RESULTS: The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years. Sixty-one percent of the study population was female, and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P = 0.07. The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study. Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB was significantly more common for the IP CE (P = 0.0001, while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively. Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs. The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB in 6/70 IPs and 8/264 OPs (P = 0.04. The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70 of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264 of OP examinations (P < 0.001. The mean gastric transit time (GTT was delayed in IPs compared to OPs, 98.5 ± 139.5 min vs 60.4 ± 92.6 min (P = 0.008. Minimal SB transit time was significantly prolonged in the IP compared to the OP setting [IP = 275.1 ± 111.6 min vs OP = 244.0 ± 104.3 min (P = 0.037]. CECR was also significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with OGB who had OP vs IP exams (95% vs 80% respectively, P = 0.001. The proportion of patients with incomplete exams was higher in the ICU (n = 7/13, 54% as compared to the GMF (n = 15/57, 26% (P = 0.05. There was only a single permanent SB retention case which was secondary to a previously unknown SB stricture, and the remaining incomplete SB exams were due to slow transit. Medications which affect gastrointestinal system motility were tested both individually and also in aggregate in univariate analysis in hospitalized patients (ICU and GMF and were not predictive of incomplete capsule passage (P > 0.05. Patient location (IP vs OP and GTT were independent predictors of incomplete CE exams (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSION: Incomplete CE is a multifactorial problem. Patient location and related factors such as severity of illness and sedentary status may contribute to incomplete exams.

Cemal Yazici

2012-01-01

152

A combination of small bowel imaging methods: conventional enteroclysis with complementary magnetic resonance enteroclysis  

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AIM: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the overall findings of conventional enteroclysis (CE) with complementary magnetic resonance enteroclysis (MRE) in small bowel disease. METHODS: The study included 32 patients referred from various clinical departments, with known or suspected small bowel disease and abnormalities on CE. Immediately after CE, true fast imaging with steady-state precession (true FISP), and unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequences with fat saturation were obtained. Mucosal, mural and luminal changes of the small bowel were evaluated by each technique. In addition, bowel wall thickening, bowel wall enhancement and perienteric changes were assessed by MRE. The radiological findings obtained were evaluated together as a combination, and the role of MRE in the determination of the activity and complications of the small bowel disease was assessed. Radiological findings were correlated with clinical evaluation and follow-up in all cases, including endoscopy in 14 cases and surgery in 5 cases. RESULTS: MRE provided important supplementary mural and extramural information, including degree of pathological wall thickness, mural enhancement pattern associated with disease activity, perivisceral collection, abscess formation, mesenteric fibrofatty proliferation, lymphadenopathy and increase in perienteric vascularity. Short strictures were not revealed on MRE; however, for patients with a history of abdominal malignancy, MRE helped characterize the level of any obstruction and the extent of the disease. CONCLUSION: We recommend MRE for patients who have findings of advanced inflammatory bowel disease or neoplasm on CE examination. The combination of these two techniques can provide important information on the degree and extent of the disorder.

Akman, C. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Korman, U. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ugurk9@istanbul.edu.tr; Oguet, G. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Kurugoglu, S. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Urger, E. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Ulus, S. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Esen, G. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Tasci, I. [Department of Surgery, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)

2005-07-01

153

Wireless capsule endoscopy of the small bowel: development, testing, and first human trials  

Science.gov (United States)

Small bowel endoscopy with existing endoscopes is limited by problems of discomfort and the technical difficulty of advancing far into the small-bowel. Our aim has been to develop and test wireless capsule endoscopy. Wireless endoscopes, in the form of capsules (11 x 33 mm), were constructed by Given Imaging. These were powered by silver oxide batteries and each contained a CMOS imaging chip and miniature processor, white light emitting diodes (LEDs), a short focal length lens, and a miniature transmitter and antenna. Two video frames per second were transmitted, using radio-frequency (approx. 410 MHz), to an array of aerials attached to the body. The array of aerials can also be used to calculate the position of the capsule in the body. The images were stored on a portable recorder carried on a belt and subsequently downloaded for analysis. The batteries allow more than 5 hours of recording, although the capsule generally passes through the whole small bowel in under two hours. Clear video images of the human bowel were recorded from the pylorus to the caecum. Wireless endoscopy, for the first time, allows painless optical imaging of the whole of the small bowel.

Swain, Paul; Iddan, Gavriel J.; Meron, Gavriel; Glukhovsky, Arkady

2001-01-01

154

Ileus and Small Bowel Obstruction in an Emergency Department Observation Unit: Are there Outcome Predictors?  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of our study was to describe the evaluation and outcome of patients with ileus and bowel obstruction admitted to an emergency department (ED observation unit (OU and to identify predictors of successful management for such patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 129 patients admitted to a university-affiliated, urban, tertiary hospital ED OU from January 1999 through November 2004. Inclusion criteria were all adult patients admitted to the OU with an ED diagnosis of ileus, partial small bowel obstruction, or small bowel obstruction, and electronic medical records available for review. The following variables were examined: ED diagnosis, history of similar admission, number of prior abdominal surgeries, surgery in the month before, administration of opioid analgesia at any time after presentation, radiographs demonstrating air–fluid levels or dilated loops of small bowel, hypokalemia, use of nasogastric decompression, and surgical consultation. Results: Treatment failure, defined as hospital admission from the OU, occurred in 65 (50.4% of 129 patients. Only the use of a nasogastric tube was associated with OU failure (21% discharged versus 79% requiring admission, P ¼ 0.0004; odds ratio, 5.294; confidence interval, 1.982–14.14. Conclusion: Half of the patients admitted to our ED OU with ileus or varying degrees of small bowel obstruction required hospital admission. The requirement of a nasogastric tube in such patients was associated with a greater rate of observation unit failure. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:404–407.

Charles L. Emerman

2011-05-01

155

Unusually early presentation of small-bowel adenocarcinoma in a patient with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Peutz-Jeghers (PJS) syndrome is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by melanotic macules, and hamartomatous polyps. Small-bowel surveillance in the pediatric PJS population is not designed to identify small-bowel malignancy which is thought to arise in adulthood. A 13 year old male presented with lead-point intussusception, requiring emergent surgical resection. A mucinous adenocarcinoma was found arising from high-grade dysplasia within a polyp. Based on these findings and mucosal pigmentation he was diagnosed with PJS. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous c.921-1G>T STK11 mutation. This case is the earliest onset of small-bowel carcinoma in PJS, an observation relevant to surveillance guidelines. PMID:23426006

Wangler, Michael F.; Chavan, Rishikesh; Hicks, M. John; Nuchtern, Jed.G.; Hegde, Madhuri; Plon, Sharon E.; Thompson, Patrick A.

2013-01-01

156

Small bowel obstruction secondary to migration of a fragment of lithobezoar: a case report.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

INTRODUCTION: Small bowel obstruction is a common world-wide condition that has a range of etiological factors. The management is largely dependent on the cause of the obstruction. Small bowel obstruction caused by foreign body ingestion is rare; many items have been reported as responsible, but there are no reports implicating polyurethane foam. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 44-year-old Irish male who presented following ingestion of polyurethane foam. He was asymptomatic on presentation but developed a small bowel obstruction shortly thereafter. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting following ingestion of polyurethane foam should be scheduled for elective laparotomy, gastrotomy, and retrieval of the cast on the next available theatre list - given that they are suitable for surgery.

Medani, Mekki

2009-01-01

157

Foreign body ingestion of blister pill pack causing small bowel obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of foreign body ingestion of a blister pill pack, causing small bowel obstruction. A 76-year-old woman on multiple medications presented with 3 days of progressive abdominal distention, nausea, and vomiting. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated small bowel obstruction with a distinctive metallic foreign body in the distal ileum with associated wall thickening and mesenteric inflammatory changes. At exploratory laparotomy, an impacted, intact blister pill pack was removed from the distal ileum. The ingestion of blister pill packs has been associated with a range of clinical and imaging findings. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of CT diagnosis of small bowel obstruction caused by blister pack ingestion. Early recognition of the imaging findings of an ingested blister pill pack is important to expedite appropriate management. PMID:17342467

Tai, Angela W; Sodickson, Aaron

2007-06-01

158

[Mesenteric infarction of the small bowel in the course of portal vein thrombosis - a case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Portal vein thrombosis is a rare entity, usually concomitant with hepatic cirrhosis and malignancies. Spontaneous disease occurs very rarely, and it presents with venous small bowel mesenteric infarction, causing intestinal ischaemia extremely rarely. We present a patient who was operated on because of symptoms and signs of "acute abdomen" and in whom segmental ischaemia of the small bowel and mesenteric thrombosis were found intraoperatively. The correct diagnosis, mesenteric infarction of the small bowel in the course of portal vein thrombosis, was made after performing an abdominal computer tomography scan a week after surgery. The course of the treatment, complications, and data from the literature are presented about this very rare condition, which may constitute a difficult diagnostic problem for a surgeon. PMID:24734337

Iyluk, Andrzej; Jagielski, Wojciech

2013-01-01

159

Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group

160

Dietary Sulfur Amino Acid Supplementation Reduces Small Bowel Thiol/Disulfide Redox State and Stimulates Ileal Mucosal Growth after Massive Small Bowel Resection in Rats12  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following massive small bowel resection in animal models, the remnant intestine undergoes a dynamic growth response termed intestinal adaptation. Cell growth and proliferation are intimately linked to cellular and extracellular thiol/disulfide redox states, as determined by glutathione (GSH) and GSH disulfide (GSSG) (the major cellular redox system in tissues), and cysteine (Cys) and its disulfide cystine (CySS) (the major redox system in plasma), respectively. The study was designed to deter...

Shyntum, Yvonne; Iyer, Smita S.; Tian, Junqiang; Hao, Li; Mannery, Yanci O.; Jones, Dean P.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Extramedullary plasmacytoma of small bowel mesentery in associated with cecal cancer: a case report  

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Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare disease that is histopathologically defined as a solitary tumor composed of a monoclonal proliferation of cells with plasmacytic differentiation in an extramedullary site. Most of these tumors occur in the submucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and they rarely occur in the small bowel mesentery. We report here on a case of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the small bowel mesentery that was in association with a cecal cancer. Abdominal ultrasound and CT revealed a lobulated soft tissue mass with a cystic portion and peripheral calcification. In this case, the preoperative radiological diagnosis was difficult due to accompanying cecal cancer.

Kim, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Sun; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choog Ki; Park, Dong Woo [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Wook; Oh, Young Ha [Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-15

162

Extramedullary plasmacytoma of small bowel mesentery in associated with cecal cancer: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare disease that is histopathologically defined as a solitary tumor composed of a monoclonal proliferation of cells with plasmacytic differentiation in an extramedullary site. Most of these tumors occur in the submucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and they rarely occur in the small bowel mesentery. We report here on a case of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the small bowel mesentery that was in association with a cecal cancer. Abdominal ultrasound and CT revealed a lobulated soft tissue mass with a cystic portion and peripheral calcification. In this case, the preoperative radiological diagnosis was difficult due to accompanying cecal cancer

163

Exclusion of small bowel from pelvis for postoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pelvis is the preferential site of disease when recurrence occurs after curative resection of rectal cancer. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy decreases local recurrence rates for Dukes stages B and C; however, after abdominoperineal or anterior resections, the small bowel descends into the lower pelvis, and, due to its low tolerance to radiation, optimal doses cannot be safely delivered unless the small bowel can be excluded from the pelvis. This can be achieved by cystopexy and/or by creating a pelvic sling with a knitted polypropylene mesh. Three cases are presented in which radiotherapy was satisfactorily delivered with these techniques

164

Familial idiopathic small-bowel and colonic varices in three siblings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic small-bowel and colonic varices are a rare source of bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract. To date there are only eight published case series of familial idiopathic small-bowel and colonic varices. We present a case series detailing three affected siblings who presented with significant lower gastrointestinal bleeding and had multiple varices on endoscopy and imaging. Though not confirmed, consanguinity in the parents suggests an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. We summarize the literature to date and describe our institution's experience of endoscopy, diagnostic imaging, and treatment in these patients. PMID:25036657

Boland, Paul; Leonard, Jennifer; Saunders, Michael; Bursey, Ford

2014-10-01

165

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Novel Insight in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

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A total of 65-84% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) presents with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO is defined as the presence of more than 105 cfu/ml of colonic type bacteria in the lumen of the small bowel. It is more common in patients with IBS and predominant bloating and diarrhea. Based on the implication of SIBO in the pathogenesis of IBS, six trials have been conducted and analyzed in this review aiming to define a role of rifaximin for the management of ...

Giamarellos Bourboulis, Evangelos J.; Michalis Tzivras

2009-01-01

166

Computed image modification for enhancement of small-bowel surface structures at video capsule endoscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computed virtual chromoendoscopy with the Fujinon intelligent color-enhancement (FICE) system was reported to improve visualization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions at gastroscopy and colonoscopy. The technique is based on narrowing the bandwidth of the conventional endoscopic image arithmetically by a spectral estimation technology. Implementation of the FICE software in the video capsule workstation might also allow for contrast-enhanced assessment of nature and extent of small-bowel mucosal lesions. Here we propose this novel technique and report on 10 consecutive patients who underwent small-bowel video capsule endoscopy that was evaluated with FICE-enhanced imaging. PMID:20213593

Pohl, J; Aschmoneit, I; Schuhmann, S; Ell, C

2010-06-01

167

JEJUNAL ANGIOFIBROMA AS AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF SMALL BOWELL INTUSSUSCEPTION IN ADULT - CASE REPORT  

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Full Text Available Adult intussusception represents only about 5% of all intussusceptions and is usually caused by a small bowel tumor acting as the apex of invagination. We report an unusual case in a 57-years-old woman with intussusception caused by a tumor located in the jejunum. We performed jejunal resection with end-to-end anastomosis. Histologically the diagnosis was angiofibroma with mixoid areas, without malign aspects. Benign tumors of the small bowell are rare clinical entities and angiofibroma is a very unusual benign tumor of the gastrointestinal tract.

C.N. Neacsu

2005-07-01

168

Complicated diverticular disease: the changing paradigm for treatment / Doença diverticular complicada: alterando o padrão de tratamento  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O termo diverticulite "complicada" é reservado para a doença diverticular complicada por sangramento, abscesso, peritonite, fístula ou obstrução intestinal. A hemorragia é melhor tratada por angioembolização (radiologia intervencionista). O tratamento de diverticulite infectada evoluiu enormemente g [...] raças a: 1) ressecção laparoscópica do cólon seguida ou não (procedimento de Hartmann) pelo restabelecimento de continuidade intestinal, 2) lavado laparoscópico simples (peritonite + / - ressecção). A diverticulite (inflamação) pode ser tratada somente com antibióticos, anti-inflamatórios, combinados com repouso e medidas de higiene. O abscesso diverticular (Hinchey graus I, II) pode ser inicialmente tratado somente com antibióticos e / ou drenagem percutânea, dependendo do tamanho do abcesso. A peritonite purulenta generalizada (Hinchey III) pode ser tratada pelo clássico procedimento Hartmann, pela exteriorização da perfuração, como se fosse um estoma, pela ressecção primária com ou sem anastomose, com ou sem desvio do trânsito e, por último, a simples lavagem laparoscópica, geralmente, sem drenagem. A peritonite por fezes (Hinchey IV), uma indicação para o tradicional procedimento de Hartmann, também pode se beneficiar da ressecção primária seguida de anastomose, com ou sem desvio e lavagem laparoscópica. A obstrução aguda (inflamação local, ou aderências, formação pseudotumoral, estenoses crônicas) e fístula são, na maioria das vezes, tratadas por ressecção, preferencialmente, laparoscópica. Algoritmos terapêuticos pouco invasivos combinadas com indicações menos rigorosas para a o emprego da cirurgia radical antes de um padrão definido de recorrência, estão estabelecidos, ocasionando um número menor de ressecções e / ou estomas, reduzindo a morbidade e a mortalidade, melhorando a qualidade de vida após a intervenção, e geram uma tratamento menos dispendioso. Abstract in english The term "complicated" diverticulitis is reserved for inflamed diverticular disease complicated by bleeding, abscess, peritonitis, fistula or bowel obstruction. Hemorrhage is best treated by angioembolization (interventional radiology). Treatment of infected diverticulitis has evolved enormously tha [...] nks to: 1) laparoscopic colonic resection followed or not (Hartmann's procedure) by restoration of intestinal continuity, 2) simple laparoscopic lavage (for peritonitis +/- resection). Diverticulitis (inflammation) may be treated with antibiotics alone, anti-inflammatory drugs, combined with bed rest and hygienic measures. Diverticular abscesses (Hinchey Grades I, II) may be initially treated by antibiotics alone and/or percutaneous drainage, depending on the size of the abscess. Generalized purulent peritonitis (Hinchey III) may be treated by the classic Hartmann procedure, or exteriorization of the perforation as a stoma, primary resection with or without anastomosis, with or without diversion, and last, simple laparoscopic lavage, usually even without drainage. Feculent peritonitis (Hinchey IV), a traditional indication for Hartmann's procedure, may also benefit from primary resection followed by anastomosis, with or without diversion, and even laparoscopic lavage. Acute obstruction (nearby inflammation, or adhesions, pseudotumoral formation, chronic strictures) and fistula are most often treated by resection, ideally laparoscopic. Minimal invasive therapeutic algorithms that, combined with less strict indications for radical surgery before a definite recurrence pattern is established, has definitely lead to fewer resections and/or stomas, reducing their attendant morbidity and mortality, improved post-interventional quality of life, and less costly therapeutic policies.

Abe, Fingerhut; Nicolas, Veyrie.

2012-08-01

169

Complicated diverticular disease: the changing paradigm for treatment Doença diverticular complicada: alterando o padrão de tratamento  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term "complicated" diverticulitis is reserved for inflamed diverticular disease complicated by bleeding, abscess, peritonitis, fistula or bowel obstruction. Hemorrhage is best treated by angioembolization (interventional radiology. Treatment of infected diverticulitis has evolved enormously thanks to: 1 laparoscopic colonic resection followed or not (Hartmann's procedure by restoration of intestinal continuity, 2 simple laparoscopic lavage (for peritonitis +/- resection. Diverticulitis (inflammation may be treated with antibiotics alone, anti-inflammatory drugs, combined with bed rest and hygienic measures. Diverticular abscesses (Hinchey Grades I, II may be initially treated by antibiotics alone and/or percutaneous drainage, depending on the size of the abscess. Generalized purulent peritonitis (Hinchey III may be treated by the classic Hartmann procedure, or exteriorization of the perforation as a stoma, primary resection with or without anastomosis, with or without diversion, and last, simple laparoscopic lavage, usually even without drainage. Feculent peritonitis (Hinchey IV, a traditional indication for Hartmann's procedure, may also benefit from primary resection followed by anastomosis, with or without diversion, and even laparoscopic lavage. Acute obstruction (nearby inflammation, or adhesions, pseudotumoral formation, chronic strictures and fistula are most often treated by resection, ideally laparoscopic. Minimal invasive therapeutic algorithms that, combined with less strict indications for radical surgery before a definite recurrence pattern is established, has definitely lead to fewer resections and/or stomas, reducing their attendant morbidity and mortality, improved post-interventional quality of life, and less costly therapeutic policies.O termo diverticulite "complicada" é reservado para a doença diverticular complicada por sangramento, abscesso, peritonite, fístula ou obstrução intestinal. A hemorragia é melhor tratada por angioembolização (radiologia intervencionista. O tratamento de diverticulite infectada evoluiu enormemente graças a: 1 ressecção laparoscópica do cólon seguida ou não (procedimento de Hartmann pelo restabelecimento de continuidade intestinal, 2 lavado laparoscópico simples (peritonite + / - ressecção. A diverticulite (inflamação pode ser tratada somente com antibióticos, anti-inflamatórios, combinados com repouso e medidas de higiene. O abscesso diverticular (Hinchey graus I, II pode ser inicialmente tratado somente com antibióticos e / ou drenagem percutânea, dependendo do tamanho do abcesso. A peritonite purulenta generalizada (Hinchey III pode ser tratada pelo clássico procedimento Hartmann, pela exteriorização da perfuração, como se fosse um estoma, pela ressecção primária com ou sem anastomose, com ou sem desvio do trânsito e, por último, a simples lavagem laparoscópica, geralmente, sem drenagem. A peritonite por fezes (Hinchey IV, uma indicação para o tradicional procedimento de Hartmann, também pode se beneficiar da ressecção primária seguida de anastomose, com ou sem desvio e lavagem laparoscópica. A obstrução aguda (inflamação local, ou aderências, formação pseudotumoral, estenoses crônicas e fístula são, na maioria das vezes, tratadas por ressecção, preferencialmente, laparoscópica. Algoritmos terapêuticos pouco invasivos combinadas com indicações menos rigorosas para a o emprego da cirurgia radical antes de um padrão definido de recorrência, estão estabelecidos, ocasionando um número menor de ressecções e / ou estomas, reduzindo a morbidade e a mortalidade, melhorando a qualidade de vida após a intervenção, e geram uma tratamento menos dispendioso.

Abe Fingerhut

2012-08-01

170

Complicated diverticular disease: the changing paradigm for treatment / Doença diverticular complicada: alterando o padrão de tratamento  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O termo diverticulite "complicada" é reservado para a doença diverticular complicada por sangramento, abscesso, peritonite, fístula ou obstrução intestinal. A hemorragia é melhor tratada por angioembolização (radiologia intervencionista). O tratamento de diverticulite infectada evoluiu enormemente g [...] raças a: 1) ressecção laparoscópica do cólon seguida ou não (procedimento de Hartmann) pelo restabelecimento de continuidade intestinal, 2) lavado laparoscópico simples (peritonite + / - ressecção). A diverticulite (inflamação) pode ser tratada somente com antibióticos, anti-inflamatórios, combinados com repouso e medidas de higiene. O abscesso diverticular (Hinchey graus I, II) pode ser inicialmente tratado somente com antibióticos e / ou drenagem percutânea, dependendo do tamanho do abcesso. A peritonite purulenta generalizada (Hinchey III) pode ser tratada pelo clássico procedimento Hartmann, pela exteriorização da perfuração, como se fosse um estoma, pela ressecção primária com ou sem anastomose, com ou sem desvio do trânsito e, por último, a simples lavagem laparoscópica, geralmente, sem drenagem. A peritonite por fezes (Hinchey IV), uma indicação para o tradicional procedimento de Hartmann, também pode se beneficiar da ressecção primária seguida de anastomose, com ou sem desvio e lavagem laparoscópica. A obstrução aguda (inflamação local, ou aderências, formação pseudotumoral, estenoses crônicas) e fístula são, na maioria das vezes, tratadas por ressecção, preferencialmente, laparoscópica. Algoritmos terapêuticos pouco invasivos combinadas com indicações menos rigorosas para a o emprego da cirurgia radical antes de um padrão definido de recorrência, estão estabelecidos, ocasionando um número menor de ressecções e / ou estomas, reduzindo a morbidade e a mortalidade, melhorando a qualidade de vida após a intervenção, e geram uma tratamento menos dispendioso. Abstract in english The term "complicated" diverticulitis is reserved for inflamed diverticular disease complicated by bleeding, abscess, peritonitis, fistula or bowel obstruction. Hemorrhage is best treated by angioembolization (interventional radiology). Treatment of infected diverticulitis has evolved enormously tha [...] nks to: 1) laparoscopic colonic resection followed or not (Hartmann's procedure) by restoration of intestinal continuity, 2) simple laparoscopic lavage (for peritonitis +/- resection). Diverticulitis (inflammation) may be treated with antibiotics alone, anti-inflammatory drugs, combined with bed rest and hygienic measures. Diverticular abscesses (Hinchey Grades I, II) may be initially treated by antibiotics alone and/or percutaneous drainage, depending on the size of the abscess. Generalized purulent peritonitis (Hinchey III) may be treated by the classic Hartmann procedure, or exteriorization of the perforation as a stoma, primary resection with or without anastomosis, with or without diversion, and last, simple laparoscopic lavage, usually even without drainage. Feculent peritonitis (Hinchey IV), a traditional indication for Hartmann's procedure, may also benefit from primary resection followed by anastomosis, with or without diversion, and even laparoscopic lavage. Acute obstruction (nearby inflammation, or adhesions, pseudotumoral formation, chronic strictures) and fistula are most often treated by resection, ideally laparoscopic. Minimal invasive therapeutic algorithms that, combined with less strict indications for radical surgery before a definite recurrence pattern is established, has definitely lead to fewer resections and/or stomas, reducing their attendant morbidity and mortality, improved post-interventional quality of life, and less costly therapeutic policies.

Abe, Fingerhut; Nicolas, Veyrie.

171

Small bowel perforation in a hernia sac after TVT placement at the time of colpocleisis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) is commonly considered as the first line of treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with demonstrated efficacy and limited complications. An 82-year-old woman with complete uterine procidentia and SUI underwent a Le Forte colpocleisis, TVT, posterior repair, and cystoscopy. A 4-cm bulge was noted over the site of the left TVT incision on postoperative day 1. On postoperative day 3, she developed bilious vomiting with slight abdominal distention. Computed tomography scan showed a strangulated left inguinal hernia. An immediate exploratory laparotomy noted an inguinal hernia displaced medially with loops of small bowel in the hernia sac. Although properly positioned, one loop of bowel was perforated by the sling mesh. A small bowel resection was performed and the mesh trimmed below the resection on involved side. At 2 months postoperative visit, the patient was asymptomatic, denied stress or urge incontinence. Vaginal examination noted well-supported vaginal walls. PMID:19641837

Gurshumov, Emil L; Klapper, Allan S; Sierecki, Ava R

2010-03-01

172

Small bowel intussusception due to metastatic intestinal carcinosarcoma from a pulmonary primary  

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Full Text Available Ya-Fen Hsu1,3, Chi-Yu Huang1, Tong-Jong Chen2, Yenn-Hwei Chou11Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Metastatic small bowel tumors are rarely encountered. They usually present with small bowel obstruction, perforation, bleeding, or, rarely, intestinal intussusception. Only a few case reports have mentioned bowel symptoms due to metastatic malignancies. We report a seldom encountered clinical condition of intestinal intussusception from metastatic lung malignancy. Pathology demonstrated both epithelial and mesenchymal content, and the final diagnosis was carcinosarcoma. This case report indicates that intestinal metastases should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with lung malignancy and abdominal symptoms.Keywords: carcinosarcoma, intussusception, metastatic pulmonary tumors

Ya-Fen Hsu

2010-12-01

173

Primer trasplante de intestino en Chile: Caso clínico / Small bowel transplantation: Report of a single case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Small bowel transplantation is associated with a patient survival at one and five years, of 80% and 63%, respectively. We repon a 36 year-old female with short bowel syndrome, subjected to the first small bowel transplantation performed in Chile. A cadaveric gran was used. Immunosuppression was achi [...] eved by means of alemtuzumab, tacrolimus, sirolimus, micofenolate mofetil and steroids. Serial endoscopies and biopsies were performed during seven months after transplantation. The most important ¡ate complications were a drug induced renal failure, infections caused by opportunistic agents and a gastrointestinal bleedingprobably induced by drugs. After 29 months of follow up, the patient is ambulatory, on oral diet only and with no evidence of graft rejection.

Erwin, Buckel G; Mario, Ferrario B; Mario, Uribe M; Gloria, González G; Jorge, Godoy L; Fernando, Fluxá G; Rodrigo, Quera P; Verner, Codoceo R; Jorge, Morales B; David, Benavente M; María Teresa, Santander D; Cristina, Herzog O.

174

[Prevention and conservative therapy of diverticular disease].  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverticulosis and diverticular disease are a common problem in daily practice and one third of the patients with diverticulosis develop symptoms. Patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis are very often treated with antibiotics. There is growing evidence that antibiotics are not necessary in uncomplicated cases. One problem is the different classification of diverticulitis and diverticular disease. Therefore, it is not easy to compare different studies. The evidence for therapy with antibiotics, mesalamine, probiotics and fibers are initially discussed and secondly therapeutic recommendations are given for the various stages of diverticular disease. PMID:24610006

Kruse, E; Leifeld, L

2014-04-01

175

Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug interventio000.

Hoad, C L [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Marciani, L [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Foley, S [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Totman, J J [Brain and Body Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Wright, J [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Bush, D [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cox, E F [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Campbell, E [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Spiller, R C [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Gowland, P A [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2007-12-07

176

Penetrating ectopic peptic ulcer in the absence of Meckel's diverticulum ultimately presenting as small bowel obstruction.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

We report here how a heterotopic penetrating peptic ulcer progressed to cause small bowel obstruction in a patient with multiple previous negative investigations. The clinical presentation, radiographic features and pathological findings of this case are described, along with the salient lessons learnt. The added value of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in such circumstances is debated.

Hurley, Hilary

2012-02-03

177

Giant lipoma of the small bowel associated with perforated ileal diverticulum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present a rare case of the middle aged man who presented with a typical history and clinical findings suggestive of an acute appendicitis. After initial assessment, he required a surgical intervention. Operation findings revealed a perforated ileal diverticulum into a giant lipoma of the small bowel. The patient made a good postoperative recovery. PMID:22665714

Kaczynski, Jakub; Hilton, Joanna

2012-01-01

178

X-ray studies of arteriovenous malformation of the small bowel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Differential diagnosis of intestinal bleeding includes arteriovenous malformation. A patient with chronic anemia due to intestinal blood loss had negative studies of the small and large bowel. Angiography demonstrated arteriovenous malformation. Histologic examination of the resected intestine verified the diagnosis. (orig.)

179

Prospective evaluation of small bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate for capsule endoscopy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To determine the effect of Prepacol®, a combination of sodium phosphate and bisacodyl, on transit and quality of capsule endoscopy (CE.METHODS: Fivety two consecutive patients were included in this prospective study. CE was performed following a 12 h fasting period. Twenty six patients were randomized for additional preparation with Prepacol®. The quality of CE was assessed separately for the proximal and the distal small bowel by 3 experienced endoscopists on the basis of a graduation which was initially developed with 20 previous CE.RESULTS: Preparation with Prepacol® accelerated small bowel transit time (262 ± 55 min vs 287 ± 97 min, but had no effect on the quality of CE. Visibility was significantly reduced in the distal compared to the proximal small bowel.CONCLUSION: The significantly reduced visibility of CE in the distal small bowel allocates the need for a good preparation. Since Prepacol® has no beneficial effect on CE the modality of preparation and the ideal time of application remains unclear. Further standardized examinations are necessary to identify sufficient preparation procedures and to determine the impact of the volume of the preparation solution.

Andreas Franke, Frank Hummel, Phillip Knebel, Christoph Antoni, Ulrich Böcker, Manfred V Singer, Matthias Löhr

2008-04-01

180

Diseases of the small bowel in chronic diarrhea: diagnosis and treatment  

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Full Text Available The incidence of chronic diarrhea in Asia is between 0.8-1.0%. The diseases and abnormalities according to the location, which can cause chronic diarrhea, are divided into three locations: the small bowel, the large bowel and extraintestinal. The small bowel diseases include infectious and non-infectious diseases. The infectious diseases are bacterial infections, parasitic infections etc. The non-infectious diseases include of Crohn’s disease, Celiac sprue, NSAID enteropathy, lactose intolerance, benign tumor, carcinoid tumor, carcinoma, post surgery complications, laxative etc. The approaches to diagnosis include good anamnesis, careful physical examination, supporting laboratory tests, more specialized supporting examinations including X-ray of the colon, esophagogastroduodenum follow-through, enteroclysis, ileo-colonoscopy and endoscopy on the upper portion of the digestive tract including the small intestine with biopsy for histopathology examinations. The treatment for chronic diarrhea is divided into supportive and causal therapy. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 179-89 Keywords: small bowel, chronic diarrhea, approaches to diagnosis, treatment

M. Simadibrata

2002-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

[Surgical interventions for small bowel tumors at our department in the last 3 years].  

Science.gov (United States)

Adenocarcinoma of the small intestine is a rare type of cancer in Hungary as well as in the world. It is more commonly found in patients with coeliac disease (lymphoma) and in hereditary bowel cancer syndromes (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis, and Peutz-Jegher syndrome). Due to the relatively featureless presentation there is usually a few months delay in diagnosis of the disease In addition, small bowel cancer is frequently diagnosed on laparotomy only. We analyzed the small bowel malignancies treated in our department in the last 3 years from the point of view of incidence, preoperative evaluation, surgical intervention, and pathology. All patients were admitted as emergencies, so they underwent rapid investigations, and emergency or semi-emergency surgical interventions. Importantly, preoperative investigations helped to establish operative indication only rather than providing exact diagnosis. The operative procedure was small bowel resection in all cases. Pathological diagnosis included GIST, adenocarcinoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well. PMID:21330259

Varga, Zsombor; Bálint, András; Vitályos, Tibor

2011-02-01

182

Transient small-bowel intussusceptions in adults: significance of ultrasonographic detection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To investigate the frequency, clinical significance, and outcome of small-bowel intussusceptions in adults detected using ultrasound in an outpatient setting. Patients and methods: In two different retrospective (January 2001 to April 2003) and prospective (May 2003 to June 2005) periods, 33 small-bowel intussusceptions were found in 32 patients (13 females; mean age: 38.1 years) with known or suspected intestinal disease. Patients underwent diagnostic work-up to assess any organic disease. Patients with self-limiting intussusception were submitted to clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up. Results: Of the 32 patients with small-bowel intussusception, 25 were identified in the prospective series of 4487 examinations (0.53%) and seven in the retrospective series of 5342 examinations (0.15%; p = 0.002). Four patients had persistent and 28 self-limiting intussusceptions. Self-limiting intussusceptions were idiopathic in 11 patients (39%) or associated with organic diseases in 17 (Crohn's disease in 11 patients, celiac disease in three, ulcerative colitis in one patient, and previous surgery for cancer in two). Self-limiting intussusceptions were asymptomatic in 25% of patients. Conclusion: Small-bowel intussusceptions in adults are not rare and are frequently self-limiting, idiopathic, or related to organic diseases, mainly Crohn's disease and coeliac disease.

Maconi, G. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: giovanni.maconi@unimi.it; Radice, E. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy); Greco, S. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy); Bezzio, C. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy); Bianchi Porro, G. [Chair of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Sciences, L. Sacco University Hospital, Milan (Italy)

2007-08-15

183

Transient small-bowel intussusceptions in adults: significance of ultrasonographic detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To investigate the frequency, clinical significance, and outcome of small-bowel intussusceptions in adults detected using ultrasound in an outpatient setting. Patients and methods: In two different retrospective (January 2001 to April 2003) and prospective (May 2003 to June 2005) periods, 33 small-bowel intussusceptions were found in 32 patients (13 females; mean age: 38.1 years) with known or suspected intestinal disease. Patients underwent diagnostic work-up to assess any organic disease. Patients with self-limiting intussusception were submitted to clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up. Results: Of the 32 patients with small-bowel intussusception, 25 were identified in the prospective series of 4487 examinations (0.53%) and seven in the retrospective series of 5342 examinations (0.15%; p = 0.002). Four patients had persistent and 28 self-limiting intussusceptions. Self-limiting intussusceptions were idiopathic in 11 patients (39%) or associated with organic diseases in 17 (Crohn's disease in 11 patients, celiac disease in three, ulcerative colitis in one patient, and previous surgery for cancer in two). Self-limiting intussusceptions were asymptomatic in 25% of patients. Conclusion: Small-bowel intussusceptions in adults are not rare and are frequently self-limiting, idiopathic, or related to organic diseases, mainly Crohn's disease and coeliac disease

184

A prospective randomised study comparing enteroclysis with small bowel follow-through examinations in 244 patients  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether small bowel enema or barium follow-through is the most appropriate examination for the routine investigation of patients without documented small bowel disease referred from outpatient sources in our hospital. Two hundred and forty-four patients were prospectively randomised to either small bowel enema (SBE) or barium follow-through (FT). Radiation doses and room times were recorded for the first 95 patients and abnormal results were documented for all. One hundred and twelve FTs and 75 SBEs were performed. The incidence of abnormal results was low overall and comparable in the two groups. There were significantly more abnormalities in the FT group which required further investigations for confirmation. Of those assigned to SBE, 19% were converted to FT due to patient refusal and technical failure. Radiation doses were similar in the two groups, but the time spent occupying the fluoroscopy room was significantly shorter for FT. In our department FT is as effective as SBE in detecting small bowel abnormalities de novo. The radiation dose is similar, but more FTs can be performed per list. Follow-through is also less invasive than SBE and therefore we use this technique as the first line of investigation in this group of patients. (orig.)

Toms, A.P.; Barltrop, A.; Freeman, A.H. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Cambridge and Addenbrooke' s Hospital (United Kingdom)

2001-07-01

185

Diverticular bile duct lesion in chronic active hepatitis.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Liver needle biopsies from patients with non-A, non-B chronic active hepatitis and so-called abnormal bile duct epithelium were studied with a three-dimensional method. Photographs of bile duct structures in serial sections were transferred to acrylic plates. Five bile duct lesions of a not previously described diverticular type were revealed. The diverticuli were of varying shape with a diameter of 30 to 110 microns and a length of 75 to 150 microns budding from small (12 to 25 microns), slightly ectatic bile ducts. The diverticular epithelium was disordered. Some cells appeared as bile duct cells, but most were larger, with rounded nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, sometimes with periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant granules. The lesions were only partly surrounded by a basement membrane. They were all embedded in a tight mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate associated with pronounced periportal piecemeal necrosis. In two cases, a germinal center was adjacent to the epithelium. The pathogenesis of the diverticular bile duct lesion is unknown, but the diverticuli probably represent Hering ducts and groups of periportal liver cells which have escaped the piecemeal necrosis.

Vyberg, M

1989-01-01

186

Signet Ring Cell Lymphoma of the Small Bowel: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gastrointestinal lymphoma of the bowel is uncommon compared to adenocarcinoma. Signet ring cell lymphoma (SRCL is a rare variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that is characterized by clear cytoplasm with displaced nuclei to the periphery giving a signet ring appearance. Small bowel involvement has not been previously reported. We report the rare case of a 78-year-old female who presented with short history of fever, loss of appetite, nausea,vomiting, mild weight loss with abdominal discomfort and was later diagnosed to have SRCL of the ileum.

Norwani Basir

2012-11-01

187

Ultrasonographic thickening of the muscularis propria in feline small intestinal small cell T-cell lymphoma and inflammatory bowel disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastrointestinal lymphoma is the most common form of lymphoma in the cat. More recently, an ultrasonographic pattern associated with feline small cell T-cell gastrointestinal lymphoma has been recognized as a diffuse thickening of the muscularis propria of the small intestine. This pattern is also described with feline inflammatory bowel disease. To evaluate the similarities between the diseases, we quantified the thickness of the muscularis propria layer in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 14 cats affected by small cell T-cell lymphoma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 19 healthy cats. We found a significantly increased thickness of the muscularis propria in cats with lymphoma and IBD compared with healthy cats. The mean thickness of the muscularis propria in cats with lymphoma or IBD was twice the thickness than that of healthy cats, and was the major contributor to significant overall bowel wall thickening in the duodenum and jejunum. A muscularis to submucosa ratio >1 is indicative of an abnormal bowel segment. Colic lymph nodes in cats with lymphoma were increased in size compared with healthy cats. In cats with gastrointestinal lymphoma and histologic transmural infiltration of the small intestines, colic or jejunal lymph nodes were rounded, increased in size and hypoechoic. PMID:23900499

Daniaux, Lise A; Laurenson, Michele P; Marks, Stanley L; Moore, Peter F; Taylor, Sandra L; Chen, Rachel X; Zwingenberger, Allison L

2014-01-01

188

MR imaging of the small bowel in Crohn's disease  

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MR and CT techniques optimized for small bowel imaging are playing an increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel disorders. Several studies have shown the advantage of these techniques over tradition barium fluoroscopic examinations secondary to improvements in spatial and temporal resolution combined with improved bowel distending agents. The preference of MR vs. CT has been geographical and based on expertise and public policy. With the increasing awareness of radiation exposure, there has been a more global interest in implementing techniques that either reduce or eliminate radiation exposure [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. This is especially important in patients with chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease who may require multiple studies over a lifetime or in studies that require sequential imaging time points such as in assessment of gastrointestinal motility [Froehlich JM, Patak MA, von Weymarn C, Juli CF, Zollikofer CL, Wentz KU. Small bowel motility assessment with magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2005;21:370-75]. A recent study showed that certain subgroups of patients with Crohn's disease may be exposed to higher doses of radiation; those diagnosed at an early age, those with upper tract inflammation, penetrating disease, requirement of intravenous steroids, infliximab or multiple surgeries [Desmond AN, O'Regan K, Curran C, et al. Crohn's disease: factors associated with exposure to high levels of diagnostic radiation. Gut 2008;57:1524-29]. Therefore it has been suggested that techniques that can reduce or eliminate radiation exposure should be considered for imaging [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. Owing to the excellent softtissue contrast, direct multiplanar imaging capabilities, new ultrafast breath-holding pulse sequences, lack of ionizing radiation and availability of a variety of oral contrast agents, MR is well suited to play a critical role in the imaging of small bowel disorders. In this article we will review the technical issues related to the performance of MR enterography and enteroclysis and discuss the role and controversies of using MR in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease.

Siddiki, Hassan [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Fidler, Jeff [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail: fidler.jeff@mayo.edu

2009-03-15

189

Ingestion of a foreign body unmasks an asymptomatic small bowel carcinoid tumor  

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Full Text Available Bowel obstruction is a common surgical admission around the world. On the other hand, small intestinal tumors, such as midgut carcinoid, are uncommon neoplasms and an infrequent cause of intestinal obstruction leading to hospitalization. A foreign body is an extremely rare cause of intestinal obstruction and when ingested, foreign bodies most often lodge in the narrowest portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Narrowing of the small bowel due to a neoplasm can prohibit the passage of an accidentally ingested foreign object and produce an obstruction that neither the neoplasm nor the foreign body could have produced alone. We hereby report a case in which an accidentally ingested piece of foreign material leads to the finding of a small, early stage, asymptomatic, midgut carcinoid cancer in the proximal ileum that would have otherwise eluded detection for several years.

Patrick Greiffenstein

2012-01-01

190

14C-oxalic acid resorption in patients with small bowel resection, jejunoileal bypass, Crohn's disease, and chronic pancreatitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The enteric absorption of oxalic acid was determined with 14C-oxalic acid in patients with small bowel resection, jejunoileal bypass, Crohn's disease and chronic pancreatitis in comparison to the control group. Extreme hyperoxaluria was found in small bowel resections above 100 cm, after bypass operations and in ileocolitis Crohn with signs of clinical activity. Small bowel resections and relapses of Crohn's disease increase the absorption of oxalic acid. The significance of 14C-oxalic acid absorption test is the recognition of enteric hyperoxaluria. (author)

191

Bariumexaminations of the small intestine and the colon in inflammatory bowel disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article gives an overview of the possibilities of conventional radiography in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease of the small intestine and colon.Material and methods For more than 25 years we examine the small bowel employing enteroclysis with barium and methylcellulose and the colon with the usual double-contrast method. In the last 152 months 1560 small bowel enemas were performed. In the last 40 months 410 examinations of the colon were performed. There is a thirty percent decrease in enteroclysis examinations within the past 5 years,however, the rate of examinations with positive results increased from 46 to 57%.The proportion of the inflammatory small intestinal diseases (not only Crohn's disease) remained constant with 18%.Concerning the examinations of the colon for inflammatory disease we confirmed the diagnosis in seven cases.The radiation exposure for the enteroclysis in inflammatory diseases was 7mSv, for colon examinations 14 mSv. Barium examinations, especially of the stomach and colon are decreasing in frequency.Therefore the art of performance and interpretation might get lost.Enteroclysis, however, is still the method of reference for the other imaging methods.The advantages compared to the other imaging methods are the excellent presentation of the details of the mucosal surface and the observation of functional disorders. (orig.)

192

Radiologic findings of small bowel rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma  

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Bowel rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma is no longer rare, and is among the most challenging problems that confront the physicians and radiologists. It is frequently difficult to diagnose because the symptoms may be trivial during the early stage and masked by more obvious, but less lethal injuries. It is well known that the roentgen examination of the abdomen is also of little value to exclude bowel rupture because of infrequency of positive findings and free gas. The plain films of 23 cases of jejunal rupture and 8 cases of ileal rupture were evaluated to sort and diagnostic features of small bowel rupture caused by blunt abdominal trauma. 1. Free intraperitoneal gas was noted in 6 cases of jejunal rupture (26%) and 1 case of ileal rupture (13%), and definite radiological evidence of free intraperitoneal fluid was present in 16 cases of patients (52%). 2. The contour change of bowel loops such as tapering or indentation were seen in 11 cases of patients (36%), and local opacity along the mesenteric root axis was demonstrated in 19 cases of patients (61%). 3. Paralytic ileus was localized to LUQ in jejunal rupture and to mid-abdomen in ileal rupture, and gastric and transverse-colon distension with gas was noticeable especially in jejunal rupture

193

Posterolateral diaphragmatic hernia with small-bowel incarceration in an adult  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Bochdalek hernia (BH), a closing defect ofthe peripheral posterior aspect ofthe diaphragm, is the most common ofthe congenital diaphragmatic hernias and is usually diagnosed in neonates. Symptomatic presentation of a right-sided diaphragmatic hernia in an adult is unusual. Owing to their rarity and [...] varied presentation, these hernias can pose a diagnostic challenge. A right-sided BH in a 40-year-old woman who presented with respiratory distress associated with abdominal pain and symptoms of small-bowel obstruction is reported. Midline laparotomy revealed necrotic small bowel and faecothorax of the pleural cavity. Diaphragmatic hernias should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute or chronic gastrointestinal, or less frequently respiratory, symptoms.

G, Wenzel-Smith.

194

Imaging of small bowel-related complications following major abdominal surgery  

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To recognize and document the small bowel reactions following major abdominal surgery is an important key for a correct diagnosis. Usually, plain abdominal radiography is the initial imaging examination requested in the immediate postoperative period, whereas gastrointestinal contrast studies are used to look for specific complications. In some countries, especially in Europe, sonography is widely employed to evaluate any acute affection of the abdomen. CT is commonly used to assess postoperative abdominal complications; in our institution also CT enteroclysis is often performed, to provide additional important informations. Radiologist should be able to diagnose less common types of obstruction, such as afferent loop, closed loop, strangulating obstruction as well as internal hernia. This knowledge may assume a critical importance for surgeons to decide on therapy. In this article, we focus our attention on the imaging (particularly CT) in small bowel complications following abdominal surgery.

Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, UH 0279, 550 N. University Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Maglinte, Dean D.T. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, UH 0279, 550 N. University Boulevard, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)]. E-mail: dmaglint@iupui.edu

2005-03-01

195

Thinking beyond the colon-small bowel Involvement in clostridium difficile infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Small intestinal Clostridium difficile seems to be increasing in incidence. The spectrum of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has definitely expanded with small bowel involvement. They are more frequently reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD who have undergone total colectomy or patients with Ileal anal pouch anastomosis. The most common presentation is increased ileostomy output with associated dehydration. High clinical suspicion, early recognition and appropriate treatment are the keys to successful resolution. The increase in the number of these patients may actually reflect an increase in the rising incidence of CDI in general or increasing virulence of the organism. Heightened public awareness and initiation of prompt preventive measures are the keystones to control of this infection. This disease is no longer limited to the colon and physicians should be educated to think beyond the colon in patients with CDI.

Navaneethan Udayakumar

2009-03-01

196

Superior mesenteric venous thrombosis after laparoscopic exploration for small bowel obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare cause of intestinal ischemia which is potentially life-threatening because it can lead to intestinal infarction. Mesenteric venous thrombosis rarely develops after abdominal surgery and is usually associated with coagulation disorders. Associated symptoms are generally subtle or nonspecific, often resulting in delayed diagnosis. A 68-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic exploration for small bowel obstruction, secondary to adhesions. During the procedure, an intestinal perforation was identified and repaired. Postoperatively, the abdominal pain persisted and repeat exploration was undertaken. At repeat exploration, a perforation was identified in the small bowel with a surrounding abscess. After the second operation, the abdominal pain improved but anorexia persisted. Contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography was performed which revealed superior mesenteric venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy with heparin was started immediately and the thrombus resolved over the next 6 days. Although rare, this complication must be considered in patients after abdominal surgery with unexplained abdominal symptoms. PMID:24455391

Katagiri, Hideki; Kunizaki, Shozo; Shimaguchi, Mayu; Yoshinaga, Yasuo; Kanda, Yukihiro; Lefor, Alan T; Mizokami, Ken

2013-01-01

197

Intraluminal migration of a spacer with small bowel obstruction: a case report of rare complication  

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Full Text Available Abstract The spacer placement is a prevalent procedure to separate the surrounding normal tissues from locally recurrent rectal tumor before the application of radiotherapy. However, complications could occur due to the foreign nature of the spacer. This report describes a case of 60-year-old man who had undergone radiotherapy two years earlier for a recurrent rectal tumor and presented with small bowel obstruction. A spacer was used before radiotherapy. Radiological assessment and laparotomy revealed the presence of the spacer inside the small bowel lumen. It is possible that the spacer established contact with the intestine, elicited local inflammatory reaction that facilitated the complete penetration of the intestinal wall without causing any clinical symptoms.

Ogino Takayuki

2012-02-01

198

A case of radiation enteritis with small bowel ulcer causing massive bleeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 62-year-old female was admitted to our hospital for massive melena. She had been treated with radiation therapy for cervical cancer 4 months earlier. A retrograde double-balloon enteroscopy revealed a small ulcer in the small intestine, and small-bowel series demonstrated a slight stricture in the ulcerative lesion. Although melena was stopped after conservative therapy with blood transfusion, massive melena occurred again one month later. A normograde double-balloon enteroscopy revealed a small ulcer in the small intestine with a medium hemorrhage. Under laparotomy, a small induration was palpated in the small intestine 220 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve, and partial resection was performed. A small ulcer was included in the resected specimen, and histopathological examination demonstrated radiation enteritis with ulcer. The patient was discharged from the hospital 6 days after the operation, and no obvious symptom such as melena was seen at a 6-month follow-up. (author)

199

The effects of erythromycin in small-bowel follow-through  

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To evaluate the efficacy of erythromycin(EM), known to accelerate gastric emptying, in modified small-bowel follow-through(SBFT). We evaluated 32 normal patients who underwent modified SBFT by oral administration of methylcellulose. In the EM injection group(n=20), 500 mg EM (3 mg/kg in pediatric patients) in 100 ml saline was infused intravenously over a 15-minute period prior to the administration of a barium meal, while in the control group(n=12), EM was not infused. Gastric emptying time(GET), small-bowel transit time(SBTT) for barium and methylcellulose, small-bowel transit(SBT) during the first 15 minutes, luminal diameter and quality of image were compared between the two groups. SBT was assigned 1, 2, 3, or 4 points, depending on the extent to which the barium head reached the proximal or distal jejunum, and the proximal or distal ileum during the initial 15-minute. Three radiologists reached a consensus as to image quality. Mean GET was significantly faster in the EM injection group (18.5 mins for 150 ml barium suspension and 25.8 mins for 600 ml methylcellulose). The SBT score during the initial 15 minutes was significantly higher in the EM injection group (3.3 points) than in the control group (2.4points), but mean SBTT was not significantly different between the two groups. Luminal diameter and image quality were also higher in the EM injection group. EM does not decrease SBTT but is highly effective for shortening gastric emptying time, helping to increase the range of fluoroscopic examination and improve image quality in modified small-bowel follow-through, especially in patients with delayed gastric emptying.

Jang, Hyun Yong; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong; Hwang, Jin Bok [Catholic Univ. School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2001-05-01

200

Outcome of Jejuno-Ileal Atresia Associated with Intraoperative Finding of Volvulus of Small Bowel  

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Aim: To compare the outcome of patients with jeuno-ileal atresia (JIA) associated with the intraoperative finding of volvulus of small bowel (group A) with that of JIA without volvulus (group B). Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective observational study conducted at one of the two units of Pediatric Surgery, in a tertiary care public hospital of India, from January 2001 to December 2010. Hospital records were retrieved and analyzed. During this time period, 65 patients with JIA were op...

Shalini Sinha; Yogesh Kumar Sarin

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Removal of a phytobezoar through exploratory laparoscopy: a case of small bowel obstruction  

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Brian Nguyen1, Andrew Barleben2, Brian S Buchberg2, Michael J Stamos2, Steven Mills21Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of California, Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Small bowel obstruction due to bezoars occurs rarely. Traditionally, laparotomy has been the preferred approach to obstruction secondary to bezoars. We report on an 81-year-old female who presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain and vomiting. Computed t...

Brian Nguyen; Andrew Barleben; Buchberg, Brian S.; et al

2010-01-01

202

The effects of erythromycin in small-bowel follow-through  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the efficacy of erythromycin(EM), known to accelerate gastric emptying, in modified small-bowel follow-through(SBFT). We evaluated 32 normal patients who underwent modified SBFT by oral administration of methylcellulose. In the EM injection group(n=20), 500 mg EM (3 mg/kg in pediatric patients) in 100 ml saline was infused intravenously over a 15-minute period prior to the administration of a barium meal, while in the control group(n=12), EM was not infused. Gastric emptying time(GET), small-bowel transit time(SBTT) for barium and methylcellulose, small-bowel transit(SBT) during the first 15 minutes, luminal diameter and quality of image were compared between the two groups. SBT was assigned 1, 2, 3, or 4 points, depending on the extent to which the barium head reached the proximal or distal jejunum, and the proximal or distal ileum during the initial 15-minute. Three radiologists reached a consensus as to image quality. Mean GET was significantly faster in the EM injection group (18.5 mins for 150 ml barium suspension and 25.8 mins for 600 ml methylcellulose). The SBT score during the initial 15 minutes was significantly higher in the EM injection group (3.3 points) than in the control group (2.4points), but mean SBTT was not significantly different between the two groups. Luminal diameter and image quality were also higher in the EM injection group. EM does not decrease SBTT but is highly effective for shortening gastric emptying time, helping to increas gastric emptying time, helping to increase the range of fluoroscopic examination and improve image quality in modified small-bowel follow-through, especially in patients with delayed gastric emptying

203

In vitro allograft irradiation prevents graft-versus-host disease in small-bowel transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In small-bowel transplantation, the transfer of large numbers of donor lymphocytes with the intestinal allograft may provoke a lethal graft-versus-host reaction. The effectiveness of allograft irradiation in vitro as a method of preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was studied in a rat model of small-bowel transplantation, with the Lewis----Lewis X Brown Norway F1 hybrid strain combination. Cold harvested small-bowel allografts were irradiated immediately prior to heterotopic or orthotopic transplantation. Animals that had received heterotopic allografts irradiated with 0, 250, or 500 rad all died of GVHD after 14.4 +/- 3.0, 15.0 +/- 1.3, and 14.2 +/- 1.9 days, respectively. None of the animals that had received allografts treated with 1000 rad developed clinical or pathologic evidence of GVHD, however, and all survived for more than 6 months (P less than 0.001). Allograft function was studied in animals that underwent orthotopic transplantation. Recipients of nonirradiated orthotopic allografts all died of GVHD after 14.0 +/- 0.7 days, whereas recipients of allografts irradiated with 1000 rad all survived for more than 5 months (P less than 0.001). After 120 days, weight gain (51.8 +/- 11.7%), serum albumin (3.9 +/- 0.7 g/dl), serum triglycerides (67.0 +/- 24.3 mg/dl), CBC, and differential in these animals were not statistically different from those in either age-matched isograft recipients or normal animals, and when the rats were sacrificed, irradiated allografts showed no changes suggestive of radiation injury. These results indicate that irradiation of small-bowel allografts in vitro prevents development of GVHD, and that this can be achieved at a dose which does not cause injury to or malfunction of the allograft

204

Mesenteric Pseudocyst of the Small Bowel in Gastric Cancer Patient: A Case Report  

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Mesenteric pseudocyst is rare. This term is used to describe the abdominal cystic mass, without the origin of abdominal organ. We presented a case of mesenteric pseudocyst of the small bowel in a 70-year-old man. Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy showed a 3.5 cm sized excavated lesion on the posterior wall of angle. Endocopic biopsy confirmed a histologic diagnosis of the poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, which includes the signet ring cell component. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed ...

Lee, Sang Eok; Choi, In Seok; Choi, Won Jun; Yoon, Dae Sung; Moon, Ju Ik; Ra, Yu Mi; Min, Hyun Sik; Kim, Yong Seok; Kim, Sun Moon; Sohn, Jang Sihn; Lee, Bong Soo

2012-01-01

205

Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms: Experience with Rifaximin  

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AIM: To estimate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in our geographical area (Western Sicily, Italy) by means of an observational study, and to gather information on the use of locally active, non-absorbable antibiotics for treatment of SIBO.METHODS: Our survey included 115 patients fulfilling the Rome II criteria for diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); a total of 97 patients accepted to perform a breath test with lactulose (BTLact), and those who had a po...

Sergio Peralta, Claudia Cottone

2009-01-01

206

Recent advances in small bowel diseases: Part?I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As is the case in all parts of gastroenterology and hepatology, there have been many advances in our knowledge and understanding of small intestinal diseases. Over 1000 publications were reviewed for 2008 and 2009, and the important advances in basic science as well as clinical applications were considered. In Part?I?of this Editorial Review, seven topics are considered: intestinal development; proliferation and repair; intestinal permeability; microbiotica, infectious diarrhea and probiotics; diarrhea; salt and water absorption; necrotizing enterocolitis; and immunology/allergy. These topics were chosen because of their importance to the practicing physician.

Alan BR Thomson

2012-01-01

207

Detected peritoneal fluid in small bowel obstruction is associated with the need for surgical intervention.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Predicting the clinical course in adhesional small bowel obstruction is difficult. There are no validated clinical or radiologic features that allow early identification of patients likely to require surgical intervention. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 100 patients consecutively admitted to a tertiary level teaching hospital over a 3-year period (2002-2004) who had acute adhesional small bowel obstruction and underwent computed tomography (CT). The primary outcomes that we assessed were conservative management or the need for surgical intervention. We investigated time to physiologic gastrointestinal function recovery as a secondary outcome. We examined independent predictors of surgical intervention in a bivariate analysis using a stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients investigated, we excluded 12. Of the 88 remaining patients, 58 (66%) were managed conservatively and 30 (34%) underwent surgery. Peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan (n = 37) was associated more frequently with surgery than conservative management (46% v. 29%, p = 0.046, chi(2)). Logistical regression identified peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan as an independent predictor of surgical intervention (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.15-7.84). CONCLUSION: The presence of peritoneal fluid on a CT scan in patients with adhesional small bowel obstruction is an independent predictor of surgical intervention and should alert the clinician that the patient is 3 times more likely to require surgery.

O'Daly, Brendan J

2009-06-01

208

Spontaneous sublingual and intramural small-bowel hematoma in a patient on oral anticoagulation  

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Full Text Available Spontaneous sublingual hematoma and intramural small bowel hematoma are rare and serious complications of anticoagulant therapy. Though previously reported individually, there has been no previous report of the same two complications occurring in a single patient. A 71-year-old Caucasian man, who was on warfarin for atrial fibrillation, presented with difficulty in swallowing due to a sublingual hematoma. He was observed in our intensive care unit, his warfarin was held and he recovered with conservative management. He represented two months later with a two day history of abdominal pain and distension. An abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT scan now showed small bowel obstruction due to intramural small bowel hematoma and haemorrhagic ascites. Again, this was treated expectantly with a good outcome. In conclusion, life threatening haemorrhagic complications of oral anticoagulant therapy can recur. Conservative treatment is successful in most cases, but an accurate diagnosis is mandatory to avoid unnecessary surgery. CT scan is the investigation of choice for the diagnosis of suspected haemorrhagic complications of over coagulation.

Sean Johnston

2012-07-01

209

Multi-slice spiral CT evaluation in Crohn's disease of small bowel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the value of enhanced MSCT scan for the Crohn's disease of small bowel. Methods: Fourty-five patients of small bowel Crohn's disease who were proved by multi-method were examined by two-phase enhanced scan with MSCT. The images were reformed in ADW 4.2 by MPR mainly. The CT values of the lesion segments in different phases were tested, with one way ANOVA in statistical analysis; the density difference between the lesion segments and normal segments in different phases were tested, the cases were divided according to 10 HU, and compared them with each other by ?2 test. Results: The average CT value of lesion segments was (39.3±3.7) HU in plain scan, (74.8±13.8) HU in artery phase, (90.2±12.3) HU in portal vein phase, there were sinigicant difference in them (F=258.87, P10 HU respectively in plain scan, 6 cases and 39 cases in artery phase, 2 cases and 43 cases in portal vein phase, by ?2 test, there were sinigicant difference between plain scan and artery phase (?2=32.49, P2= 39.22, P2= 1.10, P>0.05). Afterup>2= 1.10, P>0.05). After enhancement, the lesions can display clearly than plain scan, and the detectable rate was raised highly. Conclusion: Two-phase enhancement scan can diagnosis the Crohn's disease of small bowel and evaluate it overall. (authors)

210

Cardiopulmonary bypass induced microcirculatory injury of the small bowel in rats  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate microvascular injury quantitatively in the small bowel with respect to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and related mechanisms.METHODS: In 10 male SD rats, normothermic CPB was established and continued with a flow rate of 100-150 mL/kg per minute for 60 min, while another 10 sham-operated animals served as controls. An approximate 10-cm loop of the terminal ileum was exteriorized for observation by means of intravital fluorescence microscopy. The small bowel microcirculatory network including arterioles, capillaries, and collecting venules was observed prior to CPB, CPB 30 min, CPB 60 min, post-CPB 60 min and post-CPB 120 min. The intestinal capillary perfusion, microvascular permeability and leukocyte adherence were also measured.RESULTS: The systemic hemodynamics remained stable throughout the experiment in both groups. In CPB animals, significant arteriolar vasoconstriction, blood velocity reduction and functional capillary density diminution were found. As concomitances, exaggerated albumin extravasation and increased leukocyte accumulation were also noted. These changes were more pronounced and there were no signs of restitution at the end of the observation period.CONCLUSION: CPB induces significant microcirculatory injury of the small bowel in rats. The major underlying mechanisms are blood flow redistribution and generalized inflammatory response associated with CPB.

Guo-Hua Dong, Chang-Tian Wang, Yun Li, Biao Xu, Jian-Jun Qian, Hai-Wei Wu, Hua Jing

2009-07-01

211

Metastatic osteosarcoma to the small bowel with resultant intussusception: a case report and review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intussusception resulting from osteosarcoma metastasis to the small bowel is a rare diagnosis. This case report describes a patient with this diagnosis, demonstrates the CT appearance of this lesion, and reviews the literature. (orig.)

212

NiTi shape memory compression anastomosis clip in small- and large-bowel anastomoses: first experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to present a clinical use of compression anastomosis clip (CAC) implants made of shape memory materials--nickel titanium alloys (NiTi). The concept involved in the use of CAC was to compress 2 bowel walls together, cause necrosis, and detach the CAC from the tissue to be expelled with the stool. The CAC is a double-ring elliptical device with a diameter of 30 mm. The device has the ability to recover its original closed shape when it senses a change in ambient temperature. In all, 20 anastomoses using CACs were performed: 6 of the small with the large bowel and 14 between the small bowel and small bowel. Two patients experienced complications. Although the anastomosis is not difficult to perform, the rules on how to apply the CAC must be well known. Because only a small number of anastomoses have been performed by us to date, this procedure requires further study. PMID:23355421

Kusnierz, Katarzyna; Morawiec, Henryk; Lekston, Zbigniew; Zhavoronkov, Dmytro; Lucyga, Magdalena; Lampe, Pawel

2013-12-01

213

A prospective randomized trial of transnasal ileus tube vs nasogastric tube for adhesive small bowel obstruction  

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Full Text Available AIM: To study the therapeutic efficacy of a new transnasal ileus tube advanced endoscopically for adhesive small bowel obstruction. METHODS: A total of 186 patients with adhesive small bowel obstruction treated from September 2007 to February 2011 were enrolled into this prospective randomized controlled study. The endoscopically advanced new ileus tube was used for gastrointestinal decompression in 96 patients and ordinary nasogastric tube (NGT was used in 90 patients. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Compared with the NGT group, the ileus tube group experienced significantly shorter time for relief of clinical symptoms and improvement in the findings of abdominal radiograph (4.1 ± 2.3 d vs 8.5 ± 5.0 d and laboratory tests (P < 0.01. The overall effectiveness rate was up to 89.6% in the ileus tube group and 46.7% in the NGT group (P < 0.01. And 10.4% of the patients in the ileus tube group and 53.3% of the NGT group underwent surgery. For recurrent adhesive bowel obstruction, ileus tube was also significantly more effective than NGT (95.8% vs 31.6%. In the ileus tube group, the drainage output on the first day and the length of hospital stay were significantly different depending on the treatment success or failure (P < 0.05. The abdominal radiographic improvement was correlated with whether or not the patient underwent surgery. CONCLUSION: Ileus tube can be used for adhesive small bowel obstruction. Endoscopic placement of the ileus tube is convenient and worthy to be promoted despite the potential risks.

Xiao-Li Chen

2012-01-01

214

Breath Hydrogen Gas Concentration Linked to Intestinal Gas Distribution and Malabsorption in Patients with Small-bowel Pseudo-obstruction  

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Background: The patient with colonic obstruction may frequently have bacterial overgrowth and increased breath hydrogen (H2) levels because the bacterium can contact with food residues for longer time. We experienced two cases with intestinal obstruction whose breath H2 concentrations were measured continuously.Case 1: A 70-year-old woman with small bowel obstruction was treated with a gastric tube. When small bowel gas decreased and colonic gas was demonstrated on the plain abdominal radiogr...

Motonobu Sugimoto

2009-01-01

215

Long Term Survival after Resection of a Small Bowel Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Background: Small bowel metastases of lung adenocarcinoma represent a rare clinical entity, often diagnosed after complications due to obstruction, bleeding or bowel perforation. Case Report: We report a case of ileal metastasis discovered during an intestinal perforation. The patient was a 47-year-old man hospitalized in emergency for acute abdominal pain, with right lower quadrant abdominal defense and a clinical history of left lower pulmonary lobectomy for lung adenocarcinoma 6 months before. Exploratory laparotomy for peritonitis revealed a single ileal tumor which was resected with lymph nodes excision. Pathology finding revealed that it was compatible with an ileal metastasis of his lung adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: The suspicion of a small bowel metastasis of lung carcinoma, although rare, must be taken in consideration and to carry out an extensive surgery, because only this will have an improvement on the survival of these patients. The purpose of this investigation is to add a new case report to the few that exist in order to provide a therapeutic approach to these exceptional cases.

Laurent Sulpice

2011-12-01

216

Breath Hydrogen Gas Concentration Linked to Intestinal Gas Distribution and Malabsorption in Patients with Small-bowel Pseudo-obstruction  

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Full Text Available Background: The patient with colonic obstruction may frequently have bacterial overgrowth and increased breath hydrogen (H2 levels because the bacterium can contact with food residues for longer time. We experienced two cases with intestinal obstruction whose breath H2 concentrations were measured continuously.Case 1: A 70-year-old woman with small bowel obstruction was treated with a gastric tube. When small bowel gas decreased and colonic gas was demonstrated on the plain abdominal radiograph, the breath H2 concentration increased to 6 ppm and reduced again shortly.Case 2: A 41-year-old man with functional small bowel obstruction after surgical treatment was treated with intravenous administration of erythromycin. Although the plain abdominal radiograph demonstrated a decrease of small-bowel gas, the breath H2 gas kept the low level. After a clear-liquid meal was supplied, fasting breath H2 concentration increased rapidly to 22 ppm and gradually decreased to 9 ppm despite the fact that the intestinal gas was unchanged on X-ray. A rapid increase of breath H2 concentration may reflect the movement of small bowel contents to the colon in patients with small-bowel pseudo-obstruction or malabsorption following diet progression.Conclusions: Change in breath H2 concentration had a close association with distribution and movement of intestinal gas.

Yoshihisa Urita

2009-01-01

217

Breathhold MRI of the small bowel in Crohn's disease after enteroklysis with oral magnetic particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of breathhold MRI following enteroclysis with addition of oral magnetic particles to study the extension, detection of stenoses and extraluminal manifestations in Crohn's disease. Results: Typical findings were marked bowel wall thickening with strong contrast enhancement. 95.8% of affected small bowel segments and 94.7% of stenoses were correctly detected by MRI. All four fistulas were detected and important extraluminal findings were seen in 6/18 patients. Additionally, one ileoileal and two ileosigmoidal adhesions, two extraluminal abscesses and affection of the right ureter were delineated. Conclusion: MRI in Crohn's disease offers the potential to avoid radiation exposure in this relatively young patient group. Important additional findings relevant to indication of surgery are seen in approximately one third of cases. The replacement of transduodenal intubation by oral contrast application remains to be further studied. (orig./AJ)

218

Diverticular disease. Epidemiology and pharmacological treatment.  

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Diverticular disease is worldwide in distribution, but the incidence is highest in industrialised countries. It is associated with aging and low intake of dietary fibre. There is a broad range of clinical manifestations--from asymptomatic diverticula to life-threatening complications. Elderly patients often present with complicated diverticular disease, and may lack typical symptoms and signs. Treatment includes fibre supplementation, drugs or antibiotics for complications, and surgery for refractory disease. Proper diagnosis and treatment requires knowledge of the full range of presentations and careful selection and timing of medical versus surgical intervention. PMID:7696779

Cheskin, L J; Lamport, R D

1995-01-01

219

[Sigmoid diverticular diseases: surgical treatment].  

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From 1966 to 1990, 226 consecutive patients were operated on electively for diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon. The indications for surgery were colovesical fistula or suspicion of residual abscess, existence of two or more previous attacks of acute inflammation, existence of chronic symptoms and suspicion of colonic carcinoma. Colonic resection with primary anastomosis was performed in 217 patients with a covering colostomy in 1 case only. The Hartmann procedure was performed in 9 patients with extension of the lesions to the rectum and/or high operative risk. One or more abscesses were found by the surgeon or the pathologist in 50 p. cent of the patients. There were no postoperative deaths, no clinical anastomotic leakages. Long-term results were evaluated for the patients operated on before 1987, with a follow-up from 2 to 22 years. 85 p. cent of the patients had no more symptoms, 11 p. cent complained of persistent symptoms and 3% had recurrent attacks of pain and fever. Colonic barium enema is the best examination for diverticulitis and chronic abscesses. Surgical treatment is easier for abscesses located within the colonic wall and mesentery, than for extracolic abscesses with local peritonitis. Correlations between preoperative symptoms and operative findings are often not good. The good results obtained in 82 p. cent of the patients operated on for chronic symptoms suggest that chronic symptoms should be part of the indications for elective surgery. The low incidence (3 p. cent) of recurrent attacks of pain and fever is in favour of a resection limited to the sigmoid colon even when diffuse colonic diverticula are present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1514769

Moreaux, J

1992-01-01

220

Giant ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp causing small bowel obstruction: a case report and review of the literature  

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Introduction There are several types of small bowel pathology that can lead to small bowel obstruction or intussusception. The etiology causing small bowel obstruction varies by age. Benign disease is the typical cause in children and adolescents while malignant or adhesive disease is far more common in older patients. Although cases of adult intussusception caused by benign processes are rare, there are reports of inflammatory fibroid polyps causing adult intussusception of the terminal ileum published in the literature. Case presentation We present the case of a 70-year-old man with a multiple year history of intermittent episodes of bowel obstruction who was found to have a giant ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp causing intermittent small bowel obstruction. The patient underwent operative intervention and has now been symptom-free for three years. Conclusion Small bowel lesions include both malignant and benign etiologies. The malignant etiologies include adenocarcinoma, carcinoid or lymphoma while benign lesions are typically lipomas, inflammatory polyps or adenomas. Inflammatory fibroid polyps are rare, benign lesions that can occur anywhere within the gastrointestinal tract. They are typically an incidental finding, but on rare occasions have been presented as the source of intussusception or obstruction. PMID:19025593

Mohamud, Sagal O; Motorwala, Shahina A; Daniel, AM Rebecca; Tworek, Joseph A; Shehab, Thomas M

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

The interdigestive myo-electric complex of the stomach and small bowel of dogs.  

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1. Szurszewski (1969) described a cyclic recurring, caudally migrating band of intense action potential activity, the activity fromt, in the small bowel of dogs fasted 18-21 hr. The finding has been confirmed by Carlson, Bedi & Code (1972) and by Grivel & Ruckebusch (1972). The objectives of the present study were to extend these observations first by indentifying the full sequence of myo-electric events in the stomach and small bowel of healthy conscious dogs fasted for 24-48 hr and for longer periods and second by determining the effect of ingestion of mild and of saline solution on the complex and the role of gastric distension in their action. 2. Under surgical anaesthesia, silver-silver chloride electrodes were implanted on the serosal surface of the stomach and small bowel of seven dogs, and recordings of electric activity were started when the dogs had recovered. One hundred and nine interdigestive complexes were studied in detail in five of the dogs during period ranging from 5 to 14 months. All observations were made while the dogs were healthy, conscious, and fasted. 3. The period of intense action potential activity, the activity frot or band, was found to be one phase of a cyclic-recurring sequence of changes in action potential activity. The entire sequence, composed of four phases, occured almost simultaneously in the stomach and duodenun and then migrated distally in sequence over the entire small bowel. As one cycle terminated in the distal ileum, another had started in the stomach and duodenum, and this cyclic recurrence continued during fasts of 4 and 5 days. 4. The cycles of the interdigestive complex tended to recur at the same time each day in three of the dogs. The mean periods of the cycles ranged from 90 to 114 min, and the mean time of their propagation from stomach to terminal ileim ranged from 105 to 134 min. The mean velocity of the activity fronts (phase III of the cycles) was 5-7-11-7 cm/min in the orad portion of the small bowel and 0-9-2-5 cm/min in the distal half. The mean calculated length of the activity front diminished from a range of 42-62 cm in the duodenum to 5-10 cm in the ileum. 5. Intragastric instillation of 400 ml. milk always interrupted the complex present in the bowel at the time of instillation and usually suppressed the next, whereas 400 ml. saline solution interrupted the complex present in the bowel only at the time of instillation. Distension of the stomach with a ballon always suppressed the interdigestive complex in the stomach and duodenum but sometimes failed to interrupt its migration along the bowe. PMID:1142245

Code, C F; Marlett, J A

1975-03-01

222

Port site herniation of the small bowel following laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Port-site herniation is a rare but potentially dangerous complication after laparoscopic surgery. Closure of port sites, especially those measuring 10 mm or more, has been recommended to avoid such an event. Case presentation We herein report the only case of a port site hernia among a series 52 consecutive cases of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG carried out by our unit between July 2002 and March 2007. In this case the small bowel herniated and incarcerated through the port site on day 4 after LADG despite closure of the fascia. Initial manifestations experienced by the patient, possibly due to obstruction, and including mild abdominal pain and nausea, occurred on the third day postoperatively. The definitive diagnosis was made on day 4 based on symptoms related to leakage from the duodenal stump, which was considered to have developed after severe obstruction of the bowel. Re-operation for reduction of the incarcerated bowel and tube duodenostomy with peritoneal drainage were required to manage this complication. Conclusion We present this case report and review of literature to discuss further regarding methods of fascial closure after laparoscopic surgery.

Itoh Tsuyoshi

2008-02-01

223

Serial intralesional injections of infliximab in small bowel Crohn's strictures are feasible and might lower inflammation  

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Background Crohn’s disease can cause strictures throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Endoscopic balloon dilatation is a well-established treatment, but recurrence is seen in up to three out of four cases. Infliximab is playing an increasingly important role in the modern systemic treatment of severe Crohn’s disease. Combining the anti-inflammatory effects of infliximab with the proven effect of endoscopic balloon dilatation could possibly improve outcome. In small studies, intralesional injections in perianal fistulas have been effective and endoscopic injection therapy in colonic strictures is feasible. Objective We wanted to assess whether serial intralesional injection of infliximab in small bowel strictures is feasible and reduces local inflammation. Methods We included six patients with Crohn’s disease and inflammatory small bowel strictures. They were treated with endoscopic serial balloon dilatation. Subsequent to each dilatation, 40 mg infliximab was injected submucosally. A modified simplified endoscopic score for Crohn’s disease was used for the involved area before the initial treatment and at the final follow-up after six months. Complications and development of symptoms were registered. Results Balloon dilatation and serial injection of infliximab were accomplished in five out of six patients. One patient completed the serial balloon dilatations and follow-up but received only one infliximab injection. The modified simplified endoscopic score for Crohn’s disease decreased in all patients. There were no adverse events registered and all patients described themselves as feeling well. Conclusions Combining balloon dilatation of strictures with serial intralesional injection of infliximab in Crohn’s disease of the small bowel is feasible and seems successful in reducing inflammation. PMID:25360319

Hendel, Jakob; Vilmann, Peter

2014-01-01

224

Morphometric and biomechanical remodelling in the intestine after small bowel resection in the rat  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The short-bowel syndrome is a clinical condition caused by intestinal resection. As intestinal adaptation occurs after resection, it can be used as a model for studying morphometric and biomechanical remodelling in the small intestine and to get a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the short-bowel syndrome. The resected rats had a 67% resection of jejunum and ileum. Control animals underwent no operation (nonoperated controls) or an ileal transection with subsequent end-to-end anastomosis (sham-resected controls). The animals were followed for up to 4 weeks after the operation. Changes in biomechanical properties were studied in terms of residual strain (the internal strain remaining when all external loads are removed), opening angle and stress--strain relations referenced to the zero-stress state (the cut-open state where external and internal stresses are released). The resected animals gained less weight than the controls. The intestinal length and diameter increased more in the resected groups than the control groups (P < 0.05), resulting in a larger absorptive surface. Resection induced profound gross morphometric changes and histological alterations characterized by proliferative increases in the tissue layers. The opening angle, along with residual strain at the mucosal and serosal surface, increased in the remnant small intestine (P < 0.05). All changes increased as function of postoperative time and were most prominent in the remnant ileum. However, the stress-strain relationship remained unchanged. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that resection of the majority of the small bowel results in significant remodelling in structural and residual strain properties in the remnant small intestine. The remodelling seems to be guided by the need for a greater absorptive surface area rather than for a change in the stress-strain properties.

Dou, Y; Lu, X

2002-01-01

225

Enhanced Diagnostic Yield with Prolonged Small Bowel Transit Time during Capsule Endoscopy  

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Full Text Available Background: The effect of small bowel transit time (SBTT on diagnostic yield during capsule endoscopy (CE has not been previously evaluated. Our study aim was to assess the effect of SBTT on the likelihood of detecting intestinal pathology during CE. Methods: We reviewed collected data on CE studies performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital from January 2006 to June 2007. In patients investigated for anemia or obscure bleeding, the following lesions were considered relevant: ulcers, erosions, AVMs, red spots, varices, vascular ectasias, and presence of blood. In patients with diarrhea or abdominal pain, ulcers, erosions, and blood were considered relevant. Age, gender, study indication, hospital status, and quality of bowel preparation were identified as candidate risk factors affecting SBTT. Univariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to study the effect of SBTT on diagnostic yield. Results: Total of 212 CE studies were analyzed; most were in outpatients (n=175, 82.9% and with excellent bowel preparation (n=177, 83.5%. Mean SBTT was 237.0min (3.9hrs. Age, gender, bowel prep, hospital status, and study indication did not significantly affect SBTT. However, increased SBTT was independently associated with increased diagnostic yield; OR=1.7 in SBTT=2-4hr (p=0.41, OR=1.8 in SBTT=4-6hrs (p=0.30, OR=9.6 in SBTT=6-8hrs (p=0.05. Conclusion: Prolonged SBTT during CE (>6 hr is associated with an increased diagnostic yield. This may be due to a positive effect on image quality during a “slower” study. The use of promotility agents may adversely affect the ability of CE to detect significant intestinal pathology.

Jonathan M. Buscaglia, Sumit Kapoor, John O. Clarke, Juan Carlos Bucobo, Samuel A. Giday, Priscilla Magno, Elaine Yong, Gerard E. Mullin

2008-01-01

226

Management of small-bowel polyps at double-balloon enteroscopy  

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Small bowel tumors (SBTs) are uncommon, insidious in presentation, and frequently represent a diagnostic challenge. The advent of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) and double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) is a significant breakthrough for visual diagnosis of SBTs throughout the small bowel. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and fluoroscopic enteroclysis had significantly lower diagnostic yields of tumors that were 10 mm or smaller in diameter, but VCE and DBE had high diagnostic yields regardless of tumor size. Regarding SBTs larger than 10 mm in diameter, CECT had a significantly lower diagnostic yield of epithelial tumors compared to subepithelial tumors, whereas fluoroscopic enteroclysis and DBE had high diagnostic yields regardless of the tumor type. VCE had a slightly lower diagnostic yield of subepithelial tumors (78%) compared to epithelial tumors. Therefore, a combined examination method by using CECT and VCE is useful for screening of SBTs. In case suspicious of stenosis, patency capsule should be performed to confirm passage before VCE. DBE is useful for further precise examination including biopsy and ultrasonography by using miniature probe, and enteroscopic treatment. After medical, enteroscopic, and surgical treatment, VCE is helpful for follow-up. DBE is safe and useful in resecting the SBTs deep within the small bowel without laparotomy. Indications of enteroscopic resection may be benign tumors regardless of epithelial or subepithelial type, localizing in the mucosal or submucosal layer, which are symptomatic at present or possibly symptomatic or transforming in the future. Malignant tumors localized in the mucosal layer may be indications although detecting at an early stage is challenging. In this review article, we describe management of SBTs/polyps by various modalities.

Nakamura, Masanao; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi; Hirata, Ichiro

2014-01-01

227

Studies of the small bowel surface by scanning electron microscopy in infants with persistent diarrhea  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We describe the ultrastructural abnormalities of the small bowel surface in 16 infants with persistent diarrhea. The age range of the patients was 2 to 10 months, mean 4.8 months. All patients had diarrhea lasting 14 or more days. Bacterial overgrowth of the colonic microflora in the jejunal secreti [...] on, at concentrations above 10(4) colonies/ml, was present in 11 (68.7%) patients. The stool culture was positive for an enteropathogenic agent in 8 (50.0%) patients: for EPEC O111 in 2, EPEC O119 in 1, EAEC in 1, and Shigella flexneri in 1; mixed infections due to EPEC O111 and EAEC in 1 patient, EPEC O119 and EAEC in 1 and EPEC O55, EPEC O111, EAEC and Shigella sonnei in 1. Morphological abnormalities in the small bowel mucosa were observed in all 16 patients, varying in intensity from moderate 9 (56.3%) to severe 7 (43.7%). The scanning electron microscopic study of small bowel biopsies from these subjects showed several surface abnormalities. At low magnification (100X) most of the villi showed mild to moderate stunting, but on several occasions there was subtotal villus atrophy. At higher magnification (7,500X) photomicrographs showed derangement of the enterocytes; on several occasions the cell borders were not clearly defined and very often microvilli were decreased in number and height; in some areas there was a total disappearance of the microvilli. In half of the patients a mucus-fibrinoid pseudomembrane was seen partially coating the enterocytes, a finding that provides additional information on the pathophysiology of persistent diarrhea.

U., Fagundes-Neto; S., De Martini-Costa; M.Z., Pedroso; I.C.A., Scaletsky.

228

Intraoperative localization of vascular malformation of small bowel by selective intra-arterial dye injection  

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Full Text Available Angiomatous malformation is the most common vascular abnormality, accounting for 30-40% cases of obscure GI bleeding from small bowel. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice in severe or recurrent hemorrhage requiring multiple blood transfusions. However, the diffuse nature of the lesions poses a challenge to localize them accurately preoperatively, for exact resection. We present a case in which we have used selective mesenteric angiography with selective cannulation and exact localization of the lesion by injecting dye such as methylene blue, indigo carmine, and fluorescein, to localize the angiomatous malformation before surgical resection and also to determine the exact resection to be done.

Eshpuniyani Priya

2010-01-01

229

Double contrast small bowel enema in a case of selective duodeno-jejunal amyloidosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Double contrast small bowel enema in a patient with selective amyloidosis of the duodenum and jejunum revealed an unusual radiologic pattern, mimicking multiple polyposis. Many submucosal polypoid lesions, sessile or pedunculated, were scattered throughout the duodenum and proximal jejunum. The lesions had smooth borders and did not show any retraction at the base. Other typical radiologic patterns of intestinal amyloidosis described in the literature were not observed in the present case. Differential diagnosis from multiple polyposis and diffuse lymphoproliferative neoplastic diseases is discussed. (orig.)

230

Enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma presenting with multiple episodes of small bowel haemorrhage and perforation  

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Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATCL) is an intestinal neoplasm of intra-epithelial T lymphocytes associated with coeliac disease. Although the incidence is rare, EATCL runs an aggressive disease course and produces multi-focal ulcerative lesions most commonly in the proximal small bowel. As such, patients may present with intestinal perforation, obstruction or haemorrhage. Management of EATCL requires a combination of early diagnosis and treatment by surgical resection followed by chemotherapy to achieve treatment success. Overall however, the treatment completion rate remains at 50% and EATCL carries a poor prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of <20%. PMID:24876396

Pun, Amy H.; Kasmeridis, Harry; Rieger, Nicholas; Loganathan, Arun

2014-01-01

231

Double-contrast small bowel examination: A methodical comparison between transnasal and peroral probing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new flexible probe to be introduced through the nose was used for the intubation of the jejunum for double-contrast small bowel enema. The new probe has a diameter of only 2.8 mm and was better tolerated than the normally applied Camus probe. Nevertheless, the failure rate (intubation of jejunum not successful) with the new probe as compared to the Camus probe was higher (17% versus 1%). We, therefore, conclude that the new probe should mainly be used by experienced examiners. (orig.)

232

Surgical intervention for complications caused by late radiation damage of the small bowel; a retrospective analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors studied the records of 46 patients who had been operated on between 1974 and 1990 in the Netherlands Cancer Institute because of complications due to late radiation damage of the small bowel. The following factors led to an increase in complication-risk: hypalbuminemia. more than one laparotomy prior to irradiation and a short interval (< 12 months) between irradiation and surgical intervention. The following factors related to a poorer survival: incomplete resection of the primary tumor and a short interval (< 12 months) between irradiation and surgical intervention. The type f surgical intervention did not have cumulative prognostic value in relation to complication-risk or survival. (author)

233

Accelerating the transit time of barium sulphate suspensions in small bowel examinations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

sit times compared to the hyperosmolar group (p = 0.02). Differences between combined and effervescent groups tended towards significance (p = 0.09). No significant difference existed between groups when examination quality was assessed. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of combined effervescent and hyperosmolar agents to the barium suspension may significantly shorten the small bowel transit time without adversely affecting examination quality. This has implications for patient acceptability of the examination as well as potentially reducing screening time and therefore radiation dose

234

Meckel’s diverticulitis causing small bowel obstruction by a novel mechanism  

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Full Text Available Meckel’s diverticulum occurs in 2% of the general population and majority of patients remain asymptomatic. Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common presentation in the paediatric population. While asymptomatic and incidentally found Meckel’s diverticulum may be left alone, surgery is essential for treating a symptomatic patient. Despite advances in imaging and technology, pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult. We present a first report of an unusual mechanism of small bowel obstruction due to Meckel’s diverticulitis in a paediatric patient. The diagnosis was only apparent at laparotomy.

Tay Sze Guan

2011-07-01

235

Characteristic imaging features of carcinoid tumors of the small bowel in MR enteroclysis  

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To determine the value of MR enteroclysis (MRE) in the localization and characterization of primary carcinoid tumors of the small bowel and to describe typical imaging features. Twenty patients with suspicion of primary small bowel carcinoid tumors (pCT) were recruited to undergo MRE following nasojejunal intubation and small bowel filling with 2.5 l of 0.5% methylcellulose solution under MR fluoroscopic guidance. MRE was performed on a 1.5 T MR scanner including T2w SSFSE, SSFP and contrast enhanced T1w GRE sequences with fat saturation. Fifteen patients, who subsequently had surgery for resection of their pCT, were retrospectively included in the study. All MRE were analyzed as for the presence, location, number, size, multiplicity and morphologic appearance of the pCT by two board certified radiologists in consensus. The conspicuity of the tumors was rated for each sequence type separately, according to a 4-point rating scale. Signal intensity measurements were performed in tumor and muscle. The presence of desmoplastic reaction, vascular involvement and lymph node metastases was also analyzed. pCT were correctly identified and localized in 14/15 patients. Due to their hyperenhancement tumors was best detected on contrast-enhanced T1w fat saturated GRE sequences. SSFSE was clearly inferior with the tumors being either hyperintense or isointense to muscle. pCT appeared as nodular intraluminal masses in 40% of the cases, as focal wall thickening in 33.3% and in 20% wocal wall thickening in 33.3% and in 20% with both. Mean size was 25 (7-46 mm) with a tendency to smaller size for ileal tumors. MRE failed to depict superficial micronodular peritoneal spread in one patient. Desmoplastic reaction was observed in 73.3% of the cases with mesenteric masses exhibiting lower signal than the pCT due to fibrotic changes. MRE is a valuable method for the detection and localization of primary carcinoid tumors, provided that appropriate bowel distension is achieved. Various characteristic morphologic features could be identified which may contribute to characterize pCT and their loco-regional metastases. (orig.)

236

Xanthomatosis of the gastrointestinal tract with focus on small bowel involvement  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Accumulation of foamy lipid-laden histiocytic cells is most often seen in the skin and tendons, usually associated with congenital or acquired hyperlipidaemia, as seen in patients with diabetes mellitus, obstructive jaundice, and familial hypercholesterolaemia. The pathogenesis of xanthomatous lesions in other sites, including the urinary bladder, prostate, and gastrointestinal tract seems to be less consistent. Within the gastrointestinal tract the gastric mucosa is the most frequently cited location. Involvement of the oesophagus and bowel has rarely been described. Only three such cases largely confined to the small bowel have previously been documented. We here present an additional small bowel example accompanied by a short review of the existing literature in English on gastrointestinal xanthomatous lesions, including a discussion on its possible pathogenesis. Histologically, the lesion is unique and a correct diagnosis does not pose significant difficulties. Identification of diverse phagocytosed cytoplasmic deposits in other histiocytic lesions may require ancillary studies. More importantly, malignant lesions composed of clear cells or signet ring cells, primary or metastatic, need consideration. With a high index of suspicion coupled with appropriate histochemical and immunohistochemical reactions, the correct diagnosis will easily be accomplished. The process is characterised by aggregates of foamy histiocytes, unaccompanied by fibrosis or giant cells as seen in xanthogranulomatous lesions.  Well-defined clusters of such foamy histiocytes have been labelled xanthoma. The diffusely infiltrating counterpart has been termed xanthomatosis. When forming a bulky mass lesion, the label xanthomatous pseudotumour has been applied 11 12 and the subtle collection of xanthoma cells is often referred to as xanthelasma. 13 In this letter we collectively refer to these lesions, which may be related, as xanthomatous lesions (XAN).

Nielsen, S.L.; Ingeholm, P.

2007-01-01

237

Apple peel deformity of the small bowel without atresia in a congenital mesenteric defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital mesenteric defects are rare causes of bowel obstruction. Even rarer are mesenteric defects with an apple peel type of deformity, probably described definitively only once previously. We present a case of a 3 year old boy who presented with a septic-like picture of severe metabolic acidosis and lethargy from a bowel obstruction with bowel ischemia. At laparotomy he was found to have bowel infarction due to herniation through a congenital mesenteric defect with an apple peel type of deformity of the bowel without bowel atresia. PMID:23331843

Llore, Nathaly; Tomita, Sandra

2013-01-01

238

Profile of epidermal metabolic activity in autosomal dominant ichthyosis and small bowel disorders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in vitro incorporation of 14C acetate by the epidermis has been studied in patients with autosomal dominant ichthyosis and in patients with a dry, itchy, slightly scaly skin associated with a disorder of the small bowel. Analysis of 14C acetate containing lipid moieties by thin layer chromatography has indicated that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences in the uptake of 14C acetate between autosomal dominant ichthyosis and normal. In particular an increased incorporation into the triglyceride and phosphatidyl choline fractions was noted. No such differences were apparent in those patients with disorders of the small bowel. In addition the in vitro incorporation of radioactively labelled thymidine, proline and histidine has been studied in these patients. In both groups of patients the rate of incorporation of tritiated thymidine and histidine into epidermal macromolecules was found not to differ significantly from normal. On the other hand the rate of incorporation of tritiated proline was increased in both groups of patients. (author)

239

CT enterography: a preliminary experience in the evaluation of small bowel diseases  

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Objective: the present study was aimed at demonstrating the value of computed tomography enterography (CT enterography) and how this imaging method can be useful in the diagnostic elucidation and assessment of patients with small bowel diseases. Materials and methods: retrospective evaluation of 35 patients submitted to CT enterography in a 16-row multidetector CT equipment from May/2008 to March/2009. All the patients received intravenous and neutral oral iodinated contrast agents (polyethylene glycol). Main indications were: Crohn's disease, diarrhea of undetermined origin and suspicion of neoplasia. Results: a good correlation was observed between CT enterography findings and clinical, laboratory and endoscopic data related to the disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease. In 15 cases alterations compatible with Crohn's disease were identified, nine of them suggesting disease activity. A diagnosis was achieved in the majority of the patients with diarrhea. Carcinoid tumors were identified in two patients. Conclusion: CT enterography is a simple and effective method in the evaluation of inflammatory/neoplastic small bowel diseases, particularly in cases of Crohn's disease, indicating disease activity. One of the main advantages of this method is the possibility of evaluating associated mesenteric and extraintestinal alterations (author)

Costa-Silva, Luciana [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Medical School. Dept. of Supplementary Propedeutics; Martins, Tatiana [Ecoar Medicina Diagnostica, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Passos, Maria do Carmo Friche [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Medical School. Dept. of Medical Practice

2010-09-15

240

Leiden factor V mutation in four patients with small bowel infarctions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Leiden factor V mutation is observed in 20% of unexplained lower limb venous thromboses and involves substitution of the arginine residue at position 506 by glutamine (R506Q). It is known to decrease the anticoagulant activity of activated protein C. This case report describes 4 cases of small bowel infarction (SBI) associated with the presence of this mutation. Two cases of arterial and 2 cases of venous SBI were observed. Extensive assessment excluded the usual causes of SBI and plasma hypercoagulation syndrome (antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S deficiency and myeloproliferative syndrome). An abnormal resistance to activated protein C was observed. Molecular analysis consisting of polymerase chain reaction amplification and digestion with MnlI showed that 2 patients were heterozygous and 2 were homozygous for the R506Q mutation. Despite familial history of thrombosis in only 1 patient, first- and second-degree relatives of 2 patients also had the presence of the mutation. Examination for the presence of abnormal resistance to activated protein C should be part of the etiological assessment of SBI. Its presence may warrant consideration of long-term anticoagulant therapy, especially for patients with shortened small bowel who are treated by home parenteral nutrition with deep venous access. PMID:9207293

Heresbach, D; Pagenault, M; Gueret, P; Crenn, P; Heresbach-Le Berre, N; Malledant, Y; Fauchet, R; Horellou, M H; Silver, J; Messing, B; Bretagne, J F

1997-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: meaningful association or unnecessary hype.  

Science.gov (United States)

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and altered stool form and passage. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which there is overgrowth of bacteria in small bowel in excess of 10? colony forming units per milliliter on culture of the upper gut aspirate. Frequency of SIBO varied from 4%-78% among patients with IBS and from 1%-40% among controls. Higher frequency in some studies might be due to fallacious criteria [post-lactulose breath-hydrogen rise 20 PPM above basal within 90 min (early-peak)]. Glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) has a low sensitivity to diagnose SIBO. Hence, studies based on GHBT might have under-estimated frequency of SIBO. Therefore, it is important to analyze these studies carefully to evaluate whether the reported association between IBS and SIBO is over or under-projected. This review evaluates studies on association between SIBO and IBS, discordance between different studies, their strength and weakness including methodological issues and evidence on therapeutic manipulation of gut flora on symptoms of IBS. PMID:24627585

Ghoshal, Uday C; Srivastava, Deepakshi

2014-03-14

242

[Recurrent small-bowel intussusceptions revealing a disseminated BCG infection related to severe combined immunodeficiency].  

Science.gov (United States)

Infant small-bowel intussusceptions, most of the time idiopathic, may exceptionally reveal a severe digestive disease. We report the case of a 4-month-old infant who presented multiple and simultaneous ileal intussusceptions associated with severe acute gastroenteritis. Initially, the infant showed a protein-losing enteropathy with a clear alteration of the general state of health and undocumented fever, resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Skin and splenic nodules associated with hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia set in progressively. The etiologic evaluation led to the diagnosis of a Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection related to severe combined immune deficiency. The treatment consisted in anti-tuberculosis quadruple therapy in association with immunoglobin supplementation. Secondarily, the patient underwent gene therapy in a clinical trial. An early BCG vaccine in the first weeks of life, before the outbreak of infection revealing the immune deficiency, is a risk factor in triggering a disseminated BCG infection in immunodepressed infants. This clinical case is the first reported of severe combined immune deficiency revealed by small-bowel intussusceptions related to a disseminated BCG infection. PMID:24962783

Venaille, A; Viola, S; Peycelon, M; Grand d'Esnon, A; Fasola, S; Audry, G; Ducou Le Pointe, H; Tounian, P

2014-08-01

243

Understanding about diagnosis of acute small bowel retrograde intussusception in adults by means of 64-slice-spinal CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To have a further study of the value of MSCT in diagnosing acute small bowel retrograde intussusception in adults by means of 64-slice-spinal CT. Methods: A 46-year-old female patient with the history of abdominal operation was found having acute mechanical small bowel obstruction through plain X-ray radiograph. 64-slice MSCT was performed afterwards (plain scan + 3 stage contrast scans). Hence, evidence is provided for operation. Results: Using the technique of MSCT for the patient can promptly approach the diagnosis of jejuno-jejunal intussusception with severe bowel obstruction; no small bowel tumor or other organic lesion found in this case. With the patient who has the history of abdominal operations, MSCT can predict the reason of adhesion causing bowel intussusception, and provide the evidence for operation; whereas MSCT with contrast media offers a further investigation of the blood supply to the bowels through SMA, and observation of blood circulation through the intussuscepting site, which represents venous congestion of intussusception. This case is a retrograde small bowel intussusception and confirmed with operation evidence. A greater amount of gas and fluid is accumulated between the dilated space of middle-distal portion of intussusceptum and intussuscipiens. Nevertheless, less gas at the proximal portion and that can be an important sign for retrograde intussusception. Conclusion: MSCT is a good choice of examination for diagnosis of adult's intussusception. As the literature mentioned the advantages of MSCT for observing the circulation of intussusceptum and whether the diagnosis is antegrade or retrograde intussusception is also essential. (authors)

244

Small bowel ischaemia and perforation as a complication of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura in a previously healthy adult  

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Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a small vessel vasculitis with multi-system manifestations that commonly affects children. We describe a case of new onset Henoch-Schönlein purpura in a previously healthy 42-year-old female who required an emergency laparotomy for small bowel perforation.

Locke, T. E.; Stewart, D.; Patel, K.; Takou, A.

2012-01-01

245

Invasive aspergillosis causing small bowel infarction in a patient of carcinoma breast undergoing chemotherapy  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a 45 year old lady presenting with proximal jejunal gangrene due to invasive Aspergillosis. The patient was undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for advance carcinoma of breast (Stage IV. Methods The patient was referred to our surgical emergency for acute abdominal symptoms for 6 hours. Histopathology revealed bowel wall necrosis and vascular invasion by Aspergillus Fumigatus. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the patient received Amphotericin-B (1 mg/kg/day for invasive aspergillosis. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was confirmed by isolating Aspergillus Fumigatus from bronchoalveolar lavage and by a positive circulating galactomannan test (ELISA Assay. Results Detailed history revealed dry cough and two episodes of haemoptesis for 2 weeks. Haemogram and counts revealed anemia and neutropenia. Plain X – ray of the abdomen showed multiple air fluid levels and ultrasound of the abdomen revealed distended bowel loops. On exploration small bowel was found to be gangrenous. The patient was successfully managed by supportive treatment and conventional intravenous Amphotericin-B for 2 weeks. The lady was discharged one week after completion of antifungal therapy and one month later she underwent toilet mastectomy. The lady came to follow up for 1 year and she is currently under hormone therapy. Conclusion With the emergence of new and powerful immunosuppressive, anticancer drugs and potent antibiotics the survival of transplant and critically ill patients has remarkably increased but it has shown a significant rise in the incidence of invasive opportunistic fungal infections. We conclude hat the diagnosis of invasive gastrointestinal aspergillosis may be considered in a neutropenic patient with acute abdominal symptoms.

Jain Vinod

2006-01-01

246

Computed tomography to detect body packing: an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction  

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Concealment of illicit drugs within the alimentary tract is now an established method used by both smugglers and traffickers to evade detection by authorities. Those who ingest wrapped packets of drugs to transport them across international borders are known as 'body packers,' whereas those who ingest packages of drugs upon an unexpected encounter with law enforcement agents are known as 'body stuffers' or 'quick swallowers. Although most of these individuals require no medical care, acute drug toxicity (from inadvertent leaking of contents or rupture of the drug packet) and bowel obstruction are recognized hazards of drug packet ingestion. The detection of these packets is a challenge to custom officials and police interested in preventing the import and trafficking of illegal drugs, as well as to physicians who have to treat individuals who have ingested them. We report a case of a 38-year-old intravenous drug abuser who presented with an acute small bowel obstruction secondary to an impacted intraluminal heroin balloon in the mid jejunum. The value of computed tomography (CT) in the patient's diagnostic evaluation is highlighted. (author)

Brown, J.A. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Phang, T. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Surgery, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Enns, R. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Butchart, M.K. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Filipenko, J.D. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Pathology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Mason, A.C.; Cooperberg, P.I. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

2002-04-01

247

Computed tomography to detect body packing: an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concealment of illicit drugs within the alimentary tract is now an established method used by both smugglers and traffickers to evade detection by authorities. Those who ingest wrapped packets of drugs to transport them across international borders are known as 'body packers,' whereas those who ingest packages of drugs upon an unexpected encounter with law enforcement agents are known as 'body stuffers' or 'quick swallowers. Although most of these individuals require no medical care, acute drug toxicity (from inadvertent leaking of contents or rupture of the drug packet) and bowel obstruction are recognized hazards of drug packet ingestion. The detection of these packets is a challenge to custom officials and police interested in preventing the import and trafficking of illegal drugs, as well as to physicians who have to treat individuals who have ingested them. We report a case of a 38-year-old intravenous drug abuser who presented with an acute small bowel obstruction secondary to an impacted intraluminal heroin balloon in the mid jejunum. The value of computed tomography (CT) in the patient's diagnostic evaluation is highlighted. (author)

248

Novel specific microRNA biomarkers in idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease unrelated to disease activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diagnosis of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease can be challenging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate protein synthesis through post-transcriptional suppression. This study is to identify new miRNA markers in inflammatory bowel disease, and to examine whether miRNA biomarkers might assist in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Illumina small RNA sequencing was performed on non-dysplastic fresh-frozen colonic mucosa samples of the distalmost colectomy tissue from 19 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (10 ulcerative colitis and 9 Crohn disease) and 18 patients with diverticular disease serving as controls. To determine differentially expressed miRNAs, the USeq software package identified 44 miRNAs with altered expression (fold change ? 2 and false discovery rate ? 0.10) compared with the controls. Among them, a panel of nine miRNAs was aberrantly expressed in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease. Validation assays performed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) on additional frozen tissue from ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and control groups confirmed specific differential expression in inflammatory bowel disease for miR-31, miR-206, miR-424, and miR-146a (P<0.05). The expression of these four miRNAs was further evaluated on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of the distalmost colectomy mucosa from cohorts of diverticular disease controls (n=29), ulcerative colitis (n=36), Crohn disease (n=26), and the other diseases mimicking inflammatory bowel disease including infectious colitis (n=12) and chronic ischemic colitis (n=19), again confirming increased expression specific to inflammatory bowel disease (P<0.05). In summary, we demonstrate that miR-31, miR-206, miR-424, and miR-146a are novel specific biomarkers of inflammatory bowel disease. Furthermore, miR-31 is universally expressed in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease not only in fresh-frozen but also in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. PMID:24051693

Lin, Jingmei; Welker, Noah C; Zhao, Zijin; Li, Yong; Zhang, Jianjun; Reuss, Sarah A; Zhang, Xinjun; Lee, Hwajeong; Liu, Yunlong; Bronner, Mary P

2014-04-01

249

[Diverticular disease - choice of surgical procedure].  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical spectrum of diverticular disease varies from asymptomatic diverticulosis to symptomatic disease with potentially fatal complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Laparoscopic sigmoid resection with restoration of continuity is currently the prevailing modality for treating acute and recurrent sigmoid diverticulitis. The tenets of surgical treatment of diverticulitis are resection of the entire sigmoid and creation of a tension-free anastomosis in the upper rectum. With respect to the required extent of resection according to current data it is not necessary to remove the entire colonic segment bearing diverticula because such a strategy does not reduce the recurrence rate. In the emergency situation due to free perforation a primary anastomosis with defunctioning ileostomy should be favored because the stoma reversal rate after primary anastomosis is higher than after Hartmann's procedure. The Hartmann procedure should be reserved for perforated diverticulitis with severe septic complications; however, the final treatment decision for primary anastomosis or Hartmann's procedure should be dependent on the individual patient. There have been a number of recent publications on the use of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for perforated sigmoid diverticulitis as an alternative to resection surgery. In cases of diverticular bleeding a subtotal colectomy should be performed if the diverticular bleeding site cannot be localized. PMID:24599385

Holmer, C; Kreis, M E

2014-04-01

250

Outcome of Jejuno-Ileal Atresia Associated with Intraoperative Finding of Volvulus of Small Bowel  

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Full Text Available Aim: To compare the outcome of patients with jeuno-ileal atresia (JIA associated with the intraoperative finding of volvulus of small bowel (group A with that of JIA without volvulus (group B. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective observational study conducted at one of the two units of Pediatric Surgery, in a tertiary care public hospital of India, from January 2001 to December 2010. Hospital records were retrieved and analyzed. During this time period, 65 patients with JIA were operated of which 40 (61.5% had ileal atresia (IA and 25 (38.5% had jejunal atresia (JA. Eleven (16.9% patients had associated intraoperative finding of volvulus of small bowel (Group A and were studied and compared with group B- not associated with intraoperative findings of volvulus of small bowel (n=54. The demography, clinical features, operative findings, associated anomalies, anastomotic leakage, and outcome were compared. Results: Group A comprising of 6 boys and 5 girls, had 8 IA and 3 JA; one case each of Type 3b and Type 4 JIA was seen. Associated anomalies included meconium ileus (n=2, Down’s syndrome (n=1 and malrotation (n=1. Anastomotic leak rate was 75% for IA and 66.7% for JA. The mortality was 91% in Group A, 100% for IA and 67% for JA. Group B comprising of 37 boys and 17 girls, had 32 IA and 22 JA; 2 cases of Type 4 and 1 case of Type 3b JIA was seen. Associated anomalies were malrotation (n=2, meconium ileus (n=1, exomphalos (n=1, gastroschisis (n=1 and ileal duplication cyst (n=1. The anastomotic leak rate for JA was 8/21 (38.1% and IA was 3/28 (10.7%; persistent obstruction was seen in 3/21(14.3% JA and 1/28 (3.6% IA patients. In group B, overall mortality rate was 8/22 (36.4% for JA and 9/32 (28% for IA. The morbidity and mortality was significantly higher in group A when compared to group B. Conclusions: JIA associated with volvulus (without malrotation is a sinister entity with a dismal outcome in our experience.

Shalini Sinha

2012-07-01

251

Segmentation of small bowel tumor tissue in capsule endoscopy images by using the MAP algorithm.  

Science.gov (United States)

State of the art algorithms for diagnosis of the small bowel by using capsule endoscopic images usually rely on the processing of the whole frame, hence no segmentation is usually required. However, some specific applications such as three-dimensional reconstruction of the digestive wall, detection of small substructures such as polyps and ulcers or training of young medical staff require robust segmentation. Current state of the art algorithms for robust segmentation are mainly based on Markov Random Fields (MRF) requiring prohibitive computational resources not compatible with applications that generate a great amount of data as is the case of capsule endoscopy. However context information given by MRF is not the only way to improve robustness. Alternatives could come from a more effective use of the color information. This paper proposes a Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) based approach for lesion segmentation based on pixel intensities read simultaneously in the three color channels. Usually tumor regions are characterized by higher intensity than normal regions, where the intensity can be measured as the vectorial sum of the 3 color channels. The exception occurs when the capsule is positioned perpendicularly and too close to the small bowel wall. In this case a hipper intense tissue region appears at the middle of the image, which in case of being normal tissue, will be segmented as tumor tissue. This paper also proposes a Maximum Likelihood (ML) based approach to deal with this situation. Experimental results show that tumor segmentation becomes more effective in the HSV than in the RGB color space where diagonal covariance matrices have similar effectiveness than full covariance matrices. PMID:23366807

Vieira, Pedro; Ramos, Jaime; Barbosa, Daniel; Roupar, Dalila; Silva, Carlos; Correia, Higino; Lima, Carlos S

2012-01-01

252

Colectomía parcial laparoscópica electiva por enfermedad diverticular Elective laparoscopic colectomy for diverticular disease  

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Full Text Available La cirugía laparoscópica colorrectal, aunque de desarrollo lento, ha presentado en los últimos años ventajas con respecto a la cirugía abierta. Hay escasas publicaciones nacionales sobre esta técnica en enfermedad diverticular. Objetivo: Presentar nuestra experiencia en enfermedad diverticular en una serie consecutiva de pacientes con indicación quirúrgica electiva resueltos por vía laparoscópica. Material y Método: Se analizan los protocolos prospectivos de cirugía laparoscópica de colon con diagnóstico de enfermedad diverticular para resolución electiva, desde junio de 1997, hasta diciembre de 2009. Todo paciente con indicación quirúrgica electiva por esta patología fue resuelto por vía laparoscópica. Se estudian edad, sexo, tipo de resección, evolución postoperatoria inmediata y tardía. Resultados: Se operaron 60 pacientes, con edad promedio de 53,8 años. De éstos 46 fueron sigmoidectomías y 14 hemicolectomías izquierdas. El tiempo operatorio promedio fue de 173 minutos y la hospitalización de 4,16 días. Se convirtieron 3 pacientes (5% y hubo 3 complicaciones (5%, que fueron manejadas médicamente. Hubo 1 estenosis de anastomosis tratada endoscópicamente como complicación tardía. Seguimiento promedio de 37,9 meses. Hubo 2 recidivas (3,3%, tratadas médicamente y no hubo mortalidad en esta serie. Conclusión: La cirugía laparoscópica para la enfermedad diverticular electiva es factible de realizar en la gran mayoría de los pacientes, con baja morbilidad y rápida recuperación.Background: Colorectal colectomy is a less invasive technique that can be used for the treatment of diverticular disease, recently in younger patients. Aim: To report the experience with laparoscopic colectomy for diverticular disease. Material and Methods: All patients with indication for elective surgical resolution for diverticular disease were subjected to laparoscopic surgery from 1997 to 2009. The surgical protocols of these patients were analyzed. Results: Sixty patients with average age 53,8 (31 males were operated in the period. Forty six were subjected to a sigmoidectomy and 14 to left hemicolectomy. Operative average time was 173 minutes and hospital stay 4,16 days. Three patients had to be converted to open surgery and three had complications that were managed without need of reoperation. During a median follow up of 38 months, the disease relapsed in two patients, which did not require a new intervention. Conclusions: Elective laparoscopic colectomy for diverticular disease is feasible and safe.

ERNESTO MELKONIAN T

2011-02-01

253

Colectomía parcial laparoscópica electiva por enfermedad diverticular / Elective laparoscopic colectomy for diverticular disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La cirugía laparoscópica colorrectal, aunque de desarrollo lento, ha presentado en los últimos años ventajas con respecto a la cirugía abierta. Hay escasas publicaciones nacionales sobre esta técnica en enfermedad diverticular. Objetivo: Presentar nuestra experiencia en enfermedad diverticular en un [...] a serie consecutiva de pacientes con indicación quirúrgica electiva resueltos por vía laparoscópica. Material y Método: Se analizan los protocolos prospectivos de cirugía laparoscópica de colon con diagnóstico de enfermedad diverticular para resolución electiva, desde junio de 1997, hasta diciembre de 2009. Todo paciente con indicación quirúrgica electiva por esta patología fue resuelto por vía laparoscópica. Se estudian edad, sexo, tipo de resección, evolución postoperatoria inmediata y tardía. Resultados: Se operaron 60 pacientes, con edad promedio de 53,8 años. De éstos 46 fueron sigmoidectomías y 14 hemicolectomías izquierdas. El tiempo operatorio promedio fue de 173 minutos y la hospitalización de 4,16 días. Se convirtieron 3 pacientes (5%) y hubo 3 complicaciones (5%), que fueron manejadas médicamente. Hubo 1 estenosis de anastomosis tratada endoscópicamente como complicación tardía. Seguimiento promedio de 37,9 meses. Hubo 2 recidivas (3,3%), tratadas médicamente y no hubo mortalidad en esta serie. Conclusión: La cirugía laparoscópica para la enfermedad diverticular electiva es factible de realizar en la gran mayoría de los pacientes, con baja morbilidad y rápida recuperación. Abstract in english Background: Colorectal colectomy is a less invasive technique that can be used for the treatment of diverticular disease, recently in younger patients. Aim: To report the experience with laparoscopic colectomy for diverticular disease. Material and Methods: All patients with indication for elective [...] surgical resolution for diverticular disease were subjected to laparoscopic surgery from 1997 to 2009. The surgical protocols of these patients were analyzed. Results: Sixty patients with average age 53,8 (31 males) were operated in the period. Forty six were subjected to a sigmoidectomy and 14 to left hemicolectomy. Operative average time was 173 minutes and hospital stay 4,16 days. Three patients had to be converted to open surgery and three had complications that were managed without need of reoperation. During a median follow up of 38 months, the disease relapsed in two patients, which did not require a new intervention. Conclusions: Elective laparoscopic colectomy for diverticular disease is feasible and safe.

ERNESTO, MELKONIAN T; MARCELO, RODRÍGUEZ G; DAVID, CONTRERAS F; PATRICIO, OPAZO S; IGNACIO, ROBLES G; MAGDALENA, BRAVO H.

254

MRI in the diagnosis of small bowel disease: use of positive and negative oral contrast media in combination with enteroclysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the additional findings of MRI following small bowel enteroclysis and to compare the efficacy of negative and positive intraluminal contrast agents. Fifty patients with inflammatory or tumorous small bowel disease were investigated by small bowel enteroclysis and consecutive MRI using breathhold protocol (T1-weighted fast low-angle shot, T2-weighted turbo spin echo). Patients were randomly assigned to either receiving a positive oral (Magnevist, Schering, Berlin, Germany) or a negative oral MR contrast media (Abdoscan, Nycomed, Oslo, Norway). The pattern of contrast distribution, the contrast effect, presence of artifacts, as well as bowel wall and extraluminal changes, were determined and compared between the contrast type using Fischer's exact test. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy for MRI and enteroclysis were calculated. Twenty-seven patients had clinically proven Crohn's disease and two patients surgically proven small bowel tumours. Magnetic resonance imaging had important additional findings as abscesses and fistulae in 20 patients. Surgically compared sensitivities were 100 and 0 % for MRI and enteroclysis, for the detection of abscesses, and 83.3 and 17 % for the diagnosis of fistulae, respectively. Bowel wall thickening was more reliably detected with use of positive oral contrast media without intravenous enhancement (p < 0.001), whereas postcontrast negative oral contrast media allow for a superior detection (p < 0.001). T2-weighted sequences were necessary with use of negative oral contrast media, because loop abscesses may be masked. Magnetic resonance imaging should be performed in all patients with suspicion of extraintestinal complications, because the complications are more reliably detected by MRI. Negative oral contrast media show advantages with the use of intravenous contrast but can mask loop abscesses using only T1-weighted imaging. (orig.)

255

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt with a rare twist: small-bowel ischemia and necrosis secondary to knotting of peritoneal catheter.  

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Small-bowel ischemia and necrosis due to knotting of the peritoneal catheter is an extremely rare complication related to a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). A 3-month-old girl, with a history of Chiari II malformation and myelomeningocele (MM) after undergoing right occipital VPS insertion and MM repair at birth, presented to the emergency department with a high-grade fever. Examination of a CSF sample obtained via shunt tap raised suspicion for the presence of infection. Antibiotic therapy was initiated, and subsequently the VPS was removed and an external ventricular drain was placed. Intraoperatively, as attempts at pulling the distal catheter from the scalp incision were met with resistance, the distal catheter was cut and left in the abdomen while the remainder of the shunt system was successfully removed. While the patient was awaiting definitive shunt revision surgery to replace the VPS, she developed abdominal distension due to small-bowel obstruction. An emergency exploratory laparotomy revealed a knot in the distal catheter looping around and strangulating the distal ileum, causing small-bowel ischemia and necrosis in addition to the obstruction. A small-bowel resection with ileostomy was performed, with subsequent placement of ventriculoatrial shunt for treatment of hydrocephalus. The authors report this exceedingly rare clinical scenario to highlight the fact that any retained distal catheter must be carefully managed with immediate abdominal exploration to remove the distal catheter to avoid bowel necrosis as pulling of a knotted peritoneal catheter may strangulate the bowel and cause ischemia, with significant clinical morbidity and possible mortality. PMID:24995817

Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Moftakhar, Roham; Munoz, Lorenzo F

2014-09-01

256

Fístula colovesical de origen diverticular / Results of surgical treatment of colovesical fistulas of diverticular origin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: El objetivo de este estudio es analizar los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico de la Fístula Coló Vesical (FCV) de origen diverticular, los que se comparan con la enfermedad diverticular no fistulizada. Pacientes y Método: Análisis retrospectivo de todos los pacientes intervenidos p [...] or una FCV de origen diverticular en forma consecutiva. Resultados: De un total de 141 pacientes resecados por una enfermedad diverticular del colon sigmoides, la indicación quirúrgica en 27 (19,3%) fue la presencia de una fístula, de las cuales 18 corresponden a una FCV. El grupo con FCV tiene predominio de hombres (p = 0,0001), más joven (p = 0,027) y con mayor incidencia de enfermedades asociadas (p = 0,0001). La neumaturia se presentó en el 83% y la fecaluria en el 56%. En dos tercios de los casos la FCV se estableció en ausencia de una crisis diverticular previa. El estudio más relevante para demostrar la presencia de una FCV fue la tomografía computada (80%), que se complementa con el enema balitado y la cistoscopia. La resección con anastomosis inmediata, más simple sutura de la vejiga fue el procedimiento empleado en el 94% de los pacientes, sin secuelas ni casos de recidiva, con un seguimiento global promedio de 74,2 meses (extremos 12-158). No hubo reoperaciones ni mortalidad operatoria. Conclusiones: la FCV de origen diverticular es una condición patológica poco frecuente que afecta a pacientes varones en la séptima década de la vida, con múltiples enfermedades asociadas y que frecuentemente se instala en forma silenciosa. La resección primaria es el tratamiento de elección con buenos resultados a largo plazo. Abstract in english Background: The main causes of colovesical fistulas are diverticular disease of the colon and colon carcinoma. Aim: To analyze the results of the surgical treatment of colovesical fistulas of diverticular origin. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients operated for a colovesical [...] fistula of diverticular origin. Results: From 141 patients subjected to a colon excision for diverticular disease, 18 had a colovesical fistula. The latter, compared to patients without fistulas were male in a higher proportion, were younger and had more concomitant diseases. Pneumaturia was reported in 83% and urine fecal soiling in 56%. In two thirds of patients, the fistula appeared in the absence of a diverticular crisis. Abdominal CAT sean demonstrated the fistula in 80% of cases. It was complemented with barium enema and cystoscopy. Excision with immediate anastomosis was the surgical procedure used in 94% of patients, without sequelae or relapse, after a mean follow up of 74 months. No patient died during the procedure or required a new intervention. Conclusions: Colovesical fistulas are most common in young men with associated diseases and their treatment of choice, with good long-term results, is primary excision.

GUILLERMO, BANNURA C; ALEJANDRO, BARRERA E; MIGUEL A, CUMSILLE G; CARLOS, MELO L; DANIEL, SOTO C; JAIME, CONTRERAS P.

2010-02-01

257

Fístula colovesical de origen diverticular Results of surgical treatment of colovesical fistulas of diverticular origin  

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Full Text Available Antecedentes: El objetivo de este estudio es analizar los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico de la Fístula Coló Vesical (FCV de origen diverticular, los que se comparan con la enfermedad diverticular no fistulizada. Pacientes y Método: Análisis retrospectivo de todos los pacientes intervenidos por una FCV de origen diverticular en forma consecutiva. Resultados: De un total de 141 pacientes resecados por una enfermedad diverticular del colon sigmoides, la indicación quirúrgica en 27 (19,3% fue la presencia de una fístula, de las cuales 18 corresponden a una FCV. El grupo con FCV tiene predominio de hombres (p = 0,0001, más joven (p = 0,027 y con mayor incidencia de enfermedades asociadas (p = 0,0001. La neumaturia se presentó en el 83% y la fecaluria en el 56%. En dos tercios de los casos la FCV se estableció en ausencia de una crisis diverticular previa. El estudio más relevante para demostrar la presencia de una FCV fue la tomografía computada (80%, que se complementa con el enema balitado y la cistoscopia. La resección con anastomosis inmediata, más simple sutura de la vejiga fue el procedimiento empleado en el 94% de los pacientes, sin secuelas ni casos de recidiva, con un seguimiento global promedio de 74,2 meses (extremos 12-158. No hubo reoperaciones ni mortalidad operatoria. Conclusiones: la FCV de origen diverticular es una condición patológica poco frecuente que afecta a pacientes varones en la séptima década de la vida, con múltiples enfermedades asociadas y que frecuentemente se instala en forma silenciosa. La resección primaria es el tratamiento de elección con buenos resultados a largo plazo.Background: The main causes of colovesical fistulas are diverticular disease of the colon and colon carcinoma. Aim: To analyze the results of the surgical treatment of colovesical fistulas of diverticular origin. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients operated for a colovesical fistula of diverticular origin. Results: From 141 patients subjected to a colon excision for diverticular disease, 18 had a colovesical fistula. The latter, compared to patients without fistulas were male in a higher proportion, were younger and had more concomitant diseases. Pneumaturia was reported in 83% and urine fecal soiling in 56%. In two thirds of patients, the fistula appeared in the absence of a diverticular crisis. Abdominal CAT sean demonstrated the fistula in 80% of cases. It was complemented with barium enema and cystoscopy. Excision with immediate anastomosis was the surgical procedure used in 94% of patients, without sequelae or relapse, after a mean follow up of 74 months. No patient died during the procedure or required a new intervention. Conclusions: Colovesical fistulas are most common in young men with associated diseases and their treatment of choice, with good long-term results, is primary excision.

GUILLERMO BANNURA C

2010-02-01

258

Fístula colovesical de origen diverticular / Results of surgical treatment of colovesical fistulas of diverticular origin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: El objetivo de este estudio es analizar los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico de la Fístula Coló Vesical (FCV) de origen diverticular, los que se comparan con la enfermedad diverticular no fistulizada. Pacientes y Método: Análisis retrospectivo de todos los pacientes intervenidos p [...] or una FCV de origen diverticular en forma consecutiva. Resultados: De un total de 141 pacientes resecados por una enfermedad diverticular del colon sigmoides, la indicación quirúrgica en 27 (19,3%) fue la presencia de una fístula, de las cuales 18 corresponden a una FCV. El grupo con FCV tiene predominio de hombres (p = 0,0001), más joven (p = 0,027) y con mayor incidencia de enfermedades asociadas (p = 0,0001). La neumaturia se presentó en el 83% y la fecaluria en el 56%. En dos tercios de los casos la FCV se estableció en ausencia de una crisis diverticular previa. El estudio más relevante para demostrar la presencia de una FCV fue la tomografía computada (80%), que se complementa con el enema balitado y la cistoscopia. La resección con anastomosis inmediata, más simple sutura de la vejiga fue el procedimiento empleado en el 94% de los pacientes, sin secuelas ni casos de recidiva, con un seguimiento global promedio de 74,2 meses (extremos 12-158). No hubo reoperaciones ni mortalidad operatoria. Conclusiones: la FCV de origen diverticular es una condición patológica poco frecuente que afecta a pacientes varones en la séptima década de la vida, con múltiples enfermedades asociadas y que frecuentemente se instala en forma silenciosa. La resección primaria es el tratamiento de elección con buenos resultados a largo plazo. Abstract in english Background: The main causes of colovesical fistulas are diverticular disease of the colon and colon carcinoma. Aim: To analyze the results of the surgical treatment of colovesical fistulas of diverticular origin. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients operated for a colovesical [...] fistula of diverticular origin. Results: From 141 patients subjected to a colon excision for diverticular disease, 18 had a colovesical fistula. The latter, compared to patients without fistulas were male in a higher proportion, were younger and had more concomitant diseases. Pneumaturia was reported in 83% and urine fecal soiling in 56%. In two thirds of patients, the fistula appeared in the absence of a diverticular crisis. Abdominal CAT sean demonstrated the fistula in 80% of cases. It was complemented with barium enema and cystoscopy. Excision with immediate anastomosis was the surgical procedure used in 94% of patients, without sequelae or relapse, after a mean follow up of 74 months. No patient died during the procedure or required a new intervention. Conclusions: Colovesical fistulas are most common in young men with associated diseases and their treatment of choice, with good long-term results, is primary excision.

GUILLERMO, BANNURA C; ALEJANDRO, BARRERA E; MIGUEL A, CUMSILLE G; CARLOS, MELO L; DANIEL, SOTO C; JAIME, CONTRERAS P.

259

Volvulus of small bowel in a case of simple meconium ileus.  

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Meconium ileus is one of important causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Many patients respond well to nonsurgical management with enemas, however, few patients may develop complications in the postnatal period thus requiring urgent operation. A 2 day old newborn presented with clinical features of intestinal obstruction. There was a suspicion of meconium ileus. Contrast x-ray with gastrografin enema was suggestive of unused colon with beaded appearance. Patient had to be surgery as repeated enemas did not improve the condition and progressive abdominal distension occurred. At exploration twist of the dilated, meconium filled loop of small bowel found. De-twisting of the volvulus done and Bishop Koop ileostomy fashioned. Patient made an uneventful recovery. Stoma was closed six months later. PMID:22953274

Kayastha, Kanchan; Mirza, Bilal; Sheikh, Afzal

2011-01-01

260

CO2 as a distending medium for gastric and small bowel MRI: a feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work evaluates carbon dioxide as a contrast medium for magnetic resonance imaging of the stomach and small bowel. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent rapid magnetic resonance imaging after oral administration of a carbon dioxide generating agent using a combination of breath-hold and interactive fluoroscopic imaging during breathing. Diagnostic-quality images were obtained in 100% of cases for the stomach and in 92, 75, 67 and 42% of cases for the duodenal segments 1-4, respectively. Visualisation of the jejunum and ileum proved unacceptable for clinical use and anti-peristaltic agents did not significantly influence the results. Further development of fast imaging and magnetic resonance interactive fluoroscopic methods may allow the use of carbon dioxide as a contrast medium for clinical imaging of the stomach and duodenum. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
261

Acute small bowel obstruction caused by endometriosis: A case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement of endometriosis has been found in 3%-37% of menstruating women and exclusive localization on the ileum is very rare (1%-7%. Endometriosis of the distal ileum is an infrequent cause of intestinal obstruction, ranging from 7% to 23% of all cases with intestinal involvement. We report a case in which endometrial infiltration of the small bowel caused acute obstruction requiring emergency surgery, in a woman whose symptoms were not related to menses. Histology of the resected specimen showed that endometriosis was mainly prevalent in the muscularis propria and submucosa and that the mucosa was not ulcerated but had inflammation and glandular alteration. Endometrial lymph node involvement, with a cystic glandular pattern was also detected.

Antonella De Ceglie, Claudio Bilardi, Sabrina Blanchi, Massimo Picasso, Marcello Di Muzio, Alberto Trimarchi, Massimo Conio

2008-06-01

262

Acute small bowel obstruction caused by endometriosis: a case report and review of the literature.  

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Gastrointestinal involvement of endometriosis has been found in 3%-37% of menstruating women and exclusive localization on the ileum is very rare (1%-7%). Endometriosis of the distal ileum is an infrequent cause of intestinal obstruction, ranging from 7% to 23% of all cases with intestinal involvement. We report a case in which endometrial infiltration of the small bowel caused acute obstruction requiring emergency surgery, in a woman whose symptoms were not related to menses. Histology of the resected specimen showed that endometriosis was mainly prevalent in the muscularis propria and submucosa and that the mucosa was not ulcerated but had inflammation and glandular alteration. Endometrial lymph node involvement, with a cystic glandular pattern was also detected. PMID:18528943

De Ceglie, Antonella; Bilardi, Claudio; Blanchi, Sabrina; Picasso, Massimo; Di Muzio, Marcello; Trimarchi, Alberto; Conio, Massimo

2008-06-01

263

Seatbelt injury causing small bowel devascularisation: case series and review of the literature.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The use of seatbelts has increased significantly in the last twenty years, leading to a decrease in mortality from road traffic accidents (RTA). However, this increase in seatbelt use has also led to a change in the spectrum of injuries from RTA; abdominal injuries, particularly intestinal injuries have dramatically increased with the routine use of seatbelts. Such intestinal injuries frequently result from improper placement of the "lap belt". We present 3 cases in which passengers wearing a seatbelt sustained significant devascularisation injuries to the small bowel requiring emergency surgical intervention. A high index of suspicion is crucial in such cases to prevent delays in diagnosis that can lead to severe complications and adverse outcomes. It is evident that while advocating seatbelt use, the importance of education in correct seatbelt placement should also be a focus of public health strategies to reduce RTA morbidity and mortality.

O'Dowd, Vincent

2012-01-31

264

Volvulus of Small Bowel in a Case of Simple Meconium Ileus  

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Full Text Available Meconium ileus is one of important causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Many patients respond well to nonsurgical management with enemas, however, few patients may develop complications in the postnatal period thus requiring urgent operation. A 2 day old newborn presented with clinical features of intestinal obstruction. There was a suspicion of meconium ileus. Contrast x-ray with gastrografin enema was suggestive of unused colon with beaded appearance. Patient had to be surgery as repeated enemas did not improve the condition and progressive abdominal distension occurred. At exploration twist of the dilated, meconium filled loop of small bowel found. De-twisting of the volvulus done and Bishop Koop ileostomy fashioned. Patient made an uneventful recovery. Stoma was closed six months later.

Kanchan Kayastha

2011-03-01

265

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Novel Insight in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

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Full Text Available A total of 65-84% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS presents with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. SIBO is defined as the presence of more than 105 cfu/ml of colonic type bacteria in the lumen of the small bowel. It is more common in patients with IBS and predominant bloating and diarrhea. Based on the implication of SIBO in the pathogenesis of IBS, six trials have been conducted and analyzed in this review aiming to define a role of rifaximin for the management of IBS. Rifaximin is an orally administered antimicrobial with limited systemic absorption and considerable potency against bacteria implicated in SIBO. In two trials patients with SIBO irrespective of the presence of IBS were enrolled. A positive effect of rifaximin was denoted in the eradication of SIBO in both.One double-blind, prospective randomized trial over placebo in patients with IBS denoted a substantial improvement of the global assessment of patients after treatment with rifaximin. Benefit remained for 10 weeks after stop of treatment. A major benefit was disclosed for bloating. Another three prospective randomized trials have been conducted in patients with both IBS and SIBO. Rifaximin significantly eradicated SIBO and improved bloating.These findings led the Task Force for IBS of the American College of Gastroenterology to appoint a grade of evidence of 1B for the administration of rifaximin in the management of IBS. The proposed oral regimen is 400 mg three times daily for 10 days. However, results of large Phase III trials are mandatory.

Evangelos J. Giamarellos Bourboulis

2009-05-01

266

Effects of honey, glutamine and their combination on canine small bowel epithelial cell proliferation following massive resection.  

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The effects of honey, glutamine and honey/glutamine combination on the healing and adaptive process of the bowel following massive small bowel resection were studied in some Nigerian nondescript breeds of dogs. 24 dogs (3-4 months old) of mixed sexes with mean body weight of 4.42±0.70 kg were studied. They were randomized into four treatment groups following 70% small bowel resection. Group A dogs were placed on glutamine treatment, Group B on oral glutamine/honey and group C on honey and group D normal saline (control). Their body weights were evaluated for 15 days and the pre- and post-treatment gut biopsy samples were obtained and processed for morphometric evaluation. All groups exhibited signs of small bowel adaptation (Glutamine/honey>glutamine > honey > control) at the end of the experiment (4 weeks). Glutamine/honey combination, glutamine and honey had gradual increase in body weight from days 3-15 of weight evaluation. The control group, however, had a remarkable drop in body weight compared with other groups. Oral glutamine/honey combination showed the best overall effect based on body weight gain, intestinal mucosal growth and adaptation, evidenced by increased in residual bowel Villi height (27.71µm), Villi weight (14.51µm), Crypt depth (11.25µm), and Villi density (3.40µm). Glutamine showed a better result than honey with a significant increase in villi height (38.08µm), width (8.48µm) and crypt depth (40µm). Histologically, an improved villi branching was observed with glutamine/honey combination. Our results showed that honey/glutamine combination had comparative therapeutic advantage over glutamine or honey and may be a preferred treatment for short bowel syndrome patients. PMID:23652234

Eyarefe, O D; Emikpe, B O; Akinloye, S O; Alonge, T O; Fayemi, O E

2012-01-01

267

Internal hernia and small bowel obstruction caused by a linear cutter staple at appendiceal stump following laparoscopic appendectomy.  

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Commonly linear staplers are used to perform laparoscopic appendectomies. We report a case of a small bowel obstruction caused by a staple on the appendiceal stump creating an internal hernia <1 week after laparoscopic appendectomy. We discuss the available literature on bowel obstructions caused by staples. Most of the discussed complications were caused by staples free in the abdomen, which were remote from the staple line. Generally, loose staples do not cause problems, but if noted during the operation, we recommend removal to prevent future obstruction. PMID:24876320

Petersen, Lindsay F; Nally, Mary C; Agos, Andrew; Petty, Kyle

2014-01-01

268

Monocontrast-distension examination of the small bowel. A comparison to the small bowel follow-through and the enteroclysis; Monokontrast-Distensionsuntersuchung des Duenndarms. Vergleich mit der konventionellen MDP und dem Enteroklysma  

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Purpose: Development of a new monocontrast examination of the small bowel. Material und Methods: The new examination was applied to 20 patients with suspected bowel obstruction or inflammatory bowel disease. A contrast mixture, containing gelatine, a water-soluble contrast medium (Peritrast {sup trademark}) and water (GPW-mixture) was given over an intestinal tube. The viscosity of the new contrast mixture was measured by rotation and flow viscosimetry. The diagnostic value and the degree of small bowel distension were determined independently by 3 examiners. By comparison 20 randomized selected small bowel follow-through examinations (SBFT) and 20 small bowel enemas were examined. Special questionnaires were used to determine subjective compatibility and discomfort. Results: Due to the viscosity of the new contrast medium and the administration over an intestinal tube, a good bowel distension was achieved with the GPW mixture. The bowel distension (p: <0.01) and the diagnostic value (p: <0.01) of the new examination in comparison to the SBFT was characterized as being significantly better (p: 0.31-1.0). The diagnostic value of the small bowel enema was characterized as significantly better by one of the three examiners in comparison to the new monocontrast-distenson examination (p-level<0.01). Conclusion: The monocontrast-distension examination is a potential alternative in patients in whom a small bowel enema with barium sulfate is contraindicated. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Entwicklung einer neuartigen Monokontrastuntersuchung des Duenndarms. Material und Methoden: Das Verfahren wurde bei 20 Patienten mit Verdacht auf Darmobstruktion oder entzuendliche Duenndarmveraenderungen angewandt. Ueber eine Duenndarmsonde wurde ein KM-Gemisch, bestehend aus Gelatine, wasserloeslichem jodhaltigen Kontrastmittel (Peritrast {sup trademark}) und Wasser appliziert (GPW-Gemisch). Mittels Rotations- und Fliessviskosimetrie wurde die Fliesseigenschaft des Gemisches sowie zweier Referenzmedien, ein wasserloesliches Kontrastmittel (Telebrix {sup trademark}) und Methylzellulose, bestimmt. Die diagnostische Aussagekraft sowie der Distensionsgrad der Darmschlingen wurde von 3 Untersuchern beurteilt und mit 20 ausgewaehlten MDP- sowie Doppelkontrastuntersuchungen verglichen. Die subjektive Vertraeglichkeit wurde anhand von Fragebogen ermittelt. Ergebnisse: Aufgrund des Viskositaetsverhaltens des KM-Gemisches und der Applikation ueber eine Duenndarmsonde konnte bei allen Patienten mit dem GPW-Gemisch eine gute Duenndarmdistension erzielt werden, wobei sowohl der Distensionsgrad (p-Wert<0,01) als auch die diagnostische Aussagekraft (p-Wert<0,01) von allen Untersuchern als signifikant besser gegenueber der MDP mit wasserloeslichem Kontrastmittel eingestuft wurde. Ein Distensionsunterschied zum Enteroklysma zeigte sich nicht (p-Werte 0,31-1,0), von einem der drei Begutachter wurde die Aussagekraft des Doppelkontrastverfahrens als signifikant besser gegenueber der Monokontrast-Distensionsuntersuchung angesehen (p-Wert<0,01). Schlussfolgerung: Das vorgestellte Untersuchungsverfahren ist eine probate Alternative fuer Patienten, bei denen eine Doppelkontrastuntersuchung mit Bariumsulfat kontraindiziert, eine detaillierte Duenndarmbeurteilung jedoch erwuenscht ist. (orig.)

Piroth, W.; Haage, P.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Wildberger, J.E.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

2000-09-01

269

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: are there any predictors?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is a condition in which excessive levels of bacteria, mainly the colonic-type species are present in the small intestine. Recent data suggest that SIBO may contribute to the pathophysiology of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The purpose of this study was to identify potential predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Methods Adults with IBS based on Rome II criteria who had predominance of bloating and flatulence underwent a glucose breath test (GBT to determine the presence of SIBO. Breath samples were obtained at baseline and at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 50 g of glucose dissolved in 150 mL of water. Results of the glucose breath test, which measures hydrogen and methane levels in the breath, were considered positive for SIBO if 1 the hydrogen or methane peak was >20 ppm when the baseline was Results Ninety-eight patients were identified who underwent a GBT (mean age, 49 y; 78% female. Thirty-five patients (36% had a positive GBT result suggestive of SIBO. A positive GBT result was more likely in patients >55 years of age (odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-9.0 and in females (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-14.5. Hydrogen was detected more frequently in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.4-45, and methane was the main gas detected in patients with constipation-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.3-44. There was no significant correlation between the presence of SIBO and the predominant bowel pattern or concurrent use of tegaserod, proton pump inhibitors, or opiate analgesics. Conclusions Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was present in a sizeable percentage of patients with IBS with predominance of bloating and flatulence. Older age and female sex were predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Identification of possible predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS could aid in the development of successful treatment plans.

McCallum Richard W

2010-02-01

270

Recurrent wound dehiscence and small bowel herniation following Caesarean section in a woman with hidradenitis suppurativa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caesarean wound dehiscence that is severe enough to result in bowel herniation is exceptionally rare. This case describes a woman who experienced wound dehiscence following each of her two Caesarean sections, with bowel herniation present in the second case. The contribution of her comorbid hidradenitis suppurativa will be discussed. PMID:24876503

Fernando, Magage; Schultz, Meleesa J

2014-01-01

271

Wireless capsule endoscopy and proximal small bowel lesions in Crohn’s disease  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the prevalence of proximal small bowel (SB lesions detected by wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE in Crohn’s disease (CD.METHODS: WCE was performed in 64 patients: 32 with CD of the distal ileum, and 32 controls with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA or diarrhea. WCE was performed using the Given SB-WCE, followed by small intestine contrast ultrasonography (SICUS. Findings compatible with CD by using WCE included erosions, aphthoid or deep ulcers, and strictures/stenosis.RESULTS: WCE detected proximal SB lesions in 16/32 (50% patients (14 aphthoid ulcers, 2 deep ulcers, one stricture, which appeared not to be related to clinical parameters [epigastric pain, age, smoking, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, IDA]. Among patients with proximal SB lesions, 6 (37% were smokers, 3 (19% NSAID users, 3 (19% had epigastric pain and 4 (25% had IDA. SICUS detected proximal SB lesions in 3/32 patients (19% also showing lesions with WCE. No correlations were observed between proximal SB lesions assessed by WCE or by SICUS (?2 = 1.5, P = 0.2.CONCLUSION: The use of WCE allows the detection of previously unknown upper SB lesions in a high proportion of patients with a previous diagnosis of CD involving the distal ileum.

Carmelina Petruzziello, Sara Onali, Emma Calabrese, Francesca Zorzi, Marta Ascolani, Giovanna Condino, Elisabetta Lolli, Paola Naccarato, Francesco Pallone, Livia Biancone

2010-07-01

272

The effect of cholecystokinin octapeptide upon the migrating myoelectric complex in the ovine small bowel  

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Full Text Available There is no evident and precise data regarding the effect of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC in sheep. Thus, in five rams seven bipolar platinum electrodes were implanted in the abomasal antrum and entire small intestine. The strain gauge force transducer was also attached near the duodenal electrode in three of these animals. During the experiments the myoelectric and motor activity was continuously recorded in fasted and non-fasted sheep. During the recordings two normal consecutive phases 3 of the MMC were recorded. Then, slow injections of CCK-OP of 0.02; 0.2 and 2.0 _g/kg of body weight were given intravenously during phase 1, 2a or 2b of the MMC, identified in the duodenum, until next two consecutive phases 3 MMC were recorded. The moderate dose of CCK-OP administered during phase 2a in non-fasted animals shortened the MMC cycles significantly while the highest dose of the hormone increased the cycle duration and inhibited phase 3 MMC in the duodenum. No such effect was observed in the jejunum. However, duration of phase 3 in this region was decreased mostly by the highest dose of CCK-OP. It can be concluded that CCK inhibits the MMC in ovine small bowel and its effect in the duodenum is most pronounced.

Romanski Krzysztof W.

2007-01-01

273

Humoral stimulation of cell proliferation in small bowel after transection and resection in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Possible humoral involvement in the control of postresectional intestinal adaptation was tested in individual rats and in pairs of rats connected in vascular parabiosis for 48 hr. In individual rats, transection of the jejunum produced transient mucosal hyperplasia in the mid and distal small intestine, independent of the effect of laparotomy and of handling the bowel. Jejunal resection caused more intense and sustained distal hyperplasia, with increases in midbowel RNA content (38%), DNA content (16%), and DNA specific activity (68%) over values 48 hr after transection. In parabiotic rats, both transection and resection of the jejunum in one partner stimulated mucosal uptake of [H]TdR in the intact parabiont; increments of 59 to 128% in total radioactivity and in specific activity of DNA were found in the mid and distal small intestine of the intact parabiont. Because only rats actually undergoing abdominal operations had higher mucosal nucleic acid contents than their parabiotic partners, the transmitted response was weaker than the direct response. Systemic factors as well as local (topical) stimulators appear to be involved in adaptation of the shortened gut. PMID:669211

Williamson, R C; Buchholtz, T W; Malt, R A

1978-08-01

274

Arterial hypertension due to fructose ingestion: model based on intermittent osmotic fluid trapping in the small bowel  

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Full Text Available Abstract Based on recently reported data that fructose ingestion is linked to arterial hypertension, a model of regulatory loops involving the colon role in maintenance of fluid and sodium homeostasis is proposed. In normal digestion of hyperosmolar fluids, also in cases of postprandial hypotension and in patients having the "dumping" syndrome after gastric surgery, any hyperosmolar intestinal content is diluted by water taken from circulation and being trapped in the bowel until reabsorption. High fructose corn sirup (HFCS soft drinks are among common hyperosmolar drinks. Fructose is slowly absorbed through passive carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion, along the entire small bowel, thus preventing absorption of the trapped water for several hours. Here presented interpretation is that ingestion of hyperosmolar HFCS drinks due to a transient fluid shift into the small bowel increases renin secretion and sympathetic activity, leading to rise in ADH and aldosterone secretions. Their actions spare water and sodium in the large bowel and kidneys. Alteration of colon absorption due to hormone exposure depends on cell renewal and takes days to develop, so the momentary capacity of sodium absorption in the colon depends on the average aldosterone and ADH exposure during few previous days. This inertia in modulation of the colon function can make an individual that often takes HFCS drinks prone to sodium retention, until a new balance is reached with an expanded ECF pool and arterial hypertension. In individuals with impaired fructose absorption, even a higher risk of arterial hypertension can be expected.

Kurbel Sven

2010-06-01

275

Small-bowel mucosal injuries in low-dose aspirin users with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To investigate the clinical differences between small intestinal injuries in low-dose aspirin (LDA) users and in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) users who were examined by capsule endoscopy (CE) for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). METHODS: A total of 181 patients who underwent CE for OGIB were included in this study. Based on clinical records, laboratory data such as hemoglobin levels, major symptoms, underlying diseases, the types and duration of LDA and NSAID use, and endoscopic characteristics of CE were reviewed. RESULTS: Out of a total of 45 cases of erosive lesions, 27 cases were taking LDA or NSAIDs (7 were on NSAIDs, 9 were on LDA alone, 9 were on LDA and thienopyridine, and 2 were on LDA and warfarin).The prevalence of ulcers or erosion during chronic use of LDA, LDA and the anti-platelet drug thienopyridine (clopidogrel or ticlopidine), and NSAIDs were 64.3%, 80.0%, and 75.0%, respectively. Erosive lesions were observed predominantly in chronic LDA users, while ulcerative lesions were detected mainly in NSAID users. However, concomitant use of thienopyridine such as clopidogrel with LDA increased the proportion of ulcers. The erosive lesions were located in the whole of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum), whereas ulcerative lesions were mainly observed in the ileum (P .05). CONCLUSION: Our CE findings indicate that chronic LDA users and NSAID users show different types and locations of small-bowel mucosal injuries. The concomitant use of anti-platelet drugs with LDA tends to exacerbate the injuries from LDA-type to NSAID-type injuries. PMID:25278707

Iwamoto, Junichi; Mizokami, Yuji; Saito, Yoshifumi; Shimokobe, Koichi; Honda, Akira; Ikegami, Tadashi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi

2014-01-01

276

Radiological aspects of diagnosis and staging of small bowel lymphoma - a case report; Aspectos radiologicos no diagnostico e estadiamento do linfoma de intestino delgado - relato de um caso  

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The authors report a case of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the small bowel, presenting with ulcerative lesions on radiological studies. primary intestinal lymphoma is considered a rare entity and its diagnosis criteria are quiet strict. The secondary form of the disease - involvement of the small bowel by systemic lymphoma - constitutes an infrequent clinical presentation of these neoplasms and must be considered when the criteria for primary disease are not fulfilled. Diagnosis is based on small bowel series studies and/or computed tomography findings, but the definitive diagnosis is established by biopsy. (author)

Antunes, Luciano Magrini; Medeiros, Sergio Cainelli; Fraga, Rafael [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Friedrich, Mariangela Gheller; Todeschini, Luiz Alberto; Furtado, Alvaro Porto Alegre [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

1999-12-01

277

Neuroendocrine tumors of the small bowels are on the rise: Early aspects and management  

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Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors of the small bowel are on the rise. In the US they have increased by 300%-500% in the last 35 years. At the same time their prognosis is much improved. Today, most neuroendocrine tumors (NETs of the duodenum are detected “incidentally” and therefore recognized at an early stage. Duodenal NETs which are well differentiated, not larger than 10 mm and limited to the mucosa/submucosa can be endoscopically resected. The management of duodenal NETs ranging between 10 and 20 mm needs an interdisciplinary discussion. Endoscopic ultrasound is the method of choice to determine tumor size and depth of infiltration. Surgery is recommended for well-differentiated duodenal NET tumors greater than 20 mm, for localized sporadic gastrinomas (of any size and for localized poorly differentiated NE cancers. Surgery is recommended for any ileal NET. Advanced ileal NETs with a carcinoid syndrome are treated with long-acting somatostatin analogs. This treatment significantly improves (progression-free survival in patients with metastatic NETs of the ileum. For optimal NET management, tumor biology, type, localization and stage of the neoplasm, as well as the patient’s individual circumstances have to be taken into account.

Hans Scherübl

2010-10-01

278

Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance enterography for the detection of mesenteric small bowel tumours  

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To prospectively evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) enterography for detecting mesenteric small-bowel tumours (MSBTs) and assess the added value of gadolinium-chelate injection. Over a 2-year period MR enterography examinations of 75 patients (33 men, 42 women; mean age, 53.8 years; range, 19-85) with suspected MSBT were blindly analysed by two readers for the presence of MSBT. Sensitivities, specificities, predictive positive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs) and accuracies of MR enterography for the detection of MSBT were calculated on per-patient and per-lesion bases. The McNemar test was used to compare sensitivities and specificities of the unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced sets of MR enterographies. Thirty-seven MSBTs were pathologically confirmed in 26 patients. The mean tolerance score of the examinations was 0.7. On a per-patient basis, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy for detection of MSBT were 96 % [95 % CI, 89-100 %], 96 % [90-100 %], 93 % [83-100 %], 98 % [94-100 %] and 96 % [92-100 %], respectively. On a per-lesion basis, sensitivity and PPV were 70 % [56-85 %] and 93 % [83-100 %], respectively. Gadolinium injection yielded higher sensitivities on both bases (P = 0.008). MR enterography is an accurate and well-tolerated imaging modality for detecting MSBT. Intravenous administration of gadolinium-chelate improves sensitivity for MSBT detection. (orig.)

Amzallag-Bellenger, Elisa; Hoeffel, Christine [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Radiology, Reims Cedex (France); Soyer, Philippe [Hopital Lariboisiere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Barbe, Coralie [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Statistics, Reims Cedex (France); Diebold, Marie-Daniele [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Pathology, Reims Cedex (France); Cadiot, Guillaume [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Gastroenterology, Reims Cedex (France)

2013-07-15

279

Measurement of small bowel transit time by 99Tcm-SC imaging: preliminary clinical study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To develop a method of measuring small bowel transit time (SBTT) by 99Tcm-sulfur collide (SC) imaging and to compare with the method of added lactose in the test meal. Methods: 20 healthy volunteers and 26 patients with gastrointestinal disorders were studied. In fasting state, the subjects were asked to ingest the 99Tcm-SC labelled solid meal within 5 minutes, then the image acquisition was immediately started with SPECT. The images were acquired every 15 min during the first hour, at 30 min intervals during 2?4 hours and hourly thereafter until 80% radioactivity had entered the colon. One week later, the same procedure of imaging with 15 g lactulose added in the test meal was performed. The regions of interest (ROIs) were taken at stomach and colon, and the SBTT was calculated by deconvolution or by subtraction of the 50% time of gastric emptying from the 50% time of colon filling. Results: 1) The mean SBTT of 20 healthy volunteers was (4.2 +- 0.5) h, oral-caecum transit time (OCTT) was (4.3 +- 0.6) h; lactulose shortened the SBTT by (1.8 +- 0.6) h; 2) 26 patients showed different results of SBTT due to their different gastrointestinal disorders bases. Conclusions: 99Tcm-SC imaging was a noninvasive and useful method to measure SBTT. The added lactulose can shorten the examination time and help to identify the time of food to the ileocecal region

280

Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance enterography for the detection of mesenteric small bowel tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To prospectively evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) enterography for detecting mesenteric small-bowel tumours (MSBTs) and assess the added value of gadolinium-chelate injection. Over a 2-year period MR enterography examinations of 75 patients (33 men, 42 women; mean age, 53.8 years; range, 19-85) with suspected MSBT were blindly analysed by two readers for the presence of MSBT. Sensitivities, specificities, predictive positive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs) and accuracies of MR enterography for the detection of MSBT were calculated on per-patient and per-lesion bases. The McNemar test was used to compare sensitivities and specificities of the unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced sets of MR enterographies. Thirty-seven MSBTs were pathologically confirmed in 26 patients. The mean tolerance score of the examinations was 0.7. On a per-patient basis, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy for detection of MSBT were 96 % [95 % CI, 89-100 %], 96 % [90-100 %], 93 % [83-100 %], 98 % [94-100 %] and 96 % [92-100 %], respectively. On a per-lesion basis, sensitivity and PPV were 70 % [56-85 %] and 93 % [83-100 %], respectively. Gadolinium injection yielded higher sensitivities on both bases (P = 0.008). MR enterography is an accurate and well-tolerated imaging modality for detecting MSBT. Intravenous administration of gadolinium-chelate improves sensitivity for MSBT detection. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
281

Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms: Experience with Rifaximin  

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Full Text Available AIM: To estimate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO in our geographical area (Western Sicily, Italy by means of an observational study, and to gather information on the use of locally active, non-absorbable antibiotics for treatment of SIBO.METHODS: Our survey included 115 patients fulfilling the Rome II criteria for diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; a total of 97 patients accepted to perform a breath test with lactulose (BTLact, and those who had a positive test, received Rifaximin (Normix®, Alfa Wassermann 1200 mg/d for 7 d; 3 wk after the end of treatment, the BTLact was repeated.RESULTS: Based on the BTLact results, SIBO was present in about 56% of IBS patients, and it was responsible for some IBS-related symptoms, such as abdominal bloating and discomfort, and diarrhoea. 1-wk treatment with Rifaximin turned the BTLact to negative in about 50% of patients and significantly reduced the symptoms, especially in those patients with an alternated constipation/diarrhoea-variant IBS.CONCLUSION: SIBO should be always suspected in patients with IBS, and a differential diagnosis is done by means of a “breath test”. Rifaximin may represent a valid approach to the treatment of SIBO.

Sergio Peralta, Claudia Cottone, Tiziana Doveri, Piero Luigi Almasio, Antonio Craxi

2009-06-01

282

Assessment of Crohn's disease activity in the small bowel with MR and conventional enteroclysis: preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Every single imaging finding that can be disclosed on conventional and MR enteroclysis was correlated with the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI). Nineteen consecutive patients with Crohn's disease underwent colon endoscopy and both conventional and MR enteroclysis examinations. Seventeen MR imaging findings and seven conventional enteroclysis findings were ranked on a four-point grading scale and correlated with CDAI, with a value of 150 considered as the threshold for disease activity. Six patients had active disease in the colon according to colon endoscopy. In the remaining 13 patients, the presence of deep ulcers (P=0.002), small bowel wall thickening (P=0.022) and gadolinium enhancement of mesenteric lymph nodes (P=0.014) identified on MR enteroclysis images were strongly correlated to disease activity. The product of deep ulcers and enhancement of lymph node ranks identified on MR enteroclysis were the optimum combination for discriminating active from non-active disease (F-test: 55.95, P<0.001). Additionally, the ranking of deep ulcers on conventional enteroclysis provided statistically significant differences between active and non-active patients (F-test: 14.12, P=0.004). Abnormalities strongly suggestive of active Crohn's disease can be disclosed on MR enteroclysis examinations and may provide pictorial information for local inflammatory activity. (orig.)

283

Two cameras detect more lesions in the small-bowel than one  

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Full Text Available AIM: To explore the feasibility of dual camera capsule (DCC small-bowel (SB imaging and to examine if two cameras complement each other to detect more SB lesions.METHODS: Forty-one eligible, consecutive patients underwent DCC SB imaging. Two experienced investigators examined the videos and compared the total number of detected lesions to the number of lesions detected by each camera separately. Examination tolerability was assessed using a questionnaire.RESULTS: One patient was excluded. DCC cameras detected 68 positive findings (POS in 20 (50% cases. Fifty of them were detected by the “yellow” camera, 48 by the “green” and 28 by both cameras; 44% (n = 22 of the “yellow” camera’s POS were not detected by the “green” camera and 42% (n = 20 of the “green” camera’s POS were not detected by the “yellow” camera. In two cases, only one camera detected significant findings. All participants had 216 findings of unknown significance (FUS. The “yellow”, “green” and both cameras detected 171, 161, and 116 FUS, respectively; 32% (n = 55 of the “yellow” camera’s FUS were not detected by the “green” camera and 28% (n = 45 of the “green” camera’s FUS were not detected by the “yellow” camera. There were no complications related to the examination, and 97.6% of the patients would repeat the examination, if necessary.CONCLUSION: DCC SB examination is feasible and well tolerated. The two cameras complement each other to detect more SB lesions.

Konstantinos Triantafyllou, Ioannis S Papanikolaou, Kostis Papaxoinis, Spiros D Ladas

2011-03-01

284

Mechanical small bowel obstruction in children at a tertiary care centre in Kashmir  

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Full Text Available Background: Small bowel obstruction is the commonest surgical emergency encountered in childhood. We observed that intestinal obstruction caused by ascariasis is one of the leading causes of death in our children and consumes a major portion of our hospital resources. Other causes include intussusception, adhesions, volvulus, hernias, and worm obstruction. The aim of this study was to analyze the presentation, diagnosis, management of mechanical bowel and complication of obstruction in children. Patients and Methods : The study was conducted from Jan 2005 to Dec 2007 in the Department of Pediatric Surgery at Sheri- Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir. All patients who presented in the emergency department with the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction were recruited. Patients with a dynamic obstruction were excluded from the study. Diagnosis was based on history and radiological findings. Data regarding the type of management, operative findings, operative procedure and post-operative complications were collected. Results: There were 207 patients admitted for intestinal obstruction. Males and females were equally affected. Most of the children (55% were aged 3-5 years. The causes of obstruction included ascariasis 131 (63.2%, adhesion 23 (11.1%, intussusception 21 (10.1%, obstructed hernia 17 (8.2%, and volvulus 11 (5.3%. One hundred twenty-six patients needed an operative intervention and 81 were treated conservatively. The operative procedures performed included enterotomy in 37 (29.3%, milking of worms in 18 (14.2%, resection anastomosis in 31 (24.6% and adhesiolysis in 13 (10.3%. Appendicular perforation was seen in 4 (1.9% and worm in gall bladder in 1 (0.5% patients. Surgical complications were wound infection in 18 (14.2%, burst abdomen in 5 (3.9% and fecal fistula in 3 (2.3% patients. Conclusion: Intestinal obstruction is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in children. Obstruction by ascariasis constituted the majority of intestinal obstruction in this study. Efforts should be made to eradicate ascariasis in endemic areas through proper sanitation, hygiene and use of antihelminthics.

Shiekh Khursheed

2010-01-01

285

Is laparoscopy equal to laparotomy in detecting and treating small bowel injuries in a porcine model?  

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Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopy compared with laparotomy for diagnosing and treating small bowel injuries (SBIs in a porcine model. METHODS: Twenty-eight female pigs were anesthetized and laid in the left recumbent position. The SBI model was established by shooting at the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. The pigs were then randomized into either the laparotomy group or the laparoscopy group. All pigs underwent routine exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopy to evaluate the abdominal injuries, particularly the types, sites, and numbers of SBIs. Traditional open surgery or therapeutic laparoscopy was then performed. All pigs were kept alive within the observational period (postoperative 72 h. The postoperative recovery of each pig was carefully observed. RESULTS: The vital signs of all pigs were stable within 1-2 h after shooting and none of the pigs died from gunshot wounds or SBIs immediately. The SBI model was successfully established in all pigs and definitively diagnosed with single or multiple SBIs either by exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopy. Compared with exploratory laparotomy, laparoscopy took a significantly longer time for diagnosis (41.27 ± 12.04 min vs 27.64 ± 13.32 min, P = 0.02, but the time for therapeutic laparoscopy was similar to that of open surgery. The length of incision was significantly reduced in the laparoscopy group compared with the laparotomy group (5.27 ± 1.86 cm vs 15.73 ± 1.06 cm, P < 0.01. In the final post-mortem examination 72 h after surgery, both laparotomy and laparoscopy offered a definitive diagnosis with no missed injuries. Postoperative complications occurred in four cases (three following laparotomy and one following laparoscopy, P = 0.326. The average recovery period for bowel function, vital appearance, and food re-intake after laparoscopy was 10.36 ± 4.72 h, 14.91 ± 3.14 h, and 15.00 ± 7.11 h, respectively. All of these were significantly shorter than after laparotomy (21.27 ± 10.17 h, P = 0.004; 27.82 ± 9.61 h, P < 0.001; and 24.55 ± 9.72 h, respectively, P = 0.016. CONCLUSION: Compared with laparotomy, laparoscopy offers equivalent efficacy for diagnosing and treating SBIs, and reduces postoperative complications as well as recovery period.

Cheng-Xiang Shan

2012-01-01

286

Comparison of upper gastrointestinal radiographic findings to histopathologic observations: a retrospective study of 41 dogs and cats with suspected small bowel infiltrative disease (1985 to 1990)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was the intent of this study to define which, if any, radiographic observations corresponded with specific causes of diffuse infiltrative small bowel disease and if radiographic findings could differentiate inflammatory disease from neoplastic disease and either of them from normal. Bowel spasticity, luminal narrowing, and thumb printing tend to indicate the presence of tumor more often than inflammatory disease. Increased bowel gas in cats and barium adhesion in dogs and cats suggest that a component of enteritis is present. Decreased bowel gas in dogs is more often associated with obstructive disease, but is not helpful in differentiating diffuse inflammatory disease from diffuse neoplastic disease. While several observations that can foster differentiation of neoplastic from inflammatory disease were found, this study also indicated that the UGI lacks a high degree of predictive value other than to indicate the presence of infiltrative small bowel disease

287

Small bowel obstruction secondary to bilateral obturator hernia: a rare occurrence  

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Obturator hernia (OH) is a rare type of pelvic hernia. It can cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly age group. Delayed treatment is associated with high rates of strangulation (25–100%). We present an 88-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of bowel obstruction and right hip pain. Computed tomography (CT) abdomen revealed bilateral OHs and bowel obstruction secondary to the right OH. She was managed conservatively due to her age and co-morbidities and her bowel obstruction subsequently resolved. She was discharged, only to re-present 1 month later with similar complaints. A repeat CT scan revealed bilateral OHs and bowel obstruction due to the left OH. She underwent midline laparatomy and both OHs were reduced. The right OH was fixed with polypropylene mesh plug and the left OH was fixed with primary closure. The patient recovered and no recurrence was noted during follow-up. PMID:24876374

Tee, Chin Li; Evans, Tobias; Ratnayake, Sujith; Strekozov, Boris

2014-01-01

288

Superior vena cava thrombosis causing respiratory obstruction successfully resolved by stenting in a small bowel transplant candidate.  

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A 4 year old child was referred for small bowel transplantation. He had superior vena cava obstruction secondary to numerous central venous line placements; alternative routes for long term central venous access were compromised by extensive venous occlusive disease. Patency for the superior vena cava was re-established with stenting, which allowed for radiological placement of another central venous line. Long term survival in infants and young children with intestinal failure is dependent on adequate central venous access for the administration of parenteral nutrition. Line sepsis and physical damage to the catheter often necessitates multiple central venous catheter placements during their early life and these children are at risk of catheter related veno-occlusive disease. Recurrent sepsis and the loss of satisfactory venous access for the administration of parenteral nutrition is life threatening and is an indication for intestinal transplantation in up to 41% of patients reported by the small bowel registry. PMID:10906028

Peters, M; Beath, S V; Puntis, J W; John, P

2000-08-01

289

Strangulated Incisional Richter’s Hernia Complicated by Small Bowel Perforation and Phlegmon of Anterior Abdominal Wall  

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Full Text Available We reported an abnormal case of strangulated incisional Richter’s hernia complicated by small bowel perforation and phlegmon of anterior abdominal wall. The observation is interesting due to the fact that now strangulated Richter’s hernia is rather rare but extremely dangerous concerning the following complications due to scant clinical presentation in strangulation. We represented a case of a female patient with two-day past history of strangulation. She had a classical clinical picture of strangulated Richter’s hernia (strangulation, necrosis, small bowel perforation, the anterior abdominal wall phlegmon, enterocutaneous fistula, the absence of peritonitis and peritoneal irritation signs, and the presence of paralytic ileus. The surgical management was performed followed by a patient’s complete recovery.

V.L. Titarenko

2013-03-01

290

Jejuno-jejunal intussusception secondary to small-bowel lipomatosis: A case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Intussusception is usually a disease of children aged between 6 months and 4 years, in which a part of a bowel telescopes into another part of the bowel. We report a case in a 60-year-old man who required resection and anastomosis. Although intussception is unusual in adults, awareness of the differ [...] ences in symptoms and causes should be borne in mind when adults present with intestinal obstruction.

V. S., Karthikeyan; P., Dhanasekar; Sarath Chandra, Sistla; Manwar S., Ali; G., Balasubramaniam; N., Rajkumar.

291

 Role of Water Soluble Contrast Agents in Assigning Patients to a Non-Operative Course in Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction  

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 Objectives: Adhesive small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common surgical emergency. It is estimated that at least 60?0of SBO are due to post-operative adhesions. Water soluble contrast agents (gastrografin) have been used to identify patients who might be treated non-operatively. This study aims to determine the role of gastrografin in adhesive intestinal obstruction patients. Methods: In this prospective study, 27 patients admitted between 1st August 2004 and 1st July 2006 with clinical s...

Ai, Hamid Wadani; Naif Ibrahim Al Awad; Khairi Ahmed Hassan; Hazem Mohamed Zakaria; Al Mulhim, Abdulmohsen A.; Alaqeel, Faten O.

2011-01-01

292

Small- bowel mucosal changes and antibody responses after low- and moderate-dose gluten challenge in celiac disease  

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Abstract Background Due to the restrictive nature of a gluten-free diet, celiac patients are looking for alternative therapies. While drug-development programs include gluten challenges, knowledge regarding the duration of gluten challenge and gluten dosage is insufficient. We challenged adult celiac patients with gluten with a view to assessing the amount needed to cause some small-bowel mucosal deterioration. Methods Twenty-five celiac disease adults we...

Lähdeaho Marja-Leena; Mäki Markku; Laurila Kaija; Huhtala Heini; Kaukinen Katri

2011-01-01

293

Polyethylene glycol solution as an oral contrast agent for MRI of the small bowel in a patient population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To assess the efficacy of polyethylene glycol solution as an oral contrast agent in a patient population. Material and methods: Patients were fasted from 12.00 am. Administration of the oral contrast medium commenced 15 min before imaging and comprised one sachet of Norgine (Klean-prep, Middlesex, UK) reconstituted in 1 l water of which the patient took between 500-750 ml. Norgine is a balanced mixture of polyethylene glycol and electrolytes, which when added to water produces a clear colourless, iso-osmotic solution. Results: In total 38 candidates were identified retrospectively covering a 2-year period. Visualization of the jejunum, ileal loops and ileocaecal region was excellent or sufficient in 87, 95 and 89%, respectively. The time taken to obtain complete visualization of the small bowel, from the jejunum to the ileocecal region varied from 15-240 min with an average time of 65 min and 73.7% of patients necessitating delayed imaging. Conclusions: Polyethylene glycol was demonstrated to be an excellent oral contrast medium in distending the small bowel. However, small bowel transit times were significantly delayed and problematic necessitating repeated imaging within the patient population. As result of theses findings longer examination time should be expected within a patient population and this should be borne in mind when scheduling patients

294

A rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to an exophytic gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the small bowel  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors constitute a distinct group of rare gastrointestinal tract tumors that originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal. These jejunoileal lesions are a rare cause of obstruction but can be associated with substantial morbidity.Case: A 59-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and distention. Physical examination revealed tenderness and rebound in right lower quadrant. Computed tomography revealed a mass in lower right quadrant. A 9x9x4 cm exophytic ileal mass was observed at exploration. Preoperative diagnose was a small bowel tumor and then segmental resection and primary anastomosis were performed. Histopathological investigation revealed spindle cells that stained strongly for C-117, consistent with a diagnosis of a malign gastrointestinal stromal tumor.Conclusion: We conclude that exophytic small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare lesions, which should be kept in mind by physicians among the diagnosis of small bowel obstructions in order to reduce substantial morbidity and mortality.

ATAKAN SEZER

2009-10-01

295

The role of computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of clinically occult post-traumatic small bowel perforation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the use of computed tomography [CT] in the diagnosis of occult post-traumatic small bowel perforation and to discuss the role of CT in the management of this patient group. Method: This review includes three patients who presented with mild abdominal symptoms following minor blunt abdominal trauma. Initial radiographs and laboratory investigations were unremarkable but their symptoms failed to resolve and contrast-enhanced CT was performed for further evaluation. Results: In each case the CT appearances were indicative of localised small bowel perforation, with no evidence of other visceral injury. In two patients pockets of free intraperitoneal air were present closely related to the second part of the duodenum suggesting injury at this site. In the third case, a thickened proximal jejunal loop was demonstrated with free air and fluid in the adjacent mesentery consistent with a focal perforation. These CT findings were subsequently confirmed at laparotomy. Conclusion: CT is an accurate diagnostic tool in the assessment of clinically and radiologically occult traumatic small bowel injury. The use of CT should be considered in patients who have unresolving abdominal symptoms even after apparently insignificant abdominal trauma.

296

The role of computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of clinically occult post-traumatic small bowel perforation  

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Purpose: To evaluate the use of computed tomography [CT] in the diagnosis of occult post-traumatic small bowel perforation and to discuss the role of CT in the management of this patient group. Method: This review includes three patients who presented with mild abdominal symptoms following minor blunt abdominal trauma. Initial radiographs and laboratory investigations were unremarkable but their symptoms failed to resolve and contrast-enhanced CT was performed for further evaluation. Results: In each case the CT appearances were indicative of localised small bowel perforation, with no evidence of other visceral injury. In two patients pockets of free intraperitoneal air were present closely related to the second part of the duodenum suggesting injury at this site. In the third case, a thickened proximal jejunal loop was demonstrated with free air and fluid in the adjacent mesentery consistent with a focal perforation. These CT findings were subsequently confirmed at laparotomy. Conclusion: CT is an accurate diagnostic tool in the assessment of clinically and radiologically occult traumatic small bowel injury. The use of CT should be considered in patients who have unresolving abdominal symptoms even after apparently insignificant abdominal trauma.

Ahmed, I. [Department of Radiology, Eastbourne District General Hospital, East Sussex Hospitals NHS Trust, Kings Drive, Eastbourne BN21 2UD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ia43@yahoo.com; Ahmed, N. [Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Bell, D.J.; Hughes, D.V. [Department of Radiology, Eastbourne District General Hospital, East Sussex Hospitals NHS Trust, Kings Drive, Eastbourne BN21 2UD (United Kingdom); Evans, G.H. [Department of Surgery, Eastbourne District General Hospital, East Sussex Hospitals NHS Trust, Kings Drive, Eastbourne BN21 2UD (United Kingdom); Howlett, D.C. [Department of Radiology, Eastbourne District General Hospital, East Sussex Hospitals NHS Trust, Kings Drive, Eastbourne BN21 2UD (United Kingdom)

2009-08-15

297

The importance of smoking and medical history for development of small bowel carcinoid tumor: a European population-based case-control study  

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Little is known about the etiology of small bowel carcinoid tumor (SBC), but a few studies have pointed to certain medical and lifestyle factors as potential risk factors. This study aims to evaluate these findings and to identify new associations.

Kaerlev, Linda; Teglbjaerg, Peter Stubbe

2002-01-01

298

Contribution of multi-detector row CT (MDCT) to decision making in the management of patients with small bowel obstruction or ileus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We retrospectively evaluated the contribution of multi-detector row CT (MDCT) to patient management decisions in 62 patients with small bowel obstruction or ileus. The sensitivity and specificity of MDCT diagnosis of small bowel obstruction with strangulation or closed loop were 78.9% (15/19) and 93.0% (40/43), respectively. In 19 patients with small bowel obstruction with strangulation or closed loop, the median interval between CT examination and the commencement of surgery was significantly longer in misdiagnosed patients than in those correctly diagnosed (43.3 vs. 4.5 hours, p<0.05). Only two patients displayed severe physical signs that required urgent surgical treatment. Our results suggest that MDCT plays a key role in the management of patients with small bowel obstruction. (author)

299

[Bleeding in diverticular disease of the colon].  

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The incidence of bleeding from diverticular disease ranges from 3 to 30%. Haemorrhage is more common when the whole colon is affected; the source is more frequently in the right colon. Typically, the bleeding is massive, with 15% of the patients admitted in shock. It nearly always stops spontaneously, but recurrence rate is high. Chronic blood loss suggests alternative sources. Emergency angiography detects aetiology and site of the haemorrhage in most of the patients. Vasopressin infusion can frequently stop the bleeding. Colonoscopy is profitable only when bleeding stops, after a rapid clearing of the colon. On the other hand, intraoperative colonoscopy could be useful in emergency cases when urgent surgery is clearly indicated. Surgical treatment is requested only in few patients: segmental resections (generally right hemicolectomy) are indicated when there is evidence of the source of the blood loss. In the other cases sub-total or total colectomy are justified and provide better and safer results. PMID:9835119

Gabrielli, F; Chiarelli, M; Guttadauro, A; Poggi, L; Pauna, I; Lovaria, A

1998-01-01

300

The relevance of free fluid between intestinal loops detected by sonography in the clinical assessment of small bowel obstruction in adults  

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Introduction: The main role of the radiologist in the management of patients with suspicion of small bowel obstruction is to help triage patients into those that need immediate surgical intervention from those that require medical therapy or delayed surgery. Ultrasound examination is usually considered not helpful in bowel obstruction because of air in the intestinal lumen that interferes the evaluation of the intestinal loops, however recently some Authors attested the increasing important role of sonography in the acute abdominal disease. Aim of our report is to demonstrate the value of free fluid detected by US in differentiating between low and high-grade small bowel obstruction. Materials and methods: The study is based on 742 consecutive patients who presented symptoms of the acute abdomen; all patients had undergone initial serial abdominal plain film and US examinations prior to any medical intervention. We reviewed the imaging findings of 150 cases in whom small bowel obstruction was clinically suspected and confirmed at surgery. We consider the following radiographic and US findings: dilatation of small bowel loops; bowel wall thickness; presence of air-fluid levels; thickness of valvulae conniventes; evidence of peristalsis; presence and echogenicity of extraluminal fluid. We looked at the value of extraluminal peritoneal fluid at US examination in differentiating low and high-grade small bowel obstruction based on the surgical outcome. Results: In 46 patients altered peristaltic activity, thin bowel walls, fluid filled loops with hyperechoic spots in the bowel segment proximal to obstruction were noted at US, whereas radiographic features were: moderate dilatation of small bowel loops, with thin bowel wall and evidence of numerous and subtle valvulae conniventes; presence of air-fluid levels was also noted. In 70 other patients, US examination revealed all the findings described in the precedent cases and also the presence of free extraluminal fluid; abdominal plain film showed an increased dilatation of small bowel loops with moderate thickened wall and air-fluid levels. In 34 other patients US examination revealed the presence of thick-walled loops, hypoperistalsis and a larger amount of free extraluminal fluid. Radiographic findings in these patients were: horizontal featured and markedly dilated small bowel loops presenting parietal thickness, presence of intraluminal fluid stasis and evidence of thickened, sparse and incomplete valvulae conniventes. At surgery etiology of small bowel obstructions was various, but most of cases related to adhesions (70 cases). The presence of extraluminal fluid were confirmed at surgery in 104 patients. Conclusions: Our experience using sonography in suspicion of SBO (small bowel obstruction) suggests the usefulness of this imaging modality to differentiate a functional or obstructive ileus, demonstrating the evidence of intestinal peristalsis. Furthermore, the presence of a large amount of fluid between dilated small bowel loops suggests worsening mechanical small bowel obstruction, that requires not a medical therapy but immediate surgery.

Grassi, Roberto; Romano, Stefania E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; D' Amario, Fenesia; Giorgio Rossi, Antonio; Romano, Luigia; Pinto, Fabio; Di Mizio, Roberto

2004-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Assessment of dynamic contrast enhancement of the small bowel in active Crohn's disease using 3D MR enterography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To retrospectively compare the dynamic contrast enhancement of the small bowel segments with and without active Crohn's disease at 3D MR enterography (MRE). Materials and methods: Thirteen patients (five men, eight women; mean age 41.2 years; range 29-56) were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner (Sonata, Siemens Medical) with standard MR sequences after having ingested 1000 ml of a 3% mannitol solution. Subsequently, high resolution 3D gradient-echo (volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination = VIBE) data sets were obtained pre-contrast and 20-40 s, 60-80 s, and 120-140 s after i.v. Gd-DOTA administration (0.2 mmol/kg). Signal enhancement was measured on single slices both in normal and histologically confirmed (12/13) inflamed small bowel wall segments as well as in the aorta, the psoas muscle, and the background to calculate signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR). Results: Small bowel wall enhancement was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in inflamed compared to normal segments at 20-40 s (SNR inflamed: 58.7 ± 33.8 vs normal: 36.0 ± 19.8; p = 0.048; CNR inflamed: 34.8 ± 23.4 vs normal: 16.3 ± 11.2; p = 0.017) and at 60-80 s (SNR: 60.3 ± 25.1 vs 41.9 ± 20.0; p = 0.049; CNR: 34.9 ± 15.1 vs 19.3 ± 13.2; p = 0.01) after i.v. contrast administration, respectively. Even at 120-140 s CNR was still increased in inflamed segments (33.7 ± 16.0 vs 18.1 ± 13.2; p = 0.04), while differences in SNR did not attain statistical significance (63.0 ± atistical significance (63.0 ± 26.2 vs 45.3 ± 23.3; p = 0.15). Conclusion: In active Crohn's disease, histologically confirmed inflamed small bowel wall segments demonstrate a significantly increased early uptake of gadolinium on 3D VIBE sequences compared to normal small bowel segments.

302

Ultrasonographic findings of small bowel intussusception, focusing on differentiation from ileocolic intussusception.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the typical ultrasonographic findings of transient small bowel intussusception (SBI) and to differentiate it from ileocolic intussusception (ICI) in paediatrics. 22 transient SBI (male:female = 13:9, age: 7-132 months (mean 38 months)) and 27 ICI (male:female = 19:8, age: 1-60 months (mean 13 months)) patients diagnosed on ultrasonography were retrospectively evaluated. The findings of location, diameter, thickness of outer rim, and inclusion of mesenteric lymph nodes within intussuscipiens were compared. In the transient SBI, the head of intussusception was located in the right lower quadrant (RLQ) in 11 (50%), the right upper quadrant (RUQ) in 2 (9.1%) and the periumbilical area in 9 (40.9%) cases. The anteroposterior (AP) diameter ranged from 0.84-2.4 cm (mean 1.38 cm), and thickness of outer rim ranged from 0.10-0.34 cm (mean 0.26 cm). No mesenteric lymph nodes were contained within the intussuscipiens. In the ICI, the head was located in the RUQ in 17 (63%), the epigastrium in 7 (25.9%) and the left upper quadrant in 3 (11.1%) cases. The AP diameter ranged from 1.89-3.32 cm (mean 2.53 cm), and the thickness of the outer rim ranged from 0.30-0.86 cm (mean 0.53 cm). Mesenteric lymph nodes were contained within the intussuscipiens in 26 (96.3%) cases. In conclusion, when compared with ICI, the transient SBI occurs predominantly in the RLQ or periumbilical region, has a smaller AP diameter, a thinner outer rim, and dose not contain mesenteric lymph nodes. PMID:17875595

Park, N H; Park, S I; Park, C S; Lee, E J; Kim, M S; Ryu, J A; Bae, J M

2007-10-01

303

Radiation enteropathy and leucocyte-endothelial cell reactions in a refined small bowel model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucocyte recruitment and inflammation are key features of high dose radiation-induced tissue injury. The inflammatory response in the gut may be more pronounced following radiotherapy due to its high bacterial load in comparison to the response in other organs. We designed a model to enable us to study the effects of radiation on leucocyte-endothelium interactions and on intestinal microflora in the murine ileum. This model enables us to study specifically the local effects of radiation therapy. Method A midline laparotomy was performed in male C57/Bl6 mice and a five-centimetre segment of ileum is irradiated using the chamber. Leucocyte responses (rolling and adhesion were then analysed in ileal venules 2 – 48 hours after high dose irradiation, made possible by an inverted approach using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, intestinal microflora, myeloperoxidase (MPO and cell histology were analysed. Results The highest and most reproducible increase in leucocyte rolling was exhibited 2 hours after high dose irradiation whereas leucocyte adhesion was greatest after 16 hours. Radiation reduced the intestinal microflora count compared to sham animals with a significant decrease in the aerobic count after 2 hours of radiation. Further, the total aerobic counts, Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus decreased significantly after 16 hours. In the radiation groups, the bacterial count showed a progressive increase from 2 to 24 hours after radiation. Conclusion This study presents a refinement of a previous method of examining mechanisms of radiation enteropathy, and a new approach at investigating radiation induced leucocyte responses in the ileal microcirculation. Radiation induced maximum leucocyte rolling at 2 hours and adhesion peaked at 16 hours. It also reduces the microflora count, which then starts to increase steadily afterwards. This model may be instrumental in developing strategies against pathological recruitment of leucocytes and changes in intestinal microflora in the small bowel after radiotherapy.

Osman Nadia

2004-09-01

304

A rare case of small bowel volvulus after jenjunoileal bariatric bypass requiring emergency surgery: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bariatric surgery is on the increase throughout the world. Jejunoileal bypass bariatric procedures have fallen out of favor in western surgical centers due to the high rate of associated complications. They are, however, performed routinely in other centers and as a consequence of health tourism, management of complications related to these procedures may still be encountered. Case presentation We describe a rare case of small bowel obstruction in a 45-year-old British Caucasian woman, secondary to a volvulus of the jejunoileal anastomosis following bariatric bypass surgery. The pre-operative diagnosis was confirmed by radiology. We describe a successful surgical technique for this rare complication. Conclusions Bariatric surgery may be complicated by bowel obstruction. Early imaging is vital for diagnosis and effective management. The use of our surgical technique provides a simple and effective approach for the successful management of this bariatric complication.

Patel Pranav H

2012-03-01

305

Long-term follow-up of nonspecific small bowel ulcers with a benign course and no requirement for surgery: is this a distinct group?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonspecific small bowel ulcers are rare and surgical intervention is often believed to be elective. Since the extensive investigation of the small bowel in the 1990s, there have been limited reports of these ulcers and the updates have been unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical features and natural histories of nonspecific small bowel ulcers through prospective observational study. Methods We reviewed the medical records of all patients who had undergone ileocolonoscopy or enteroscopy between 2000 and 2005 in a tertiary referral hospital. Seven patients with small bowel ulcers of unknown cause were identified. These patients were prospectively followed in a prolonged observation until March 2010. Results All seven patients (mean age: 54.7 years presented with mild gastrointestinal symptoms, including chronic diarrhea and/or abdominal pain/discomfort, except for one who was asymptomatic when surveyed for colon polyps. Most patients were suspected of having functional bowel disorders for a long time (4.4 years before small bowel ulcers were demonstrated on ileoscopy. The ulcers were characteristically multiple, superficial, and small (3-6 mm, locating at the terminal ileum and/or ileocecal valve. Various empirical treatments were applied, and most patients felt partly improved, even relieved. However the gastrointestinal symptoms did not always correlate with the presence of ulcers, and the ulcers tended to be either persistent (4 patients or recurrent (1 patient. Ileocolonoscopy was repeated 4.1 times during follow-up, even after the lesions had healed. The characteristics of the ulcers, if still present during follow-up, were similar to their earlier characteristics. No patient experienced exacerbation or complications, such as intestinal obstruction, perforation, or bleeding. All patient survived and no surgical intervention was involved during the prolonged follow-up (7.0 years. Conclusion The reported patients with nonspecific small bowel ulcers experienced benign courses, inconsistent with previous reports. Without extensive investigation, this disease can be confused with functional bowel disorders.

Linghu Enqiang

2011-05-01

306

Resultados de la cirugía laparoscópica en el tratamiento electivo de la enfermedad diverticular de colon / Results of laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of diverticular disease of the colon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english The laparoscopic approach is an alternative for the elective treatment of diverticular colon disease (DCD). Aim: To analyze the results of patients electively operated for DCD using a laparoscopic technique. Material and Methods: Data of patients with DCD operated using laparoscopy at the Catholic U [...] niversity of Chile Clinical Hospital were prospectively recorded from January 1999 to August 2006. Indications for surgery were repetitive crises of acute diverticulitis, the persistence of the symptoms or anatomic deformity after the first crisis and complicated diverticulitis (Hinchey 1-2) that responded to the medical treatment. The laparoscopic technique used five ports and the surgical specimen was extracted through a suprapubic approach. Results: One hundred and six patients aged 32 to 82 years (49% females) were operated in the study period. Fifty five percent had a previous abdominal surgery. The mean operative time was 213 minutes (range: 135-360). Four patients were converted to open surgery (3.7%). One or more early post-operative complications were observed in five patients (4.7%). The mean time for passing gases and reinitiate liquid diet was 1.7 and 2.4 days respectively. The median post operative stay after surgery was 4 days. There was no operative mortality. Mean follow-up time was 27 months and only one patient (0.9%) had a new episode of acute diverticular disease, with a satisfactory response to medical treatment. No patient has developed bowel obstruction. Conclusions: The laparoscopic approach is a safe alternative in the elective surgical treatment of DCD

Francisco, López-Köstner; Alejandro, Zárate; George, Pinedo; María E, Molina; Udo, Kronberg; Javiera, Pardo.

307

Resultados de la cirugía laparoscópica en el tratamiento electivo de la enfermedad diverticular de colon Results of laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of diverticular disease of the colon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The laparoscopic approach is an alternative for the elective treatment of diverticular colon disease (DCD. Aim: To analyze the results of patients electively operated for DCD using a laparoscopic technique. Material and Methods: Data of patients with DCD operated using laparoscopy at the Catholic University of Chile Clinical Hospital were prospectively recorded from January 1999 to August 2006. Indications for surgery were repetitive crises of acute diverticulitis, the persistence of the symptoms or anatomic deformity after the first crisis and complicated diverticulitis (Hinchey 1-2 that responded to the medical treatment. The laparoscopic technique used five ports and the surgical specimen was extracted through a suprapubic approach. Results: One hundred and six patients aged 32 to 82 years (49% females were operated in the study period. Fifty five percent had a previous abdominal surgery. The mean operative time was 213 minutes (range: 135-360. Four patients were converted to open surgery (3.7%. One or more early post-operative complications were observed in five patients (4.7%. The mean time for passing gases and reinitiate liquid diet was 1.7 and 2.4 days respectively. The median post operative stay after surgery was 4 days. There was no operative mortality. Mean follow-up time was 27 months and only one patient (0.9% had a new episode of acute diverticular disease, with a satisfactory response to medical treatment. No patient has developed bowel obstruction. Conclusions: The laparoscopic approach is a safe alternative in the elective surgical treatment of DCD

Francisco López-Köstner

2008-05-01

308

Small bowel transplantation in outbred rats / Transplante de intestino delgado em ratos não-isogênicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a evolução clínica do transplante de intestino delgado ortotópico em ratos não-isogênicos. MÉTODOS: Setenta e dois ratos Wistar não-isogênicos, com peso variando entre 250 e 300g, foram utilizados como doadores e receptores em 36 transplantes ortotópicos de intestino delgado sem [...] regime de imunossupressão. Os enxertos foram implantados nos receptores por meio de anastomose microvascular término-lateral aorta-aorta e porto-cava. A duração do procedimento, evolução clínica dos animais e sobrevida foram avaliados. Sobrevida menor que quatro dias foi considerada falha técnica. Os receptores foram sacrificados quando apresentaram sinais de rejeição grave do enxerto ou sobrevida maior que 120 dias. Necropsias foram realizadas em todos os receptores para avaliar alterações histopatológicas no enxerto. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio para o procedimento foi de 107 minutos. Seis receptores (16,7%) apresentaram falha técnica Vinte e sete receptores (75%) foram sacrificados por rejeição sendo dezenove (52,7%) entre o 7º e 15º dia de pós-operatório e oito (22,2%) entre o 34º e 47º. Análise histopatológica confirmou rejeição celular aguda severa nesses recipientes. Evolução sem complicações e sobrevida maior que 120 dias sem sinais de rejeição foi observada em três receptores (8,3%). CONCLUSÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado ortotópico em ratos Wistar não-isogênicos sem regime de imunossupressão apresenta evolução clínica variada. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical evolution of orthotopic small bowel transplantation in outbred rats. METHODS: Seventy-two outbred Wistar rats weighting from 250 to 300g were used as donor and recipient in 36 consecutives ortothopic small intestine transplantation without immunosuppression. The [...] graft was transplanted into the recipient using end-to-side aortic and portacaval microvascular anastomosis. Procedure duration, animal clinical course and survival were evaluated. Survival shorter than four days was considered technical failure. Recipients were sacrificed with signs of severe graft rejection or survival longer than 120 days. Necropsies were performed in all recipients to access histopathological changes in the graft. RESULTS: Median time for the procedure was 107 minutes. Six recipients (16.7%) presented technical failure. Twenty-seven recipients were sacrificed due to rejection, being nineteen (52.7%) between 7th and 15th postoperative day and eight (22.2%) between 34th and 47th postoperative day. Graft histology confirmed severe acute cellular rejection in those recipients. Uneventful evolution and survival longer than 120 days without rejection were observed in three recipients (8.3%). CONCLUSION: Intestinal transplantation in outbred rats without immunosuppressant regiment accomplishes variable clinical evolution.

Daniel Reis, Waisberg; André Dong Wong, Lee; Rafael Miyashiro Nunes dos, Santos; Eduardo Kenji, Mory; Anderson Lino, Costa; Edna Frasson de Souza, Montero; Eleazar, Chaib; Luis Augusto Carneiro, D' Albuquerque; Flavio Henrique Ferreira, Galvao.

2011-12-01

309

Heritability and familial aggregation of diverticular disease : a population-based study of twins and siblings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Little is known about the role of heritable factors in diverticular disease. We evaluated the contribution of heritable factors to the development of diverticular disease diagnosed at a hospitalization or outpatient visit.

Strate, Lisa L; Erichsen, Rune

2013-01-01

310

A roentgenologic study of diverticular throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diverticulum is considered as a common lesion involving any gastrointestinal tract from the pharynx to the rectum. We reviewed 5,806 cases of upper G-I series and 801 cases of double contrast barium enema during the period from Jan.1978 to Dec. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Jeonbug National University Hospital to analyze diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract. The results were as follows: 1. Roentgen examination of 5,806 esophagus, stomachs, duodenums and small bowels, and 801 colons during the past four years: diverticula of the esophagus, 60 cases (1.0%); diverticula of the stomach, 42 cases (0.7%); diverticula of the duodenum, 358 cases (6.2%); diverticula of the small bowel, 20 cases (0.3%); diverticula of the colon, 26 cases (3.2%). The location of diverticula in order of frequency was duodenum, colon, esophagus, stomach and small bowel. 2. The most common site of diverticula of each gastrointestinal tract was as follows: diverticula of the esophagus, middle portion (84.7%); diverticula of the stomach, the cardia (59.5%); diverticula of the duodenum, the second portion (81.3%); diverticula of the small bowel, the jejunum (96.4%)-especially the larger percentage were observed at the upper jejunum near the ligament of Treitz; diverticula of the colon, the right sided colon (80.8%)-the cecum and ascending colon (57.1%). 3. Diverticula may occur at any age. The majority of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract were observed over 40 years of age. Especially in diverticula of the duodenum and colon, their frequency increase with age. 4. Duodenal diverticula were observed more frequently in woman than in man but in diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon, male was more frequently affected. 5. The size of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract was variable. The majority of diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and small bowel were intermediate in size (10-49 mm). Diverticula of the colon were usually smaller than 10 mm. 6. Multiplicity of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract was 16.2% of 506 cases. In diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and small bowel, single lesion was more frequently found. On the other hand, the majority of diverticula of the colon were found as multiple lesion(69.2%)

Sohn, Myung Hee; Song, Ho Young; Lim, Kyu Yeob [College of Medicine, Jeonbug National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

1983-03-15

311

A roentgenologic study of diverticular throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diverticulum is considered as a common lesion involving any gastrointestinal tract from the pharynx to the rectum. We reviewed 5,806 cases of upper G-I series and 801 cases of double contrast barium enema during the period from Jan.1978 to Dec. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Jeonbug National University Hospital to analyze diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract. The results were as follows: 1. Roentgen examination of 5,806 esophagus, stomachs, duodenums and small bowels, and 801 colons during the past four years: diverticula of the esophagus, 60 cases (1.0%); diverticula of the stomach, 42 cases (0.7%); diverticula of the duodenum, 358 cases (6.2%); diverticula of the small bowel, 20 cases (0.3%); diverticula of the colon, 26 cases (3.2%). The location of diverticula in order of frequency was duodenum, colon, esophagus, stomach and small bowel. 2. The most common site of diverticula of each gastrointestinal tract was as follows: diverticula of the esophagus, middle portion (84.7%); diverticula of the stomach, the cardia (59.5%); diverticula of the duodenum, the second portion (81.3%); diverticula of the small bowel, the jejunum (96.4%)-especially the larger percentage were observed at the upper jejunum near the ligament of Treitz; diverticula of the colon, the right sided colon (80.8%)-the cecum and ascending colon (57.1%). 3. Diverticula may occur at any age. The majority of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract were obsehe entire gastrointestinal tract were observed over 40 years of age. Especially in diverticula of the duodenum and colon, their frequency increase with age. 4. Duodenal diverticula were observed more frequently in woman than in man but in diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon, male was more frequently affected. 5. The size of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract was variable. The majority of diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and small bowel were intermediate in size (10-49 mm). Diverticula of the colon were usually smaller than 10 mm. 6. Multiplicity of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract was 16.2% of 506 cases. In diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and small bowel, single lesion was more frequently found. On the other hand, the majority of diverticula of the colon were found as multiple lesion(69.2%)

312

["Uncompensated" small bowel obstruction in adults. Ultrasonographic findings of free fluid between loops and its prognostic value].  

Science.gov (United States)

Plain abdominal film is the method of choice in the assessment of intestinal obstruction. This technique exhibits some limitations and must be frequently correlated with other diagnostic tools. Of them, US has been recently reported to allow the morphofunctional study of intestinal loops with high accuracy. Nevertheless, the literature on the usefulness of US disregards a sign of great interest, i.e., extraluminal fluid between bowel loops. Our personal experience in 56 adult patients with surgically confirmed small bowel obstruction suggests that this findings, demonstrated by US in 43 patients (73%), identifies early intestinal wall damage with high sensitivity. US, depicting fluid between bowel loops, can distinguish the various stages of obstruction, with major consequences on clinical management. US and plain abdominal film findings allowed us to distinguish three stages of obstruction: simple obstruction (15/56 patients, 27%), uncompensated obstruction (26/56 patients, 46%), and complicated obstruction (15/56 patients, 27%). These three evolutive stages exhibit different severity and require different surgical approaches. PMID:7644729

Di Mizio, R; Grassi, R; Marchese, E; Basti, M; Di Campli, G; Catalano, O; Rotondo, A; Fanucci, A

1995-06-01

313

Intestinal growth adaptation and glucagon-like peptide 2 in rats with ileal--jejunal transposition or small bowel resection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), produced by enteroendocrine L-cells, regulates intestinal growth. This study investigates circulating and intestinal GLP-2 levels in conditions with altered L-cell exposure to nutrients. Rats were allocated to the following experimental groups: ileal-jejunal transposition, resection of the proximal or distal half of the small intestine, and appropriate sham-operated controls. After two weeks, ileal-jejunal transposition led to pronounced growth of the transposed segment and also of the remaining intestinal segments. Plasma GLP-2 levels increased twofold, whereas GLP-2 levels in the intestinal segments were unchanged. In resected rats with reduced intestinal capacity, adaptive small bowel growth was more pronounced following proximal resection than distal small bowel resection. Circulating GLP-2 levels increased threefold in proximally resected animals, and twofold in the distally resected group. Tissue GLP-2 levels were unchanged in resected rats. The data indicate that transposition of a distal part of the small intestine, and thereby exposure of L cells to a more nutrient-rich chyme, leads to intestinal growth. The adaptive intestinal growth is associated with increased plasma levels of GLP-2, and GLP-2 seems to act in an endocrine as well as a paracrine manner.

Thulesen, J; Hartmann, B

2001-01-01

314

Pathobiological Implications of Mucin (MUC) Expression in the Outcome of Small Bowel Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Mucins have been associated with survival in various cancer patients, but there have been no studies of mucins in small bowel carcinoma (SBC). In this study, we investigated the relationships between mucin expression and clinicopathologic factors in 60 SBC cases, in which expression profiles of MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6 and MUC16 in cancer and normal tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry. MUC1, MUC5AC and MUC16 expression was increased in SBC lesions compared to the normal epithelium, and expression of these mucins was related to clinicopathologic factors, as follows: MUC1 [tumor location (p?=?0.019), depth (p?=?0.017) and curability (p?=?0.007)], MUC5AC [tumor location (p?=?0.063) and lymph node metastasis (p?=?0.059)], and MUC16 [venous invasion (p?=?0.016) and curability (p?=?0.016)]. Analysis of 58 cases with survival data revealed five factors associated with a poor prognosis: poorly-differentiated or neuroendocrine histological type (p<0.001), lymph node metastasis (p<0.001), lymphatic invasion (p?=?0.026), venous invasion (p<0.001) and curative resection (p<0.001), in addition to expression of MUC1 (p?=?0.042), MUC5AC (p?=?0.007) and MUC16 (p<0.001). In subsequent multivariate analysis with curability as the covariate, lymph node metastasis, venous invasion, and MUC5AC and/or MUC16 expression were significantly related to the prognosis. Multivariate analysis in curative cases (n?=?45) showed that SBC with MUC5AC and/or MUC16 expression had a significantly independent high hazard risk after adjusting for the effects of venous invasion (hazard ratio: 5.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.8–17). In conclusion, the study shows that a MUC5AC-positive and/or MUC16-positive status is useful as a predictor of a poor outcome in patients with SBC. PMID:24722639

Shibahara, Hiroaki; Higashi, Michiyo; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yokoyama, Seiya; Kitazono, Iwao; Kurumiya, Yasuhiro; Narita, Michihiko; Kuze, Shingo; Kyokane, Takanori; Mita, Saburo; Arai, Toshiyuki; Kato, Takehito; Yuasa, Norihiro; Yamaguchi, Ryuzo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Hideaki; Baba, Satoshi; Rousseau, Karine; Batra, Surinder K.; Yonezawa, Suguru

2014-01-01

315

Diverticular Disease Is Associated With Increased Risk of Subsequent Arterial and Venous Thromboembolic Events  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Diverticular disease and cardiovascular disease share several risk factors. Inflammation associated with diverticular disease could predispose to cardiovascular disease. We assessed the association between a diagnosis of diverticular disease and subsequent arterial and venous thromboembolic events, adjusting for related comorbidities to explore a possible causal relationship.

Strate, Lisa L; Erichsen, Rune

2013-01-01

316

[Myeloid sarcoma of the small bowel with inversion of chromosome 16: a description of 3 clinical cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare malignant solid tumor presented with myeloid blast cells showing varying degrees of maturation. MS may have an extramedullary site, precede, or develop simultaneously with the clinical manifestations of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); it may also occur as an AML relapse. Besides AML, MS may be a manifestation of chronic myeloid leukemia or other chronic myeloproliferative diseases. Due to the fact that this disease is rare, the bulk of the literature on MS is presented with single descriptions of retrospective studies and clinical cases. The paper describes 3 cases of MS with inversion of chromosome 16 and small bowel lesion. PMID:25314783

Gavrilina, O A; Bariakh, E A; Parovichnikova, E N; Troitskaia, V V; Zvonkov, E E; Kravchenko, S K; Sinitsyna, M N; Obukhova, T N; Gitis, M K; Savchenko, V G

2014-01-01

317

Small-bowel MRI in children and young adults with Crohn disease: retrospective head-to-head comparison of contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small-bowel MRI based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences has been challenged by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of inflammatory bowel lesions and complications in patients with Crohn disease. To evaluate free-breathing DWI, as compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, in children, adolescents and young adults with Crohn disease. This retrospective study included 33 children and young adults with Crohn disease ages 17 ± 3 years (mean ± standard deviation) and 27 matched controls who underwent small-bowel MRI with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences and DWI at 1.5 T. The detectability of Crohn manifestations was determined. Concurrent colonoscopy as reference was available in two-thirds of the children with Crohn disease. DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI correctly identified 32 and 31 patients, respectively. All 22 small-bowel lesions and all Crohn complications were detected. False-positive findings (two on DWI, one on contrast-enhanced MRI), compared to colonoscopy, were a result of large-bowel lumen collapse. Inflammatory wall thickening was comparable on DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI. DWI was superior to contrast-enhanced MRI for detection of lesions in 27% of the assessed bowel segments and equal to contrast-enhanced MRI in 71% of segments. DWI facilitates fast, accurate and comprehensive workup in Crohn disease without the need for intravenous administration of contrast medium. Contrast-enhanced MRI is superior in terms of spatial resolution and multiplanar acquisition. (orig.)

318

Small-bowel MRI in children and young adults with Crohn disease: retrospective head-to-head comparison of contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small-bowel MRI based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences has been challenged by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection of inflammatory bowel lesions and complications in patients with Crohn disease. To evaluate free-breathing DWI, as compared to contrast-enhanced MRI, in children, adolescents and young adults with Crohn disease. This retrospective study included 33 children and young adults with Crohn disease ages 17 {+-} 3 years (mean {+-} standard deviation) and 27 matched controls who underwent small-bowel MRI with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences and DWI at 1.5 T. The detectability of Crohn manifestations was determined. Concurrent colonoscopy as reference was available in two-thirds of the children with Crohn disease. DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI correctly identified 32 and 31 patients, respectively. All 22 small-bowel lesions and all Crohn complications were detected. False-positive findings (two on DWI, one on contrast-enhanced MRI), compared to colonoscopy, were a result of large-bowel lumen collapse. Inflammatory wall thickening was comparable on DWI and contrast-enhanced MRI. DWI was superior to contrast-enhanced MRI for detection of lesions in 27% of the assessed bowel segments and equal to contrast-enhanced MRI in 71% of segments. DWI facilitates fast, accurate and comprehensive workup in Crohn disease without the need for intravenous administration of contrast medium. Contrast-enhanced MRI is superior in terms of spatial resolution and multiplanar acquisition. (orig.)

Neubauer, Henning; Evangelista, Laura; Wirth, Clemens; Beer, Meinrad [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Pabst, Thomas; Machann, Wolfram; Koestler, Herbert; Hahn, Dietbert [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Institute of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Dick, Anke [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Paediatrics, Wuerzburg (Germany)

2013-01-15

319

Crohn's disease at the small bowel imaging by the ultrasound-enteroclysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Summary: Crohn's disease is more likely a systemic disease governed by a shift in the immune response, thus affecting the whole MALT system. Its treatment should be as conservative as possible and surgery is usually taking place after complications like indolent fistulations, stenoses, bleeding, or bowel perforation started. Standard radiological methods to check the extent of the disease are loaded either with certain radiation exposure (enteroclysis, CT) or lack standardization (ultrasound). The aim of this small study was to evaluate the worth of ultrasound-enteroclysis in detecting the extent and complications of the Crohn's disease in surgically treated patients. Material and methods: Since 1997, when we started with the ultrasound-enteroclysis, 246 surgical performances were involved into our study. Out of them, 181 had conventional abdominal intestinal ultrasound as well as conventional enteroclysis within 1 week. Remaining 65 cases were diagnosed by the ultrasound-enteroclysis. Intestinal ultrasound was performed on the Ultramark 3000 HDI device with autofocussable convex 5 MHz and linear 7.5 MHz probes or nowadays ATL 5000 HDI, 7-12 MHz linear probe. No contrast enhancement was used. Enteroclysis was done with the Micropaque suspension diluted 1:1 with HP-7000 300 ml with its application rate up to 75 ml/min followed by HP-7000 solution 2000 ml, application rate of 120 ml/min. The patients with ultrasound-enteroclysis were applied HP 7000 solution only (2000 ml, rate 100 ml/s) via an enteroclysis catheter. All investigations were video-recorded. Results: Consent with the per-operative finding was reached in 162 from 181 enteroclyses and in 169 of 181 ultrasounds. Ultrasound-enteroclysis was precise in 61 cases from 65. Among these, 60 patients had the recurrence during the treatment proved by clinical and laboratory results. This re-activation was clearly revealed in 38 from 43 cases by enteroclysis, 41 from 43 by US and in 16 from 17 by ultrasound-enteroclysis. From 30 patients that developed acute complication non-responding to the conservative therapy (abscesses, fistulas and intestinal obstructions) there were 18 from 20 accurately diagnosed by enteroclysis, only 12 from 20 by US and 9 from 10 by US-enteroclysis. The differences were either statistically non-significant or there were too small numbers to give sensible statistical results, but low sensitivity of ultrasound in complications (p = 0.05). Conclusion: US-enteroclysis seems to became the standard examination of patients with Crohn's disease mainly in those with unclear conventional ultrasound. The most important fact is that this examination significantly decreases the radiation load when maintaining high sensitivity. This is very important namely in patients with Crohn's disease that require life-long observation and repeated examinations. This examination is much more easy to standardize than the conventional US.

Valek, Vlastimil [Department of Radiology, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: v.valek@fnbrno.cz; Kysela, Petr [Department of Surgery, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: pkysel@email.cz; Vavrikova, Marketa [Department of Radiology, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

2007-05-15

320

Crohn's disease at the small bowel imaging by the ultrasound-enteroclysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Summary: Crohn's disease is more likely a systemic disease governed by a shift in the immune response, thus affecting the whole MALT system. Its treatment should be as conservative as possible and surgery is usually taking place after complications like indolent fistulations, stenoses, bleeding, or bowel perforation started. Standard radiological methods to check the extent of the disease are loaded either with certain radiation exposure (enteroclysis, CT) or lack standardization (ultrasound). The aim of this small study was to evaluate the worth of ultrasound-enteroclysis in detecting the extent and complications of the Crohn's disease in surgically treated patients. Material and methods: Since 1997, when we started with the ultrasound-enteroclysis, 246 surgical performances were involved into our study. Out of them, 181 had conventional abdominal intestinal ultrasound as well as conventional enteroclysis within 1 week. Remaining 65 cases were diagnosed by the ultrasound-enteroclysis. Intestinal ultrasound was performed on the Ultramark 3000 HDI device with autofocussable convex 5 MHz and linear 7.5 MHz probes or nowadays ATL 5000 HDI, 7-12 MHz linear probe. No contrast enhancement was used. Enteroclysis was done with the Micropaque suspension diluted 1:1 with HP-7000 300 ml with its application rate up to 75 ml/min followed by HP-7000 solution 2000 ml, application rate of 120 ml/min. The patients with ultrasound-enteroclysis were applied HP 7000 solution only (2000 were applied HP 7000 solution only (2000 ml, rate 100 ml/s) via an enteroclysis catheter. All investigations were video-recorded. Results: Consent with the per-operative finding was reached in 162 from 181 enteroclyses and in 169 of 181 ultrasounds. Ultrasound-enteroclysis was precise in 61 cases from 65. Among these, 60 patients had the recurrence during the treatment proved by clinical and laboratory results. This re-activation was clearly revealed in 38 from 43 cases by enteroclysis, 41 from 43 by US and in 16 from 17 by ultrasound-enteroclysis. From 30 patients that developed acute complication non-responding to the conservative therapy (abscesses, fistulas and intestinal obstructions) there were 18 from 20 accurately diagnosed by enteroclysis, only 12 from 20 by US and 9 from 10 by US-enteroclysis. The differences were either statistically non-significant or there were too small numbers to give sensible statistical results, but low sensitivity of ultrasound in complications (p = 0.05). Conclusion: US-enteroclysis seems to became the standard examination of patients with Crohn's disease mainly in those with unclear conventional ultrasound. The most important fact is that this examination significantly decreases the radiation load when maintaining high sensitivity. This is very important namely in patients with Crohn's disease that require life-long observation and repeated examinations. This examination is much more easy to standardize than the conventional US

 
 
 
 
321

Transabdominal ultrasonography of the small bowel after oral administration of a non-absorbable anechoic solution: Comparison with barium enteroclysis  

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AIM: The aim of this study was to determine if oral administration of a non-absorbable anechoic solution conveys any benefit during abdominal ultrasound (US), with special reference to its accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three adult out-patients scheduled for small bowel barium enema (SBE) were included. The day before SBE all patients underwent abdominal US before and after oral administration of an isotonic non-absorbable electrolyte solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG-ELS). Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using SBE as a gold standard. RESULTS: After ingestion of PEG-ELS satisfactory distension of the intestinal lumen was obtained (11-25 mm) with sequential visualization of jejunoileal loops in 30.9 ± 17.3 min. In 15 out of 53 cases both US and SBE showed bowel changes characteristic of Crohn's disease. In three out of 53 cases both US and SBE showed neoplasms. In one out of 53 cases US was negative, SBE positive for local nodularity and ulcerations typical of Crohn's disease. In one out of 53 cases US was negative, SBE positive for macronodularity consistent with coeliac disease. In five out of 53 cases US was negative, while SBE was positive for mininodularity expressive of lymphoid hyperplasia. In 28 out of 53 cases both examinations were negative. CONCLUSION: PEG-ELS administration allows a thorough US investigation of the small bowel, with fair sensitivity (72%) and excellent specificity (100%). False negative findings are mainly due). False negative findings are mainly due to lymphoid hyperplasia, a feature of uncertain significance in adults. Cittadini G. et al.(2001)

322

Transabdominal ultrasonography of the small bowel after oral administration of a non-absorbable anechoic solution: Comparison with barium enteroclysis  

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AIM: The aim of this study was to determine if oral administration of a non-absorbable anechoic solution conveys any benefit during abdominal ultrasound (US), with special reference to its accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three adult out-patients scheduled for small bowel barium enema (SBE) were included. The day before SBE all patients underwent abdominal US before and after oral administration of an isotonic non-absorbable electrolyte solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG-ELS). Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated using SBE as a gold standard. RESULTS: After ingestion of PEG-ELS satisfactory distension of the intestinal lumen was obtained (11-25 mm) with sequential visualization of jejunoileal loops in 30.9 {+-} 17.3 min. In 15 out of 53 cases both US and SBE showed bowel changes characteristic of Crohn's disease. In three out of 53 cases both US and SBE showed neoplasms. In one out of 53 cases US was negative, SBE positive for local nodularity and ulcerations typical of Crohn's disease. In one out of 53 cases US was negative, SBE positive for macronodularity consistent with coeliac disease. In five out of 53 cases US was negative, while SBE was positive for mininodularity expressive of lymphoid hyperplasia. In 28 out of 53 cases both examinations were negative. CONCLUSION: PEG-ELS administration allows a thorough US investigation of the small bowel, with fair sensitivity (72%) and excellent specificity (100%). False negative findings are mainly due to lymphoid hyperplasia, a feature of uncertain significance in adults. Cittadini G. et al.(2001)

Cittadini, Giuseppe; Giasotto, Veronica; Garlaschi, Giacomo; De Cicco, Enzo; Gallo, Alessandra; Cittadini, Giorgio

2001-03-01

323

Italian consensus conference for colonic diverticulosis and diverticular disease  

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The statements produced by the Consensus Conference on Diverticular Disease promoted by GRIMAD (Gruppo Italiano Malattia Diverticolare, Italian Group on Diverticular Diseases) are reported. Topics such as epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment of diverticular disease (DD) in patients with uncomplicated and complicated DD were reviewed by a scientific board of experts who proposed 55 statements graded according to level of evidence and strength of recommendation, and approved by an independent jury. Each topic was explored focusing on the more relevant clinical questions. Comparison and discussion of expert opinions, pertinent statements and replies to specific questions, were presented and approved based on a systematic literature search of the available evidence. Comments were added explaining the basis for grading the evidence, particularly for controversial areas. PMID:25360320

Barbara, Giovanni; Pace, Fabio; Annese, Vito; Bassotti, Gabrio; Binda, Gian Andrea; Casetti, Tino; Colecchia, Antonio; Festi, Davide; Fiocca, Roberto; Laghi, Andrea; Maconi, Giovanni; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Annibale, Bruno

2014-01-01

324

Analysis of Surgical Outcomes of Diverticular Disease of the Colon  

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Full Text Available We analyzed retrospectively the surgical outcomes of diverticular diseases of the colon at the surgical division of Fukuyama Medical Center. Data were collected from 39 patients who underwent surgery for diverticular disease at Fukuyama Medical Center. Thirty-nine patients were admitted between 2005 and 2010. The mean age of the 39 patients was 63.6 years. The collected data included patient demographics, patient history, type of surgery and complications. Patients were divided into 2 groups, Elective vs. Emergent group, right vs. left colon group and laparotomy vs. laparoscopic approach. Multivariate analysis of the logistic model of morbidity revealed a significantly higher rate in the left colon and the Cox proportional hazards model clearly showed fewer postoperative hospital days with the laparoscopic approach. Surgical procedures should be decided in reference to the particular clinical and pathological features of diverticular disease to gain an acceptable morbidity and mortality rates.

Miyaso,Hideaki

2012-08-01

325

14C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated  

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Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had 14C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested 14C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption

326

Induction of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) by zinc bis (DL-hydrogen aspartate) reduces ischemic small-bowel tissue damage in rats.  

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The aim of the study was to determine whether the induction of HSP70 by Zn2+ is able to protect the small bowel of rats against ischemia. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (weight 200-300 g) were divided into four groups: (1) saline treatment for 24 h (n = 4); (2) Zn2+ treatment for 24 h (n = 4); (3) Saline pretreatment for 24 h and ischemia (n = 8); (4) Zn2+ pretreatment for 24 h and ischemia (n = 8). Pretreatment with Zn2+ was carried out by intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg zinc bis (DL-hydrogen aspartate) = 10 mg/kg Zn2+. Ischemia in a defined segment of the small bowel was produced by ligation of the mesenteric vein and artery and ligation of both ends of the segment. Tissue samples were collected before and 2, 4 and 6 h after ligation and investigated by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Twenty-four h after i.p. Zn2+ injection, the small bowel expressed increased HSP70 tissue levels. Histology with subsequent grading of ischemic tissue injury showed significantly decreased tissue necrosis after Zn2+ pretreatment and HSP70 induction compared with saline pretreated controls. In conclusion, this study proves that Zn2+ is inducing HSP70 in the small bowel in vivo and hereby able to protect the small bowel against ischemia. PMID:9049956

Töns, C; Klosterhalfen, B; Klein, H M; Rau, H M; Anurov, M; Oettinger, A; Schumpelick, V

1997-01-01

327

Ultrasonographic findings of the intestinal wall being changed by small bowel obstruction in rabbits: Correlation with histopathology  

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To evaluate the change of the wall of obstructed small bowel loop on ultrasonography (US), the changes of pre- and post-obstructed segments were examined by using US and correlated with histopathologic findings. Small bowel loops of seven rabbits were caused to be obstructed by surgery. One of them was sacrificed after 12 hours, and six were after 24 hours. The bowel loop of about 10 cm in length was cut and removed from obstructed site for evaluation with US and correlation with histopathologic findings. One control was also included and correlated by the same way, without bowel obstruction. After US examination, the bowel loops were opened at the mesenteric border. They were mounted into hard paper, and put in a plastic pail filled with 2 liters of physiologic saline. The specimens were imaged with 10 MHz linear array transducer with high definition zoom. After sonographic examination, the specimens were fixed with 10% formalin solution and stained by hematoxylin-eosin. The segments of small bowel showed three layers on US, which were hyperechoic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic from the mucosal surface. The total thickness of the pre-obstructed segments was 1.65 {+-} 0.15 mm, and of post-obstructed was 1.62 {+-} 0.14 mm; there was no significant difference (p>0.05). The ratio of the second hypoechoic layer to total thickness was 23% at pre-obstructed segments, 17% at post-obstructed, and 7% at the control. Under microscopic examination, the total thickness of the pre-obstructed segments were measured as 0.95 {+-} 0.12 mm, and that of the post-obstructed was measured as 0.9{+-} 0.11 mm; there was no significant difference (p>0.05). The total thickness on US was about 0.7 mm thicker than in microscopic findings, so considering the ratio of each layers, the first hyperechoic and the second hypoechoic layers were assumed to be mucosal layer, and the third hyperechoic layer was assumed to be submucosal and muscle layers. Histopathologic findings of both pre- and post-obstructed segments revealed increased goblet cells, lymphatic dilatation of villi at the mucosal layer, fibrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and infiltration of inflammatory cells at the submucosal layer. Only in pre-obstructed segments, the muscle layer showed muscle cell hypertrophy, a decreasing of interspace between inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle layers and also among intermuscular fibers. Hemorrhage, edema,and inflammatory cells infiltration were also observed in the muscle layer. There was no increased wall thickness of the pre-observed segments, and the proportion of the second hyperechoic layer was increased. The histopathologic findings of it corresponded to the lymphatic dilatation of the mucosal layer.

Nam, Deok Ho; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Kim, Youn Wha [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1999-09-15

328

Chromium-51-EDTA and technetium-99m-DTPA excretion for assessment of small bowel Crohn's disease  

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In the present study, 4 patients with radiologically documented Crohn's disease were given 100 ?Ci of Cr-51-EDTA and 5 mCi of Tc-99m-DTPA together orally in 10ml of water, and urine was collected during the following 24 hr period. Sequential imaging of the stomach and the GI tract was done with a LFOV gamma camera at 10 min intervals until the activity cleared the small bowel. The images failed to show any localization of the activity in any disease process and no extraintestinal accumulation site was observed scintigraphically. Mean 24 hr urinary excretion for Tc-99m-DTPA was 4.8 +- 2.6% comparable to that of Cr-51-EDTA in these patients. This study suggests that a comparable oral dose of Tc-99m-DTPA could be substituted for Cr-51-EDTA as a far more readily available agent for documenting small bowel Crohn's disease by quantitative assessment of its urinary excretion

329

Tuberculosis versus non-Hodgkins lymphomas involving small bowel mesentery: Evaluation with contrast-enhanced computed tomography  

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Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the specific computed tomography (CT imaging criteria for differentiating tuberculosis involving the small bowel mesenteric lymph nodes from lymphomas.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the anatomic distribution, CT enhancement patterns of lymphoma in 18 patients with mesenteric tuberculosis and 22 with untreated non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL involving small bowel mesentery (SBM. Of the 18 patients with tuberculosis, 9 had purely mesenteric tuberculous lymphadenopathy (TL, and 9 had mesenteric TL accompanied with tuberculous mesenteritis (TLM.RESULTS: CT showed that tuberculosis and NHL mainly affected lymph nodes in the body and root of SBM. Homogeneously enhanced lymph nodes in the body and root of SBM were found more often in the NHL (P < 0.05. Homogeneously mixed peripheral enhanced lymph nodes in the body of SBM were found more often in mesenteric TL and TLM (P < 0.05. Peripheral enhanced lymph nodes in the root of SBM were found more often in mesenteric TL and TLM (P < 0.01. “Sandwich sign” in the root of SBM was observed more often in NHL (P < 0.05.CONCLUSION: Anatomic lymph node distribution, sandwich sign and specific enhancement patterns of lymphadenopathy in SBM on CT images can be used in differentiating between tuberculosis and untreated NHL involving SBM.

Peng Dong, Bin Wang, Quan-Ye Sun, Hui Cui

2008-06-01

330

The antegrade colonogram: extending the small bowel follow through for children suspected of having colonic disease  

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Fifty pediatric patients suspected of having colonic disease were evaluated by antegrade barium study ('antegrade colonogram') and by colonoscopy with multiple biopsy specimens. Radiographic patterns of mucosal irregularity, nodularity, or ulceration, haustral asymmetry or edema, and narrowing of the colonic lumen were easily recognized. Correlation between colonographic patterns, biopsy findings, and gross appearance at colonoscopy showed the colonogram to have an overall accuracy of 77-88%. The antegrade colonogram is easily performed and often provides information regarding areas of the colon not seen by the endoscopist. In some cases it may also be useful in the evaluation of response to therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. (orig.)

331

Bariumexaminations of the small intestine and the colon in inflammatory bowel disease; Konventionelle Duenn- und Dickdarmdiagnostik bei entzuendlichen Darmerkrankungen  

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This article gives an overview of the possibilities of conventional radiography in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease of the small intestine and colon.Material and methods For more than 25 years we examine the small bowel employing enteroclysis with barium and methylcellulose and the colon with the usual double-contrast method. In the last 152 months 1560 small bowel enemas were performed. In the last 40 months 410 examinations of the colon were performed. There is a thirty percent decrease in enteroclysis examinations within the past 5 years,however, the rate of examinations with positive results increased from 46 to 57%.The proportion of the inflammatory small intestinal diseases (not only Crohn's disease) remained constant with 18%.Concerning the examinations of the colon for inflammatory disease we confirmed the diagnosis in seven cases.The radiation exposure for the enteroclysis in inflammatory diseases was 7mSv, for colon examinations 14 mSv. Barium examinations, especially of the stomach and colon are decreasing in frequency.Therefore the art of performance and interpretation might get lost.Enteroclysis, however, is still the method of reference for the other imaging methods.The advantages compared to the other imaging methods are the excellent presentation of the details of the mucosal surface and the observation of functional disorders. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung Diese Uebersichtsarbeit soll die Moeglichkeiten der konventionellen Roentgendiagnostik an Duenndarm und Kolon bei entzuendlichen Darmerkrankungen aufzeigen.Material und Methoden Seit mehr als 25 Jahren untersuchen wir den Duenndarm mit dem Enteroklysma mit Barium und Methylzellulose und das Kolon mit der ueblichen Doppelkontrastmethode. In den letzten 152 Monaten wurden 1560 Duenndarmuntersuchungen durchgefuehrt. In den letzten 40 Monaten erfolgten 410 Kolonuntersuchungen.Ergebnisse Bei den Duenndarmuntersuchungen wurde in den letzten 5 Jahren ein Rueckgang um 30% beobachtet, jedoch stieg die Rate der Untersuchungen mit positivem Ergebnis von 46 auf 57%.Der Anteil der entzuendlichen Duenndarmerkrankungen (nicht nur Morbus Crohn) blieb mit 18% konstant. Bei den Kolonuntersuchungen konnte in 7 Faellen die Frage nach einer entzuendlichen Darmerkrankung positiv beantwortet werden. Die Strahlenexposition betraegt beim Enteroklysma von entzuendlichen Erkrankungen 7mSv, beim Kolonkontrasteinlauf 14 mSv.Schlussfolgerung Die Bariumuntersuchungen, insbesondere von Magen und Kolon, sind ruecklaeufig, sodass eine handwerkliche und interpretative Kunst verloren gehen kann.Das Enteroklysma wird immer noch als Referenzmethode fuer andere bildgebende Verfahren angesehen.Die ausgezeichnete Darstellung der Darmoberflaeche und die Beurteilung der Funktion sind ein Vorteil gegenueber den anderen bildgebenden Verfahren. (orig.)

Antes, G. [Abteilung fuer Radiologie, Klinikum Kempten-Oberallgaeu g, GmbH, Kempten (Germany)

2003-01-01

332

Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Small bowel; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: intestin grele  

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The small bowel is a hollow organ involved in the transit and absorption of food. In relation to its anatomical location, a significant amount of this organ is exposed in whole or in part to ionizing radiation in external radiotherapy during abdominal or pelvic irradiation either for primary cancers or metastasis. The acute functional changes during external beam radiation are mainly leading to diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating. The main late side effects of irradiation of the small intestine are chronic diarrhea, malabsorption with steatorrhoea, abdominal spasms, intestinal obstruction, bleeding and fistulas. The architecture of the small intestine may be considered as parallel with a significant correlation between the irradiated volume of small bowel and the likelihood of acute toxicity, whatever the dose. The literature analysis recommends to consider the volume of small bowel receiving 15 Gy (threshold of 100 to 200 cm{sup 3}) but also 30 and 50 Gy (thresholds of 35 to 300 cm{sup 3}, depending on the level of dose considered). Modern techniques of conformal radiotherapy with modulated intensity will probably have beneficial impact on small bowel toxicity. (authors)

Martin, E. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France); Pointreau, Y.; Barillot, I. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan, hopital Bretonneau, CHRU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Roche-Forestier, S. [Centre Jean-Bernard, 72 - Le Mans (France); Barillot, I. [Universite Francois-Rabelais, centre de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan, CHU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France)

2010-07-15

333

Biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) after massive small bowel resection in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in organs and tissues, the morphometry of remnant intestinal mucosa and ponderal evolution in rats subjected to massive resection of the small intestine. Methods:Twenty-one Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 7 animals each. The short bowel (SB) group was subjected to massive resection of the small intestine; the control group (C) rats were not operated on, and soft intestinal handling was performed in sham rats. The animals were weighed weekly. On the 30th postoperative day, 0.1 mL of Na99mTcO4, with mean activity of 0.66 MBq was injected intravenously into the orbital plexus. After 30 minutes, the rats were killed with an overdose of anesthetic, and fragments of the liver, spleen, pancreas, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, thyroid, lung, heart, kidney, bladder, muscle, femur and brain were harvested. The biopsies were washed with 0.9% NaCl.,The radioactivity was counted using Gamma Counter WizardTM 1470, Perkin-Elmer. The percentage of radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ATI/g) was calculated. Biopsies of the remaining jejunum were analysed by HE staining to obtain mucosal thickness. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test for multiple comparisons were used, considering p99mTcO4 in the organs of the /sup>TcO4 in the organs of the groups studied (p>0.05). An increase in the weight of the SB rats was observed after the second postoperative week. The jejunal mucosal thickness of the SB rats was significantly greater than that of C and sham rats (p99mTcO4 was not affected by massive intestinal resection, suggesting that short bowel syndrome is not the cause of misleading interpretation, if an examination using this radiopharmaceutical is indicated. (author)

334

Complicated diverticular disease of the colon, do we need to change the classical approach, a retrospective study of 110 patients in southeast England  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Complicated diverticular disease of the colon imposes a serious risk to patient's life, challenge to surgeons and has cost implications for health authority. The aim of this study is to evaluate the management outcome of complicated colonic diverticular disease in a district hospital and to explore the current strategies of treatment. Methods This is a retrospective study of all patients who were admitted to the surgical ward between May 2002 and November 2006 with a diagnosis of complicated diverticular disease. A proforma of patients' details, admission date, ITU admission, management outcomes and the follow up were recorded from the patients case notes and analyzed. The mean follow-up was 34 months (range 6–60 months Results The mean age of patients was 72.7 years (range 39–87 years. Thirty-one men (28.18 % and Seventy-nine women (71.81% were included in this study. Male: female ratio was 1:2.5. Sixty-eight percent of patients had one or more co-morbidities. Forty-one patients (37.27% had two or more episodes of diverticulitis while 41.8% of them had no history of diverticular disease. Eighty-six percent of patients presented with acute abdominal pain while bleeding per rectum was the main presentation in 14%. Constipation and erratic bowel habit were the commonest chronic symptoms in patients with history of diverticular disease. Generalized tenderness was reported in 64.28% while 35.71% have left iliac fossa tenderness. Leukocytosis was reported in 58 patients (52.72%. The mean time from the admission until the start of operative intervention was 20.57 hours (range 4–96 hours. Perforation was confirmed in 59.52%. Mortality was 10.90%. Another 4 (3.63% died during follow up for other reasons. Conclusion Complicated diverticular disease carries significant morbidity and mortality. These influenced by patient-related factors. Because of high mortality and morbidities, we suggest the need to target a specific group of patients for prophylactic resection.

Subhas Gokulakkrishna

2008-01-01

335

A prospective randomized comparison between two MRI studies of the small bowel in Crohn's disease, the oral contrast method and MR enteroclysis.  

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The aim was to compare bowel distension and diagnostic properties of magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel with oral contrast (MRI per OS) with magnetic resonance enteroclysis (MRE). Forty patients with suspected Crohn's disease (CD) were examined with both MRI methods. MRI per OS was performed with a 6% mannitol solution and MRE with nasojejunal intubation and a polyethylenglycol solution. MRI protocol consisted of balanced fast field echo (B-FFE), T2 and T1 sequences with and without gadolinium. Two experienced radiologists individually evaluated bowel distension and pathological findings including wall thickness (BWT), contrast enhancement (BWE), ulcer (BWU), stenosis (BWS) and edema (EDM). The diameter of the small bowel was smaller with MRI per OS than with MRE (difference jejunum: 0.55 cm, p < 0.001; ileum: 0.35 cm, p < 0.001, terminal ileum: 0.09 cm, p = 0.08). However, CD was diagnosed with high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values: MRI per OS 88%, 89%, 89%, 89%; MRE 88%, 84%, 82%, 89%) and inter-observer agreement (MRI per OS k = 0.95; MRE k = 1). In conclusion, bowel distension was inferior in MRI per OS compared to MRE. However, both methods diagnosed CD with a high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. PMID:17483955

Negaard, Anne; Paulsen, Vemund; Sandvik, Leiv; Berstad, Audun Elnaes; Borthne, Arne; Try, Kirsti; Lygren, Idar; Storaas, Tryggve; Klow, Nils-Einar

2007-09-01

336

A prospective randomized comparison between two MRI studies of the small bowel in Crohn's disease, the oral contrast method and MR enteroclysis  

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The aim was to compare bowel distension and diagnostic properties of magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel with oral contrast (MRI per OS) with magnetic resonance enteroclysis (MRE). Forty patients with suspected Crohn's disease (CD) were examined with both MRI methods. MRI per OS was performed with a 6% mannitol solution and MRE with nasojejunal intubation and a polyethylenglycol solution. MRI protocol consisted of balanced fast field echo (B-FFE), T2 and T1 sequences with and without gadolinium. Two experienced radiologists individually evaluated bowel distension and pathological findings including wall thickness (BWT), contrast enhancement (BWE), ulcer (BWU), stenosis (BWS) and edema (EDM). The diameter of the small bowel was smaller with MRI per OS than with MRE (difference jejunum: 0.55 cm, p < 0.001; ileum: 0.35 cm, p < 0.001, terminal ileum: 0.09 cm, p = 0.08). However, CD was diagnosed with high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values: MRI per OS 88%, 89%, 89%, 89%; MRE 88%, 84%, 82%, 89%) and inter-observer agreement (MRI per OS k = 0.95; MRE k = 1). In conclusion, bowel distension was inferior in MRI per OS compared to MRE. However, both methods diagnosed CD with a high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. (orig.)

Negaard, Anne [Ullevaal University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine University of Oslo, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Paulsen, Vemund; Lygren, Idar [Ullevaal University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Oslo (Norway); Sandvik, Leiv [Ullevaal University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Oslo (Norway); Berstad, Audun E. [Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Borthne, Arne; Try, Kirsti [Ullevaal University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Storaas, Tryggve [Ullevaal University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Oslo (Norway); Klow, Nils-Einar [Ullevaal University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, Oslo (Norway)

2007-09-15

337

Small bowel fistula and its impact: incorrect placement of left ventricular assist device cannulas leads to severe intestinal complications.  

Science.gov (United States)

A young man presented with a chronic abdominal dermal irritation 4 years after implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD; Berlin heart excor). The LVAD was needed because of end-stage heart failure following a chronic parvovirus B19 Infection. The implantation of mechanical circulatory support systems (MCS) has nowadays become an accepted treatment modality for patients with end-stage heart failure. Recent literature shows several intestinal complications related to MCS, but no case presents the development of a small bowel fistula to the jejunum, transversal colon and stomach. We present a case of inaccurate placement of Berlin heart excor LVAD cannulas and its impact. This case emphasises the importance of correct placement of VAD cannulas to achieve an optimal long-term result. After surgical treatment the postoperative course was prolonged because of increasing peritonitis probably based on ongoing intraperitoneal chronic contamination with intestinal germs. The patient unfortunately deceased. PMID:22679225

Yilmaz, Kadir; Erpenbeck, Heinrich; Drews, Thorsten; Hetzer, Roland

2011-01-01

338

The ABC System: a simplified classification system for small bowel obstruction after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.  

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Small bowel obstruction (SBO) after bariatric surgery is well documented. Although infrequent, it can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The laparoscopic approach to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has gained widespread popularity for the treatment of morbid obesity since its first description in 1994. One of the theoretical advantages of a minimally invasive technique is reduced intraabdominal adhesions and, consequently, diminution in the incidence of SBO. However, the laparoscopic approach demonstrates a similar rate of obstruction to the open procedure. In this review, an electronic literature search was undertaken of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases for the period January 1990 to October 2006 on the history, presentation, clinical evaluation, preoperative diagnostic techniques, and management of SBO after LRYGB compared to the open approach. PMID:18040752

Tucker, Olga N; Escalante-Tattersfield, Tomas; Szomstein, Samuel; Rosenthal, Raul J

2007-12-01

339

Prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal en pacientes apendicectomizados por apendicitis aguda / Diverticular disease of the appendix in appendectomies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal es un hallazgo infrecuente en apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar la prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal en pacientes apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de ape [...] ndicitis aguda. Material y Método: Diseño de estudio: Estudio de corte transversal. Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Período de estudio: enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2008. Muestreo: No probabilístico de casos consecutivos. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión de los registros clínicos y de las piezas quirúrgicas de los pacientes sometidos a apendicectomía por diagnóstico clínico de apendicitis aguda. Resultados: Se estudiaron 11.472 apendicectomías. Noventa y cuatro pacientes presentaron enfermedad diverticular del apéndice (0,8%). La mediana de edad fue 40 años y el 62,8% fue género masculino. La enfermedad se presentó como: diverticulitis apendicular (45,7%), diverticulosis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (28,7%), diverticulitis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (17,0%), diverticulosis apendicular (5,3%) y pseudodiverticulosis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (3,2%). La morbilidad operatoria fue 12,7%. Un paciente presentó un adenocarcinoma del apéndice cecal asociado a la enfermedad diverticular del apéndice. Conclusión: La prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal es baja en nuestra población y con características que difieren a lo reportado por otros autores. Abstract in english Introduction: Diverticular disease of the appendix is an infrequent finding in the study of surgical specimens from patients operated on for clinically suspected acute appendicitis. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of diverticular disease of the appendix in patients who underwent appendectomi [...] es based on the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Material and Method: Design: Cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria: Patients who underwent appendectomies based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Studyperiod: january 2000 to december 2008. Sampling: Non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases. Methodology: A review was conducted of the clinical records and surgical specimens from patients who underwent appendectomies based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Results: Within the study period, 11.472 appendectomies were performed based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ninety-four patients presented diverticular disease of the appendix (0.8%). The median age was 40 years and 62.8% were male. The disease appeared as: appendicular diverticulitis (45.7%), appendicular diverticulosis with acute appendicitis (28.7%), appendicular diverticulitis with acute appendicitis (17.0%), appendicular diverticulosis (5.3%), and appendicular pseudodiverticulosis with acute appendicitis (3.2%). Operative morbidity was 12.7%. One patient presented an adenocarcinoma of the appendix associated with diverticular disease. Conclusion: The prevalence of diverticular disease of the appendix is low in our population and the characteristics are different to reported by other authors.

César, Muñoz C; Juan, Mansilla E; Juan Carlos, Roa S; Claudia, Heider C.

2011-12-01

340

Prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal en pacientes apendicectomizados por apendicitis aguda Diverticular disease of the appendix in appendectomies  

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Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal es un hallazgo infrecuente en apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar la prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal en pacientes apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Material y Método: Diseño de estudio: Estudio de corte transversal. Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Período de estudio: enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2008. Muestreo: No probabilístico de casos consecutivos. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión de los registros clínicos y de las piezas quirúrgicas de los pacientes sometidos a apendicectomía por diagnóstico clínico de apendicitis aguda. Resultados: Se estudiaron 11.472 apendicectomías. Noventa y cuatro pacientes presentaron enfermedad diverticular del apéndice (0,8%. La mediana de edad fue 40 años y el 62,8% fue género masculino. La enfermedad se presentó como: diverticulitis apendicular (45,7%, diverticulosis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (28,7%, diverticulitis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (17,0%, diverticulosis apendicular (5,3% y pseudodiverticulosis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (3,2%. La morbilidad operatoria fue 12,7%. Un paciente presentó un adenocarcinoma del apéndice cecal asociado a la enfermedad diverticular del apéndice. Conclusión: La prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal es baja en nuestra población y con características que difieren a lo reportado por otros autores.Introduction: Diverticular disease of the appendix is an infrequent finding in the study of surgical specimens from patients operated on for clinically suspected acute appendicitis. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of diverticular disease of the appendix in patients who underwent appendectomies based on the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Material and Method: Design: Cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria: Patients who underwent appendectomies based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Studyperiod: january 2000 to december 2008. Sampling: Non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases. Methodology: A review was conducted of the clinical records and surgical specimens from patients who underwent appendectomies based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Results: Within the study period, 11.472 appendectomies were performed based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ninety-four patients presented diverticular disease of the appendix (0.8%. The median age was 40 years and 62.8% were male. The disease appeared as: appendicular diverticulitis (45.7%, appendicular diverticulosis with acute appendicitis (28.7%, appendicular diverticulitis with acute appendicitis (17.0%, appendicular diverticulosis (5.3%, and appendicular pseudodiverticulosis with acute appendicitis (3.2%. Operative morbidity was 12.7%. One patient presented an adenocarcinoma of the appendix associated with diverticular disease. Conclusion: The prevalence of diverticular disease of the appendix is low in our population and the characteristics are different to reported by other authors.

César Muñoz C

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal en pacientes apendicectomizados por apendicitis aguda / Diverticular disease of the appendix in appendectomies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal es un hallazgo infrecuente en apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar la prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal en pacientes apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de ape [...] ndicitis aguda. Material y Método: Diseño de estudio: Estudio de corte transversal. Criterios de inclusión: Pacientes apendicectomizados por sospecha clínica de apendicitis aguda. Período de estudio: enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2008. Muestreo: No probabilístico de casos consecutivos. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión de los registros clínicos y de las piezas quirúrgicas de los pacientes sometidos a apendicectomía por diagnóstico clínico de apendicitis aguda. Resultados: Se estudiaron 11.472 apendicectomías. Noventa y cuatro pacientes presentaron enfermedad diverticular del apéndice (0,8%). La mediana de edad fue 40 años y el 62,8% fue género masculino. La enfermedad se presentó como: diverticulitis apendicular (45,7%), diverticulosis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (28,7%), diverticulitis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (17,0%), diverticulosis apendicular (5,3%) y pseudodiverticulosis apendicular con apendicitis aguda (3,2%). La morbilidad operatoria fue 12,7%. Un paciente presentó un adenocarcinoma del apéndice cecal asociado a la enfermedad diverticular del apéndice. Conclusión: La prevalencia de enfermedad diverticular del apéndice cecal es baja en nuestra población y con características que difieren a lo reportado por otros autores. Abstract in english Introduction: Diverticular disease of the appendix is an infrequent finding in the study of surgical specimens from patients operated on for clinically suspected acute appendicitis. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of diverticular disease of the appendix in patients who underwent appendectomi [...] es based on the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Material and Method: Design: Cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria: Patients who underwent appendectomies based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Studyperiod: january 2000 to december 2008. Sampling: Non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases. Methodology: A review was conducted of the clinical records and surgical specimens from patients who underwent appendectomies based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Results: Within the study period, 11.472 appendectomies were performed based on a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ninety-four patients presented diverticular disease of the appendix (0.8%). The median age was 40 years and 62.8% were male. The disease appeared as: appendicular diverticulitis (45.7%), appendicular diverticulosis with acute appendicitis (28.7%), appendicular diverticulitis with acute appendicitis (17.0%), appendicular diverticulosis (5.3%), and appendicular pseudodiverticulosis with acute appendicitis (3.2%). Operative morbidity was 12.7%. One patient presented an adenocarcinoma of the appendix associated with diverticular disease. Conclusion: The prevalence of diverticular disease of the appendix is low in our population and the characteristics are different to reported by other authors.

César, Muñoz C; Juan, Mansilla E; Juan Carlos, Roa S; Claudia, Heider C.

342

Autoimmune enteropathy with a CD8+ CD7- T-cell small bowel intraepithelial lymphocytosis: case report and literature review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult onset autoimmune enteropathy (AIE is a rare condition characterized by diarrhea refractory to dietary therapy diagnosed in patients with evidence of autoimmune conditions. Auto-antibodies to gut epithelial cells and other tissues are commonly demonstrated. Despite increasing awareness, the pathogenesis, histologic, immunologic and clinical features of AIE remain uncertain. There remains controversy regarding the diagnostic criteria, the frequency and types of auto-antibodies and associated autoimmune conditions, and the extent and types of histologic and immunologic abnormalities. CD4+ T-cells are thought to at least responsible for this condition; whether other cell types, including B- and other T-cell subsets are involved, are uncertain. We present a unique case of AIE associated with a CD8+CD7- lymphocytosis and review the literature to characterize the histologic and immunologic abnormalities, and the autoantibodies and autoimmune conditions associated with AIE. Case Presentation We present a case of immune mediated enteropathy distinguished by the CD8+CD7- intra-epithelial and lamina propria lymphocytosis. Twenty-nine cases of AIE have been reported. The majority of patients had auto-antibodies (typically anti-enterocyte, preferential small bowel involvement, and predominately CD3+ CD4+ infiltrates. Common therapies included steroids or immuno-suppressive agents and clinical response with associated with histologic improvement. Conclusions AIE is most often characterized (1 IgG subclass anti-epithelial cell antibodies, (2 preferential small bowel involvement, and (3 CD3+ alphabeta TCR+ infiltrates; there is insufficient evidence to conclude CD4+ T-cells are solely responsible in all cases of AIE.

Bishu Shrinivas

2011-11-01

343

Small bowel enema - indications and diagnostic yield in a ten year material; Roentgen tynntarm med sonde - indikasjoner og diagnostisk utbytte i et tiaarsmateriale  

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Background. We wanted to evaluate the indication for ordering small bowel enema and whether specific clinical symptoms and signs are associated with the diagnostic yield. Material and methods. Medical charts and requisition slips for 241 patients examined with small bowel enema at Harstad Hospital from 1986 to 1995 were reviewed. Results. The most common symptom leading to small bowel radiography was pain, registered in almost three fourths of the patients, about one half reported diarrhoea. Elevated sedimentation rate and occult blood in the faeces were reported in one fourth of the patients. For a large proportion of the patients there was no information about adequate preliminary tests in the medical charts. Normal radiography was reported in three fourths of the patients. Lesions consistent with Crohn's disease were found in one of eight patients. No symptoms or signs except for elevated sedimentation rate, clearly indicate a positive diagnostic finding. Many requisition slips did not contain available information. Interpretation. Small bowel radiography is performed on wide indications. It is difficult to make a careful selection of patients based on reported symptoms and signs. However, some preliminary tests are helpful and should be done.

Husnes, Kjell Vidar; Kildahl-Andersen, Odd; Kildahl-Andersen, Randi

2001-07-01

344

Preoperative identification of bleeding site caused by angiodysplasia of the small bowel by means of selective arteriography and application of methylene blue  

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Full Text Available Background. Small bowel hemorrhages are rare and account for 2-10% of all gastrointestinal bleedings. In case that surgery is necessary, identification of the bleeding site is the most important problem. Case report. We presented here the case of a 65-year old man, admitted for urgent care of massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding. After reanimation and normalization of vital parameters, selective arteriography was done. A contrast extravasation site was identified at the level of jejunal branches of a. mesenterica superior and labeled by means of methylene blue application. Immediately after we performed conservative resection of the labeled jejunal loop in 10 cm length and terminoterminal anastomosis. The preparation was sent for histopathologic examination - small bowel angiodysplasia was identified. The patient was monitored in three month intervals in the next two years and new bleeding events were not observed. Conclusion. Bleeding caused by small bowel angiodysplasia is a significant diagnostic problem in cases in whom urgent surgery is required. Combined preoperative selective arteriography and methylene blue application make possible precise identification of the bleeding site as well as conservative small bowel surgery, avoiding thus the risk and danger of malabsorption syndrome.

Stanojevi? Goran

2010-01-01

345

Conservative management of small bowel perforation in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV  

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Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders caused by collagen synthesis defects. EDS type IV, or vascular EDS, is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the type III pro-collagen gene (COL3A1. Common complications of EDS type IV include gastrointestinal bleeding and bowel perforations, posing diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas for both surgeons and gastroenterologists. Here, we describe a complicated case of EDS type IV in a 35-year-old caucasian female who presented with overt gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient had a prior history of spontaneous colonic perforation, and an uncomplicated upper endoscopy was performed. A careful ileoscopy was terminated early due to tachycardia and severe abdominal pain, and a subsequent computed tomography scan confirmed the diagnosis of ileal perforation. The patient was managed conservatively, and demonstrated daily improvement. At the time of hospital discharge, no further episodes of gastrointestinal blood loss had occurred. This case highlights the benefit of conservative management for EDS patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. It is recommended that surgical treatment should be reserved for patients who fail conservative treatment or in cases of hemodynamic instability. Finally, this case demonstrates the necessity for a higher threshold of operative or endoscopic interventions in EDS type IV patients.

Satya Allaparthi

2013-01-01

346

14C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had 14C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested 14C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05). In Group II, the percentage reductions were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p greater than 0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption

347

Correlation of MRI-determined small bowel Crohn’s disease categories with medical response and surgical pathology  

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Full Text Available AIM: To determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be used to categorize small bowel Crohn’s disease (SB CD into groups that correlate with response to medical therapy and surgical pathology.METHODS: Data was collected from all patients with MRI evidence of SB CD without significant colonic disease over a 32-mo period. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical findings, evaluated each MRI and grouped them based on bowel wall thickness and wall enhancement. These categories were: (1 “fibrosis”, (2 “mild segmental hyper-enhancement and mild wall thickening”, (3 “mild segmental hyper-enhancement and marked wall thickening”, (4 “marked segmental transmural hyper-enhancement”. Patient response to additional medical therapy post-MRI was prospectively determined at 8-wk. Non-responders underwent endoscopy and were offered therapeutic endoscopy or surgery. Surgical pathology was assessed against the MRI category.RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were included. Females and category “2” patients were more likely, and patients with luminal narrowing and hold-up less likely, to respond to medical therapy (P < 0.05. Seventeen patients underwent surgery. The surgical pathological findings of fibrosis and the severity of inflammation correlated with the MRI category in all cases.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that SB CD can be grouped by the MRI findings and that these groups are associated with patients more likely to respond to continued medical therapy. The MRI categories also correlated with the presence and level of intestinal inflammation and fibrosis on surgical pathology, and may be of prognostic use in the management of CD patients.

Ian Craig Lawrance, Christopher J Welman, Peter Shipman, Kevin Murray

2009-07-01

348

Patients' selection for treatment of caliceal diverticular stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy  

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Symptoms of caliceal diverticular stones are commonly associated with pain, recurrent urinary tract infection and hematuria. The aim of this study is to select the proper patient for the application of more successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) as a treatment of caliceal diverticular stone. 16 patients with caliceal diverticular stones were treated with ESWL, and all patients had single caliceal diverticulum. The diagnosis of caliceal diverticulum with stones was made by intraveneous pyelography to all patients. On these intravenous pyelogram, we also classified diverticular type, whether the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, diverticular site and stone number and size. All patients were followed after ESWL by plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder and interviewed. Of all patients 44% was shown stone-free completely, also 83% was rendered symptom-free. All patients whose diverticular neck connected with urinary tract patently on the intraveneous pyelogram became stone-free. Of solitary stone 60% and multiple stones (more than 2) 17% became symptom-free. The patients with infection before ESWL 75% had residual stones, of these patients 33% had slightly flank pain, and 25% of patients with stones recurred become stone-free. We propose that more successful ESWL for patients with caliceal diverticular stones select satisfactory patients including that the diverticular neck is connected with urinary tract patently, solitary stone and no infection simultaneously

349

A randomised, controlled study of small intestinal motility in patients treated with sacral nerve stimulation for irritable bowel syndrome  

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BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is among the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. In selected patients with severe diarrhoea-predominant or mixed IBS subtypes sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) alleviates IBS-specific symptoms and improves quality of life. The mode of action, however, remains unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of SNS on small intestinal motility in IBS patients. METHODS: Twenty patients treated with SNS for severe diarrhoea-predominant or mixed IBS were included in a randomised, controlled, crossover study. The neurostimulator was turned ON or OFF for the first one month and then to the opposite setting for the next month. Gastrointestinal transit patterns were investigated with the Motility Tracking System-1 (MTS-1) at the end of each the ON and OFF period. Primary endpoint was change in the velocity of the magnetic pill within the small intestine. Statistical testing was performed with Wilcoxon's rank sum test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The median velocity of the magnetic pill through the small intestine in the fasting state was not significantly different between periods with and without SNS (Group ON-OFF: median change 0 m/h (range -1.07, 0.63), Group OFF-ON: median change 0.27 m/h (range -0.59, 1.12)) (p = 0.25). Neither, was the median velocity of the magnetic pill through the small intestine in the postprandial state significantly different between periods with and without SNS (Group ON-OFF: median change -0.13 m/h (range -0.46, 0.23), Group OFF-ON: median change 0.015 m/h (range -0.48, 0.59)) (p = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Even though SNS may reduce symptoms of diarrhoea-predominant and mixed IBS, it has no detectable effect on small intestinal transit patterns. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical.trials.gov, (NCT00919672).

Fassov, Janne; Lundby, Lilli

2014-01-01

350

The case of the diverticular bladder tumor treated with diverticulectomy  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The majority of diverticular bladder tumors (DBT are urothelial. Due to the lack of the muscular layer in the diverticulum, the progression of these tumors is easier than in the bladder wall. Case report: The case of invasive DBT with painless hematuria is presented. The patient was treated with diverticulectomy. Conclusion: Unifocal Stage-T3 DBTs can be successfully treated with diverticulectomy.

Pej?i? T.

2013-01-01

351

Optimal operative treatment in acute septic complications of diverticular disease.  

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There is still no unanimity regarding optimal operative treatment in acute septic complications of diverticular disease. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors influencing inpatient mortality in 100 patients who underwent urgent laparotomy for such complications. Thirteen preoperative and operative factors including operation type were investigated and odds ratios (OR) were calculated to indicate the approximate risk associated with each factor. A significant advantage f...

Yeo, R.

1990-01-01

352

Small-bowel necrosis complicating a cytomegalovirus-induced superior mesenteric vein thrombosis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Superior mesenteric venous thrombosis as a result of acute cytomegalovirus infection is rare, with only a few cases reported in the literature. Case presentation We present the case of a 40-year-old Caucasian man who was admitted to our hospital with a 5-day history of fever. His serological test and pp65 antigen detection of cytomegalovirus were positive, suggesting acute infection. On the sixth day after his admission, the patient complained of acute, progressive abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis. An emergency laparotomy showed diffuse edema and ischemic lesions of the small bowel and its associated mesentery with a 50-cm-long segmental infarction of the proximal jejunum. An extensive enterectomy of about 100 cm of jejunum that included the necrotic segment was performed, followed by an end-to-end anastomosis. Anti-coagulation therapy was administered pre-operatively in the form of small-fractionated heparin and continued postoperatively. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the 11th postoperative day. Conclusion Acute cytomegalovirus infection can contribute to the occurrence of mesenteric venous thrombosis in immunocompetent patients. It is important for physicians and internists to be aware of the possible thrombotic complications of cytomegalovirus infection. A high level of clinical suspicion is essential to successfully treat a potentially lethal condition such as superior mesenteric venous thrombosis.

Kalaitzis John

2012-04-01

353

Indicaciones resultados alejados del tratamiento quirúrgico electivo de la enfermedad diverticular del colon sigmoides Indications and long term results of elective surgery for sigmoid diverticular disease  

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Full Text Available Background: There are no clear guidelines for the indication of elective surgery in sigmoid diverticular disease. Aim: To analyze the indications and long term results of elective surgery in sigmoid diverticular disease. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of 100 patients (age range 25-86 years, 51 male with sigmoid diverticular disease, operated in a lapse of 22 years. Sixty seven patients answered a survey about their disease at the end of follow up. Results: Among patients aged more than 70 years, there was a higher proportion of women. The main indication for surgery was recurrent diverticulitis in 54 patients, followed by diverticular fistula in 19. A sigmoidectomy was performed in 91 patients. Stapled anastomosis was performed in half of these patients. No patient died or required reoperation in the immediate postoperative period. During a follow up ranging from 8 to 280 months, 28 patients died for causes not associated with diverticular disease and five were lost. Those patients that answered the survey were free of symptoms related to diverticular disease and did not require new operations. Conclusions: In patients with sigmoid diverticular disease and recurrent diverticulitis or with fistulae, the long term results of surgery are satisfactory (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1037-42

Guillermo Bannura C

2005-09-01

354

Indicaciones resultados alejados del tratamiento quirúrgico electivo de la enfermedad diverticular del colon sigmoides / Indications and long term results of elective surgery for sigmoid diverticular disease  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: There are no clear guidelines for the indication of elective surgery in sigmoid diverticular disease. Aim: To analyze the indications and long term results of elective surgery in sigmoid diverticular disease. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of 100 patients (age range 25-86 yea [...] rs, 51 male) with sigmoid diverticular disease, operated in a lapse of 22 years. Sixty seven patients answered a survey about their disease at the end of follow up. Results: Among patients aged more than 70 years, there was a higher proportion of women. The main indication for surgery was recurrent diverticulitis in 54 patients, followed by diverticular fistula in 19. A sigmoidectomy was performed in 91 patients. Stapled anastomosis was performed in half of these patients. No patient died or required reoperation in the immediate postoperative period. During a follow up ranging from 8 to 280 months, 28 patients died for causes not associated with diverticular disease and five were lost. Those patients that answered the survey were free of symptoms related to diverticular disease and did not require new operations. Conclusions: In patients with sigmoid diverticular disease and recurrent diverticulitis or with fistulae, the long term results of surgery are satisfactory (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1037-42)

Guillermo, Bannura C; Jaime, Contreras P; Carlos, Melo L; Alejandro, Barrera E; Daniel, Soto C; Juan, Mansilla E..

355

The Laparoscopic Approach in the Treatment of Diverticular Colon Disease  

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Background and Objectives: The experience with treatment of diverticular colon disease (DCD) by the laparoscopic method is analyzed. Methods: Between January 1994 and July 1997, a group of 22 patients with criteria for symptomatic diverticular disease in the descending and sigmoid colon underwent laparoscopy with average resections of 40 cm. Intra-abdominal mechanical anastomosis completed the procedure. Results: The operative morbidity was 28%. Two cases, in acute diverticulitis phase, were reconverted to open surgery, and three cases presented postoperative rectorrhagia which ceased spontaneously. No long-term complications have been found. Postoperative hospitalization was 4-8 days (mean 5.5) and mean operative time was 165 minutes (range 120-240). Conclusions: Nevertheless, the learning curve precise to practice this type of surgery, the acceptable morbity-mortality rates which the laparoscopic method presents, especially with these high-risk groups of patients (age > 65, high blood pressure, etc), encouraged us to modified the criteria indicating surgery for the disease, offering first choice operative treatment with efficiency and safety. However, we feel that those patients with acute complications of diverticular colon disease must be excluded initially for laparoscopic approach. PMID:9876730

del Olmo, J. C. Martin; Blanco, J. I.; de la Cuesta, C.; Atienza, R.

1998-01-01

356

Small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis without inflammatory bowel disease is genetically different from large duct disease  

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Background and Aims: Small duct primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is phenotypically a mild version of large duct PSC, but it is unknown whether these phenotypes share aetiology. We aimed to characterize their relationship by investigating genetic associations in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) complex, which represent the strongest genetic risk factors in large duct PSC. Methods: Four classical HLA loci (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C and HLA-DRB1) were genotyped in 87 small duct PSC patients, 485 ...

Næss, S.; Bjo?rnsson, E.; Anmarkrud, Ja; Mamari, Sa; Juran, Bd; Lazaridis, Kn; Chapman, R.; Bergquist, A.; Melum, E.; Marsh, Sge; Schrumpf, E.; Lie, Ba; Boberg, Km; Karlsen, Th; Hov, Jr

2014-01-01

357

Health related quality of life after surgery for colonic diverticular disease  

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Full Text Available Diverticular disease (DD of the colon is very common in developed countries and is ranked the fifth most important gastrointestinal disease worldwide. The management of acute diverticulitis without perforation and peritonitis is still debated. Health related quality of life (HRQL, subjectively perceived by patients, is becoming a major issue in the evaluation of any therapeutic intervention, mainly in patients with chronic disease. To date only a few published studies can be found on Medline examining HRQL in patients with DD. The aim of this study was to review the impact of surgery for DD on HRQL. All Medline articles regarding HRQL after surgery for colonic DD, particularly those comparing different surgical approaches, were reviewed. DD has a negative impact on HRQL with lower scores in bowel function and systemic symptoms. Both surgery-related complications and disease activity have a significant impact on patients’ HRQL. While no significant differences in HRQL between different operations for DD in non-randomized studies were revealed, the only prospective double-blind randomized study that compared laparoscopic and open colectomy found that patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy had significantly reduced major postoperative complication rates and subsequently had better HRQL scores. Formal assessment of HRQL could be a good instrument in the selection of appropriate patients for elective surgery as well as in the assessment of surgical outcome.

Imerio Angriman, Marco Scarpa, Cesare Ruffolo

2010-08-01

358

Evaluation of small-bowel transit for solid and liquid test meal in healthy men and women  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of severe functional gastrointestinal motility disorders requires an investigation of the entire gastrointestinal tract. This should be possible with a single radionuclide imaging study. The purpose of this study was (1) to define normal values of small-bowel transit in men and women and (2) to assess a possible difference between gender or test meal, since it has been shown that women have slower gastric emptying than men, and gastric emptying of solids is slower than liquids. A standard gastric-emptying test for a solid (technetium-99m sulphur colloids, 230 Kcal) and liquid (indium-111 DTPA water) test meal was performed in 12 healthy male and 12 healthy female volunteers. After 135 min, the volunteer was place in the supine position for static imaging of the abdomen every 15 min for 6 h. Decay and crossover-corrected geometric mean gastric-emptying data were fit to a modified power exponential function to determine the 10% stomach emptying time for solids and liquids separately. An ROI was drawn around the caecum and ascending colon to determine the arrival time of at least 10% of the solid and liquid test meal. Ten percent small-bowel transit time (10% SBTT) and orocaecal transit time (OCTT) were calculated. The OCTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 294.6{+-}18.8; 301.3{+-}24.5; 294.6{+-}18.8 and 301.3{+-}24.5 min. The 10% SBTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 280.3{+-}18.4; 280.6{+-}24.0; 288.2{+-}18.9 and 297.4{+-}24.4 (means{+-}SEM) min. We observed a simultaneous transfer of solids and liquids from the terminal ileum to caecum (correlation coefficient 0.90). There is no statistically significant difference in SBTT between gender or solids and liquids. In contrast to the gastric-emptying time, the SBTT of solids a