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1

Diverticular Disease of the Small Bowel  

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A diverticulum is a bulging sack in any portion of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common site for the formation of diverticula is the large intestine. Small intestine diverticular disease is much less common than colonic diverticular disease. The most common symptom is non-specific epigastric pain and a bloating sensation. Major complications include diverticulitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, acute perforation, pancreatic or biliary (in the case of duodenal diverticula) disease, intesti...

Ferreira-aparicio, Francisco Emilio; Gutie?rrez-vega, Rafael; Ga?lvez-molina, Yolanda; Ontiveros-nevares, Patricia; Athie-gu?tierrez, Ce?sar; Montalvo-jave?, Eduardo E.

2012-01-01

2

Diverticular Disease of the Small Bowel  

Science.gov (United States)

A diverticulum is a bulging sack in any portion of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common site for the formation of diverticula is the large intestine. Small intestine diverticular disease is much less common than colonic diverticular disease. The most common symptom is non-specific epigastric pain and a bloating sensation. Major complications include diverticulitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, acute perforation, pancreatic or biliary (in the case of duodenal diverticula) disease, intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, localized abscess, malabsorption, anemia, volvulus and bacterial overgrowth. We describe the clinical case of a 65-year-old female patient with a diagnosis on hospital admittance of acute appendicitis and a intraoperative finding of diverticular disease of the small intestine, accompanied by complications such as intestinal perforation, bleeding and abdominal sepsis. This was surgically treated with intestinal resection and ileostomy and a subsequent re-intervention comprising perforation of the ileostomy and stomal remodeling. The patient remained hospitalized for approximately 1 month with antibiotics and local surgical wound healing, as well as changes in her diet with food supplements and metabolic control. She showed a favorable clinical evolution and was dismissed from the hospital to her home. We include here a discussion on trends in medical and surgical aspects as well as early handling or appropriate management to reduce the risk of fatal complications. PMID:23185148

Ferreira-Aparicio, Francisco Emilio; Gutiérrez-Vega, Rafael; Gálvez-Molina, Yolanda; Ontiveros-Nevares, Patricia; Athie-Gútierrez, César; Montalvo-Javé, Eduardo E.

2012-01-01

3

Small intestinal amyloidosis: a rare cause of diverticular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systemic amyloidosis frequently involves the small intestine. However, its association with diverticular disease has been seldom reported to date. To draw attention to this rare but potentially harmful association, we herein present an additional case of small bowel diverticular disease associated with amyloidosis. PMID:25002983

Groisman, Gabriel M; Cohen, Hector I

2014-01-01

4

Small Intestinal Amyloidosis: A Rare Cause of Diverticular Disease  

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Systemic amyloidosis frequently involves the small intestine. However, its association with diverticular disease has been seldom reported to date. To draw attention to this rare but potentially harmful association, we herein present an additional case of small bowel diverticular disease associated with amyloidosis.

Groisman, Gabriel M.; Cohen, Hector I.

2014-01-01

5

Sigmoid motility in diverticular disease and the irritable bowel syndrome.  

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Intraluminal pressures were measured with four open ended, water perfused tubes in the fasting state and after a standard liquid meal (400 KCal, 375 ml, protein 15 g, carbohydrate 55 g, lipid 13.4 g) in six patients with sigmoid diverticular disease, 20 with the irritable bowel syndrome and in 13 controls. The pressure sensors were positioned in the true sigmoid colon at colonoscopy at 25, 35, 45, and 55 cm from the anus. Colonic pressures were significantly higher in diverticular disease tha...

Trotman, I. F.; Misiewicz, J. J.

1988-01-01

6

Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Is Associated With Diverticular Disease: A Population-Based Study  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVES A subset of patients with colonic diverticular disease have chronic gastrointestinal symptoms, and some have a clinical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but whether IBS and diverticular disease are linked is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate this association in the community. METHODS A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted by mailing a valid symptom questionnaire to the eligible residents of Olmsted County, MN, aged 30 –95 years. Colonic diverticular disease (diverticulosis and diverticulitis) was ascertained through a review of the complete medical history of all responders. Subjects with at least one relevant test (colonoscopy, computed tomography (CT) scan, CT colonography, or barium enema) were included. IBS was defined using Rome II criteria. RESULTS Among 2,267 eligible respondents, there were 1,712 subjects who had undergone colon testing (76%): 919 women (54%); mean (±s.d.) age 65 (±11 years). Colonic diverticular disease was identified in 44.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 42.1–46.8) of the subject. IBS was reported by 8.8% (95% CI 6.9 –11.0) of men and 17.0% (95% CI 14.6 –19.6) of women. After adjusting for age and gender, the presence of IBS was associated with an increased odds for diverticulosis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 – 2.4) but not diverticulitis (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.9 –3.2). In those 65 years of age or older, the presence of IBS was associated with a ninefold higher odds for diverticulosis (OR = 9.4, 95% CI 5.8–15.1). Relative to the non-IBS subgroup, diarrhea-predominant IBS and mixed IBS were significantly associated with an increased odds for diverticular disease (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.2; OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.0 –6.4, respectively). CONCLUSIONS There is a significantly increased odds for colonic diverticulosis in subjects with IBS (relative to those without IBS). These results suggest that IBS and colonic diverticular disease may be connected. PMID:19861955

Jung, Hye-kyung; Choung, Rok Seon; Locke, G. Richard; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Talley, Nicholas J.

2010-01-01

7

Small bowel hamartoma: a huge diverticulum of small bowel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A-20-year old male, with no significant medical history, presented with clinical features mimicking a perforated acute appendicitis. Because of features of peritonitis, a laparotomy was performed which showed a segment of small bowel with multiple large diverticula and mesenteric cysts. A segmental small bowel resection was performed. The patient made an uneventful recovery from surgery. Histology revealed features of a small bowel hamartoma. PMID:24454405

Ebdewi, Hamdi; Eltweri, Amar M; Salama, Yahya; Gorgees, Neshtman; Naidu, Leena; Bowrey, David J

2013-01-01

8

Analysis of small bowel tumors.  

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OBJECTIVES Small bowel tumors are remarkably rare. The colon is affected 40 times than the small bowel. Even though the small intestine accounts for 80% of the length and 90% of the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract, only 3-6% of the gastrointestinal malignancies arise from the small bowel. The aim of the study is to enlighten the subject in our community including: therapeutic intervention, the histopathologic types, the risk factors and outcome. ...

Abdul-rahman, Maad M.; Al-waali, Mustafa M.; Al-naaimi, Ahmed S.

2004-01-01

9

Actinomycosis complicating sigmoid diverticular disease: a case report  

Science.gov (United States)

A 63-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to hospital as hypotensive with abdominal tenderness and vaginal discharge. Laboratory investigations showed microcytic anaemia, low albumin and high white cell count. Computerised tomography scans revealed small bowel dilatation, sigmoid diverticula, ascites and pelvic fluid. The endometrial pipelle was positive and vaginal swab was negative for actinomyces. Post mortem examination revealed widespread sigmoid diverticular disease and bowel perforation with an intense inflammation. Actinomycotic granules were noted in the diverticular inflammatory debris, pelvic abscess and lung sections. Clinical course and histomorphological findings favour the perforating sigmoid diverticular actinomycosis as an origin of the systemic infection. PMID:20181157

2009-01-01

10

Small bowel tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SUMMARY Small intestinal neoplasms are uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. Small intestinal neoplasms may occur sporadically, or in association with genetic diseases such as familial adenomatous polyposis coli or Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, or in association with chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn?s disease or celiac sprue. Benign small intestinal tumors such as leiomyoma, lipoma, hamartoma or desmoid tumor, are usually asymptomatic but may present with intussception. Primary malignancies of the small intestine, including adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, carcinoid, and lymphoma, may present with intestinal obstruction, jaundice, bleeding, or pain. Extraintestinal neoplasms may involve the intestine via contiguous spread or peritoneal metastasis. Hematogenous metastases to the intestine from an extraintestinal primary are unusual and are most typical of melanoma. Because the small intestine is relatively inaccessible to routine endoscopy, diagnosis of small intestinal neoplasms is often delayed for months after onset of symptoms. When the diagnosis is suspected, enteroclysis is the most useful imaging study. Small bowel endoscopy (enteroscopy is increasingly widely available and may permit earlier, non-operative diagnosis.

Xynopoulos D.

2007-03-01

11

Coexistent widespread small intestinal and colonic diverticular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 73-year-old woman with a history of multiple abdominal surgery and sigmoid diverticulosis presented with severe constipation refractory to conservative management. As a result, she had developed food aversion and cachexia. Patient opted for laparotomy and defunctioning ileostomy to improve quality of life. At laparotomy, extensive diverticulae involving the small and large bowels were identified. Defunctioning ileostomy was performed. The patient regained her quality of life and reinstituted normal diet. Histology revealed marked serosal fibrosis and pulsion diverticulae. PMID:23470669

Duff, Gerald P; Chang, Kah Hoong; Peirce, Colin; Coffey, J Calvin

2013-01-01

12

Scintigraphic demonstration of inflammatory bowel pathologies in radionuclides Meckel`s diverticular studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radionuclide Meckel`s diverticular studies are commonly requested to help distinguish the source of chronic gastrointestinal blood loss. However, several aetiologies may contribute to false-positive scan findings, for example inflammatory pathologies such as Crohn`s disease, ulcerative colitis, regional enteritis and intussusception, all of which commonly localise pertechnetate. In this paper, two cases of incidental findings on Meckel`s diverticular studies and their impact on patient management will be presented 4 refs., 2 figs.

Ciavarelle, F

1998-12-01

13

Small bowel tumors  

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SUMMARY Small intestinal neoplasms are uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. Small intestinal neoplasms may occur sporadically, or in association with genetic diseases such as familial adenomatous polyposis coli or Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, or in association with chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn?s disease or celiac sprue. Benign small intestinal tumors such as leiomyoma, lipoma, hamartoma or desmoid tumor, are usually asymptomatic but may present with intu...

Xynopoulos D.; Paraskevas E.; Dimitroulopoulos D.; Heuman D.M.; Mihas A.A.

2007-01-01

14

Torsion of Meckel's diverticulum as a cause of small bowel obstruction: A case report.  

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Axial torsion and necrosis of Meckel's diverticulum causing simultaneous mechanical small bowel obstruction are the rarest complications of this congenital anomaly. This kind of pathology has been reported only eleven times. Our case report presents this very unusual case of Meckel's diverticulum. A 41-year-old man presented at the emergency department with complaints of crampy abdominal pain, nausea and retention of stool and gases. Clinical diagnosis was small bowel obstruction. Because the origin of obstruction was unknown, computer tomography was indicated. Computed tomography (CT)-scan revealed dilated small bowel loops with multiple air-fluid levels; the oral contrast medium had reached the jejunum and proximal parts of the ileum but not the distal small bowel loops or the large bowel; in the right mid-abdomen there was a 11 cm × 6.4 cm × 7.8 cm fluid containing cavity with thickened wall, which was considered a dilated bowel-loop or cyst or diverticulum. Initially the patient was treated conservatively. Because of persistent abdominal pain emergency laparotomy was indicated. Abdominal exploration revealed distended small bowel loops proximal to the obstruction, and a large (12 cm × 14 cm) Meckel's diverticulum at the site of obstruction. Meckel's diverticulum was axially rotated by 720°, which caused small bowel obstruction and diverticular necrosis. About 20 cm of the small bowel with Meckel's diverticulum was resected. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the fifth postoperative day. We recommend CT-scan as the most useful diagnostic tool in bowel obstruction of unknown origin. In cases of Meckel's diverticulum causing small bowel obstruction, prompt surgical treatment is indicated; delay in diagnosis and in adequate treatment may lead to bowel necrosis and peritonitis. PMID:25346803

Murruste, Marko; Rajaste, Geidi; Kase, Karri

2014-10-27

15

CT enteroclysis in small bowel Crohn's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diagnostic evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease has changed dramatically over the last decade. The introduction of wireless capsule endoscopy, double balloon endoscopy and the introduction of newer therapeutic agents have changed the role of imaging in the small bowel. Additionally, advances in multidetector CT technology have further changed how radiologic investigations are utilized in the diagnosis and management of small bowel Crohn's disease. This article describes how we perform CT enteroclysis in the investigation of small bowel Crohn's disease and discusses the role of CT enteroclysis in the current management of small bowel Crohn's disease.

16

Imaging the small bowel.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Radiologic investigations continue to play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the small intestine despite enhancement of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy. Imaging techniques continue to evolve and new techniques in MRI in particular, are being developed.

Murphy, Kevin P

2014-03-01

17

Updates in diverticular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverticulosis and its major complications, diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding, are increasingly common indications for hospitalization and outpatient visits. Recent publications in the field of diverticular disease have challenged long-standing disease concepts and management strategies. This article will highlight studies which have helped to clarify the contribution of genetic factors, fiber consumption and medication use to the development of diverticular disease, the role of antibiotics in the treatment of acute diverticulitis, and the association between diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome, and colon cancer. PMID:24010157

Templeton, Adam W; Strate, Lisa L

2013-08-01

18

Small bowel intubation using guide wire: use in decompression of small bowel obstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small bowel intubation is a useful method in the non-operative decompression of small bowel obstruction and enteral hyperalimentation in malnourished patients. We have tried small bowel intubation with Ventrol tube guided by small bowel enteroclysis guide wire (Bilbao-Dotter wire) in 12 patients. Ten cases were successfully intubated. In 11 cases of bowel obstruction, 9 cases were intubated and 8 cases were effectively drained. One malnourished patient was improved in nutritional state after enteral hyperalimentation through the intubated tube. We believe this method is an easy and time-saving method in the small bowel decompression

19

Diverticular disease: A therapeutic overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of colonic diverticula, via herniation of the colonic wall, is responsible for the development of diverticulosis. When diverticulosis becomes symptomatic, it becomes diverticular disease. Diverticular disease is common in Western and industrialized countries, and it is associated with numerous abdominal symptoms (including pain, bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and constipation). Standard medical therapies with antibiotics are currently recommended for patients affected by diverticular disease. However, changing concepts on the pathophysiology of the disease suggest that diverticular disease may share many of the hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. On this basis, the addition of therapies using mesalazine and probiotics may enhance treatment efficacy by shortening the course of the disease and preventing recurrences. PMID:21577292

Tursi, Antonio

2010-01-01

20

Two kinds of diverticular disease.  

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Two kinds of acquired diverticular disease were identified. The more common variety presented with pain, bowel symptoms or fistulae, and the less common with bleeding. The former patients rarely had a history of bleeding and among the latter pain and bowel symptoms were uncommon. In contrast to the few, chiefly sigmoid, diverticular often found in the former group, barium enemas of those presenting with bleeding usually showed densely packed and extensive diverticula. Even where there was no ...

Nathan, B.

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Actinomycosis complicating sigmoid diverticular disease: a case report  

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A 63-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to hospital as hypotensive with abdominal tenderness and vaginal discharge. Laboratory investigations showed microcytic anaemia, low albumin and high white cell count. Computerised tomography scans revealed small bowel dilatation, sigmoid diverticula, ascites and pelvic fluid. The endometrial pipelle was positive and vaginal swab was negative for actinomyces. Post mortem examination revealed widespread sigmoid diverticular disease and bowel perforati...

Vodovnik, Aleksandar; Logishetty, Kartik

2009-01-01

22

Radiopathological review of small bowel carcinoid tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Small bowel carcinoid tumours are endocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. This pictorial essay will review the pathology, clinical features, treatment and prognosis and illustrate the radiographic, computed tomographic, sonographic, magnetic resonance and nuclear medicine appearances of small bowel carcinoid tumours.

23

Disturbances in small bowel motility.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Recently, the small intestine has become the focus of investigation as a potential site of dysmotility in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number of motor abnormalities have been defined in some studies, and include \\'clustered\\' contractions, exaggerated post-prandial motor response and disturbances in intestinal transit. The significance of these findings remains unclear. The interpretation of available studies is complicated by differences in subject selection, the direct influence of certain symptoms, such as diarrhoea and constipation, and the interference of compounding factors, such as stress and psychopathology. Dysmotility could also reflect autonomic dysfunction, disturbed CNS control and the response to heightened visceral sensation or central perception. While motor abnormalities may not explain all symptoms in IBS, sensorimotor interactions may be important in symptom pathogenesis and deserve further study.

Quigley, E M

2012-02-03

24

Minimization of small bowel volume within treatment fields using customized small bowel displacement system (SBDS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Authors designed a customized Small Bowel Displacement System(SBDS) to displace the small bowel from the pelvic radiation fields and minimize treatment-related bowel morbidities. From August 1995 to May 1996, 55 consecutive patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with the SBDS were included in this study. The SBDS consists of a customized styrofoam compression device which can displace the small bowel from the radiation fields and an individualized immobilization abdominal board for easy daily setup in prone position. After opacifying the small bowel with Barium, the patients were laid prone and posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) simulation films were taken with and without the SBDS. The areas of the small bowel included in the radiation fields with and without the SBDS were compared. Using the SBDS, the mean small bowel area was reduced by 59% on PA and 51% on LAT films (P=0.0001). In six patients (6/55, 11%), it was possible that no small bowel was included within the treatment fields. The mean upward displacement of the most caudal small bowel was 4.8 cm using the SBDS. Only 15% (8/55) of patients treated with the SBDS manifested diarrhea requiring medication. The SBDS is a novel method that can be used to displace the small bowel away from the treatment portal effectively and reduce the radiation therapy morbidities. Compliance with setup is excellent when the SBDS is used. (author)

25

Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Small Bowel (MR Enterography, or MRE) is becoming increasingly popular as the first imaging modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of small bowel diseases. The inherent advantages of MRI, including excellent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capability and lack of ionising radiation are well known. In addition, the use of luminal contrast agents in MRE has the added advantage of demonstrating the lumen and the wall directly, something not possible to achieve with conventional small bowel barium follow-through imaging. This review will highlight recent technical advances to this low cost, simple technique which is easily achievable in all hospitals. It will also review normal and abnormal radiological findings and highlight the value of this technique to both the clinician and patient alike in the investigation of small bowel disease.

Deeab, Dhafer A., E-mail: dhafer_ahmed@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, St Mary' s Campus, Imperial College NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Dick, Elizabeth; Sergot, Antoni A.; Sundblon, Lauren; Gedroyc, Wady [Department of Radiology, St Mary' s Campus, Imperial College NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

26

Small bowel video capsule endoscopy: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is being increasingly used to investigate small bowel pathology. It is the gold standard for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and iron deficiency anemia. VCE has been in use since 2001 and indications for its use are expanding. VCE is also a useful diagnostic tool in small bowel Crohn's disease, celiac disease, surveillance of polyps, small bowel malignancy and drug-induced small bowel injury. Although VCE is considered a safe and easy procedure, there are a few limitations. These include cost, capsule retention and inability to take a biopsy and perform any therapeutic maneuvers. Contraindications for VCE include pregnancy, patients with a swallowing disorder, history of previous abdominal surgery or concurrent abdomino-pelvic irradiation. This is an overview of VCE, its role and indications in clinical practice, potential complications and contraindications, as well as the ongoing and expected advances in the field. PMID:23639090

Mustafa, Barzin F; Samaan, Mark; Langmead, Louise; Khasraw, Mustafa

2013-05-01

27

Diffuse small bowel involvement in malignant histiocytosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extremely unusual patient reported here had malignant histiocytosis with extensive gastrointestinal involvement. The presenting symptoms were those of a gastrointestinal disorder and barium studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract revealed an infiltrative process of the entire small bowel. A biopsy of the small bowel demonstrated abnormal malignant cells and the diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis was considered and confirmed at postmortem. Strongyloidiasis, which was also found in this patient, may represent a hyperinfestation phenomenon due to altered host-parasite balance. PMID:1130388

Chawla, S K; Lopresti, P A; Burdman, D; Sileo, A; Govoni, A F; Smulewicz, J J

1975-02-01

28

Small bowel emergency surgery: literature's review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Emergency surgery of the small bowel represents a challenge for the surgeon, in the third millennium as well. There is a wide number of pathologies which involve the small bowel. The present review, by analyzing the recent and past literature, resumes the more commons. The aim of the present review is to provide the main indications to face the principal pathologies an emergency surgeon has to face with during his daily activity.

Di Saverio Salomone

2011-01-01

29

Bellyboard device reduces small bowel displacement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability to cure several pelvic malignancies is hampered by the inability to deliver doses greater than 45 to 50 Gy, beyond which radiation enteritis becomes dose-limiting. The design and fabrication of a device that allows exclusion of small bowel from the pelvis during radiation therapy are described in this study. A prospective dose-volume analysis conducted on 30 patients reveals a 66 percent reduction in the volume of small bowel within the radiation portals

30

Feasibility of laparoscopy for small bowel obstruction  

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Abstract Background Adherential pathology is the most common cause of small bowel obstruction. Laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction does not have a clear role yet; surely it doesn't always represent only a therapeutic act, but it is always a diagnostic act, which doesn't interfere with abdominal wall integrity. Methods We performed a review without any language restrictions considering international literature indexed from 1980 to 2007 in Medline, Embase and C...

De Sol Angelo A; Migliaccio Carla; Delmonaco Pamela; Cattorini Lorenzo; Morelli Umberto; La Mura Francesco; Cirocchi Roberto; Farinella Eriberto; Cozzaglio Luca; Sciannameo Francesco

2009-01-01

31

Diverticular disease: Epidemiology and management  

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Diverticular disease of the colon is among the most prevalent conditions in western society and is among the leading reasons for outpatient visits and causes of hospitalization. While previously considered to be a disease primarily affecting the elderly, there is increasing incidence among individuals younger than 40 years of age. Diverticular disease most frequently presents as uncomplicated diverticulitis, and the cornerstone of management is antibiotic therapy and bowel rest. Segmental col...

Weizman, Adam V.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.

2011-01-01

32

Primary small bowel melanoma: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The small intestine is the most common site of gastrointestinal metastasis from cutaneous melanoma. However, the small intestine itself is rarely the site of a primary melanotic tumour. We describe a case of primary small bowel melanoma in a 70-year-old man, and discuss the features of primary and metasttic melanoma. PMID:15912983

Sanyal, Sudip; Kaman, Lileswar; Behera, Arunanshu; Kakkar, Nandita

2004-01-01

33

Laparoscopic Management of Diverticular Disease  

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Despite its potential advantages, laparoscopic management of diverticular disease is currently performed by a minority of surgeons on a small group of patients. However, the role for laparoscopy in diverticular disease continues to develop. At present, adequate evidence exists for the routine use of laparoscopy for uncomplicated diverticular disease. Complicated disease, including fistulizing disease and free perforation requires additional expertise and study. As the experience grows among i...

Larach, Sergio

2009-01-01

34

Arteriovenous malformation detected by small bowel endoscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastrointestinal bleeding that originates in the small intestine is often difficult to diagnose. When successful diagnosis reveals a lesion that can be localized preoperatively, the laparoscopic approach is an appropriate and beneficial treatment modality for small bowel resection. A 69-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of gastrointestinal bleeding and symptomatic transfusion-dependent anemia. Upper and lower endoscopy were normal. Double-balloon endoscopy established the source of the bleeding as a 0.5-cm polypoid mass appearing as a submucosal tumor with redness and pulsation in the lower ileum, suggesting a vascular lesion. Laparoscopic small bowel resection was successful in removing the mass in the ileum. Histological evaluation of the mass revealed an arteriovenous malformation. Preoperative small bowel endoscopy can be useful for diagnosing the cause and localization of arteriovenous malformation in the small intestine. PMID:25473391

Fujii, Takaaki; Morita, Hiroki; Sutoh, Toshinaga; Takada, Takahiro; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

2014-09-01

35

Nonoperative Management of Complicated Diverticular Disease  

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The complications of diverticular disease of the colon can be divided into those related to inflammatory conditions (diverticular abscess, fistula, and perforation) and those related to noninflammatory conditions (lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage and noninflammatory stricture or obstruction). Nonoperative management of uncomplicated diverticulitis includes bowel rest and antibiotics. For abscesses, percutaneous drainage by radiologic guidance often turns complicated diverticulitis to an unco...

Schaffzin, David M.; Wong, W. Douglas

2004-01-01

36

Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal permeability. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with CC and chronic diarrhoea participated in the study. Coeliac disease was excluded by small-bowel biopsy and/or serology. Intestinal permeability was assessed as urinary excretion (ratios) 2, 4 and 6 h after ingestion of 14C-labelled mannitol (14C-mannitol) and 99mTc-labelled diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA). Data were compared with the results from healthy controls. RESULTS: No difference was found between groups in urinary excretion of 14C-mannitol and 99mTc-DTPA after 2, 4 or 6 h, respectively. Likewise, no significant differences in the 99mTc-DTPA/14C-mannitol ratios between patients and controls were detected after 2 h: 0.030 (0.008-0.130) versus 0.020 (0.007-0.030), p = 0.19, after 4 h: 0.040 (0.009-0.180) versus 0.020 (0.008-0.040), p = 0.14 or after 6 h: 0.040 (0.012-0.180) versus 0.020 (0.010-0.040), p = 0.17. CONCLUSIONS: No alterations in intestinal permeability in patients with CC could be demonstrated. Impairment of the integrity of the mucosa of the small bowel and the presence of a general dysfunction of the small intestine in patients with CC seem unlikely.

Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L

2006-01-01

37

Small bowel adenocarcinoma. Two case reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. Small bowel adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor, with a still not well studied tumorigenesis process, and non-specific symptoms that cause a delay in the diagnosis and consequently a worst outcome for the patient. Videocapsule endoscopy (VCE) and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) have revolutionized the diagnosis and management of patients with small bowel diseases. Surgery is the treatment of choice when feasible, while the chemotherapeutic approach is still not well standardized. Case reports. Two cases in 2 months (two women 52 and 72-yr-old) of primary bowel adenocarcinoma is reported. The site of the tumor was in jejunum, instead of the most common site in duodenum. The patients underwent DBE with biopsy and ink mark. Laparoscopic-assisted bowel segmental resection was performed. The pathologic diagnosis was primary jejunum adenocarcinoma. No post-operative mortality or significant morbidities were noted. Conclusion. The combination of DBE and laparocopic-assisted bowel surgery represents an ideal diagnostic and therapeutic method. PMID:22958804

Anania, G; Santini, M; Vedana, L; Marzetti, A; Scagliarini, L; Zelante, A; Pezzoli, A; Resta, G; Cavallesco, G

2012-01-01

38

Small bowel endoscopy and coeliac disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coeliac disease (CD) is a gluten-responsive, chronic inflammatory enteropathy that shares many features with classical autoimmune diseases. Coeliac disease affects about 1-2% of Caucasians, North Africans and Asians who possess the necessary susceptibility genes encoding HLA DQ2 or HLA DQ8. It is not only unique among the autoimmune diseases in that the precise trigger (gluten from wheat, rye and barley) has been identified, but also in that it has lent itself well to advancements in endoscopic imaging. Since its introduction, flexible endoscopy has allowed tissue to be collected from the small bowel with relative ease and safety, and recently has facilitated direct imaging and sampling of the entire small intestine. It is now fifty years since the Crosby capsule first allowed clinicians the ability to non-surgically biopsy the small bowel leading to an enhanced diagnosis of coeliac disease. The introduction of wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE), small bowel enteroscopy and in particular double balloon enteroscopy (DBE), have expedited the accurate diagnosis of coeliac disease and its more serious complications such as small bowel adenocarcinoma, refractory coeliac disease type II (RCDII) and enteropathy associated T cell lymphoma (EATL). PMID:22704573

Daveson, A James M; Anderson, Robert P

2012-06-01

39

Diverticular disease: A therapeutic overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Formation of colonic diverticula, via herniation of the colonic wall, is responsible for the development of diverticulosis. When diverticulosis becomes symptomatic, it becomes diverticular disease. Diverticular disease is common in Western and industrialized countries, and it is associated with numerous abdominal symptoms (including pain, bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and constipation. Standard medical therapies with antibiotics are currently recommended for patients affected by diverticular disease. However, changing concepts on the pathophysiology of the disease suggest that diverticular disease may share many of the hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. On this basis, the addition of therapies using mesalazine and probiotics may enhance treatment efficacy by shortening the course of the disease and preventing recurrences.

Antonio Tursi

2010-02-01

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Jejunal diverticular disease complicated by enteroliths: Report of two different presentations  

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Full Text Available Jejunal diverticula are quite rare. Furthermore, small bowel diverticular disease resulting in enteroliths can lead to complications necessitating surgical intervention. In this manuscript, we report two presentations of jejunal diverticulum with complications from enteroliths followed by a review of the literature. The first case was that of a 79-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain and was found, on computed tomography (CT scan, to have evidence of intestinal perforation. A laparotomy showed that he had perforated jejunal diverticulitis. The second case was that of an 89-year-old female who presented with recurrent episodes of bowel obstruction. A laparotomy showed that she had an enterolith impacted in her jejunum in the presence of significant diverticular disease. Although a rare entity, familiarity with jejunal diverticular disease, its complications, and its management, should be part of every surgeon’ s base of knowledge when considering abdominal pathology.

Paul Chugay

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Jejunal diverticular disease complicated by enteroliths: Report of two different presentations  

Science.gov (United States)

Jejunal diverticula are quite rare. Furthermore, small bowel diverticular disease resulting in enteroliths can lead to complications necessitating surgical intervention. In this manuscript, we report two presentations of jejunal diverticulum with complications from enteroliths followed by a review of the literature. The first case was that of a 79-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain and was found, on computed tomography (CT) scan, to have evidence of intestinal perforation. A laparotomy showed that he had perforated jejunal diverticulitis. The second case was that of an 89-year-old female who presented with recurrent episodes of bowel obstruction. A laparotomy showed that she had an enterolith impacted in her jejunum in the presence of significant diverticular disease. Although a rare entity, familiarity with jejunal diverticular disease, its complications, and its management, should be part of every surgeon’s base of knowledge when considering abdominal pathology. PMID:21160831

Chugay, Paul; Choi, John; Dong, Xiang Da

2010-01-01

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Small bowel intussusception due to metastatic bladder carcinoma  

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The common sites of metastasis from a urinary bladder carcinoma include lymph nodes, bones, lung, liver, and peritoneum. Only a few cases of small bowel metastasis from urinary bladder malignancy have been reported in the English literature. Only one of these cases presented with bowel intussusception. We report a case of an adult small bowel intussusception due to metastasis from a urinary bladder carcinoma which is extremely rare as small bowel metastasis occur mostly from breast, lungs or melanomas. PMID:25378829

Singh, Seema; Ranjan, Rakesh; Sharma, Naveen

2014-01-01

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CT enteroclysis in small bowel Crohn's disease  

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The diagnostic evaluation of small bowel Crohn's disease has changed dramatically over the last decade. The introduction of wireless capsule endoscopy, double balloon endoscopy and the introduction of newer therapeutic agents have changed the role of imaging in the small bowel. Additionally, advances in multidetector CT technology have further changed how radiologic investigations are utilized in the diagnosis and management of small bowel Crohn's disease. This article describes how we perform CT enteroclysis in the investigation of small bowel Crohn's disease and discusses the role of CT enteroclysis in the current management of small bowel Crohn's disease.

Kohli, Marc D. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Maglinte, Dean D.T. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)], E-mail: dmaglint@iupui.edu

2009-03-15

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Transplante de intestino delgado / Small bowel transplantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado, em razão de sua complexidade, apresentou evolução mais lenta que os demais órgãos sólidos. Diversos avanços permitiram sua aplicação clínica. OBJETIVO: Revisão da evolução do transplante de intestino delgado e seu estado atual. MÉTODO: levantamento bib [...] liográfico nas bases de dados MEDLINE e ScIELO. Os termos usados como descritores foram: intestinal failure, intestinal transplant, small bowel transplant, multivisceral transplant. Foram analisados dados sobre evolução histórica, centros, indicações, tipos de enxertos, seleção e captação de órgãos, manejo pós-operatório, complicações e resultados. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de desenvolvimento mais lento, o transplante intestinal é hoje a terapia para pacientes portadores de falência intestinal irreversível que apresentam complicações da nutrição parenteral. Envolve algumas modalidades: intestino delgado isolado, fígado-intestino, multivisceral e multivisceral modificado. Atualmente a sobrevida é semelhante aos demais órgãos sólidos. A maioria dos pacientes fica livre da nutrição parenteral. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Small bowel transplantation evolution, because of its complexity, was slower than other solid organs. Several advances have enabled its clinical application. AIM: To review intestinal transplantation evolution and its current status. METHOD: Search in MEDLINE and ScIELO literature. The t [...] erms used as descriptors were: intestinal failure, intestinal transplantation, small bowel transplantation, multivisceral transplantation. Were analyzed data on historical evolution, centers experience, indications, types of grafts, selection and organ procurement, postoperative management, complications and results. CONCLUSION: Despite a slower evolution, intestinal transplantation is currently the standard therapy for patients with intestinal failure and life-threatening parenteral nutrition complications. It involves some modalities: small bowel transplantation, liver-intestinal transplantation, multivisceral transplantation and modified multivisceral transplantation. Currently, survival rate is similar to other solid organs. Most of the patients become free of parenteral nutrition.

Rafael Antonio Arruda, Pécora; André Ibrahim, David; André Dong, Lee; Flávio Henrique, Galvão; Ruy Jorge, Cruz-Junior; Luiz Augusto Carneiro, D' Albuquerque.

2013-09-01

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Orthotopic Small Bowel Transplantation in Rats  

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Small bowel transplantation has become an accepted clinical option for patients with short gut syndrome and failure of parenteral nutrition (irreversible intestinal failure). In specialized centers improved operative and managing strategies have led to excellent short- and intermediate term patient and graft survival while providing high quality of life 1,3. Unlike in the more common transplantation of other solid organs (i.e. heart, liver) many underlying mechanisms of graft function and imm...

Kitamura, Koji; Von Websky, Martin W.; Ohsawa, Ichiro; Jaffari, Azin; Pech, Thomas C.; Vilz, Tim; Wehner, Sven; Uemoto, Shinji; Kalff, Joerg C.; Schaefer, Nico

2012-01-01

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Small bowel neoplasm - a diagnostic dilemma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although uncommon, small bowel tumors often present as a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians. This important clinical entity requires various diagnostic steps and quite often these steps have to be repeated to reach a firm diagnosis. We present here our experience with three such cases and a brief review of the literature regarding the presentation and the diagnostic steps found helpful in arriving at a diagnosis. (author)

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Transient small bowel angioedema due to intravenous iodinated contrast media  

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Three cases of transient proximal small bowel angioedema induced by intravenous administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media (CM) are presented. Computed tomography (CT) images in the venous phase displayed the proximal small bowel with circumferential thickening of the wall including the duodenum and proximal segment of the jejunum. The bowel wall was normal in non-enhanced images, and normal or inconspicuous in arterial phase enhanced images. In one of the three cases, the bowel wall...

Xiu-Hua Hu; Xiang-Yang Gong; Peng Hu

2012-01-01

48

Small bowel obstruction caused by secondary tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small bowel obstruction in an oncology patient is a common and serious medical problem which is associated with diagnostic as well as therapeutic dilemmas. While the condition is most commonly caused by postoperative adhesions and peritoneal carcinomatosis, other causes have been reported [Cormier WJ, Gaffey TA, Welch JM, et al. Linitis plastica caused by metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast. Mayo Clinical Proceedings 1980;55:747-53; Clavien P-A, Laffer U, Torhos J, et al. Gastrointestinal metastases as first clinical manifestation of the dissemination of a breast cancer. European Journal of Surgical Oncology 1990;16:121-6; Bender GN, Maglinte DD, McLarney JH, et al. Malignant melanoma: patterns of metastasis to the small bowel, reliability of imaging studies, and clinical relevance. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2001;96:2392-400; Gatsoulis N, Roukounakis N, Kafetzis I, et al. Small bowel intussusception due to metastatic malignant melanoma. A case report. Technical Coloproctology 2004;8:141-3; Hung GY, Chiou T, Hsieh YL, et al. Intestinal metastasis causing intussusception in a patient treated for osteosarcoma with history of multiple metastases: a case report. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 2001;31(4):165-7; Chen TF, Eardley I, Doyle PT, Bullock KN. Rectal obstruction secondary to carcinoma of the prostate treated by transanal resection of the prostate. British Journal of Urology 1992;70(6):643-7; Kamal HS, Farah RE, Hamzi HA, et al. Unusual presentation of rectal adenocarcinoma. Roman Journal of Gastroenterology 2003;12(1):47-50; Hofflander R, Beckes D, Kapre S, et al. A case of jejunal intussusception with gastrointestinal bleeding caused by metastatic testicular germ cell cancer. Digestive Surgery 1999;16(5):439-40]. One of these, reported thus far in only very few patients, is obstruction caused by secondary tumors, i.e. metastases from other organs to the small bowel wall. As cancer patients live longer with improved therapy, physicians are more likely to cope with rare phenomena of neoplasms, such as small bowel obstruction caused by secondary tumors. We hereby present a review of the relevant medical literature. The goal of this article is to define current knowledge on this phenomenon, with emphasis on its epidemiology and clinical characteristics, and to increase the awareness of the clinician treating cancer patients of such possibility. PMID:16905310

Idelevich, Efraim; Kashtan, Hanoch; Mavor, Eli; Brenner, Baruch

2006-07-01

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The radiolesions of the small bowel  

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The irradiation of the pelvic abdominal cancers extends beyond the centre of the tumour and may induce actinic digestive lesions. The bowel and more rarely the small bowel -which is the subject-matter of our study- are concerned by those radiolesions that are favoured by therapeutic overdose, post-operative adhesions fastening the bows, radio-surgical or chemicostatic associations, and lastly by vascular or nutritive deficiencies. One may distinguish between two kinds of lesions, depending on the lapse of time before their coming out and on the symptoms. The early or acute types are characterized by a radio-mucitis and give an exsudative enteropathy with anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of weight, of which the diagnosis is easy because it occurs during the irradiation and lessens at the end of the treatment. The late radiolesions of the small bowel are characterized by sclerosis and chronic endarteritis and, after a longlasting period of latency, give varied symptoms: disordered intestinal transit which sometimes is irreversible, perforation, fistula, syndrome of malabsorption, giving often rise to be mistaken for a recurrence of the cancer. The treatment varies whether the lesion is segmental or diffuse. In the first case, the failure of the medical means accounts for the surgical cutting away or the internal derivation; in the second case, the digestive mutilation which would result from an enlargement of the lesion commands to be more cautious and to call formmands to be more cautious and to call for the methods of parenteral feeding and digestive setting to rest

50

Association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To evaluate the association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease in Japan. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 672 consecutive patients who underwent total colonoscopy between August 2006 and April 2007 at Nishinjo Hospital, Okinawa, Japan. Patients with a history of any of the following were excluded from the study: previous polypectomy, colonic resection, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Prevalence of colonic polyps in all patients with diverticular disease was significantly higher than that in those without diverticular disease (adjusted odds ratio 1.7). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that patients with diverticular disease have a higher risk of colonic polyps compared to those without. PMID:18416471

Hirata, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Yuko; Kinjo, Nagisa; Arakaki, Susumu; Arakaki, Tetsu; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Fukunori; Fujita, Jiro

2008-01-01

51

Association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease  

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Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease in Japan.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 672 consecutive patients who underwent total colonoscopy between August 2006 and April 2007 at Nishinjo Hospital, Okinawa, Japan. Patients with a history of any of the following were excluded from the study: previous polypectomy, colonic resection, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex.RESULTS: Prevalence of colonic polyps in all patients with diverticular disease was significantly higher than that in those without diverticular disease (adjusted odds ratio 1.7.CONCLUSION: Our data showed that patients with diverticular disease have a higher risk of colonic polyps compared to those without.

Tetsuo Hirata, Yuko Kawakami, Nagisa Kinjo, Susumu Arakaki, Tetsu Arakaki, Akira Hokama, Fukunori Kinjo, Jiro Fujita

2008-04-01

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Diverticular disease and minor rectal bleeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to compare the history of rectal bleeding during the year before the study and the presence of faecal occult bleeding in patients with advanced diverticular disease of the large bowel and two sex- and age-matched reference groups, one consisting of patients with normal large-bowel barium enemas and the other of persons without any history of gastrointestinal disease. The number of persons with faecal occult bleeding or macroscopic anal bleeding during the year before the study was not increased in the group with diverticular disease as compared with the other two groups. The bleeding frequency and characteristics of the bleeding did not differ among the three groups. It is concluded that minor rectal bleeding is rather uncommon in persons with uncomplicated diverticular disease. Patients with a history of rectal bleeding in whom a barium study has only shown diverticular disease should be further investigated as though the diverticula were not present. PMID:3878575

Kewenter, J; Hellzen-Ingemarsson, A; Kewenter, G; Olsson, U

1985-10-01

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Association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease  

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AIM: To evaluate the association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease in Japan.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 672 consecutive patients who underwent total colonoscopy between August 2006 and April 2007 at Nishinjo Hospital, Okinawa, Japan. Patients with a history of any of the following were excluded from the study: previous polypectomy, colonic resection, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease w...

Tetsuo Hirata, Yuko Kawakami

2008-01-01

54

[Diverticular disease - diagnosis and classification].  

Science.gov (United States)

A reliable diagnosis is fundamental for operative, interventional and conservative treatment of the different facets of diverticular disease. Not only differential diagnoses but also overlap or coincidence with other entities sharing similar symptoms must be considered. Furthermore, an adequate surgical strategy and correct stratification of complications is mandatory. Subsequently, in the light of currently validated diagnostic techniques, the consensus conference of the German Societies of Gastroenterology (DGVS) and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) has released a new classification of diverticulitis displaying the different facets of diverticular disease. This classification also comprises symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD), largely resembling irritable bowel syndrome, as well as diverticular bleeding. While detailed history, physical examination and laboratory testing are of great importance for exploring a patient with diverticular disease, they are not sufficient to diagnose (or stratify) diverticulitis without cross-sectional imaging using ultrasonography (US) or computed tomography (CT). The diagnostic value of qualified US is equipotent to qualified CT, complies with relevant legislation for radiation exposure protection and is frequently effective for diagnosis. Therefore, US is considered to be the first choice for imaging in diverticular disease. In contrast, CT has definite indications in unclear, discrepant situations or insufficient US performance. Strengths and weaknesses of both methods are discussed. Endoscopy is not required for the diagnosis of diverticulitis and should not be performed in an acute attack. Colonoscopy, however, is warranted after healing of diverticulitis, prior to elective surgery and in cases of an atypical course. Prior exclusion of perforation is considered mandatory. An unequivocal indication for colonoscopy is diverticular bleeding and the rapid performance (within 12-24 h) allows better identification of sites of bleeding and endoscopic interventions. PMID:24718443

Lembcke, B

2014-04-01

55

Cellobiose: mannitol differential permeability in small bowel disease.  

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Cellobiose and mannitol absorption were studied in patients with suspected abnormal function of the small bowel mucosa. The urinary cellobiose:mannitol ratio was increased in subtotal villous atrophy, iron deficiency anaemia, and small intestinal Crohn's disease. The test seems a sensitive indicator of the integrity of small bowel mucosa.

Hodges, S.; Ashmore, S. P.; Patel, H. R.; Tanner, M. S.

1989-01-01

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Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas exhibit gastric differentiation.  

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Primary small bowel adenocarcinoma is rare. Although generally similar to colonic adenocarcinoma, some small bowel adenocarcinomas exhibit unique morphologic features, particularly those arising in association with Crohn disease. In this study, 15 sporadic small bowel adenocarcinomas and 11 Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas were examined for histology and immunohistochemical profile including cytokeratins (CK) 7 and 20, intestinal markers CDX2 and MUC2, and gastric epithelial markers MUC5AC and MUC6. We found that Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas frequently resemble gastric tubular adenocarcinoma histologically. In addition, when compared to sporadic small bowel adenocarcinoma, the former expressed MUC5AC and MUC6 with much higher frequency (82% vs. 7% and 73% vs. 0%, respectively). Ten of 11 Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinomas (91%) were positive for at least one gastric-type marker (MUC5AC or MUC6). Expression of CK7 was also more frequent in Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma (73% versus 27%) while expression of CK20 was less frequent (64% vs. 100%). There was no difference between sporadic and Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma in expression of CDX2 (100% vs. 91%) and MUC2 (93% vs. 73%). These observations suggest that there is a difference in the morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of sporadic versus Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma, particularly in their expression of gastric-type mucin. The findings also suggest that gastric differentiation in Crohn enteritis-associated small bowel adenocarcinoma is related to gastric metaplasia, a common phenomenon in Crohn disease. PMID:24331840

Whitcomb, Emma; Liu, Xiuli; Xiao, Shu-Yuan

2014-02-01

57

The association between cancers of the small and large bowel.  

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Malignant tumors of the small bowel are rare and little is known about their etiology, although adenocarcinomas share certain epidemiological features with colorectal cancer. This study investigated what cancers, if any, occurred as second neoplasms following adenocarcinomas, malignant carcinoid tumors, lymphomas, and sarcomas of the small bowel. For all 2581 cases of small bowel malignancy registered in one of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results program areas, 1973-1988, the relative risk of a second malignancy was determined. The risk of colorectal cancer was increased following adenocarcinoma of the small bowel, and the risk of adenocarcinoma of the small bowel was increased following colorectal cancer in both males and females. This study also found an association between small bowel sarcomas and malignant melanoma in males, consistent with earlier studies, and an association between prostate cancer and malignant carcinoid tumors of the small bowel, a new observation. We conclude that adenocarcinomas of the small bowel may share risk factors with colorectal cancer. PMID:8268772

Neugut, A I; Santos, J

1993-01-01

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Multiple small-bowel intussusceptions caused by metastatic malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intussusceptions of the small bowel, along with multiple intraluminal metastatic tumors, were noted during surgery. A segmental resection of the small bowel was performed, and the histologic diagnosis of metastatic melanoma was made. Long-term survival remains poor; therefore, complete surgical resection of macroscopic tumors remains the best treatment of choice. PMID:18513686

Huang, Yan-Jiun; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Lin, Ming-Tsan

2008-09-01

59

An unusual case of small bowel obstruction post caesarean section  

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Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a very rare complication post-caesarean section (CS). Herniation of small bowel through the rectus muscle with an intact sheath is extremely rare. We present a case of SBO after an uncomplicated c-section and an uneventful early postoperative course.

Marchocki, Z.; Brennan, Dj; Mak, C.; O’riordan, M.; Greene, Ra

2011-01-01

60

Gastric, small bowel, and colorectal cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The majority of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies are adenocarcinomas. In the colon, adenocarcinoma is practically the only clinically significant tumor, and it is the second most common tumor in the small bowel, with carcinoid being the most common. The stomach harbors the greatest variety of malignant neoplasms. Adenocarcinoma, however, is still the predominant cell type, followed by lymphoma and leiomyosarcoma. Various diagnostic procedures have been used to screen patients for GI tract tumors. Fiberoptic endoscopic examination has been advocated as the study of choice to screen the population at risk of developing stomach and colon cancer because of its ability to directly visualize the mucosa and to permit biopsy of suspicious lesions. However, because fiberoptic endoscopy requires patient sedation, the number of endoscopists is limited, and the number of patients is large, single-contrast and double-contrast roentgenographic examinations of the GI tract remain the most widely accepted screening procedures

 
 
 
 
61

Diverticular disease: Epidemiology and management  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverticular disease of the colon is among the most prevalent conditions in western society and is among the leading reasons for outpatient visits and causes of hospitalization. While previously considered to be a disease primarily affecting the elderly, there is increasing incidence among individuals younger than 40 years of age. Diverticular disease most frequently presents as uncomplicated diverticulitis, and the cornerstone of management is antibiotic therapy and bowel rest. Segmental colitis associated with diverticula shares common histopathological features with inflammatory bowel disease and may benefit from treatment with 5-aminosalicylates. Surgical management may be required for patients with recurrent diverticulitis or one of its complications including peridiverticular abscess, perforation, fistulizing disease, and strictures and/or obstruction. PMID:21876861

Weizman, Adam V; Nguyen, Geoffrey C

2011-01-01

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Multiphasic MDCT in small bowel volvulus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Evaluate the use of MDCT with 3D CT angiography (CTA) and CT portal venography (CTPV) reconstruction for the diagnosis of small bowel volvulus (SBV). Methods: Multiphasic MDCT findings in nine patients (seven males and two females, age range 2-70) with surgically proven SBV were retrospectively reviewed. Non-contrast and double phase contrast enhanced MDCT including 3D CTA and CTPV reconstruction were performed in all the patients. Two experienced abdominal radiologists evaluated the images and defined the location, direction and degree of SBV. Results: On axial MDCT images, all cases show segmental or global dilatation of small intestine. Other findings include circumferential bowel wall thickening in eight cases, halo appearance and hyperemia in seven cases, whirl sign in six cases, beak-like appearance in six cases, closed loops in six cases and ascites in one case. CTA/CTPV showed abnormal courses involving main trunks of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) in seven cases, with or without distortion of their tributaries. Normal course of SMA but abnormal course of SMV was seen in the other two cases. Of all the nine cases, whirl sign was seen in six cases and barber's pole sign in five cases. Dilated SMV was observed in eight cases and abrupt termination of SMA was found in one case. Compared with surgical findings, the location, direction and degree of SBV were correctly estimated in all cases based on CTA/CTPV. Conclusid in all cases based on CTA/CTPV. Conclusion: Multiphasic MDCT with CTA/CTPV reconstruction can play an important role in the diagnosis of SBV. The location, direction and degree of SBV can all be defined preoperatively using this method.

63

Multiphasic MDCT in small bowel volvulus  

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Objective: Evaluate the use of MDCT with 3D CT angiography (CTA) and CT portal venography (CTPV) reconstruction for the diagnosis of small bowel volvulus (SBV). Methods: Multiphasic MDCT findings in nine patients (seven males and two females, age range 2-70) with surgically proven SBV were retrospectively reviewed. Non-contrast and double phase contrast enhanced MDCT including 3D CTA and CTPV reconstruction were performed in all the patients. Two experienced abdominal radiologists evaluated the images and defined the location, direction and degree of SBV. Results: On axial MDCT images, all cases show segmental or global dilatation of small intestine. Other findings include circumferential bowel wall thickening in eight cases, halo appearance and hyperemia in seven cases, whirl sign in six cases, beak-like appearance in six cases, closed loops in six cases and ascites in one case. CTA/CTPV showed abnormal courses involving main trunks of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) in seven cases, with or without distortion of their tributaries. Normal course of SMA but abnormal course of SMV was seen in the other two cases. Of all the nine cases, whirl sign was seen in six cases and barber's pole sign in five cases. Dilated SMV was observed in eight cases and abrupt termination of SMA was found in one case. Compared with surgical findings, the location, direction and degree of SBV were correctly estimated in all cases based on CTA/CTPV. Conclusion: Multiphasic MDCT with CTA/CTPV reconstruction can play an important role in the diagnosis of SBV. The location, direction and degree of SBV can all be defined preoperatively using this method.

Feng Shiting, E-mail: fst1977@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chan Tao, E-mail: taochan@hku.hk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Hong Kong, Room 406, Block K, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Sun Canhui, E-mail: canhuisun@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Li Ziping, E-mail: liziping163@tom.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Guo Huanyi, E-mail: guohuanyi@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Yang Guangqi, E-mail: shwy03@126.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Peng Zhenpeng, E-mail: ppzhen@21cn.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Meng Quanfei, E-mail: mzycoco@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

2010-11-15

64

Diagnostic yield of small bowel capsule endoscopy depends on the small bowel transit time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether the small bowel transit time (SBTT influences the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy (CE. METHODS: Six hundred and ninety-one consecutive CE procedures collected in a database were analyzed. SBTT and CE findings were recorded. A running mean for the SBTT was calculated and correlated to the diagnostic yield with a Spearman’s correlation test. Subgroup analyses were performed for the various indications for the procedure. RESULTS: There was a positive correlation between the diagnostic yield and SBTT (Spearman’s rho 0.58, P < 0.01. Positive correlations between diagnostic yield and SBTT were found for the indication obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (r = 0.54, P < 0.01, for polyposis and carcinoid combined (r = 0.56, P < 0.01 and for the other indications (r = 0.90, P <0.01, but not for suspected Crohn’s disease (r = -0.40. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic yield in small bowel capsule endoscopy is positively correlated with the small bowel transit time. This is true for all indications except for suspected Crohn’s disease.

Jessie Westerhof

2012-01-01

65

Absence of mucosal inflammation in uncomplicated diverticular disease  

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Uncomplicated diverticular disease is a common condition in patients older than 50 years. Symptoms are aspecific and overlapping with those of irritable bowel syndrome. Nowadays, patients are often treated with antinflammatory drugs (5-aminosalicilic acid).

Elli, Luca; Roncoroni, Leda Rosalba; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Terrani, Claudia; Bonura, Antonella; Ciulla, Michele Mario

2011-01-01

66

CT imaging features of phytobezoar associated with small bowel obstruction  

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of phytobezoar associated with small bowel obstruction. In 19 patients with phytobezoar associated with small bowel obstruction, two of whom had underlying small bowel disease, we analyzed the morphological characteristics of phytobezoars and changes in the bowel and perienteric regions, as revealed by abdominal CT imaging. On CT, phytobezoars appeared as single or multiple, gas-containing masses in 17 patients (89%) and as a solid mass without gas in the remaining two (11%). An encapsulating wall was noted in six patients (32%). Among the 17 without underlying small bowel disease, the bowel wall was thickened in 13 (76%) at the obstructed site and/or the bowel proximal to the obstruction. Mesenteric vascular engorgement and haziness were seen in 18 patients (95%) and a small amount of ascites in six (32%). MR images of one patient showed the phytobezoar as a hypointense mass on all sequences. CT imaging is useful for the diagnosis of phytobezoar associated with small bowel obstruction.

Yang, Myeon Jun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Sohn, Min Jee; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon-Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho; Yang, Suck-Kyun; Jeong, Hoon Yong [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2001-02-01

67

Jejunal diverticular disease complicated by enteroliths: Report of two different presentations  

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Jejunal diverticula are quite rare. Furthermore, small bowel diverticular disease resulting in enteroliths can lead to complications necessitating surgical intervention. In this manuscript, we report two presentations of jejunal diverticulum with complications from enteroliths followed by a review of the literature. The first case was that of a 79-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain and was found, on computed tomography (CT) scan, to have evidence of intestinal perforation. A lapa...

Paul Chugay; John Choi; Xiang Da Dong

2010-01-01

68

Massive small bowel bleeding caused by scrub typhus in Korea  

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Full Text Available A 79-year-old man was diagnosed with scrub typhus based on fever, eschar, skin rash and a markedly elevated serum tsutsugamushi antibody and doxycycline was started. Five days later, hematochezia developed and multiple small bowel ulcerations with hemorrhage were seen on colonoscopy. Despite intensive therapy, the massive hematochezia worsened and the distal small bowel was resected. Multiple ulcerated lesions were identified pathologically as vasculitis caused by scrub typhus. This is the first reported case of pathologically proven small bowel involvement in scrub typhus infection.

Ki Beom Bae

2010-02-01

69

Accuracy of computed tomography in small bowel obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small bowel obstruction is a common clinical occurrence, primarily caused by adhesions. The diagnosis is usually made on the clinical findings and the presence of dilated bowel loops on plain abdominal radiograph. Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to diagnose the cause and location of the obstruction to aid in the timing of surgical intervention. We used a retrospective chart review to identify patients with a diagnosis of small bowel obstruction between 2009 and 2012. We compared the findings on CT with the findings at operative intervention. Sixty patients had abdominal CT and subsequent surgical intervention. Eighty-three per cent of CTs were correct for small intestine involvement and 80 per cent for colon involvement. The presence of adhesions or perforation was correctly identified in 21 and 50 per cent, respectively. Sixty-four per cent correctly identified a transition point. The presence of a mass was correctly identified in 69 per cent. Twenty per cent of the patients who had ischemic small bowel at surgery were identified on CT. CT has a role in the clinical assessment of patients with small bowel obstruction, identifying with reasonable accuracy the extent of bowel involvement and the presence of masses and transition points. It is less reliable at identifying adhesions, perforations, or ischemic bowel. PMID:23711277

Barnett, Rebecca E; Younga, Jason; Harris, Brady; Keskey, Robert C; Nisbett, Daryl; Perry, Jonathan; Cheadle, William G

2013-06-01

70

Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension  

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The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance. (orig.)

Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C.; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Debatin, Joerg F.; Lauenstein, Thomas C. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122, Essen (Germany); Schneemann, Hubert [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany)

2004-03-01

71

Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance. (orig.)

72

Normal small bowel wall characteristics on MR enterography  

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Purpose: To assess the normal small bowel parameters, namely bowel diameter, bowel wall thickness, number of folds (valvulae connivientes) per 2.5 cm (in.), fold thickness and interfold distance per small bowel segment (duodenum, jejunum, proximal ileum, distal ileum and terminal ileum) on MR enterography. Materials and methods: Between September 2003 and January 2008, 280 MR enterography examinations were performed for investigation of known or suspected small bowel pathology. 120 of these examinations were normal. Sixty-five (m = 29, f = 36, mean age = 34 years, range = 17-73 years) of 120 examinations without a prior small bowel diagnosis, with no prior or subsequent abnormal radiology or endoscopy examinations, no prior small bowel surgery and with a minimum 3 years follow-up demonstrating normality were retrospectively evaluated for the described small bowel parameters. Results: We found the mean diameter of the duodenum to be 24.8 mm (S.D. = 4.5 mm), jejunum to be 24.5 mm (S.D. = 4.2 mm), proximal ileum to be 19.5 mm (S.D. = 3.6 mm), distal ileum to be 18.9 mm (S.D. = 4.2 mm) and terminal ileum to be 18.7 mm (S.D. = 3.6 mm). The number of folds per 2.5 cm varied from 4.6 in the jejunum to 1.5 in the terminal ileum. The fold thickness varied from 2.1 mm in the duodenum to 1.8 mm in the terminal ileum. The small bowel parameters gradually decreased in size from the duodenum to the smallest measurements which were in the terminal ileum. The bowel wall is similar in size throughout the small bowel measuring 1.5 {+-} 0.5 mm. Conclusion: These results provide the mean, range of normality and standard deviation of the small bowel parameters per segment on the current population on MR enterography. From our experience, knowledge of these parameters is extremely helpful and essential in the everyday assessment of MR enterography studies.

Cronin, Carmel G., E-mail: carmelcronin2000@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland); Delappe, Eithne; Lohan, Derek G.; Roche, Clare; Murphy, Joseph M. [Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Galway (Ireland)

2010-08-15

73

Massive small bowel bleeding caused by scrub typhus in Korea  

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A 79-year-old man was diagnosed with scrub typhus based on fever, eschar, skin rash and a markedly elevated serum tsutsugamushi antibody and doxycycline was started. Five days later, hematochezia developed and multiple small bowel ulcerations with hemorrhage were seen on colonoscopy. Despite intensive therapy, the massive hematochezia worsened and the distal small bowel was resected. Multiple ulcerated lesions were identified pathologically as vasculitis caused by scrub typhus. This is the fi...

Ki Beom Bae; Won Hwa Youn; Youn Jae Lee; Soo Jin Jung; Kwan Hee Hong

2010-01-01

74

ENETS TNM Staging Predicts Prognosis in Small Bowel Neuroendocrine Tumours  

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Introduction. Small bowel neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are the most common type of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours. The incidence and prevalence of these tumours are on the rise. The aims of this study were to determine prognostic clinicopathological features and whether the ENETS TNM staging system predicts prognosis and also. Method. Clinical data was collected retrospectively from 138 patients with histologically proven small bowel NETs managed at King's College Hospital. Histolog...

Rajaventhan Srirajaskanthan; Ahmed, A.; Prachialias, A.; Srinivasan, P.; Heaton, N.; Jervis, N.; Quaglia, A.; Vivian, G.; Ramage, J. K.

2013-01-01

75

SMALL BOWEL LAPAROSCOPIC RESECTION FOR STRANGULATED UMBILICAL HERNIA  

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Full Text Available Laparoscopic small bowel resection is a general accepted technique for small bowel tumors and diverticulum. However, the laparoscopic approach for intestinal resection for strangulated hernias is still controversial. This video presents the case of a 49 years old woman admitted for strangulated umbilical hernia. The patient was diagnosed with morbid obesity with a BMI of 51.3 kg/m2. A laparoscopic approach was performed; the exploration confirmed the strangulated umbilical hernia containing small bowel. Kelotomy was necessary to reduce the small bowel. Given the ischemic injuries of the herniated small bowel segment, the resection with side-to-side stapled anastomosis was then performed. The hernia sac was also resected. The parietal defect was then closed by conventional non absorbable running suture. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged in the 4th postoperative day. CONCLUSION: Even the laparoscopic small bowel resection for strangulated hernia is controversial the technique is feasible and safe in obese patients and could avoid operative site infection.

R. Moldovanu

2013-09-01

76

CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer  

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To evaluate the CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer. Of the 1468 patients with primary lung cancer between 1990 and 2000, 13 patients who had metastasis to the small intestine were collected. Of these 13 patients, nine who underwent CT scan were included for analysis. The pathologic diagnoses of primary lung cancer in these nine patients were squamous cell carcinoma in six, adenocarcinoma in two, and large cell carcinoma in one. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the site and patterns (intraluminal mass/bowel wall thickening/bowel implants) of metastatic masses, and the presence or absence of complication such as intussusception, obstruction, or perforation of the small bowel. The medical records of the patients were also reviewed retrospectively for evaluation of presenting abdominal symptom and time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Metastatic lesions were distributed throughout the small intestine: the duodenum in five, the jejunum in four, the ileum in six, and both jejunum and ileum in one patient. The size of metastatic masses of small bowel ranged from 1.3 cm to 5.0 cm (mean size, 2.6 cm) On CT, the small bowel was involved with intraluminal masses (mean size, 3.4 cm) in eight patients, diffuse wall thickening (mean thickness, 1.6 cm) in five, and bowel implants (mean size, 2.2 cm) in two. Complications occurred in seven patients, including intussusceptions without obstruction in two patients and with obstruction in two, obstruction without intussusceptions in two, and bowel perforation in one. Of 9 patients, 6 had at least one symptom referable to the small bowel including abdominal pain in 4, anemia in 3, vomiting in 1, and jaundice in 1. Lung cancer and small bowel lesions were detected simultaneously in four patients and the time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer ranged from 10 days to 30 months (median interval, 54 days) in patients. CT helps in defining the extent and pattern of small bowel metastases as well as in demonstrating their complication.

Kim, Jae Wook; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Gab Choul; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-11-01

77

Capsule Endoscopy in the Small Bowel Crohn's Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

CD is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated to mucosal and transmural inflammation of the bowel wall. It is well known that CD can affect the entire gastrointestinal. Therefore, ileocolonoscopy and biopsies of the terminal ileum as well as of each colonic segment to look for microscopic evidence of CD are the first-line procedures to establish the diagnosis. However, it has been observed that up to 30% of the patients have only small bowel involvement. Evaluation of the small bowel has been made with radiological procedures, barium radiography, and abdominal computed tomography or by ileocolonoscopy or enteroscopy, but they have many recognized limitations. CE is undoubtedly a very useful diagnostic tool proposed to observe small-bowel lesions undetectable by conventional endoscopy or radiologic studies. We review different studies that have been published reporting the use of CE in suspected and evaluation of the extension or the recurrence in CD and also its use in pediatric population and its complications. PMID:24741374

Argüelles-Arias, Federico; Rodríguez-Oballe, Juan; Duarte-Chang, Calixto; Castro-Laria, Luisa; García-Montes, Josefa María; Caunedo-Álvarez, Ángel; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

2014-01-01

78

An unusual cause of small bowel obstruction: dried apricots.  

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Small bowel obstruction is rarely caused by bezoars. An important cause of phytobezoars are dried fruits. A 56 year old man presented to our department with symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction. Abdomen was distended and tender at the right and left lower quadrants. Bowel movements were decreased, and rectum was empty on digital examination. Upright plain films of the abdomen revealed multiple air-fluid levels and patient was immediately operated on. Due to the ischaemia of short small bowel segment, resection and end to end anastomosis were performed. After resection, bowel was opened and an apricot was found in the small bowel lumen. Although the dried apricot was small enough to pass through the pylorus spontaneously, it became swollen in fluid and started to obstruct the small bowel lumen especially in the terminal ileum. Obstruction by undigested food is rare and mostly seen in children, edentulous older people and patients with mental disorders. In conclusion, dried fruits, when swallowed without chewing, may cause intestinal obstruction. PMID:22125996

Gümüs, Metehan; Kapan, Murat; Onder, Akin; Tekbas, Güven; Yagmur, Yusuf

2011-11-01

79

Transient small bowel angioedema due to intravenous iodinated contrast media.  

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Three cases of transient proximal small bowel angioedema induced by intravenous administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media (CM) are presented. Computed tomography (CT) images in the venous phase displayed the proximal small bowel with circumferential thickening of the wall including the duodenum and proximal segment of the jejunum. The bowel wall was normal in non-enhanced images, and normal or inconspicuous in arterial phase enhanced images. In one of the three cases, the bowel wall was thickened in venous phase but disappeared in the 40 s delayed phase images. No filling defect was seen in the lumen of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. No peritoneal effusion or mesentery abnormality was found. Each of these patients reported only mild abdominal discomfort and recovered without specific treatment within a short time. Only one patient suffered mild diarrhea after scanning which had resolved by the following day. The transient anaphylactic small bowel angioedema due to intravenous iodinated contrast media was easily diagnosed based on its characteristic CT findings and clinical symptoms. Differential diagnosis may include inflammatory and ischemic bowel disease, as well as neoplasms. A three-phase CT protocol and good understanding of this disorder are fundamentally important in the diagnosis of this condition. The supposed etiology behind the transient anaphylactic reaction to intravenous administration of iodinated CM in small bowel is similar to other CM-induced hypersensitive immediate reactions. The predilection location of transient anaphylactic bowel angioedema is the small intestine, particularly the proximal segment. A speculated cause may be the richer supply of vessels in the small intestine, ample mucous folds and loose connective tissue in the duodenum and the jejunum. PMID:22408362

Hu, Xiu-Hua; Gong, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Peng

2012-03-01

80

Transient small bowel angioedema due to intravenous iodinated contrast media  

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Full Text Available Three cases of transient proximal small bowel angioedema induced by intravenous administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media (CM are presented. Computed tomography (CT images in the venous phase displayed the proximal small bowel with circumferential thickening of the wall including the duodenum and proximal segment of the jejunum. The bowel wall was normal in non-enhanced images, and normal or inconspicuous in arterial phase enhanced images. In one of the three cases, the bowel wall was thickened in venous phase but disappeared in the 40 s delayed phase images. No filling defect was seen in the lumen of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. No peritoneal effusion or mesentery abnormality was found. Each of these patients reported only mild abdominal discomfort and recovered without specific treatment within a short time. Only one patient suffered mild diarrhea after scanning which had resolved by the following day. The transient anaphylactic small bowel angioedema due to intravenous iodinated contrast media was easily diagnosed based on its characteristic CT findings and clinical symptoms. Differential diagnosis may include inflammatory and ischemic bowel disease, as well as neoplasms. A three-phase CT protocol and good understanding of this disorder are fundamentally important in the diagnosis of this condition. The supposed etiology behind the transient anaphylactic reaction to intravenous administration of iodinated CM in small bowel is similar to other CM-induced hypersensitive immediate reactions. The predilection location of transient anaphylactic bowel angioedema is the small intestine, particularly the proximal segment. A speculated cause may be the richer supply of vessels in the small intestine, ample mucous folds and loose connective tissue in the duodenum and the jejunum.

Xiu-Hua Hu

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the small bowel mesentery presenting as a submucosal mass  

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Full Text Available Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS is a variant of liposarcoma but with a more aggressive course. It occurs most commonly in the retroperitoneum and rarely in any other anatomical location. We describe a case of DDLPS arising from the small bowel mesentery presenting as submucosal mass of the small bowel. The current case is unusual as the tumor originated from the small bowel mesentery and a dedifferentiated component transmurally invaded the small bowel wall, including the small bowel submucosa.

Eun-Jung Cha

2011-01-01

82

Dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the small bowel mesentery presenting as a submucosal mass  

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Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) is a variant of liposarcoma but with a more aggressive course. It occurs most commonly in the retroperitoneum and rarely in any other anatomical location. We describe a case of DDLPS arising from the small bowel mesentery presenting as submucosal mass of the small bowel. The current case is unusual as the tumor originated from the small bowel mesentery and a dedifferentiated component transmurally invaded the small bowel wall, including the small bowel sub...

Eun-Jung Cha

2011-01-01

83

CT Findings of Small Bowel Anisakiasis: Analysis of Four Cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We wanted to describe the CT findings of small bowel anisakiasis with the pathologic correlation. Four patients with surgically and pathologically proven small bowel anisakiasis were included in this retrospective study. They were three men and one woman and their ages ranged from 28 to 43 years (mean age: 38 years). We evaluated their clinical, CT and histological findings. All the patients had a history of ingesting raw fish within 24 hours from the time of symptom onset. They complained of abdominal pain (n=4), nausea (n=4), vomiting (n=2) and diarrhea (n=1). Physical examination revealed tenderness (n=4), rebound tenderness (n=4) and increased bowel sounds (n=3). Leukocytosis was noted in all the patients on the laboratory examination. None of the patients showed eosinophilia. The CT findings were segmental small bowel wall thickening with preserved layering (n=4), focal segmental luminal narrowing with proximal dilatation (n=4), peritoneal thickening (n=3), mesenteric or omental infiltration (n=4) and varying degrees of ascites (n=4). On the histopathologic examination, they revealed an infiltration of eosinophils (n=4) in all layers of the bowel wall with severe edema. The larvae were found on surgico-pathologic examination in all the cases. The CT findings may be helpful to make the specific diagnosis of small bowel anisakiasis in a patient with the clinical findings of an acute abdomen and a history of eating raw fish

84

Surgical management of irradiation-induced small bowel damage  

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Seventy-seven patients, presenting with radiation small bowel injuries at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston between 1962 and 1978, were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two categories: bowel bypass without resection, and resection of irradiated bowel. Each group was then analyzed for its short- and long-term complications. Ileocolectomy with end-to-end anastomosis was the surgical procedure of choice in those people undergoing resection. There was no difference in short-term complications noted between the two groups. The long-term complications of fistula formation and continued small bowel necrosis could be prevented by resection, as a primary procedure. The surgical details of ileocolectomy with end-to-end anastomosis are presented, along with an analysis of the complications encountered in both groups

85

Complete small bowel recovery after prolonged total venous occlusion.  

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Acute small bowel ischaemia is a mostly irreversible condition associated with high mortality. Here we report the case of a patient after severe abdominal trauma in whom the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) was completely occluded for more than 15 h in the absence of any collateral venous drainage. Following surgical reconstruction of the SMV and with scheduled relaparotomies for 5 days, the bowel showed slow recovery. Now the patient is well and on complete oral nutrition.

Von Woellwarth, Julie; Zu Vilsendorf, Andreas Meyer; Schlitt, Hans J.

2002-01-01

86

Large bowel and small bowel obstruction due to gallstones in the same patient  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the case report of an 85-year-old woman who on two consecutive occasions presented with acute abdominal pain. The first presentation was large bowel obstruction. CT abdomen revealed this was due to a cholecystocolic fistula, allowing a large gallstone to pass and obstruct in the sigmoid colon. The second presentation was after laparotomy; the second CT abdomen revealed another gallstone causing small bowel obstruction. This case is interesting because cholelithiasis rarely leads to sigmoid colon obstruction (gallstone coleus)1 and gallstone ileus. Unfortunately, this patient had both. A gallstone causing obstruction in either the small or large bowel is rare, but occurrence of both in the same patient has not been reported to date. This case also shows how the elderly unwell surgical patient was mismanaged and she could have been spared surgery and irradiation if she was managed appropriately from the start. PMID:22696674

Ranga, Natasha

2011-01-01

87

Surgical treatment of metastatic melanoma of the small bowel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighteen of 1420 patients with primary cutaneous melanoma presented with symptomatic small bowel metastases and were reviewed to establish the role and efficacy of surgical intervention. The median interval between treatment of the initial skin lesion and detection of the intestinal metastases was 4.4 years (range, 2 months to 15 years). Most patients presented with either anemia, abdominal pain, bowel obstruction, or intussusception. In six patients, small bowel involvement was the first sign of metastatic disease. Seventeen of the 18 patients underwent laparotomy, and all overt metastases were completely excised in 12. Three patients died postoperatively. Fourteen of the 17 patients had satisfactory palliation with complete symptomatic relief. Median survival after resection was 13 months (range, 2 days to 300 months). Median survival of the 12 patients in whom all macroscopic disease was resected was 44.5 months (range, 2-300 months), whereas the median survival in the four with incompletely resected tumors was 4 weeks (range, 2 days-24 weeks). Five of 12 patients who underwent complete resection of small bowel metastases survived more than 6 years, 3 of whom remain well and free of disease at 6, 14, and 25 years. These results justify active surgical intervention in patients with symptomatic small bowel metastatic melanoma, both for relief of symptoms and prolongation of life. PMID:8712564

Krige, J E; Nel, P N; Hudson, D A

1996-08-01

88

Small bowel endoscopy: cost-effectiveness of the different approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obscure gastrointestinal haemorrhage is defined the presence of overt or occult bleeding in the setting of a normal endoscopic examination of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts. While obscure bleeding is not common, the evaluation and management of these patients often incurs considerable expense. Potential options for small bowel evaluation include traditional radiographic studies, push enteroscopy, video capsule endoscopy, deep enteroscopy, tagged red blood cell scans, angiography, and enterography examinations with either computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. The decision regarding which modality to employ depends on the cost of the procedure, its effectiveness in rendering a diagnosis, and the potential for administration of therapy. This article will discuss determination of costs associated with technology for small bowel imaging, quality of life data associated with chronic GI haemorrhage, and available cost-effectiveness studies comparing the options for small bowel exploration. PMID:22704574

Gerson, Lauren B

2012-06-01

89

Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the small bowel mesentery  

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Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is an uncommon cutaneous malignant tumor that presents as a rapidly growing skin nodule on sun-exposed areas of the body. MCC is aggressive with regional nodal and distant metastases to the skin, lung, and bones. There have been no reports of metastatic MCC to the mesentery and 6 reports describing metastasis to the small intestine. We present a case of metastatic MCC to the mesentery with infiltration to the small bowel, 8 years after original tumor resection. This is the 5th metastasis and it encased the small bowel resulting in a hair-pin loop contributing to the unusual clinical presentation. Although MCC metastatic to the bowel is uncommon, it is not rare. It is important to recognize the unusual manifestations of this disease as they are becoming more common in the future. Routine radiologic surveillance and thorough review of systems are important to patient follow-up.

Guang-Yu Yang

2011-03-01

90

Posterior rectus sheath hernia causing intermittent small bowel obstruction.  

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A posterior rectus sheath hernia is an abdominal wall hernia that is rarely encountered. Owing to its rarity, it can be easily overlooked in the setting of a patient presenting with abdominal pain. We report a case of a posterior rectus sheath hernia that caused intermittent small bowel obstruction. The unusual aspects of this case are that the defect was large, measuring 6 cm in the transverse diameter, and that it contained small bowel within a large portion of the rectus sheath. Because the defect was large and affected nearly the entire posterior rectus sheath, it was difficult to discern on computed tomography until a small bowel obstruction developed. In this case, a limited awareness of this clinical entity contributed to the delay in diagnosis. PMID:25426248

Lenobel, Scott; Lenobel, Robert; Yu, Joseph

2014-09-01

91

Complicated diverticular disease: the changing paradigm for treatment Doença diverticular complicada: alterando o padrão de tratamento  

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The term "complicated" diverticulitis is reserved for inflamed diverticular disease complicated by bleeding, abscess, peritonitis, fistula or bowel obstruction. Hemorrhage is best treated by angioembolization (interventional radiology). Treatment of infected diverticulitis has evolved enormously thanks to: 1) laparoscopic colonic resection followed or not (Hartmann's procedure) by restoration of intestinal continuity, 2) simple laparoscopic lavage (for peritonitis +/- resection). Diverticulit...

Abe Fingerhut; Nicolas Veyrie

2012-01-01

92

Intramucosal ganglion cells are common in diverticular disease.  

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AIMS: Ganglion cells were thought not to occur within the mucosa of the normal colon and found only in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease and neuronal intestinal dysplasia. The aim of this study was to firmly establish the incidence of intramucosal ganglion cells in diverticular disease, normal mucosa and in a spectrum of gastrointestinal diseases. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 50 resection specimens from cases of symptomatic diverticular disease and biopsies and/or resection sp...

Oh, He; Chetty, R.

2008-01-01

93

Acute small bowel obstruction due to chicken bone bezoar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Preadeepan Vetpillai,1 Ayo Oshowo21CT2 Surgery in General, Charing Cross Hospital, 2Colorectal and Laparoscopic Surgery, Whittington Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Acute intestinal obstruction due to foreign bodies, or bezoar, is a rare occurrence in an adult with a normal intestinal tract. We report an unusual case of a 43-year-old black man with no previous abdominal surgery and no significant medical history who presented with an acute episode of small bowel obstruction due to an impacted undigested chicken bone.Keywords: small bowel obstruction, chicken bone, bezoar

Vetpillai P

2012-12-01

94

A radiologist's guide to small bowel and multivisceral transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review will describe the indications for the various small bowel containing transplants. The importance of early referral will be highlighted. Radiologists play a central role in assessing these complex patients prior to transplantation. Furthermore, in the postoperative period, radiologists play an important part in diagnosing and treating complications

95

Small bowel pleomorphic liposarcoma: a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this case report we present a 60-year-old male patient with overt midgastrointestinal bleeding of a primary ileal pleomorphic liposarcoma diagnosed by video capsule endoscopy (VCE). Clinical work-up for final diagnosis and the pathological background of this uncommon tumorous entity of the small bowel will be discussed in this paper. PMID:25161780

Nennstiel, Simon; Mollenhauer, Martin; Schlag, Christoph; Becker, Valentin; Neu, Bruno; Hüser, Norbert; Gertler, Ralf; Schmid, Roland M; von Delius, Stefan

2014-01-01

96

CT findings of phytobezoar associated with small bowel obstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate CT findings of phytobezoar associated with small bowel obstruction. We evaluated abdominal CT of 19 patients with phytobezoar. Abdominal CT of 6 patients with small bowel feces was included for the comparison. On CT we analyzed morphological features of phytobezoars such as location, number, size, shape, and the presence or absence of an encapsulating wall. The sites of the phytobezoar were in the jejunum in 12 patients (63%) and the ileum in 7 (37%). The phytobezoars were single in number in 13 patients (68%) and multiple in 6 (32%). The mean short- and long-axis diameters of the phytobezoars measured 3.2 cm (range 2.1-5.2 cm) and 5.2 cm (range 2.2-11.0 cm), respectively. The phytobezoars were ovoid in 9 patients, round in 6, and tubular in 4. On CT, phytobezoars appeared as gas-containing masses in 17 patients (89%) and as a solid mass without gas in the remaining 2 patients (11%). An encapsulating wall was noted in 6 patients (32%). Small bowel feces were much more tubular in shape but did not have encapsulating wall on CT. The CT imaging is useful in making the diagnosis of phytobezoar associated with small bowel obstruction. (orig.)

97

Neonatal intestinal obstruction secondary to a small bowel duplication cyst.  

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A 3-week-old neonate developed abdominal distension and vomiting which subsided after conservative management. However, there was a recurrence of symptoms for which a lower gastrointestinal tract contrast study was performed. The infant had a filling defect in the area of the transverse colon. A CT scan was performed, showing a duplication cyst arising from the small bowel and indenting the transverse colon. Resection of the duplication cyst and end-to-end anastomosis of the bowel was performed. The duplication cyst was of tubular type, and a sealed perforation was noted in the cyst wall. PMID:25006055

Puralingegowda, Anil Kumar; Mohanty, Pankaj Kumar; Razak, Abdul; Nagesh, Karthik N; Chandrayya, Ramachandra

2014-01-01

98

Diagnosing small bowel Crohn’s disease with wireless capsule endoscopy  

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Background: The small bowel is the most commonly affected site of Crohn’s disease (CD) although it may involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The current methodologies for examining the small bowel are x ray and endoscopy.

Schulmann, K.; Hollerbach, S.; Schmiegel, W.

2003-01-01

99

An Interesting Case of Recurrent Small Bowel Obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sclerosing mesenteritis is associated with a spectrum of diseases which include mesenteric lipodystrophy and mesenteric panniculitis. This inflammatory and fibrosing disorder can affect the small and large bowel wall and mesenteric vessels by exerting a mass effect. The following case highlights the difficulties with diagnosing and managing this unusual disease. A 64-year-old man presented with acute central abdominal pain, radiating to his back, and profuse vomiting. He was diagnosed clinically with small bowel obstruction. He had had an episode of small bowel obstruction 6 years earlier. At this time, he underwent an exploratory laparotomy, and a mass was identified in the small bowel mesentery. The features were thought to be in keeping with sclerosing mesenteritis. He had a dramatically favourable response to the initiation of prednisolone. He continued to be well and asymptomatic for a further 5 years on long-term maintenance low-dose steroids and 6-mercaptopurine. He re-presented in 2009 (six years after initial presentation) with very severe acute abdominal pain and vomiting. He had no recent change in weight or appetite, and had not had time off work. He underwent a second laparotomy and the tissue diagnosis was of metastatic carcinoid tumour involving the small bowel mesentery. This is the first case to our knowledge where sclerosing mesenteritis has been confirmed histologically on biopsy and then subsequently diagnosed with histologically proven carcinoid tumour. For this particular reason it must be always remembered that sclerosing mesenteritis is a 'pathological' and not a radiological diagnosis and that a large proportion of cases are associated with neoplasia. PMID:21103263

Allen, P B; De Cruz, P; Efthymiou, M; Fox, A; Taylor, A C F; Desmond, P V

2009-01-01

100

[Small bowel perforation caused by magnetic toys].  

Science.gov (United States)

Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in infants and childhood, but ingestion of magnetic construction toys is very rare. In the case of ingestion of multiple parts of these magnetic construction toys, they may attract each other through the intestinal walls, causing pressure necrosis, perforation, fistula formation or intestinal obstruction. A 20-month-old boy presented with a three-day history of abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. Physical examination revealed a slighted distended abdomen. The -white blood cell count was increased, but the C-reactive protein was normal. Ultrasound and X-ray of the abdomen showed a distended bowel loop in the right upper quadrant, a moderate amount of free intraperitoneal liquid and 4 foreign bodies. Emergency laparotomy was performed and 2 perforations in the ileum were detected. The perforations were caused by a magnetic construction toy and 2 iron globes. The fourth foreign body was a glass marble. The foreign bodies were removed, both perforations were primarily sutured. The child was discharged on postoperative day 10 after an uneventful recovery. Parents should be warned against the potential dangers of children's constructions toys that contain these kinds of magnets. PMID:20549590

Schroepfer, E; Siauw, C; Hoecht, B; Meyer, T

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Mesenteric cysts associated with recurrent small-bowel volvulus: cause or effect?  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrent small-bowel volvulus is a state of recurrent intermittent or long-standing persistent twisting of small-bowel loops around its mesentery. The association of mesenteric cysts with recurrent small-bowel volvulus as the cause or effect is a much debated issue in the literature. We report two cases of mesenteric lymphangioma and one case of enteric duplication cyst seen in association with recurrent small-bowel volvulus of long duration in absence of malrotation. PMID:22986751

Prabhu, Shailesh M; Anand, Rama; Narula, Mahender K; Shetty, Gurucharan S; Udiya, Alok K; Chauhan, Udit; Shukla, Shailaja; Grover, Jitendra Kumar

2012-12-01

102

Abnormalities of small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of 21 subjects (2 males and 19 females) affected with systemic sclerosis, was examined by small bowel (oral and intubation methods) and colon enema. The underlying process responsible for abnormalities in the small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis is a variable and pacthy destruction of the muscularis propria, that produces the structural and functional changes detected on X-ray: Pathologic condition is the same affecting the esophagus. The scout film of the abdomen often reveals colonic distension and fecal impaction, so that it may be quite difficult to prepare adequately the patients for a barium enema. Peristalsis may be virtually absent in short segments, and transit time may be several time longer than that in normal patients. For these reasons, intestinal pseudo-obstruction may appear in systemic sclerosis. The observed radiographic changes are: 1) in the small bowel: a) dilatation of the gut, especially in its proximal portions (duodenum and jejunum), in which the valvulae conniventes are straightened, normal or thinned; b) presence of diverticula, 2-4 cm in diameter, with hemispherical shape without the neck-like opening into the bowel lumen; 2) in the colon, the characteristic finding is an increase in size of individual haustra, forming sacculations or pseudo-diverticula, usually on the antemesenteric border of the transverse colon, better demonstrated on post-evacuation film. Moreover, loss of colonic haustration is also observed associated t haustration is also observed associated to colonic elongation and dilatation

103

Myelofibrosis complicated by intestinal extramedullary haemopoiesis and acute small bowel obstruction.  

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A 78 year old woman with myelofibrosis presented with an acute small bowel obstruction. Pathology of the resected small bowel showed extramedullary haemopoiesis leading to acute small bowel obstruction. As far as we know this is the first such reported case.

Mackinnon, S.; Mcnicol, A. M.; Lee, F. D.; Mcdonald, G. A.

1986-01-01

104

MR imaging of the small bowel in Crohn's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MR and CT techniques optimized for small bowel imaging are playing an increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel disorders. Several studies have shown the advantage of these techniques over tradition barium fluoroscopic examinations secondary to improvements in spatial and temporal resolution combined with improved bowel distending agents. The preference of MR vs. CT has been geographical and based on expertise and public policy. With the increasing awareness of radiation exposure, there has been a more global interest in implementing techniques that either reduce or eliminate radiation exposure [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. This is especially important in patients with chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease who may require multiple studies over a lifetime or in studies that require sequential imaging time points such as in assessment of gastrointestinal motility [Froehlich JM, Patak MA, von Weymarn C, Juli CF, Zollikofer CL, Wentz KU. Small bowel motility assessment with magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2005;21:370-75]. A recent study showed that certain subgroups of patients with Crohn's disease may be exposed to higher doses of radiation; those diagnosed at an early age, those with upper tract inflammation, penetrating disease, requirement of intravenous steroids, infliximab or multiple surgeries [Desmond AN, O'Regan K, Curran C, et al. Crohn'snd AN, O'Regan K, Curran C, et al. Crohn's disease: factors associated with exposure to high levels of diagnostic radiation. Gut 2008;57:1524-29]. Therefore it has been suggested that techniques that can reduce or eliminate radiation exposure should be considered for imaging [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. Owing to the excellent softtissue contrast, direct multiplanar imaging capabilities, new ultrafast breath-holding pulse sequences, lack of ionizing radiation and availability of a variety of oral contrast agents, MR is well suited to play a critical role in the imaging of small bowel disorders. In this article we will review the technical issues related to the performance of MR enterography and enteroclysis and discuss the role and controversies of using MR in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease.

105

Oral purgative and simethicone before small bowel capsule endoscopy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate small bowel cleansing quality, diagnostic yield and transit time, comparing three cleansing protocols prior to capsule endoscopy. METHODS: Sixty patients were prospectively enrolled and randomized to one of the following cleansing protocols: patients in Group A underwent a 24 h liquid diet and overnight fasting; patients in Group B followed protocol A and subsequently were administered 2 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG the evening before the procedure; patients in Group C followed protocol B and were additionally administered 100 mg of simethicone 30 min prior to capsule ingestion. Small bowel cleansing was independently assessed by two experienced endoscopists and classified as poor, fair, good or excellent according to the proportion of small bowel mucosa under perfect conditions for visualization. When there was no agreement between the two endoscopists, the images were reviewed and discussed until a consensus was reached. The preparation was considered acceptable if > 50% or adequate if > 75% of the mucosa was in perfect cleansing condition. The amount of bubbles was assessed independently and it was considered significant if it prevented a correct interpretation of the images. Positive endoscopic findings, gastric emptying time (GET and small bowel transit time (SBTT were recorded for each examination. RESULTS: There was a trend favoring Group B in achieving an acceptable (including fair, good or excellent level of cleansing (Group A: 65%; Group B: 83.3%; Group C: 68.4% [P = not significant (NS] and favoring Group C in attaining an excellent level of cleansing (Group A: 10%; Group B: 16.7%; Group C: 21.1% (P = NS. The number of patients with an adequate cleansing of the small bowel, corresponding to an excellent or good classification, was 5 (25% in Group A, 5 (27.8% in Group B and 4 (21.1% in Group C (P = 0.892. Conversely, 7 patients (35% in Group A, 3 patients (16.7% in Group B and 6 patients (31.6% in Group C were considered to have poor small bowel cleansing (P = 0.417, with significant fluid or debris such that the examination was unreliable. The proportion of patients with a significant amount of bubbles was 50% in Group A, 27.8% in Group B and 15.8% in Group C (P = 0.065. This was significantly lower in Group C when compared to Group A (P = 0.026. The mean GET was 27.8 min for Group A, 27.2 min for Group B and 40.7 min for Group C (P = 0.381. The mean SBTT was 256.4 min for Group A, 256.1 min for Group B and 258.1 min for Group C (P = 0.998. Regarding to the rate of complete examinations, the capsule reached the cecum in 20 patients (100% in Group A, 16 patients (88.9% in Group B and 17 patients (89.5% in Group C (P = 0.312. A definite diagnosis based on relevant small bowel endoscopic lesions was established in 60% of the patients in Group A (12 patients, 44.4% in Group B (8 patients and 57.8% in Group C (11 patients (P = 0.587. CONCLUSION: Preparation with 2 L of PEG before small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE may improve small bowel cleansing and the quality of visualization. Simethicone may further reduce intraluminal bubbles. No significant differences were found regarding GET, SBTT and the proportion of complete exploration or diagnostic yield among the three different cleansing protocols.

Bruno Joel Ferreira Rosa

2013-01-01

106

Laparoscopic treatment for acute diverticular disease  

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Diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon involves more than 50% of population over 60 years, and much more in people older than 80 years. Most patients remain asymptomatic, but, about 10-20% develop complications requiring surgery. Colonic diverticulitis represents an acute bowel inflammation, in many cases, confined only to the sigmoid and descending colon. Recurrent attacks and complications of diverticulitis require surgical procedure, although most cases can be managed medically. The cau...

Pignata Giusto

2006-01-01

107

Small Bowel Stent-in-Stent Placement for Malignant Small Bowel Obstruction Using a Balloon-Assisted Overtube Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-expanding metal stents are a useful therapy to palliate malignant and benign luminal gastrointestinal obstruction. Self-expanding metal stents has been widely reported for colonic, esophageal, and gastric obstruction. However, endoscopic delivery and placement to the small bowel is more challenging and difficult. This case illustrates the usefulness and technical advantages of the balloon-overtube and enteroscopy technique for the palliative treatment of neoplastic stenosis affecting the small intestine. PMID:24570892

Popa, Daniel; Ramesh, Jayapal; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, C. Mel

2014-01-01

108

Imaging of Colonic Diverticular Disease  

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Diverticular disease affects approximately two thirds of the population over the age of 70. While only a small fraction of these patients will develop diverticulitis, adequate radiological evaluation of diverticulitis and its complications is imperative in determining proper medical and surgical treatment. Clinical examination and laboratory tests alone have been found to be inaccurate in defining many aspects of the disease in up to 60% of cases. Over the past 30 years, contrast enema, compu...

Snyder, Michael Jesse

2004-01-01

109

An Interesting Case of Recurrent Small Bowel Obstruction  

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Sclerosing mesenteritis is associated with a spectrum of diseases which include mesenteric lipodystrophy and mesenteric panniculitis. This inflammatory and fibrosing disorder can affect the small and large bowel wall and mesenteric vessels by exerting a mass effect. The following case highlights the difficulties with diagnosing and managing this unusual disease. A 64-year-old man presented with acute central abdominal pain, radiating to his back, and profuse vomiting. He was diagnosed clinica...

Allen, P. B.; Cruz, P.; Efthymiou, M.; Fox, A.; Taylor, A. C. F.; Desmond, P. V.

2009-01-01

110

Sonographic diagnosis of ascariasis causing small bowel obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute right lower quadrant pain is a common, but nonspecific presenting symptom of a wide variety of diseases in children. Sonography (US) can play a significant role in the accurate and early diagnosis of right lower quadrant pain. In this article, we report a case of small bowel obstruction due to intestinal ascariasis diagnosed at bedside US and confirmed by MRI and describe a new US sign of intestinal ascariasis. PMID:24132881

Aydin, Ramazan; Bekci, Tumay; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Polat, Ahmet Veysel

2014-05-01

111

Metastatic melanoma to the small bowel complicated by fistula formation  

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Malignant melanoma (MM) is an unpredictable tumour that can metastasise to any organ, and is well known for its widespread dissemination. The incidence of metastases to the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is well documented; this, however, is a late manifestation of the disease with an overall poor prognosis. Most GI metastases are asymptomatic and are only discovered on postmortem, with the majority in the small bowel. The presenting symptoms are usually of obstruction or intussusception; GI bl...

Khan, Nausheen; Werke, Irma; Ebrahim, Zaeem I.; Ismail, Farzanah

2011-01-01

112

Small bowel volvulus in a primigravida woman: Case report  

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Volvulus of the small bowel, although being rare, carries a high risk of strangulation and ischemic necrosis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and may be complicated by pregnancy, labor and the post-cesarean-section state. Delay in diagnosis and surgical intervention increases morbidity and mortality rates.We present a 20- year- old primigravida woman (GA=10 weeks) with massive intestinal necrosis. Her initial symptoms were abdominal pain and nausea. Her complaints were attributed to pregn...

Atossa Mahdavi; Nasim Yunesi

2007-01-01

113

OMOM capsule endoscopy in diagnosis of small bowel disease  

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Objective: To assess the diagnostic efficiency of OMOM capsule endoscopy (CE) in a group of patients with different indications. Methods: Data from 89 consecutive patients (49 males, 40 females) with suspected small bowel disease who underwent OMOM CE (Jinshan Science and Technology Company, Chongqing, China) examination were obtained by retrospective review. The patients’ indications of the disease consisted of the following: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), abdominal pain or diar...

Li, Chen-yi; Zhang, Bing-ling; Chen, Chun-xiao; Li, You-ming

2008-01-01

114

Abnormalities of mucosal folds of the small intestine: a guide in interpretation of small bowel series  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Normal small intestinal folds are less than 2mm in thickness and criss-cross in appearance. Many diseases of the small intestine produce an abnormality in mucosal folds, namely thickening and parallel (perpendicular to the bowel lumen) arrangement of folds, nodularity, destruction, and ulcer. Diseases causing submucosal edema produce regular smooth thickening whereas diseases producing submucosal hemorrhage produce regular spiky thickening. Inflammatory bowel diseases and lymphoma produce irregular (in width, or distorted or bent at peculiar angles to the bowel lumen) thickening nodularity of the mucosa. Severe inflammatory processes as well as malignant tumors produce mucosal destruction and ulcer. Proposed here is an approach to narrow the category of disease processes based on mucosal fold abnormality. This approach with sufficient clinical history is invaluable in the interpretation of small bowel series

115

Abnormalities of mucosal folds of the small intestine: a guide in interpretation of small bowel series  

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Normal small intestinal folds are less than 2mm in thickness and criss-cross in appearance. Many diseases of the small intestine produce an abnormality in mucosal folds, namely thickening and parallel (perpendicular to the bowel lumen) arrangement of folds, nodularity, destruction, and ulcer. Diseases causing submucosal edema produce regular smooth thickening whereas diseases producing submucosal hemorrhage produce regular spiky thickening. Inflammatory bowel diseases and lymphoma produce irregular (in width, or distorted or bent at peculiar angles to the bowel lumen) thickening nodularity of the mucosa. Severe inflammatory processes as well as malignant tumors produce mucosal destruction and ulcer. Proposed here is an approach to narrow the category of disease processes based on mucosal fold abnormality. This approach with sufficient clinical history is invaluable in the interpretation of small bowel series.

Lim, Jae Hoon [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1994-11-15

116

Benign mesothelioma of the appendix: an incidental finding in a case of sigmoid diverticular disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign multicystic mesothelioma is a well recognised but rare entity. The aim of this report is to describe a case of a small mesothelial proliferation of the peritoneum. A 58 year old postmenopausal woman presented with left sided abdominal pain and altered bowel habit. Radiological investigations (barium enema and computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis) were undertaken. An operation was performed for symptomatic sigmoid diverticular disease. Unusually, the appendix was adherent to the sigmoid colon. Microscopy revealed a benign mesothelioma. The patient remains symptom free to date. PMID:16394291

Bansal, A; Zakhour, H D

2006-01-01

117

Efficacy of small bowel follow-through with oral administration of methylcellulose in the diagnosis of small bowel disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the usefulness of modified Small Bowel Follow Through (SBFT) with oral administration of methylcellulose in patients with small bowel diseases. Mean transit time was 142 minutes, and the maximum diameter of the jejunum and ileum was 2.9 cm and 2.1 cm respectively: in 45 patients (63%) the examination was concluded within 2 hours. The quality of images was excellent in 29 cases (41%), good in 30 (42%), fair in 8 (11%), and poor in 3 (4%). Images related to the inflammatory and vascular disease were graded as 'good' or 'excellent' in 92% and 89% of cases, respectively, and the image quality of lesions of the jejunum and ileum were graded, respectively, as 'good' or 'excellent' in 96 % and 63% of cases. Using this modified technique, sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 99%, respectively. Modified SBFT with the oral administration of methylcellulose is a simple but highly sensitive method of evaluating small bowel diseases. It is especially valuable in cases of inflammatory and vascular disease of the small intestine and lesions in the jejunum. (author). 15 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

118

Diverticular disease-associated chronic colitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A clinical syndrome of chronic colitis unique to the sigmoid colon harboring diverticular was recently reported; its histopathological appearance has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the authors analyzed the clinical and pathological features of 23 patients (age range, 38-87 years; median age, 72 years) with diverticular disease-associated chronic colitis. Nineteen presented with hematochezia; four had abdominal pain. Colonoscopic visualization of the mucosa showed patchy or confluent granularity and friability affecting the sigmoid colon encompassing diverticular ostia. Colonic mucosae proximal and distal to the sigmoid were endoscopically normal. Mucosal biopsy specimens showed features of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease that included plasmacellular and eosinophilic expansion of the lamina propria (100%), neutrophilic cryptitis (100%) with crypt abscesses (61%), basal lymphoid aggregates (100%), distorted crypt architecture (87%), basal plasmacytosis (61%), surface epithelial sloughing (61%), focal Paneth cell metaplasia (48%), and granulomatous cryptitis (26%). Concomitant rectal biopsies obtained in five patients demonstrated histologically normal mucosa. Fourteen patients treated with high-fiber diet or antibiotics or both improved clinically, as did nine patients administered sulfasalazine or 5-aminosalicylic acid. Five patients underwent sigmoid colonic resection, three for stricture with obstruction and two for chronic blood loss anemia. Among a control population of 23 age- and gender-matched patients with diverticular disease without luminal surface mucosal abnormality, none required resection during the same follow-up period. By Fisher's exact test, a statistically significant difference in outcome for patients with and without colitis was detected (p = 0.049). In addition, three patients developed ulcerative proctosigmoiditis 6, 9, and 17 months after the onset of diverticular disease-associted colitis. The data indicate that diverticular disease-associated chronic sigmoid colitis expresses morphological features traditionally reserved for idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. Its clinical and endoscopic profiles permit distinction from Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Patients with chronic colitis in conjunction with diverticula are at increased risk for sigmoid colonic resection. Diverticular disease-associated chronic colitis may also precede the onset of conventional ulcerative proctosigmoiditis in some cases. PMID:8540614

Makapugay, L M; Dean, P J

1996-01-01

119

Small Bowel Stent-in-Stent Placement for Malignant Small Bowel Obstruction Using a Balloon-Assisted Overtube Technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Self-expanding metal stents are a useful therapy to palliate malignant and benign luminal gastrointestinal obstruction. Self-expanding metal stents has been widely reported for colonic, esophageal, and gastric obstruction. However, endoscopic delivery and placement to the small bowel is more challenging and difficult. This case illustrates the usefulness and technical advantages of the balloon-overtube and enteroscopy technique for the palliative treatment of neoplastic stenosis affecting the...

Popa, Daniel; Ramesh, Jayapal; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, C. Mel; Mo?nkemu?ller, Klaus

2014-01-01

120

Small bowel obstruction caused by congenital transmesenteric defect  

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Full Text Available Transmesenteric hernias are extremely rare. A strangulated hernia through a mesenteric opening is a rare operative finding. Preoperative diagnosis still is difficult in spite of the imaging techniques currently available. The authors describe two cases of paediatric patients presenting with bowel obstruction resulting from a congenital mesenteric hernia. The first patient had a 3-cm wide congenital defect in the ileal mesentery through which the sigmoid colon had herniated. The second patient is a newborn infant who presented with symptoms and radiographic evidence of neonatal occlusion. At surgical exploration, a long segment of the small bowel had herniated in a defect in the ileal mesentery. A brief review of epidemiology and anatomy of transmesenteric hernias is included, along with a discussion of the difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

Nouira F

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Small bowel obstruction caused by congenital transmesenteric defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transmesenteric hernias are extremely rare. A strangulated hernia through a mesenteric opening is a rare operative finding. Preoperative diagnosis still is difficult in spite of the imaging techniques currently available. The authors describe two cases of paediatric patients presenting with bowel obstruction resulting from a congenital mesenteric hernia. The first patient had a 3-cm wide congenital defect in the ileal mesentery through which the sigmoid colon had herniated. The second patient is a newborn infant who presented with symptoms and radiographic evidence of neonatal occlusion. At surgical exploration, a long segment of the small bowel had herniated in a defect in the ileal mesentery. A brief review of epidemiology and anatomy of transmesenteric hernias is included, along with a discussion of the difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of this condition. PMID:21478592

Nouira, F; Dhaou, Ben M; Charieg, A; Ghorbel, S; Jlidi, S; Chaouachi, B

2011-01-01

122

Capsule endoscopy - not just for the small bowel: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Video capsule endoscopy is being increasingly used to investigate the esophagus and colon as well as the small bowel. With the advancement of technology used in capsule endoscopy there have been marked improvements in diagnostic rates for colon capsule endoscopy in the detection of colonic polyps and colorectal cancer. It is also being increasingly used in the field if inflammatory bowel disease to investigate for mucosal inflammation and could potentially be used to assess mucosal healing. It also has role in completing the evaluation of colonic pathology in those in whom colonoscopy is incomplete. Esophageal capsule is preferred by patients over esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) but as yet does not rival EGD in terms of diagnostic accuracy however the advent of magnetically steerable capsules may improve this. This review covers advances in the field of colon and esophageal capsule endoscopy; it covers diagnostic capabilities of these 2 tools as well as technical aspects of both procedures and preparation. PMID:25484107

Parker, Clare Elizabeth; Spada, Christiano; McAlindon, Mark; Davison, Carolyn; Panter, Simon

2015-01-01

123

Spigelian hernia as a cause of small bowel obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spigelian hernia is a rare abdominal wall defect usually appearing between the abdominal muscle lateral to the rectus abdominis and through a debilitated spigelian aponeurosis. Spigelian hernias account for 0.12% to 2.4% of all abdominal wall hernias with a 17-24% risk of strangulation. We report the case of a 77-year-old male that presented with small bowel obstruction with incarcerated spigelian hernia which was successfully treated with a Ventralex hernia patch (Bard Access Systems, Inc., Murray Hill, NJ). A small open incision over the incarcerated hernia was a safe and effective method of repairing an incarcerated spigelian hernia in an urgent fashion. PMID:20710143

Bastidas, Juan G; Khan, Azeem R; LeBlanc, Karl A

2010-06-01

124

Combined small and large bowel MR imaging in patients with Crohn's disease: a feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MRI of the small bowel is a new method for the assessment of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, inflammatory bowel disease can affect both the small and large bowel. Therefore, our goal was to assess the feasibility of displaying the small bowel and colon simultaneously by MR imaging. Eighteen patients with inflammatory bowel disease were studied. For small bowel distension, patients ingested a solution containing mannitol and locust bean gum. Furthermore, the colon was rectally filled with water. MR examinations were performed on a 1.5-T system. Before and after intravenous gadolinium administration, a T1w data set was collected. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy as a standard of reference. The oral ingestion and the rectal application of water allowed an assessment of the small bowel and colon in all patients. By means of MRI (endoscopy), 19 (13) inflamed bowel segments in the colon and terminal ileum were detected. Furthermore, eight additional inflammatory lesions in the jejunum and proximal ileum that had not been endoscopically accessible were found by MRI. The simultaneous display of the small and large bowel by MRI is feasible. Major advantages of the proposed MR concept are related to its non-invasive character as well as to the potential to visualize parts of the small bowel that cannot be reached by endoscopy. (orig.)

125

Giant midesophageal diverticular  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The midesophageal diverticular (in the thoracic esophagus) are strange entities. They are diagnosed unexpectedly since most of the patients do not show any symptoms. They are Zenker diverticular and epiphrenic diverticular and in more than 2/3 of the cases they are associated with cases of esophageal motility disorders. Only the patients with symptoms and specially those with secondary respiratory signs and inhalation episodes require endoscopic or surgical treatment. We have a case of one man with this disease who was treated at our institution.

126

Application of nasointestinal decompression intubation in small bowel obstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the nasointestinal decompression intubation in acute small intestinal obstruction. Methods: Ten patients with acute small bowel obstruction received nasointestinal decompression intubation under x-ray guidance. The nasointestinal decompression tube passing over a guidewire was inserted into small intestine near Tres ligament or further down distally with assistance of patients adopting in multi-physical positions. Results: The intubation of nasointestinal decompression tubes into small intestine was technically successful in all patients with average procedural time of 16 min. (10-35 min). After placement of the tube, all patients obtained various degrees of symptoms relief including abdominal pain, distention, vomiting, etc. Four patients with simple adhesive obstruction recovered completely and the tube was removed 2 weeks later. Three patients were referred to surgical operation, and 3 others gave up for further treatment. There were no complications such as bleeding or perforation related to intubation. Conclusion: Nasointestinal decompression intubation under guidance of X-ray is rather simple, less time consuming, especially with high efficiency for preoperative gastrointestinal decompression and treating simple adhesive bowel obstruction; ought to be recommended. (authors)

127

An unusual cause of small bowel perforation: apricot pit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ingestion of foreign bodies can be a common problem, especially among children, alcoholics, and psychiatric and senile patients. Foreign bodies with smooth edges usually do not pose significant problems, but a sharp foreign object that is not retrieved immediately may penetrate the wall and cause complications. Ingested foreign bodies usually pass the intestinal tract uneventfully, and perforation occurs in less than 1%. In this study, we report a case of small bowel obstruction with perforation in a 73-year-old female due to the accidental swallowing of an apricot pit. PMID:21935813

Atila, Koray; Güler, Sanem; Bora, Seymen; Gülay, Hüseyin

2011-05-01

128

Small bowel enema in non-responsive coeliac disease.  

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A small bowel enema was performed in patients with non-responsive coeliac disease, in coeliac patients on a normal diet (untreated) and those who had shown a good response to a gluten free diet, and in control subjects to determine whether there were any specific radiological features of the non-responsive state. A significant reduction in the average number of jejunal folds and an increase in the number of ileal folds (reversal of the jejunoileal fold pattern) was found in eight of nine non-...

Mike, N.; Udeshi, U.; Asquith, P.; Ferrando, J.

1990-01-01

129

Gastrointestinal adaptation following small bowel bypass for obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small intestinal morphologic and biochemical changes were studied following jejuno-ileal bypass for obesity after body weight stabilization had occurred. Four patients underwent biopsy of in-continuity and bypassed jejunal and ileal segments of the small intestine 11 to 22 months after the bypass operation. Microscopically, marked mucosal villus hypertrophy of the in-continuity bowel was observed, especially in the ileum. Bypassed jejunal mucosa underwent atrophy compared with pre-bypass jejunum, whereas bypassed ileum appeared similar microscopically to pre-bypass ileum. The specific activities of mucosal disaccharidase enzymes (maltase, sucrase, lactase and trehalase) in units per mg protein remained similar to pre-bypass levels in segments of the in-continuity jejunum and the bypassed jejunum and ileum. On the other hand, elevated mucosal disaccharidase levels were measured in biopsy specimens of the in-continuity ileum. Total enzyme activity per unit length of intestine, however, was estimated to be elevated in both in-continuity jejunum and ileum secondary to mucosal villus hypertrophy. These data indicate that following small bowel bypass: (1) the in-continuity ileum undergoes greater biochemical and morphologic adaptation than the jejunum; and (2) intraluminal nutrients and chyme appear to be essential to maximal intestinal adaptation. PMID:871220

Dudrick, S J; Daly, J M; Castro, G; Akhtar, M

1977-06-01

130

Small bowel volvulus in a primigravida woman: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Volvulus of the small bowel, although being rare, carries a high risk of strangulation and ischemic necrosis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and may be complicated by pregnancy, labor and the post-cesarean-section state. Delay in diagnosis and surgical intervention increases morbidity and mortality rates.We present a 20- year- old primigravida woman (GA=10 weeks with massive intestinal necrosis. Her initial symptoms were abdominal pain and nausea. Her complaints were attributed to pregnancy and she came with acute surgical abdomen. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Gangrenous, distended loops of small intestine passed through a defect in the mesentery were resected. Primary end to end anastomosis of jejunum and ileum was done and the defect causing volvulus was repaired. It is concluded that surgical acute abdomen must be considered in differential diagnosis of abdominal discomfort in pregnancy. In the case of small bowel volvulus early surgery is mandatory to reduce the risk of gangrene, which is known as doubling the mortality rate.

Atossa Mahdavi

2007-05-01

131

Aspects on diverticular disease  

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Objective: The aims of this thesis were to evaluate the influence of ethnicity and other sociodemographic factors on the rate of diverticular disease (DD) (Paper I), to compare findings specific for DD and acceptance of CT Colonography (CTC) and conventional Colonoscopy (CC) in patients examined after diverticulitis (AD) (Paper II), to evaluate the value of antibiotics in conservative treatment of patients with mild AD (Paper III) and to study patients with diverticular fist...

Hjern, Fredrik

2006-01-01

132

Protection from radiation-associated small bowel injury with the aid of an absorbable mesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation associated small bowel injury results from aggressive treatment of pelvic malignancies with radiation therapy. The incidence increases when radiation therapy follows pelvic surgery due to adhesions that form between the small bowel and the operated site. Application of an absorbable polyglycolic acid mesh to keep the small bowel from descending into the pelvis and around the operated site prevents this complication. Use to date in humans and non-human primates has not been associated with any complications

133

Phytobezoar in a jejunal diverticulum as a cause of small bowel obstruction: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Phytobezoars are concretions of poorly digested fruit and vegetable fibers found in the alimentary tract. Previous gastric resection, gastrojejunostomy, or pyloroplasty predispose people to bezoar formation. Small-bowel bezoars normally come from the stomach, and primary small-bowel bezoars are very rare. They are seen only in patients with underlying small-bowel diseases such as diverticula, strictures, or tumors. Primary small-bowel bezoars almost always present as intestinal obstructions, although it is a very rare cause, being responsible for less than 3% of all small-bowel obstructions in one series. Jejunal diverticula are rare, with an incidence of less than 0.5%. They are usually asymptomatic pseudodiverticula of pulsion type, and complications are reported in 10% to 30% of patients. A phytobezoar in a jejunal diverticulum is an extremely rare presentation. Case presentation A 78-year-old Pakistani man presented to our clinic with small-bowel obstruction. Upon exploration, we found a primary small-bowel bezoar originating in a jejunal diverticulum and causing jejunal obstruction. Resection and anastomosis of the jejunal segment harboring the diverticulum was performed, and our patient had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion Primary small-bowel bezoars are very rare but must be kept in mind as a possible cause of small-bowel obstruction.

Rauf Fozia

2011-09-01

134

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: the first study in iran.  

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BACKGROUND Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may have a role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). So, the aim of this study was to assess the association between SIBO and IBS by using glucose breath test (GBT) in Kerman city as the first study in Iranian population. METHODS 107 patients with IBS and 107 healthy individuals were enrolled in our study. All the participants underwent GBT. A peak of H2 values >20 p.p.m above the basal value after glucose ingestion was considered suggestive of SIBO. SPSS software version 17 was used for data analysis. P value SIBO. We suggest a Placebo-controlled bacterial eradication study for identifying the role of SIBO in IBS. PMID:25628852

Abbasi, Mehdi HayatBakhsh; Zahedi, MohammadJavad; Darvish Moghadam, Sodaif; Shafieipour, Sara; HayatBakhsh Abbasi, Mahroo

2015-01-01

135

Diverticular disease: A therapeutic overview  

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Formation of colonic diverticula, via herniation of the colonic wall, is responsible for the development of diverticulosis. When diverticulosis becomes symptomatic, it becomes diverticular disease. Diverticular disease is common in Western and industrialized countries, and it is associated with numerous abdominal symptoms (including pain, bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and constipation). Standard medical therapies with antibiotics are currently recommended for patients affected by diverticular d...

Antonio Tursi

2010-01-01

136

Dorsal mesenteric agenesis without small bowel atresia: a rare cause of midgut volvulus in children.  

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Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery in association with jejunal atresia is a well-recognized congenital anomaly. Only few reports exist in the English literature of children with agenesis of the dorsal mesentery without small bowel atresia. Herein, we report a child with total mesenteric agenesis presenting with midgut volvulus owing to internal herniation of the small bowel through a mesenteric defect, with normal fixation and rotation of the bowel. PMID:16952580

Cascio, Salvatore; Tien, Alan Sze Loong; Agarwal, Prakash; Tan, Hock Lim

2006-09-01

137

Small bowel incarceration in a broad ligament defect.  

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We report the case of a 33-year-old woman whose medical history included three normal pregnancies without previous abdominal or pelvic surgery. She presented with small bowel obstruction. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan study revealed air fluid levels in the pelvis. Laparoscopic exploration revealed a viable ileal loop incarcerated through the mesoligamentum teres. The intestinal loop was reduced and the broad ligament defect was closed with a laparoscopic absorbable clip. Among internal hernias, hernias through a defect in the broad ligament represent only 4-7%. Defects within the broad ligament can be either congenital (ruptured cystic structures reminiscent of the mesonephric or mullerian ducts) or secondary to operative trauma, pregnancy and birth trauma, or prior pelvic inflammatory disease. CT scan may be diagnostic by showing incarceration of a dilated intestinal loop in the Douglas pouch with air fluid levels. This is the first reputed case of a totally laparoscopic repair of a bowel incarceration through a broad ligament defect. PMID:12399855

Guillem, P; Cordonnier, C; Bounoua, F; Adams, P; Duval, G

2003-01-01

138

Small bowel obstruction in children: usefulness of CT for diagnosis and localization  

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To evaluate the usefulness of CT for the diagnosis of the cause and localization of small bowel obstruction. Out of a group of children who underwent a CT examination for a suspected small bowel obstruction, 19 patients with confirmed underlying disorders were identified and included in the study. Neonates and patients with duodenal obstruction were excluded from the study. The CT findings were analyzed for the location of obstruction site, abnormalities of the mesentery and mesenteric vessels, bowel wall thickening, closed loop obstruction, and strangulation. The obstruction site was divided into five parts. The preoperative CT diagnosis was compared with the final diagnosis. Causes of small bowel obstruction were intussusception (n = 6), appendiceal perforation (n = 4), transmesenteric internal hernia (n = 2), postoperative bands (n = 1), idiopathic multiple bands (n = 1), a foreign body (n = 1), a small bowel adenocarcinoma (n = 1), Meckel's diverticulitis (n = 1), tuberculous peritonitis (n = 1) and Salmonella enteritis with bowel perforation (n = 1). The CT findings showed mesenteric vascular prominence (n = 13), omental or mesenteric infiltration (n = 10), localized bowel wall thickening (n = 7) closed loops obstruction (n = 3) and strangulation (n = 1). The obstruction site was identified in all cases. The causes of obstruction could be diagnosed preoperatively in 14 cases, but a preoperative diagnosis was difficult in 5 cases. The causes of small bowel obstruction in children are variable, and CT is useful for evaluating the cause and localization of small bowel obstruction.

Lee, Young Cheol; Kim, Young Tong; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

2007-12-15

139

Utility of CT in the diagnosis and management of small-bowel obstruction in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CT is often used in the diagnosis and management of small-bowel obstruction in children. To determine sensitivity of CT in delineating presence, site and cause of small-bowel obstruction in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 47 children with surgically proven small-bowel obstruction. We noted any findings of obstruction and the site and cause of obstruction. Presence, absence or equivocal findings of bowel obstruction on abdominal radiographs performed prior to CT were also noted. We reviewed patient charts for clinical details and surgical findings, including bowel resection. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher exact test to determine which CT findings might predict bowel resection. CT correctly diagnosed small-bowel obstruction in 43/47 (91.5%) cases. CT correctly indicated site of obstruction in 37/47 (78.7%) cases and cause of obstruction in 32/47 (68.1%) cases. Small-bowel feces sign was significantly associated with bowel resection at surgery (P = 0.0091). No other CT finding was predictive of bowel resection. Out of 41 children who had abdominal radiographs before CT, 29 (70.7%) showed unequivocal obstruction, six (14.6%) showed equivocal findings and six (14.6%) were unremarkable. CT is highly sensitive in diagnosing small-bowel obstruction in children and is helpful in determining the presence of small-bowel obstruction in many clinically suspected cases with equivocal or normal plain radiographs. CT also helps to determine the diographs. CT also helps to determine the site and cause of the obstruction with good sensitivity. (orig.)

140

Removal of a phytobezoar through exploratory laparoscopy: a case of small bowel obstruction  

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Full Text Available Brian Nguyen1, Andrew Barleben2, Brian S Buchberg2, Michael J Stamos2, Steven Mills21Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of California, Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Small bowel obstruction due to bezoars occurs rarely. Traditionally, laparotomy has been the preferred approach to obstruction secondary to bezoars. We report on an 81-year-old female who presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain and vomiting. Computed tomography (CT scan showed evidence of a small bowel obstruction and laparoscopic exploration of the transition point found on CT revealed a phytobezoar. The small bowel obstruction was managed with laparoscopy and a small access site for specimen removal. In select patients with small bowel obstruction, laparoscopy may be used as a diagnostic and possibly therapeutic technique.Keywords: laparoscopy, phytobezoar, small bowel obstruction, laparotomy

Brian Nguyen

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

[Small bowel intussusception caused by metastasis from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: case report and literature review].  

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Symptomatic involvement of the small bowel by metastasis from an extra-abdominal primary malignancy is rare, most commonly resulting from malignant melanoma and lung cancer; very rarely is small bowel involvement as first metastatic site. The Authors report a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with lung metastasis, brain metastasis and an isolated metastasis to the small bowel leading intestinal obstruction due to small bowel intussusception. The Authors review the international literature about frequency, etiopathogenesis, clinical and diagnostic features and therapy of small bowel metastasis by extra-abdominal malignancies, especially by primary anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Small bowel metastasis from extra-abdominal malignancies are very unusual, especially from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and the etiopathogenesis is still unknown. Clinical findings are typical for abdominal urgency, especially by small bowel obstruction from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Computed Tomography has an important role in detecting the type of intestinal obstruction despite it is often unable to diagnose an isolated metastasis. Best therapy is surgical resection, that allows the assessment of metastasis and the definitive staging. The prognosis is poor, despite long-term survival has been occasionally reported for isolated small bowel metastasis PMID:16910363

Ricciardelli, Luigi; Rapicano, Gaetano; Pinto, Antonio; Napolitano, Giuseppe; Feleppa, Cosimo; Martino, Giovanni; Martino, Antonio

2006-01-01

142

CT and MRI of the small bowel; CT und MRT des Duenndarms  

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MDCT and MRT are valuable methods for diagnosing small bowel diseases. This article provides an overview of the techniques, indication spectrum, and advantages and disadvantages. Characteristic morphological image findings and diagnosing tips and tricks are explained on the basis of a selection of relevant small bowel diseases including inflammation, tumours and gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

Wessling, Johannes; Buerke, Boris [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

2012-09-15

143

Metastatic melanoma causing small bowel intussusception: diagnosis by 18F-FDG PET/CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malignant melanoma is a common and aggressive disease that frequently causes metastases to the small bowel. This study illustrates a case of small bowel intussusception secondary to metastatic melanoma visualized at 18F-FDG PET/CT in a 48-year-old woman who had this examination for restaging purposes. (author)

144

Small bowel MRI imaging in the DGH - Are you doing it yet?  

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The aim of this article is to illustrate the spectrum of disease visualized at small bowel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the district general hospital (DGH) setting. The advantages and disadvantages of small bowel MRI, technique, and service implementation are discussed.

Lee-Elliott, C., E-mail: Catherine.Lee-Elliott@poole.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Poole, Dorset (United Kingdom); Ayer, R. [Department of Radiology, Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Poole, Dorset (United Kingdom)

2012-06-15

145

Non-specific granulomatous inflammatory lesions of small bowel.  

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Full Text Available The entity of nonspecific granulomatous inflammatory lesions(NSGIL of the small bowel is a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Data of 52 histopathologically proven cases of NSGIL seen by us between 1986 and 1991 were analysed. All these patients presented with either intestinal obstruction or perforation. They were thoroughly evaluated and investigated for tuberculosis. Of the 52 patients, 6 patients received antitubercular therapy (ATT before and after surgery and 32 patients only after surgery. Fourteen patients did not receive ATT. Surgical procedures undertaken included stricturoplasty, resection/anastomosis and simple suturing of perforation. No complications were seen in patients who received ATT; however, six of 14 patients who did not receive ATT developed wound sepsis and 2 developed partial wound dehiscence. Many of these NSGIL lesions could be tuberculous in etiology though typical caseating granulomas were not seen.

Bapat R

1995-01-01

146

Laparoscopically Treated Small Bowel Obstruction Due to Internal Herniation Through the Broad Ligament  

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Full Text Available The authors reported a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to internal herniation through a defect of the broad ligament. This is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. A 42 year-old woman without previous abdominal surgery presented with episodes of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Due to rather unspecific and changing symptoms and the fact that objective findings were normal the patient was discharged and admitted a couple of times before a computed tomography-scan showed small bowel obstruction. Acute diagnostic laparoscopy showed internal herniation of a loop of small bowel trapped in a 2 cm defect in the right side of the broad ligament. The defect was gently expanded bluntly and it was then possible to retract the strangulated part of the small bowel which afterwards was vital. The defect was sutured laparoscopically. The postoperative recovery was uneventful.

Vyrdal Christian Dacesin

2014-08-01

147

New strategies for the management of diverticular disease: insights for the clinician.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverticulosis is one of the most common gastrointestinal conditions affecting the general population in the Western world. It is estimated that over 2.5 million people are affected by diverticular disease in the United States. The spectrum of clinical manifestations of diverticulosis ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to complicated diverticulitis. Treatment for symptomatic diverticular disease is largely based on symptoms. Traditional therapy includes fiber, bowel rest, antibiotics, pain control and surgery for selected cases. This review discusses recent advances in the medical treatment of diverticular disease such as the use of mesalamine, rifaximin and probiotics as our understanding of the disease evolves. PMID:23634185

Boynton, Wen; Floch, Martin

2013-05-01

148

New strategies for the management of diverticular disease: insights for the clinician  

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Diverticulosis is one of the most common gastrointestinal conditions affecting the general population in the Western world. It is estimated that over 2.5 million people are affected by diverticular disease in the United States. The spectrum of clinical manifestations of diverticulosis ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to complicated diverticulitis. Treatment for symptomatic diverticular disease is largely based on symptoms. Traditional therapy includes fiber, bowel rest, antibiotics, pa...

Boynton, Wen; Floch, Martin

2013-01-01

149

Interobserver and intermodality agreement for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease with MR enterography and CT enterography  

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Magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) visualizes small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) and its complications with high accuracy. The aim of this study was to determine the interobserver and intermodality agreement for detection of small bowel CD.

Jensen, Michael D; Ormstrup, Tina

2011-01-01

150

Scintigraphic diagnosis of inflammatory small bowel stenoses in Crohn's disease using 111In-labelled leucocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

17 patients with known small bowel involvement in Crohn's disease (clinically active, n=14; clinically inactive, n=3) were examined within 8 days via barium enemas of the small bowel (Pansdorf's method or enteroclysma) and by 111In-oxin labelled leucocytes. From 19 radiologically diagnosed small bowel stenoses 14 were classified as inflammatory and 5 as non-inflammatory. The leucocyte scan also showed 14 inflammatory stenoses. The not inflamed stenoses could not be diagnosed scintigraphically. The barium enemas of the small bowel and the leukocyte scans both correctly diagnosed the acute inflamed segments. The inability to show non-inflamed segments (n=5) and to localise small bowel stenoses exactly is disadvantageous in the scan. The advantage of the leucocyte scan is a non invasive examination without specific bowel preparation and the possibility to diagnose additionally inflamed large bowel segments (n=4), fistulas and abscesses (n=2). The leucocyte scan offers a useful expansion of the diagnostic tools in small bowel diseases, especially in radiological problems in patients with Crohn's disease. (orig.)

151

Leukocyte scintigraphy compared to intraoperative small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings in Crohn's disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Leukocyte scintigraphy is a noninvasive investigation to assess inflammation. We evaluated the utility of labeled leukocytes to detect small bowel inflammation and disease complications in Crohn's disease and compared it to whole small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings. Methods: Scintigraphy with technetium-99m exametazime-labeled leukocytes was prospectively performed in 48 patients with Crohn's disease a few days before laparotomy; 41 also had an intraoperative small bowel enteroscopy. The same procedures were performed in 8 control patients. Independent grading of scans was compared with the results of enteroscopy and with surgical, histopathologic, and clinical data. Results: In the 8 control patients leukocyte scan, endoscopy, and histopathology were all negative for the small bowel. In patients with Crohn's disease and small bowel inflammation seen at enteroscopy and/or laparotomy (n = 39) the scan was positive in 33. In 8 patients without macroscopic small bowel inflammation, the scan was positive for the small bowel in 3 patients; at histology, 2 of 3 had inflammation. When combining results for patients and controls, the sensitivity of leukocyte scan for macroscopically evident small bowel inflammation was 0.85, specificity 0.81, accuracy 0.84, positive predictive value 0.92, and negative predictive value 0.68. Scintigraphy detected inflammatory lesions not known before laparotomy in 16 of 47 (34%) Crohn's disease patients and showed uptake in 25 of 35 (71%) bowel strictures. It was diagnostic regarding 4 of 8 abscesses and 9 of 15 fistulas. In 6 patients (13%) lesions first demonstrated by leukocyte scintigraphy were treated during the surgery performed. Conclusions: Leukocyte scintigraphy reliably detects small bowel inflammation in Crohn's disease. It gives additional information on the presence of inflammatory lesions in a fraction of patients planned for surgery.

Almen, Sven; Granerus, Göran

2007-01-01

152

Sclerosing mesenteritis presenting with small bowel obstruction and subsequent retroperitoneal fibrosis.  

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Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare inflammatory disease of the bowel mesentery of unknown aetiology. It poses a diagnostic challenge for clinicians, as it can be mistaken for malignancy. We report a case of sclerosing mesenteritis initially presented with abdominal pain, tender abdominal mass and small bowel obstruction. Emergency laparotomy revealed fibrous thickening of the small bowel mesentery mimicking small bowel lymphoma. An ileo-ileal bypass procedure was performed. Six months later, the patient developed retroperitoneal fibrosis, manifesting as bilateral obstructive uropathy. Our case is unique, as it describes retroperitoneal fibrosis developing in a patient with small bowel retractile mesenteritis, with no evidence of colonic or other anatomical involvement. Furthermore, the patient had no risk factors for this condition. We conclude that the presence of sclerosing mesenteritis should cue clinicians to search for other coexisting inflammatory disorders that can have serious sequelae. PMID:17099377

Lim, Chung S; Singh Ranger, Gurpreet; Tibrewal, Saket; Jani, Bhautesh; Jeddy, Taleb A; Lafferty, Kevin

2006-12-01

153

Esophageal and small bowel obstruction by occupational bezoar: report of a case  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytobezoar may be a cause of bowel obstruction in patients with previous gastric surgery. Most bezoars are concretions of poorly digested food, which are usually formed initially in the stomach. Intestinal obstruction (esophageal and small bowel caused by an occupational bezoar has not been reported. Case presentation A 70-year old male is presented suffering from esophageal and small bowel obstruction, caused by an occupational bezoar. The patient has worked as a carpenter for 35 years. He had undergone a vagotomy and pyloroplasty 10 years earlier. The part of the bezoar, which caused the esophageal obstruction was removed during endoscopy, while the part of the small bowel was treated surgically. The patient recovered well and was discharged on the 8th postoperative day. Conclusions Since occupational bezoars may be a cause of intestinal obstruction (esophageal and/or small bowel, patients who have undergone a previous gastric surgery should avoid occupational exposures similar to the presented case.

Stathopoulos George

2003-06-01

154

The use of FK506 and RS61443 for reversal of small-bowel rejection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Successful clinical small-bowel transplantation is still difficult to achieve. Two features render the small intestine unique among vascularised solid organ grafts. First, the bowel contains a large amount of lymphoid tissue within the Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intraepithelial lymphocytes, which are thought to mediate graft-versus-host disease and provide a major stimulus for the recipient's immune system. Unfortunately, mere surgical reduction of these tissues, by using segmental allografts, does not furnish any immunological advantage. Second, the small bowel lacks specific serum markers such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the kidney or bilirubin in liver transplantation. Clinical signs such as fever, pain, or tenderness of the abdomen may indicate an already advanced destruction of the graft. Therefore, very potent immunosuppressive regimens are necessary to avoid small-bowel allograft rejection or even to reverse an ongoing rejection process. Cyclosporin was shown in small and large animal models to control rejection reactions sufficiently. However, there are two even more promising immunosuppressive agents currently under investigation. FK506, a macrolide lactone isolated from Streptomyces tsukubaensis, leads to long-term survival of small-bowel allografts in a rodent model and has already been used in a few clinical small-bowel transplantations. RS61443, a mycophenolic acid morpholinoethylester, selectively inhibits T- and B-cell proliferation. We have investigated the use of FK506 and RS61443 for the reversal of small-bowel allograft rejection in a small animal model. PMID:14621800

Stangl, M J; Gräb, C; Fischer, T; Mebert, H; Weiss, M; Hammer, C

1992-01-01

155

Computerized analysis of bowel sounds in normal and small bowel obstructed rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common surgical emergency which may be mimicked by ileus or other nonsurgical conditions. The aims of this work is to delineate gastrointestinal sound (GIS) correlates in a rat model. Seven rats were studied in paired SBO and control states. Computerized analysis of GIS was performed under continuous IV sedation. After adaptive filtering, every GIS event was isolated and analyzed for duration and dominant frequency. It was found that long duration sounds (greater than 100 ms) occurred in each of the obstructed, but in none of the nonobstructed cases (p=0.02). The overall mean event duration and dominant frequency in SBO compared to control states was both significantly longer and lower (22.42.6 vs 7.0+/-2.6 ms, p=0.001 for duration; and 296+/-34 vs 427+/-33, p=0.001 for frequency). Besides these mean differences, there was also a clear evolution with time in GIS characteristics, with lengthening of the duration (+0.56 ms/min, p=0.001) and lowering of the dominant frequency (-3.3 Hz/min, p=0.01). It is concluded that GIS analysis may prove useful in the noninvasive, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of SBO.

Sandler, Richard; Mansy, Hansen; Uhing, Michael; Meyer, Peter; Kimura, Robert

2003-04-01

156

Minimization of small bowel volume within treatment fields utilizing customized belly boards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty consecutive patients with pelvic malignancies were evaluated prospectively for the impact of a novel bowel minimization device (belly board) on the volume of small bowel included within a four field pelvic radiation plan. A customized polyurethane and styrofoam bowel immobilization mold was created for each patient in the prone position. Using contrast enhanced CT scanning on a dedicated radiation treatment planning scanner, we imaged the location of the small intestine in the supine position and the prone position aided by the belly board. Custom in-house interactive image analysis software was developed to allow volumetric determination of small bowel within the treatment portals. The mean small bowel volume was reduced by 66% (299 cm3 to 102 cm3), comparing the standard supine position to the prone position assisted by the belly board. In 13 patients without prior pelvic surgery, the small bowel volume reduction was a more dramatic 74% (334 cm3 to 88 cm3). All patients were found to benefit from this prone belly board setup regardless of body habitus, weight, and age. Compliance with the set-up including use of bladder distension was excellent. All patients completed their pelvic radiotherapy without requiring a treatment break. Weight loss at completion averaged less than 5%. Seventy-six percent of patients experienced little or no diarrhea. This technique is comfortable, inexpensive, highly reproducible, and permits maximal bowel displacement from standards maximal bowel displacement from standard pelvic radiotherapy fields

157

Sclerosing mesenteritis presenting with complete small bowel obstruction, abdominal mass and hydronephrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sclerosing mesenteritis is an uncommon and poorly understood inflammatory condition of the bowel mesentery which can often be confused with neoplasia, Crohn's disease and other inflammatory conditions. We describe a case of complete small bowel obstruction and right sided hydronephrosis due to sclerosing mesenteritis. PMID:20506043

Hassan, T; Balsitis, M; Rawlings, D; Shah, A A

2012-09-01

158

Reducing false positives of small bowel segmentation on CT scans by localizing colon regions  

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Automated small bowel segmentation is essential for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of small bowel pathology, such as tumor detection and pre-operative planning. We previously proposed a method to segment the small bowel using the mesenteric vasculature as a roadmap. The method performed well on small bowel segmentation but produced many false positives, most of which were located on the colon. To improve the accuracy of small bowel segmentation, we propose a semi-automated method with minimum interaction to distinguish the colon from the small bowel. The method utilizes anatomic knowledge about the mesenteric vasculature and a statistical method of colon detection. First, anatomic labeling of the mesenteric arteries is used to identify the arteries supplying the colon. Second, a statistical detector is created by combining two colon probability maps. One probability map is of the colon location and is generated from colon centerlines generated from CT colonography (CTC) data. Another probability map is of 3D colon texture using Haralick features and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. The two probability maps are combined to localize colon regions, i.e., voxels having high probabilities on both maps were labeled as colon. Third, colon regions identified by anatomical labeling and the statistical detector are removed from the original results of small bowel segmentation. The method was evaluated on 11 abdominal CT scans of patients suspected of having carcinoid tumors. The reference standard consisted of manually-labeled small bowel segmentation. The method reduced the voxel-based false positive rate of small bowel segmentation from 19.7%±3.9% to 5.9%±2.3%, with two-tailed P-value < 0.0001.

Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Jiamin; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

2014-03-01

159

Small bowel intussusception with the Meckel's diverticulum after blunt abdominal trauma: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Intussusception with the Meckel's diverticulum is a rare but well-known cause of small bowel obstruction in the adult. After blunt abdominal trauma, intussusception is exceedingly rare and has been reported previously only in few cases. We present a case of a previously healthy 28-year-old man developing four days after blunt abdominal trauma signs of small bowel obstruction. Ileo-ileal intussusception was suggested by computed tomography. Exploration revealed ileo-ileal intussusception with Meckel's diverticulum. A diverticulectomy with small bowel resection was performed.

Mazaz Khalid

2009-05-01

160

Sonographic diagnosis of multiple small-bowel intussusceptions in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare, though well-described, hereditary polyposis syndrome associated with mucocutaneous pigmentation that typically presents in the second decade of life with complications related to intestinal polyps. We present two cases of teenaged girls presenting with small-bowel intussusceptions within a 3-month period. Sonographic examinations readily revealed small-bowel intussusceptions with secondary small-bowel obstruction. In both the symptoms were less severe than one would expect given the underlying pathology found at subsequent surgery. Sonographic imaging with pathologic correlation is provided. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
161

Coffee enema for preparation for small bowel video capsule endoscopy: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

Kim, Eun Sun; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

2014-07-01

162

Ultrasound in Crohn's disease of the small bowel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The purpose of this work is to prospectively evaluate high resolution ultrasonography with graded compression in the ability to detect Crohn's disease of the small bowel (CDSB) together with its complications and activity signs, compared with enteroclysis, CT and immunoscintigraphy in the mirror of the final diagnosis. Methods and material: In a series of 73 consecutive patients, who were referred for enteroclysis with suspected Crohn's disease of the small bowel computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), immunoscintigraphy with 99mTc labeled monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody (AGAb) examinations were performed within 10 days from each other. For the final evaluation the diagnosis of CDSB was based on combination of clinical and enteroclysis findings (73 cases) and in 17 cases additional surgical and pathological data were available. The results of other modalities were blinded to the radiologists performing and reading out the exams. The diagnostic values of each modality was assessed also in those 18 patients, who had early Crohn's disease. In the group of 43 patients with proven CDSB who had all the four imaging modalities, the modalities were compared in their ability to demonstrate various pathological conditions related to CD. Increased (>500 ml/min) flow measured by Doppler US in the superior mesenteric artery and increased color signs in the gut wall seen by power Doppler sonography were compared to CDAI. Results: Of the 73 patients the to CDAI. Results: Of the 73 patients the combination of enteroclysis and clinical tests demonstrated CDSB in 47. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasound were 88.4, 93.3 and 90.4%, respectively. Enteroclysis was the most accurate method. CT was more sensitive than US, but less specific. The accuracy of US, CT and scintigraphy were similar. In the group of 18 patients, who had early CDSB, the sensitivity of US decreased to only 67%, CT and scintigraphy had higher values. Intra- and perimural abscesses, and sinus tracts were also more frequently visualized by US, especially if they were small. US was superior than CT in detecting stenoses and skip lesions, but inferior to enteroclysis. US and CT detected more fistulas, than enteroclysis. Compared to CT, US detected more cases with mesenteric lymphadenopathy, equal cases with abscesses and free peritoneal fluids. In detecting mesenteric inflammatory proliferation CT, and in detecting colonic involvement CT and immunoscintigraphy were slightly superior than graded compression US. Patterns of mural stratification detected by ultrasound correlated well with the enteroclysis severity stages. There was only 59% agreement between increased superior mesenteric artery flow detected by Doppler sonography and CDAI, and 60.5% agreement between increased number of Color pixels in the gut wall measured by power Doppler and increased CDAI. Conclusion: High resolution graded compression sonography is a valuable tool for detecting small intestinal Crohn's disease. It has similar diagnostic values as CT. However in early disease the sensitivity substantially decreases. In known Crohn's disease for following disease course, evaluating relapses and extramural manifestations US is an excellent tool. Doppler and Power Doppler activity measurements do not correlate well with the more widespread clinical activity index

163

Dexamethasone inhibits mucosal adaptation after small bowel resection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the effects of dexamethasone on mucosal adaptation after massive small bowel resection. Rats underwent 80% jejunoileal resection or a sham operation and received either vehicle or 128 micrograms.kg-1.day-1 sc dexamethasone for 7 days. Dexamethasone infusion resulted in decreased weight, DNA content, and protein content in the duodenojejunal and ileal mucosa in both sham and resected rats. Sucrase, lactase, and maltase activities (all in mumol.g protein-1.min-1) in the duodenojejunal mucosa were elevated by dexamethasone infusion. By contrast, enzyme activities were elevated only in the ileal mucosa of dexamethasone-infused sham-operated rats compared with sham-operated control rats, and dexamethasone did not elevate enzyme activities in resected rats. We further examined whether the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on mucosal adaptation may be related to changes in either insulin-like growth factor (IGF) or IGF binding protein (BP) serum levels. Serum IGF-I and IGF-II levels were markedly decreased in dexamethasone-infused resected and sham-operated rats. IGF BP-1 serum levels were elevated by dexamethasone treatment with a concomitant depression in serum IGF BP-2 levels. IGF BP-3 levels were lowered by dexamethasone treatment in sham-operated rats and by gut resection, and serum IGF BP-4 levels did not change. These results suggest that the growth-inhibiting effects of dexamethasone in small intestinal mucosa may be partially mediated by decreased serum IGF levels or by alterations in IGF activity associated with changes in serum levels of IGF BPs. PMID:7513128

Park, J H; McCusker, R H; Mohammadpour, H; Blackwood, D J; Hrbek, M; Vanderhoof, J A

1994-03-01

164

Radiological features of small bowel involvement in a case of Wegener's granulomatosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe the radiological features of diffuse small bowel involvement of rapid course and fatal outcome in a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis after complete remission of the typical organ systems involved in this disease. 12 refs.; 3 figs

165

Benign lymphangioma of the jejunal mesentery: an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymphangiomas are rare tumours of lymphatic vessels, most commonly found in children. We present the unusual case of small bowel obstruction caused by benign lymphangioma in a middle aged woman. PMID:1773970

Campbell, W J; Irwin, S T; Biggart, J D

1991-12-01

166

Small bowel evisceration through the anus--report of a case and review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

An 84-year-old lady with a history of chronic recurrent rectal prolapse, presented to accident and emergency with a significant portion of small bowel and mesentery protruding out of her anus. The small bowel was not contained within peritoneum, nor was this a pararectal herniation. On examination of the rectum, a longitudinal tear was found in the anterior rectal wall, through which the small bowel had prolapsed. Hours after reducing the small bowel back into the anus, it prolapsed a second time. Due to multiple co-morbidities, this patient was not fit for surgery. The defect was temporarily repaired on the ward and the patient treated with aggressive antibiotic therapy. The patient continued to deteriorate, became septic, acidotic, hypotensive and died a day later. PMID:22605863

Berwin, James Theo; Ho, T K; D'Souza, Rovan

2012-01-01

167

Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel in children with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease: evaluation of disease activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examinations using ionizing radiation are frequently used in the evaluation of disease activity in children affected by idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an MR imaging protocol without the need for fluoroscopic insertion of an enteral tube and to assess the disease activity in children with IBD. Included in the study were 37 children (22 girls and 15 boys; age range 7-15 years, mean 11.67 years) with IBD who underwent MR imaging of the small bowel. Of these 37 children, 32 had Crohn disease and 5 had indeterminate colitis. A water solution containing herbal fibres was administered orally or through a nasogastric tube. Patients were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner with T1-weighted and {tau}2-weighted sequences followed by a dynamic study using 3-D T1-W images after intravenous administration of gadolinium. The percentage enhancement of the bowel wall was significantly increased in patients with abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) values compared to patients with CRP values in the normal range (P<0.001). A relatively weak but significant correlation between percentage enhancement of the bowel wall and CRP values was noted during all phases of enhancement. This MR imaging protocol is a safe and well-tolerated method for evaluating disease activity and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD in children. (orig.)

Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Loggitsi, Dimitra; Economopoulos, Nikos; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Kelekis, Nikolaos L. [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, General University Hospital, Second Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Roma, Eleftheria; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Pahoula, Ioanna [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aghia Sofia Children' s Hospital, First Department of Paediatrics, Athens (Greece)

2009-08-15

168

Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel in children with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease: evaluation of disease activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Examinations using ionizing radiation are frequently used in the evaluation of disease activity in children affected by idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an MR imaging protocol without the need for fluoroscopic insertion of an enteral tube and to assess the disease activity in children with IBD. Included in the study were 37 children (22 girls and 15 boys; age range 7-15 years, mean 11.67 years) with IBD who underwent MR imaging of the small bowel. Of these 37 children, 32 had Crohn disease and 5 had indeterminate colitis. A water solution containing herbal fibres was administered orally or through a nasogastric tube. Patients were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner with T1-weighted and ?2-weighted sequences followed by a dynamic study using 3-D T1-W images after intravenous administration of gadolinium. The percentage enhancement of the bowel wall was significantly increased in patients with abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) values compared to patients with CRP values in the normal range (P<0.001). A relatively weak but significant correlation between percentage enhancement of the bowel wall and CRP values was noted during all phases of enhancement. This MR imaging protocol is a safe and well-tolerated method for evaluating disease activity and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD in children. (orig.)

169

Crohn’s disease complicated by multiple stenoses and internal fistulas clinically mimicking small bowel endometriosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report a 31-year-old woman with Crohn’s disease complicated by multiple stenoses and internal fistulas clinically misdiagnosed as small bowell endometriosis, due to the patient’s perimenstrual symptoms of mechanical subileus for 3 years; at first monthly, but later continuous, and gradually increasing in severity. We performed an exploratory laparotomy for small bowel obstruction, and found multiple ileal strictures and internal enteric fistulas. Because intraoperative findings were th...

Zafer Teke, Faruk Onder Aytekin

2008-01-01

170

Ultrasonographic findings of ascaris in the small bowel: A case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic disease worldwide and evoked variable clinical manifestations by the migration of worm in the alimentary and biliary tract. The ultrasonographic detection of ascaris in the small bowel is relatively difficult, and no report on the ultrasonographic findings have been published in Korea. On abdominal ultrasonography, ascaris is seen as an intraluminal tubular structure with 4 linear echogenic stripes and movement. We report a case of ascaris in the small bowel detected by abdominal ultrasonography.

171

Ultrasonographic findings of ascaris in the small bowel: A case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic disease worldwide and evoked variable clinical manifestations by the migration of worm in the alimentary and biliary tract. The ultrasonographic detection of ascaris in the small bowel is relatively difficult, and no report on the ultrasonographic findings have been published in Korea. On abdominal ultrasonography, ascaris is seen as an intraluminal tubular structure with 4 linear echogenic stripes and movement. We report a case of ascaris in the small bowel detected by abdominal ultrasonography.

Kim, Hyun Cheol; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Jin [Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University college of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

2003-12-15

172

Small bowel intussusception with the Meckel's diverticulum after blunt abdominal trauma: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Intussusception with the Meckel's diverticulum is a rare but well-known cause of small bowel obstruction in the adult. After blunt abdominal trauma, intussusception is exceedingly rare and has been reported previously only in few cases. We present a case of a previously healthy 28-year-old man developing four days after blunt abdominal trauma signs of small bowel obstruction. Ileo-ileal intussusception was suggested by computed tomography. Exploration revealed ileo-ileal in...

Mazaz Khalid; Ibnmajdoub Karim; Ousadden Abdelmalek; Benjelloun El Bachir; Taleb Khalid

2009-01-01

173

High sensitivity of quick view capsule endoscopy for detection of small bowel Crohn's disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Capsule endoscopy (CE) has a high sensitivity for diagnosing small bowel Crohn's disease, but video analysis is time consuming. The quick view (qv) function is an effective tool to reduce time consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of missed small bowel ulcerations with qv-CE compared to standard view and the diagnostic accuracy of qv-CE in suspected Crohn's disease.

Halling, Morten Lee; Nathan, Torben

2014-01-01

174

Whipple's disease demonstrated by double contrast small bowel enema with barium and methylcellulose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiologic findings on small bowel enema examination using barium and methylcellulose (SBE+Ba+MC) in a patient with Whipple's disease before and after treatment are described. The changes on SBE+Ba+MC corresponded well to the clinical and morphologic picture. The advantages of this double contrast technique compared to the enteroclysis with barium alone are demonstrated. The SBE+Ba+MC is a good method to demonstrate the manifestations of Whipple's disease involving the small bowel and the mesentery. (orig.)

175

Constitutive basal and stimulated human small bowel contractility is enhanced in obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Small bowel contractility may be more prominent in obese subjects, such that there is enhanced nutrient absorption and hunger stimulation. However, there is little evidence to support this. This study examined in vitro small bowel contractility in obese patients versus non-obese patients. Samples of histologically normal small bowel were obtained at laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from obese patients. Control specimens were taken from non-obese patients undergoing small bowel resection for benign disease or formation of an ileal pouch-anal anastamosis. Samples were transported in a pre-oxygenated Krebs solution. Microdissected circular smooth muscle strips were suspended under 1 g of tension in organ baths containing Krebs solution oxygenated with 95% O2/5% CO2 at 37°C. Contractile activity was recorded using isometric transducers at baseline and in response to receptor-mediated contractility using prostaglandin F2a, a nitric oxide donor and substance P under both equivocal and non-adreneregic, non-cholinergic conditions (guanethidine and atropine. Following equilibration, the initial response to the cholinergic agonist carbachol (0.1 mmol/L was significantly increased in the obese group (n = 63 versus the lean group (n = 61 with a mean maximum response: weight ratio of 4.58 ± 0.89 vs 3.53 ± 0.74; (p = 0.032. Following washout and re-calibration, cumulative application of substance P and prostaglandin F2a produced concentration-dependent contractions of human small bowel smooth muscle strips. Contractile responses of obese small bowel under equivocal conditions were significantly increased compared with non-obese small bowel (p Stimulated human small bowel contractility is increased in obese patients suggesting faster enteric emptying and more rapid intestinal transit. This may translate into enhanced appetite and reduced satiety.

Baird Alan W

2009-04-01

176

NSAID-induced deleterious effects on the proximal and mid small bowel in seronegative spondyloarthropathy patients  

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AIM: To investigate the small bowel of seronegative spondyloarthropathy (SpA) patients in order to ascertain the presence of mucosal lesions.METHODS: Between January 2008 and June 2010, 54 consecutive patients were enrolled and submitted to avideo capsule endoscopy (VCE) examination. History and demographic data were taken, as well as the history of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) consumption. After reading each VCE recording, a capsule endoscopy scoring index for small bowel muc...

Mihai Rimbas?, Ma?da?lina Marinescu

2011-01-01

177

Cost effectiveness of alternative imaging strategies for the diagnosis of small-bowel crohn's disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background & Aims The cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to the diagnosis of small-bowel Crohn's disease is unknown. This study evaluates whether computed tomographic enterography (CTE) is a cost-effective alternative to small-bowel follow-through (SBFT) and whether capsule endoscopy is a cost-effective third test in patients in whom a high suspicion of disease remains after 2 previous negative tests. Methods A decision-analytic model was developed to compare the lifetime ...

Levesque, Barrett G.; Cipriano, Lauren E.; Chang, Steven L.; Lee, Keane K.; Owens, Douglas K.; Garber, Alan M.

2010-01-01

178

Small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoar formation within meckel diverticulum: CT findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intestinal obstruction due to a phytobezoar within a Meckel diverticulum is exceedingly rare, with only seven reported cases in the surgical literature. The most important precipitating factor is the ingestion of agents high in fiber and cellulose. Small bowel obstruction in all but one case was due to retrograde propagation of the bezoar into the small bowel lumen. We report the clinical and CT findings in such a patient following a vegetarian diet. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Frazzini, V.I. Jr.; English, W.J.; Bashist, B.; Moore, E. [Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States)

1996-05-01

179

Laparoscopically treated small bowel obstruction due to internal herniation through the broad ligament.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors reported a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to internal herniation through a defect of the broad ligament. This is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. A 42 year-old woman without previous abdominal surgery presented with episodes of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Due to rather unspecific and changing symptoms and the fact that objective findings were normal the patient was discharged and admitted a couple of times before a computed tomography-scan showed small bowel obstruction. Acute diagnostic laparoscopy showed internal herniation of a loop of small bowel trapped in a 2 cm defect in the right side of the broad ligament. The defect was gently expanded bluntly and it was then possible to retract the strangulated part of the small bowel which afterwards was vital. The defect was sutured laparoscopically. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. This case demonstrates that a preoperative diagnosis is difficult and a high index of suspicion is necessary to prevent diagnostic delay. Internal herniation through a defect in the broad ligament should be considered as a differential diagnosis in female patients presenting with symptoms of small bowel obstruction without a history of prior abdominal surgery, especially in parous women. PMID:25294708

Vyrdal, Christian Dacesin; El-Hussuna, Alaa

2014-08-01

180

Non-emergency small bowel obstruction: assessment of CT findings that predict need for surgery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To identify CT findings predictive of surgical management in non-emergency small bowel obstruction (SBO). Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT of 129 patients with non-emergency SBO were evaluated for small bowel luminal diameter, wall thickness, presence of the small bowel faeces sign (intraluminal particulate matter in a dilated small bowel) and length, transition point, submucosal oedema, mesenteric stranding, ascites and degree of obstruction (low grade partial, high grade partial and complete obstruction). Medical records were reviewed for age, gender, management and history of abdominal surgery, abdominal malignancy, or SBO. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata Release 9.2. Degree of obstruction was the only predictor of need for surgery. Whereas 18.0% of patients with low-grade partial obstruction (n = 50) underwent surgery, 32.5% of patients with high-grade partial obstruction (n = 77) and 100% of patients with complete obstruction (n = 2) required surgery (P = 0.004). The small bowel faeces sign was inversely predictive of surgery (P = 0.018). In non-emergency SBO patients with contrast-enhanced CT imaging, grade of obstruction predicts surgery, while the small bowel faeces sign inversely predicts need for surgery. (orig.)

Deshmukh, Swati D.; Shin, David S.; Willmann, Juergen K.; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Shin, Lewis; Jeffrey, R.B. [Stanford University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

2011-05-15

 
 
 
 
181

Non-emergency small bowel obstruction: assessment of CT findings that predict need for surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To identify CT findings predictive of surgical management in non-emergency small bowel obstruction (SBO). Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT of 129 patients with non-emergency SBO were evaluated for small bowel luminal diameter, wall thickness, presence of the small bowel faeces sign (intraluminal particulate matter in a dilated small bowel) and length, transition point, submucosal oedema, mesenteric stranding, ascites and degree of obstruction (low grade partial, high grade partial and complete obstruction). Medical records were reviewed for age, gender, management and history of abdominal surgery, abdominal malignancy, or SBO. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata Release 9.2. Degree of obstruction was the only predictor of need for surgery. Whereas 18.0% of patients with low-grade partial obstruction (n = 50) underwent surgery, 32.5% of patients with high-grade partial obstruction (n = 77) and 100% of patients with complete obstruction (n = 2) required surgery (P = 0.004). The small bowel faeces sign was inversely predictive of surgery (P = 0.018). In non-emergency SBO patients with contrast-enhanced CT imaging, grade of obstruction predicts surgery, while the small bowel faeces sign inversely predicts need for surgery. (orig.)

182

Developing a new measure of small bowel peristalsis with dynamic MR: a proof of concept study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. Small bowel peristalsis is a complex of many individual motion elements. Although each element of peristalsis can be measured there is no current global measure of peristalsis. Purpose. To examine the feasibility of automated computerized assessment of global small bowel motility using simple computational methods. Material and Methods. Coronal dynamic MR images were obtained from five healthy volunteers who had fasted for 9 h and drunk 1.5 L of water. Images were taken using single breath-hold and ECG triggering. Acquisitions were repeated at 10 and 20 min after an intramuscular injection of hyoscine butylbromide. Parametric maps were generated representing the mean change in signal amplitude (MSA) per voxel for each dynamic acquisition. Two observers independently assessed thresholding for optimal segmentation of small bowel from other sources of signal. Total voxel activity (TVA) for each study was calculated as a sum of MSA per slice and whole examination and TVA profiles were generated. Results. Independent observations suggest that the automated segmentation method described usefully segments small bowel activity from other signal. Small bowel movement represented as TVA varied three-fold in the five volunteers and was inhibited by anti-muscarinic injection. Conclusion. It is possible to develop a new measure, based on automated segmentation of mean signal amplitude changes, of small bowel peristalsis using dynamic MR.

Farghal, Aser; Kasmai, Bahman; Malcolm, Paul N.; Toms, Andoni P. [Dept. of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich Univ. Hospital NHS Trust, Norwich (United Kingdom)], E-mail: andoni.toms@nnuh.nhs.uk; Graves, Martin J. [Univ. Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

2012-07-15

183

Developing a new measure of small bowel peristalsis with dynamic MR: a proof of concept study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. Small bowel peristalsis is a complex of many individual motion elements. Although each element of peristalsis can be measured there is no current global measure of peristalsis. Purpose. To examine the feasibility of automated computerized assessment of global small bowel motility using simple computational methods. Material and Methods. Coronal dynamic MR images were obtained from five healthy volunteers who had fasted for 9 h and drunk 1.5 L of water. Images were taken using single breath-hold and ECG triggering. Acquisitions were repeated at 10 and 20 min after an intramuscular injection of hyoscine butylbromide. Parametric maps were generated representing the mean change in signal amplitude (MSA) per voxel for each dynamic acquisition. Two observers independently assessed thresholding for optimal segmentation of small bowel from other sources of signal. Total voxel activity (TVA) for each study was calculated as a sum of MSA per slice and whole examination and TVA profiles were generated. Results. Independent observations suggest that the automated segmentation method described usefully segments small bowel activity from other signal. Small bowel movement represented as TVA varied three-fold in the five volunteers and was inhibited by anti-muscarinic injection. Conclusion. It is possible to develop a new measure, based on automated segmentation of mean signal amplitude changes, of small bowel peristalsis using dynamic MRynamic MR

184

Tumor de intestino delgado / Tumor of small bowel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta el caso de una mujer joven, que tuvo varios episodios de sangrado digestivo oscuro manifiesto por lo que requirió soporte transfusional, realización de dos esofagogastroduodenoscopias y dos colonoscopias, en las que no se identificó causa del sangrado. Se realizó enteroscopia de doble ba [...] lón encontrando una lesión subepitelial, ulcerada, de aspecto neoplásico en el íleon, la cual se marcó con tinta china y se tomaron biopsias que no fueron diagnósticas. Después de realizar estudios de extensión que fueron negativos, se llevó a laparotomía diagnóstica y terapéutica resecando el segmento de ileon comprometido por la lesión y cuyo diagnóstico histopatológico y por inmunohistoquímica fue conclusivo de carcinoma neuroendocrino mal diferenciado de alto grado de célula grande. Al final presentamos además, una revisión de sangrado oscuro manifiesto y tumor neuroendocrino de intestino delgado. Abstract in english Young woman who is having episodes of overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding that requires transfusions. The endoscopic study consists of 2 endoscopies of the upper digestive system and two colonoscopies. The tests do not find the cause of the digestive hemorrhage. A double-balloon enteroscopy is p [...] erformed and it is found that the Ileum has an ulcerate subepitelial lesion with neoplasic appearance which is marked with Chinese ink and biopsies are taken from the tissue which are not diagnosed. Studies of staging are performed ant the result is negative. A laparatomy is performed for diagnosis and treatment which includes the intestinal resection of ileum where the tumor is placed. The result of the test shows to be a neuroendocrine carcinoma of high degree of large cells undifferentiated. One appears in addition a revision to overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and neuroendocrine tumor of small bowel.

Elmer Jair, Ruiz Lobo; Rómulo, Vargas Rubio; Albis Cecilia, Hani; Jaime, Alvarado Bestene; Alberto, Rodríguez Varón; Yanette, Suárez Quintero; Raúl, Cañadas Garrido; Diana del Pilar, Torres Pabón; Julio Eduardo, Zuleta Muñoz; Mauricio, Sepúlveda Copete; Paola Andrea, Roa Ballestas.

2009-06-30

185

Laparoscopy in diverticular disease: Controversies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A minimally invasive approach to the management of diverticular disease has gained acceptance over the last number of years. Certainly, in the elective setting, laparoscopic sigmoid resection compares favourably with open surgery. The use of laparoscopy in the context of emergency surgery for complicated diverticular disease remains controversial however recent studies have demonstrated a defined role for laparoscopy in the acute setting. PMID:24485264

Collins, Danielle; Winter, Desmond C

2014-02-01

186

CT diagnosis of traumatic small bowel perforation without pneumoperitoneum or oral contrast leak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the most helpful abdominal CT findings in patients with small bowel perforation without pneumoperitoneum or oral contrast leakage after blunt trauma. We retrospectively analyzed the abdominal CT findings of 51 patients with small bowel perforation without pneumoperitoneum or oral contrast leakage. A score of 2 was assigned if bowel wall thickening of more than 5 mm or enhancement of the bowel wall was definite, and 1 if equivocal thickenting or enhancement of the bowel wall, mesenteric infiltration, sentinel clotting, intermesenteric fluid, or ileus were observed. According to the score, each finding was classified as strongly positive(5-8), possibly positive(3-4), or probably negative(1-2), and the accuracy of each classification was evaluated. We decided which findings would be most helpful when attempting to diagnose small bowel perforation. Forty one bowel perforations and four mesenteric injuries were identified in 45 laparatomies among 51 patients. In all 20 patents with a score of more than 5, small bowel perforation was found on surgery. The prevalence rate of bowel wall thickening and enhancement was significantly different between patients with perforation(88%, 80% respectively) and those without (20%, 40% respectively)(p<0.05). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of each criterion were compared (sum of scoring of all CT findings?3D3:82.9% · 40% · 74.5%;scoring of bowel wall thickening and enhancement ?3D 2:82.9% · 80% · 82.4%), anent ?3D 2:82.9% · 80% · 82.4%), and it was found that for specificity and accuracy, the latter was superior to the former. ROC analysis using the scores of each criterion as cut-off value also showed that the curve of the latter showed a more marked upward trend and was the most helpful parameter. When diagnosing small bowel perforation in the absence of pneumoperitonemum or oral contrast leakage after blunt abdominal trauma, bowel wall thickening and enhancement were more helpful parameters than the sum of all CT findings.=20

187

Combined small and large bowel MR imaging in patients with Crohn's disease: a feasibility study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MRI of the small bowel is a new method for the assessment of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, inflammatory bowel disease can affect both the small and large bowel. Therefore, our goal was to assess the feasibility of displaying the small bowel and colon simultaneously by MR imaging. Eighteen patients with inflammatory bowel disease were studied. For small bowel distension, patients ingested a solution containing mannitol and locust bean gum. Furthermore, the colon was rectally filled with water. MR examinations were performed on a 1.5-T system. Before and after intravenous gadolinium administration, a T1w data set was collected. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy as a standard of reference. The oral ingestion and the rectal application of water allowed an assessment of the small bowel and colon in all patients. By means of MRI (endoscopy), 19 (13) inflamed bowel segments in the colon and terminal ileum were detected. Furthermore, eight additional inflammatory lesions in the jejunum and proximal ileum that had not been endoscopically accessible were found by MRI. The simultaneous display of the small and large bowel by MRI is feasible. Major advantages of the proposed MR concept are related to its non-invasive character as well as to the potential to visualize parts of the small bowel that cannot be reached by endoscopy. (orig.)

Narin, Burcu; Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne; Lauenstein, Thomas C. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122, Essen (Germany); Langhorst, Jost; Gerken, Guido [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany); Akgoez, Haldun [Siyami Ersek Hastanesi, Istanbul (Turkey); Ruehm, Stefan G. [Department of Radiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles (United States)

2004-09-01

188

The value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease. Methods: Sixteen patients with suspected small bowel disease, but without acute inflammatory disease or bowel obstruction, received MR enteroclysis with air infusion. There were 12 males and 4 females, and their age ranged from 17 to 75 years. 10 patients had abdominal pain, 4 with melena or blood stool, and 2 with diarrhea. The longest course was 7 years, and the shortest 1 week. Before MR imaging, a nasoenteric catheter was inserted into the distal part of duodenum, and about 1000 ml of air was infused through the tube to distend the small bowel. 20 mg of IV anisodamine was given to reduce small-bowel peristalsis. All patients were imaged with fat-saturated Gd-DTPA enhanced coronal and axial T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequence and fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) sequence. Comparison between the diagnosis of MRI and the results of surgery, pathology or clinic was performed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of MRI. Results: 5 cases were normal, 6 with Crohn disease, 2 with gastric intestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and 1 each of lymphoma, tuberculosis and irritable bowel syndrome. The lumen of normal small bowel in MR enteroclysis was no signal, the wall was outlined as middle signal by intraluminal air and surrounding air-distended bowel and was between 1-3 mm thick, and the diameter of the lumen was between 17-28 mm. Crohn disease shoen was between 17-28 mm. Crohn disease showed segmental mural thickening, increased enhancement, luminal stricture, and even extraluminal inflammatory mass or fistula. Intestinal tuberculosis invaded the distal section of ileum, cecum, and the proximal ascending colon, the wall thickened and enhanced apparently, and cecum and proximal ascending colon shortened. GIST showed a mass that was iso-signal on T1WI, high signal on T2WI, and enhanced significantly after IV Gd-DTPA. 1 recurrent lymphoma of ileum showed mural thickening and increased enhancement but no stenosis. 1 irritable bowel syndrome is disfunction, so its shape and signal is normal. Except 1 Crohn disease, which showed a large mass, was misdiagnosed as lymphoma and no abnormality was found in 1 irritable bowel syndrome, the other diagnosis of MRI was correct. The sensitivity in diagnosing small intestinal disease was 100%, and the specificity was 83%. Conclusion: MR enteroclysis with air infusion is a sensitive method in diagnosing the small bowel disease, especially in Crohn disease and tumor. It can clearly display the mural thickening and the extraluminal inflammatory mass

189

Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Small Bowel: Comparison of Different Oral Contrast Media  

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Purpose: To evaluate several substances regarding small bowel distension and contrast on balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cine magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: Luminal contrast was evaluated in 24 volunteers after oral application of two different contrast agent groups leading to either bright lumen (pineapple, blueberry juice) or dark lumen (tap water, orange juice) on T1-weighted images. Bowel distension was evaluated in 30 patients ingesting either methylcellulose or mannitol solution for limiting intestinal absorption. Fifteen patients with duodeno-jejunal intubation served as the control. Quantitative evaluation included measurement of luminal signal intensities and diameters of four bowel segments, qualitative evaluation assessed luminal contrast and distension on a five-point scale. Results: Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the four contrast agents revealed no significant differences regarding luminal contrast on bSSFP images. Quantitative evaluation revealed significantly lower (P<0.05) small bowel distension for three out of four segments (qualitative evaluation: two out of four segments) for methylcellulose in comparison to the control. Mannitol was found to be equal to the control. Conclusion: Oral ingestion of tap water or orange juice in combination with mannitol is recommended for cine MR imaging of the small bowel regarding luminal contrast and small bowel distension on bSSFP sequences.

Asbach, P.; Breitwieser, C.; Diederichs, G.; Eisele, S.; Kivelitz, D.; Taupitz, M.; Zeitz, M.; Hamm, B.; Klessen, C. [Charite - Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Charite Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

2006-11-15

190

Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Small Bowel: Comparison of Different Oral Contrast Media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate several substances regarding small bowel distension and contrast on balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cine magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: Luminal contrast was evaluated in 24 volunteers after oral application of two different contrast agent groups leading to either bright lumen (pineapple, blueberry juice) or dark lumen (tap water, orange juice) on T1-weighted images. Bowel distension was evaluated in 30 patients ingesting either methylcellulose or mannitol solution for limiting intestinal absorption. Fifteen patients with duodeno-jejunal intubation served as the control. Quantitative evaluation included measurement of luminal signal intensities and diameters of four bowel segments, qualitative evaluation assessed luminal contrast and distension on a five-point scale. Results: Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the four contrast agents revealed no significant differences regarding luminal contrast on bSSFP images. Quantitative evaluation revealed significantly lower (P<0.05) small bowel distension for three out of four segments (qualitative evaluation: two out of four segments) for methylcellulose in comparison to the control. Mannitol was found to be equal to the control. Conclusion: Oral ingestion of tap water or orange juice in combination with mannitol is recommended for cine MR imaging of the small bowel regarding luminal contrast and small bowel distension on bSSFP sequencesn bSSFP sequences

191

SOME MECHANISMS OF THE DEVELOPMENT DIVERTIKULYARNOY DISEASE OF THE BOWELS  

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Full Text Available Stigma dysplasia of connective tissue, indications of diffuse endocrine system (enterocells immunopositive substance P (SP and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, mast cells (mastocyte in patients with diverticular disease of bowels are discussed in the article.

Yu.N. Myalina

2008-06-01

192

A simple technique to reduce small bowel toxicity when irradiating the periaortic area  

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Purpose/Objective: Patients receiving periaortic radiation are normally treated in the supine position. We decided to evaluate whether positioning the patient prone on a modified 'belly-board' can reduce the volume of small bowel within the lateral fields in patients receiving four field periaortic radiation. Materials and Methods: Sixteen consecutive women with gynecologic primaries underwent simulation of the periaortic area using a four-field set up (AP, PA, Lats). The fields extended from the top of the L1 vertebral body to the bottom of L5 and had a mean length of 16.2 cm. The AP and PA fields had a width of 8 cm (centered on the midline of the vertebral bodies) while the right and left lateral fields had a width of 4 cm (2 cm anterior and 2 cm posterior to the anterior margin of the vertebral bodies) and did not include the spinal cord. Following oral ingestion of small bowel contrast, simulation films were obtained in the supine position and in the prone position on a modified 'belly-board' (with the pelvic opening extended superiorly to the superior abdomen). It was hypothesized that the prone position on a modified 'belly-board' would allow the abdominal small bowel to fall by gravity away from the periaortic area. We measured the volume of small bowel irradiated through the lateral fields for both the supine and prone-in-belly-board positions using the method described by Gallagher et al. Results: The volume of small bowel included within the lateral fields bowel included within the lateral fields in the supine position ranged from 164 to 359.5 cc3 (mean 285 cc3) while placement in the prone-in-bellyboard position reduced the volume of small bowel within the lateral fields to a range of 35-152 cc3 (mean 86 cc3), an overall reduction of approximately 70% in the volume of small bowel included within lateral fields. Conclusion: The use of lateral fields in the prone-in-bellyboard position allows for significant small bowel sparing through the lateral component of a four-field periaortic set-up. Since approximately 1500 c9y (as to not exceed kidney tolerance) can be delivered through the lateral fields, this dose can be important considering the minimal dose difference between control of microscopic disease and small bowel damage. This technique can improve the therapeutic ratio in patients receiving periaortic radiotherapy primarily or prophylactically

193

Laparoscopic Surgery for Diverticular Disease Complicated by Fistulae  

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Objectives: Elective laparoscopic surgery for recurrent, uncomplicated diverticular disease is considered safe and effective; however, little data exist on complicated cases. We investigated laparoscopic sigmoid resection for diver-ticulitis complicated by fistulae. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent laparoscopic treatment of enteric fistulae complicating diverticular disease performed by 4 surgeons at the Mount Sinai Medical Center. Results: From 1994 to 2004, 14 patients underwent elective laparoscopic sigmoid resections for diverticular disease complicated by enteric fistulae. Patients’ mean age was 62 and 4 were female. Multiple fistulae were present in 21%. Types of fistulae included 8 colovesical, 5 enterocolic, 2 colovaginal, 1 colosalpingal, and 1 colocutaneous. All patients successfully underwent sigmoidectomy, and 14% required additional bowel resections. No cases were proximally diverted. Conversion to open was necessary in 36% of cases, all due to dense adhesions and severe inflammation. The mean operative time was 209 minutes, and the mean blood loss was 326 mL. Two (14%) postoperative complications occurred, including one anastomotic bleed and one prolonged ileus. No anastomotic leaks or mortalities occurred. The mean postoperative stay was 6 days. Conclusion: Laparoscopic management of diverticular disease complicated by fistulae can be performed effectively and safely. The conversion rate is higher than traditionally accepted rates of uncomplicated cases of diver-ticulitis and is associated with severe adhesions and inflammation. PMID:16882413

Nguyen, Scott Q.; Vine, Anthony; Reiner, Mark; Katz, L. Brian; Salky, Barry

2006-01-01

194

Reduction of irradiated small bowel volume with trendelenburg position in gynecologic pelvic radiotherapy  

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Full text: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Trendelenburg position in comparison to prone position on small bowel volume and treatment dose in gynecologic pelvic external beam radiotherapy using three-dimensional con-formal treatment plans. Eight patients with gynecologic cancers, treated with definitive or postoperative pelvic radiotherapy were investigated. Pelvic computerized tomography (CT) scans for treatment planning were performed in prone and 25 degree Trendelenburg positions for each patient. The dose-volume histograms of small bowel within the treatment fields were obtained and compared for both positions. The clinical target volume (CTV) and the planning target volume (PTV) were also defined and evaluated in the subjects. Treatment dose was 5040 cGy to PTV with 180 cGy daily fraction doses in both techniques for all patients. The average irradiated small bowel volume was 726 cc for prone position and 458 cc for the Trendelenburg position. The average irradiated small bowel volume reduction in the Trendelenburg position was 38.0% (95% CI 19.5 ± 38%) compared with the prone position. The average small bowel percent dose was 25.4% (1280 cGy) for Trendelenburg position and 39.9% (2010 cGy) for prone position. PTV doses were similar in both techniques. The results of this dosimetric study suggest that gynecologic pelvic radiotherapy in the Trendelenburg position decreases the volume of irradiated small bowel compared to prone position and may dowel compared to prone position and may decrease treatment related small bowel morbidity. Clinical benefit of this position should be evaluated in further clinical studies.

195

Small bowel obstruction: a review of 264 cases and suggestions for management.  

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Two hundred and sixty-four cases of acute small bowel obstruction were retrospectively reviewed for the purpose of defining factors which could point to the presence of strangulated bowel. History, physical signs and investigations, including body temperature, X-rays, white blood count, and serum amylase, were not significantly different in the simple and strangulated groups. Although an elevated urinary white blood count and a palpable mass were more common in the strangulated group, they we...

Deutsch, A. A.; Eviatar, E.; Gutman, H.; Reiss, R.

1989-01-01

196

Chylous ascites and obstructive lymphoedema of the small bowels following abdominal radiotherapy  

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The case history of a patient who developed chylous ascites following abdominal radiotherapy for recurrent carcinoma of the colon was presented. Laparotomy revealed generalized radiation damage of the small bowel with a particularly severely affected segment of jejunum, from the serosal surface of which chyle was seen to be leaking. Mesenteric lymphangiography revealed an obstruction to lymphatic drainage in the mesentery. Resection of the worst affected segment of bowel prevented further development of chylous ascites. (author)

197

Small bowel transplantation in children: an immunohistochemical study of intestinal grafts.  

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Seven children with short bowel syndrome underwent small bowel allografting. Episodes of early rejection were observed in five patients who received a graft from paediatric or adult donors but not in two patients who received a neonatal graft. This study aimed, firstly, to define immunohistochemical parameters accompanying rejection and, secondly, to compare immunohistochemical parameters in neonatal grafts with those in grafts from older donors. An immunohistochemical analysis was performed ...

Fromont, G.; Cerf-bensussan, N.; Patey, N.; Canioni, D.; Rambaud, C.; Goulet, O.; Jan, D.; Re?villon, Y.; Ricour, C.; Brousse, N.

1995-01-01

198

Spectrum of imaging findings on MDCT enterography in patients with small bowel tuberculosis  

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Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is the sixth most common extrapulmonary site of involvement. The sites of involvement in abdominal tuberculosis, in descending order of frequency, are lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity, and gastrointestinal tract. The radiological armamentarium for evaluating tuberculosis of the small bowel (SBTB) includes barium studies (small bowel follow-through, SBFT), CT (multidetector CT, CT enterography, and CT enteroclysis), ultrasound (sonoenteroclysis), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; enterography and enteroclysis). In this review, we illustrate the abnormalities at MDCT enterography in 20 consecutive patients with SB TB and also describe extraluminal findings in these patients. MDCT enterography allows non-invasive good-quality assessment of well-distended bowel loops and the adjacent soft tissues. It displays the thickness and enhancement of the entire bowel wall in all three planes and allows examination of all bowel loops, especially the ileal loops, which are mostly superimposed. The terminal ileum and ileocaecal junction are the most common sites of small bowel involvement in intestinal TB. The most common abnormality is short-segment strictures with symmetrical concentric mural thickening and homogeneous mural enhancement. Other findings include lymphadenopathy, ascites, enteroliths, peritoneal thickening, and enhancement. In conclusion, MDCT enterography is a comprehensive technique for the evaluation of SB TB

199

Complications of diverticular disease: surgical laparoscopic treatment.  

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Surgical treatment of complicated colonic diverticular disease is still debatable. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic colon resection in patients with diverticulitis and with complications like colon-vescical fistula, peridiverticular abscess, perforation or stricture. All patients underwent laparoscopic colectomy within 8 years period. Main data recorded were age, sex, return of bowel function, operation time, duration of hospital stay, ASA score, body mass index (BMI), early and late complications. During the study period, 33 colon resections were performed for diverticulitis and complications of diverticulitis. We performed 5 associated procedures. We had 2 postoperative complications; 1 of these required a redo operation with laparotomy for anastomotic leak and 3 patients required conversion from laparoscopic to open colectomy. The most common reasons for conversion were related to the inflammatory process with a severe adhesion syndrome. Mean operative time was 229 minutes, and average postoperative hospital stay was 9,8 days. Laparoscopic surgery for complications of diverticular disease is safe, effective and feasible. Laparoscopic colectomy has replaced open resection as standard surgery for recurrent and complicated diverticulitis in our institution. PMID:24979103

Anania, G; Vedana, L; Santini, M; Scagliarini, L; Giaccari, S; Resta, G; Cavallesco, G

2014-01-01

200

Small-bowel dislocation during long-term MRI observation - insights in intestinal physiology.  

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen is a widely established imaging modality in the diagnostic workup of patients suffering from abdominal disorders. Small-bowel motility analyses using MRI have recently been introduced to provide functional information about the intestine not provided by morphological analyses. This is of clinical importance as motility disorders correlate with inflammation. Yet motility analyses mainly rely on a series of acquisitions in coronal orientation. Temporal displacement of small-bowel loops out of the coronal slice could falsify qualitative and quantitative motility analyses. Thus, our study quantified three-dimensional (3D) dislocation of small-bowel loops during abdominal MRI examinations with the patient lying in prone position to investigate its influence on motility analyses. Our study revealed segmental small-bowel displacement during MRI examinations in prone position to predominantly occur in craniocaudal orientation and in a smaller extent in lateral and ventrodorsal orientation. However, the displacement amplitudes are rather small and might not significantly influence small-bowel motility analyses in 2D coronal plane in general. PMID:24418110

Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Froehlich, Johannes M; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; von Weymarn, Constantin; Patak, Michael A

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

A transmesenteric hernia in a child: gangrene of a long segment of small bowel through a large mesenteric defect.  

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Intestinal obstruction is a common surgical emergency. Transmesenteric hernia is an unusual cause of bowel obstruction that may result in irreversible damage of the bowel and a fatal outcome. Once incarceration of the bowel occurs, strangulation and gangrene follow immediately. The mortality rate associated with this condition is about 15%, but in the presence of gangrene of the bowel, the mortality rate is more than 50%. An accurate preoperative diagnosis of a transmesenteric hernia is very difficult and rarely made. Therefore, in patients with small bowel obstruction, in the absence of a history of previous surgery to suggest adhesions or an external hernia, the possibility of a transmesenteric hernia must be considered. We describe a case with gangrene of a long segment of the small bowel caused by a transmesenteric hernia through a large defect of small bowel mesentery in a child. PMID:19458470

Park, Chan Yong; Kim, Jung Chul; Choi, Soo Jin Na; Kim, Shin Kon

2009-05-01

202

Use of methylcellulose in small-bowel follow-through examination : comparison with enteroclysis and conventional series in normal subjects  

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To evaluate the efficacy of a modified small bowel follow-through (SBFT) and to optimize this technique. Ninety-nine subjects without small bowel pathology underwent modified SBFT using oral administration of methylcellulose after taking 100ml of 120% or 100, 150, or 200ml of 70% barium. Thirty-three and 39 normal subjects undergoing enteroclysis or conventional SBFT, respectively, were also evaluated for comparison of image qualities and transit time. Enteroclysis was the most successful of three types of small bowel examination for obtaining the best quality of bowel transradiency and distension. Modified SBFT was, however much superior to the conventional series for obtaining good bowel transradiency and rapid transit time (mean, 37-49 minutes). The use of 150ml of 70% barium was better than the other three modified techniques in achieving good bowel transradiency, rapid transit time, and less flocculaton. Our modified SBFT is a simple and safe method for easily improving bowel transradiency and transit time

203

MRI of small bowel Crohn's disease: determining the reproducibility of bowel wall gadolinium enhancement measurements  

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This study aims to determine inter- and intra-observer variation in MRI measurements of relative bowel wall signal intensity (SI) in Crohn's disease. Twenty-one small bowel MRI examinations (11 male, mean age 40), including T1-weighted acquisitions acquired 30 to 120s post-gadolinium, were analysed. Maximal bowel wall SI (most avid, conspicuous contrast enhancement) in designated diseased segments was measured by two radiologists and two trainees using self-positioned ''free'' regions of interest (ROIs) followed by ''fixed'' ROIs chosen by one radiologist, and this procedure was repeated 1 month later. Relative enhancement (post-contrast SI minus pre-contrast SI/pre-contrast SI) was calculated. Data were analysed using Bland-Altman limits of agreement and intra-class correlation. Inter-observer agreement for relative enhancement was poor (spanning over 120%) using a free ROI - 95% limits of agreement -0.69, 0.70 and -0.47, 0.74 for radiologists and trainees, respectively, only marginally improved by use of a fixed ROI -0.60, 0.67 and -0.59, 0.49. Intra-class correlation ranged from 0.46 to 0.72. Intra-observer agreement was slightly better and optimised using a fixed ROI - 95% limits of agreement -0.52, 0.50 and -0.34, 0.28 for radiologists and trainees, respectively. Intra-class correlation ranged from 0.49 to 0.86. Relative bowel wall signal intensity measurements demonstrate wide limits of observer agreement, unrelated to reader experience but improved using fixed ROIs. (orig.)

Sharman, A.; Zealley, I.A. [Ninewells Hospital, Dundee (United Kingdom); Greenhalgh, R.; Taylor, S.A. [University College Hospital, Department of Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Bassett, P. [Stats Consultancy, Ruislip (United Kingdom)

2009-08-15

204

Changing incidence of diverticular disease of the colon in the Koreans: a radiological study  

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Diverticular disease of the colon is the commonest pathological process in the large bowel in the aged caucasians, but this is rare in oriental races.In Korea, diverticular disease of the colon was known to be rare as reported by Kim in 1964. Since then, however, we have had an impression that the diverticular disease of the colon is not so rare as was reported by Kim previously from our department. The present study has been undertaken to substantiate our impression. We received 1,143 consecutive cases of double-contrast barium performed at the Department of radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the past 7 years to analyzed diverticular disease patterns of the colon in the Koreans. 1. The present study revealed 29 patients of diverticular disease of the colon, an incidence of 2.5%. The age distribution was shown in Table 1. 2. The mean number of diverticular were 9 and the mean size as follows: the cecum, 6.4 mm; the proximal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 5.6 mm, The mid 1/3 of ascending colon, 4.9 mm; and the distal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 4.4 mm. 3. The average age of patients with diverticular disease of the colon was 49.5 years. Chief complaints were change of bowel habit (31.6%), abdominal pain (28.9%) and indigestion (18.4%). 4. The associated radiological findings of diverticular disease of the colon were: (1) spasm in 16 cases (46%); (2) a marginal irregularity in 16 cases (25%); and (3) asymmetrical haustra in 16 cases (30%). In 13 cases no associated signs seen. We have found that incidence of the diverticular disease of the colon in the present series is very significantly higher than that of the previous report from our department (Kim, 1964). We postulate that the possible factors operational in such increase in the incidence of the clonic diverticular disease in the last decade are: (1) changing dietary pattern characterized by high-protein and high refined-sugar consumption, and (2) routine use of the double contrast technique which permitted us to see more diverticular outpouchings of the colon compared to the conventional simple barium enema study.

Chung, Soo Kyo; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Lee, Soon Kyu; Bahk, Young Whee [St. Mary' s Hospital., Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1979-06-15

205

Clinical variables related to small bowel obstruction: comparison of patients with and without Crohn’s disease  

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Small bowel obstruction is a known complication of Crohn’s disease. Determining need for operation is a demanding task. The aim of this study was to fine tune the decision-making process by evaluating standard clinical and laboratory parameters in small bowel obstruction of any cause and compare etiologies. Consecutive patients with Crohn’s disease and small bowel obstruction were selected retrospectively and compared to a randomly selected group of non Crohn’s patients with obstruction...

Andrew Szilagyi; Philip Gordon; Christina Holcroft; Awad Al Qahtani

2012-01-01

206

Recurrent small bowel obstruction in a 60-year-old celiac patient: a rare entity of a common disease  

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AbstractA 60-year-old woman with a medical history of celiac disease was evaluated due to recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction. Upper and lower endoscopies were normal. The small bowel pathology consisted of celiac disease, and the anti-endomysial antibody was positive. Dilatation of small bowel loops was demonstrated on abdominal computed tomography. Further evaluation was conducted using video capsule endoscopy that demonstrated regional narrowing and severe ulceration in the middl...

Har-noy, Ofir; Amitai, Michal; Carter, Dan

2014-01-01

207

Lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery: a case report and review of the literature.  

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Lymphangioma is a rare benign condition characterized by proliferation of lymphatic spaces. It is usually found in the head and neck of affected children. Lymphangioma of the small-bowel mesentery is rare, having been reported for less than 1% of all lymphangiomas. Importantly, it can cause fatal complications such as volvulus or involvement of the main branch of the mesenteric arteries, requiring emergency surgery. Moreover, the gross and histopathologic findings may resemble benign multicystic mesothelioma and lymphangiomyoma. Immunohistochemical study for factor VIII-related antigen, D2-40, calretinin and human melanoma black-45 (HMB-45) are essential for diagnosis. Factor VIII-related antigen and D2-40 are positive in lymphangioma but negative in benign multicystic mesothelioma. HMB-45 shows positive study in the smooth-muscle cells around the lymphatic spaces of the lymphangiomyoma. We report a case of small-bowel volvulus induced by mesenteric lymphangioma in a 2-year-and-9-mo-old boy who presented with rapid abdominal distension and vomiting. The abdominal computed tomography scan showed a multiseptated mass at the right lower quadrant with a whirl-like small-bowel dilatation, suggestive of a mesenteric cyst with midgut volvulus. The intraoperative findings revealed a huge, lobulated, yellowish pink, cystic mass measuring 20 cm × 20 cm × 10 cm, that was originated from the small bowel mesentery with small-bowel volvulus and small-bowel dilatation. Cut surface of the mass revealed multicystic spaces containing a milky white fluid. The patient underwent tumor removal with small-bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Microscopic examination revealed that the cystic walls were lined with flat endothelial cells and comprised of smooth muscle in the walls. The flat endothelial cells were positive for factor VIII-related antigen and D2-40 but negative for calretinin. HMB-45 showed negative study in the smooth-muscle cells around the lymphatic spaces. Thus, the diagnosis was lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery with associated small bowel volvulus. PMID:23180956

Suthiwartnarueput, Worapop; Kiatipunsodsai, Siriphut; Kwankua, Amolchaya; Chaumrattanakul, Utairat

2012-11-21

208

Lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery: A case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Lymphangioma is a rare benign condition characterized by proliferation of lymphatic spaces. It is usually found in the head and neck of affected children. Lymphangioma of the small-bowel mesentery is rare, having been reported for less than 1% of all lymphangiomas. Importantly, it can cause fatal complications such as volvulus or involvement of the main branch of the mesenteric arteries, requiring emergency surgery. Moreover, the gross and histopathologic findings may resemble benign multicystic mesothelioma and lymphangiomyoma. Immunohistochemical study for factor VIII-related antigen, D2-40, calretinin and human melanoma black-45 (HMB-45 are essential for diagnosis. Factor VIII-related antigen and D2-40 are positive in lymphangioma but negative in benign multicystic mesothelioma. HMB-45 shows positive study in the smooth-muscle cells around the lymphatic spaces of the lymphangiomyoma. We report a case of small-bowel volvulus induced by mesenteric lymphangioma in a 2-year-and-9-mo-old boy who presented with rapid abdominal distension and vomiting. The abdominal computed tomography scan showed a multiseptated mass at the right lower quadrant with a whirl-like small-bowel dilatation, suggestive of a mesenteric cyst with midgut volvulus. The intraoperative findings revealed a huge, lobulated, yellowish pink, cystic mass measuring 20 cm × 20 cm × 10 cm, that was originated from the small bowel mesentery with small-bowel volvulus and small-bowel dilatation. Cut surface of the mass revealed multicystic spaces containing a milky white fluid. The patient underwent tumor removal with small-bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Microscopic examination revealed that the cystic walls were lined with flat endothelial cells and comprised of smooth muscle in the walls. The flat endothelial cells were positive for factor VIII-related antigen and D2-40 but negative for calretinin. HMB-45 showed negative study in the smooth-muscle cells around the lymphatic spaces. Thus, the diagnosis was lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery with associated small bowel volvulus.

Worapop Suthiwartnarueput

2012-01-01

209

Small bowel obstruction caused by congenital transmesenteric defect  

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Transmesenteric hernias are extremely rare. A strangulated hernia through a mesenteric opening is a rare operative finding. Preoperative diagnosis still is difficult in spite of the imaging techniques currently available. The authors describe two cases of paediatric patients presenting with bowel obstruction resulting from a congenital mesenteric hernia. The first patient had a 3-cm wide congenital defect in the ileal mesentery through which the sigmoid colon had herniated. The second patient...

Nouira F; Dhaou Ben; Charieg A; Ghorbel S; Jlidi S; Chaouachi B

2011-01-01

210

X-ray findings of small bowel taeniasis: A clinical and experimental study  

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Unlike ascariasis of the small bowel, taeniasis can be detected radiologically with much difficulty because of the basic difference between the morphological features of each helminth. However once the characteristics of tape worms are appreciated and kept in mind, radiological diagnosis is fairly accurately made. In the present study we have reported typical radiological features of the small bowel taeniasis as observed in 6 adults patients seen at the Department of Radiology of St. Mary's Hospital and Holy Family Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Tapering tape-like or ribbon -like radiolucent shadows in distal small bowel appear unique. Compression spot film study of the ileum is most important in revealing such findings. An animal experiment using the swine small intestine and parasitological specimen of evacuated worm of taenia saginata was designed to help understand radiological manifestation in vivo.

Kim, Hong Soo; Kang, Hee Woong; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1972-12-15

211

X-ray findings of small bowel taeniasis: A clinical and experimental study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike ascariasis of the small bowel, taeniasis can be detected radiologically with much difficulty because of the basic difference between the morphological features of each helminth. However once the characteristics of tape worms are appreciated and kept in mind, radiological diagnosis is fairly accurately made. In the present study we have reported typical radiological features of the small bowel taeniasis as observed in 6 adults patients seen at the Department of Radiology of St. Mary's Hospital and Holy Family Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Tapering tape-like or ribbon -like radiolucent shadows in distal small bowel appear unique. Compression spot film study of the ileum is most important in revealing such findings. An animal experiment using the swine small intestine and parasitological specimen of evacuated worm of taenia saginata was designed to help understand radiological manifestation in vivo

212

Small bowel ischaemia resulting from delayed presentation of an incarcerated right-sided diaphragmatic hernia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 51 year old man presented with a short history of severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. An initial chest radiograph demonstrated gas in the right subphrenic space and a subsequent CT scan demonstrated a hernia through the mid-part of the right hemi-diaphragm, containing small bowel and omentum. A detailed history revealed that there had been trauma to the right side of the chest approximately 12 years previously. An emergency laparoscopy revealed a right sided diaphragmatic hernia containing non-viable small bowel and omentum. After converting to a small midline laparotomy, a small bowel resection and primary anastomosis was performed. The patient was discharged from hospital 12 days later. In any patient presenting with symptoms of upper abdominal pain, with a prior history of trauma, the diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia should therefore be considered. PMID:24950548

Hopkins, Jc; Gash, K; Armstrong, Cp

2011-01-01

213

A survived case of tardive small bowel injury resulting from radiotherapy for ovarial tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a patient who underwent surgical excision of recurrent tumor of ovarian disgerminoma, small bowel injury following radiotherapy was treated by extensive excision of the small intestine followed by intravenous hyperalimentation (I.V.H.) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. From its clinical course and treatment, we concluded that 1) In small bowel complication due to radiation injury, especially perforation of the small bowel, radical excision of the diseased segment is most promising, if the general and local conditions permit. 2) I.V.H. is effective for protecting and improving postoperative malnutrition after extensive excision of the small bowel. 3) Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is very effective for postoperative paralytic ileus in the case in which surgical operation cannot be performed. 4) Zinc deficiency as a complication of prolonged I.V.H. therapy must be protected. 5) It is necessary to study pathophysiology of short bowel syndrome following the extensive excision and to continue treatment and careful long-term follow-up. (Ueda, J.)

214

Reduction of Acute Rejection by Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Rat Small Bowel Transplantation  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) have shown immunosuppressive activity in transplantation. This study was designed to determine whether BMMSCs could improve outcomes of small bowel transplantation in rats. Methods Heterotopic small bowel transplantation was performed from Brown Norway to Lewis rats, followed by infusion of BMMSCs through the superficial dorsal veins of the penis. Controls included rats infused with normal saline (allogeneic control), isogeneically transplanted rats (BN-BN) and nontransplanted animals. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 7 or 10 days. Small bowel histology and apoptosis, cytokine concentrations in serum and intestinal grafts, and numbers of T regulatory (Treg) cells were assessed at each time point. Results Acute cellular rejection occurred soon after transplantation and became aggravated over time in the allogeneic control rats, with increase in apoptosis, inflammatory response, and T helper (Th)1/Th2 and Th17/Treg-related cytokines. BMMSCs significantly attenuated acute cellular rejection, reduced apoptosis and suppressed the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and interferon (IFN)-? while upregulating IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? expression and increasing Treg levels. Conclusion BMMSCs improve the outcomes of allogeneic small bowel transplantation by attenuating the inflammatory response and acute cellular rejection. Treatment with BMMSCs may overcome acute cellular rejection in small bowel transplantation. PMID:25500836

Zhang, Wen; Wu, Ben-Juan; Fu, Nan-Nan; Zheng, Wei-Ping; Don, Chong; Shen, Zhong-Yang

2014-01-01

215

Diverticular disease of the colon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high incidence of diverticular disease, its clinical symptoms, pathology and anatomy are discussed. In the author's opinion, the valuable method of double-contrast examination in the hypotonic state is frequently neglected in favour of endoscopy, a method putting the patient under strain. Double-contrast examination should be the method of choice; it determines the extend and, in most cases, also the complications of diverticular disease with sufficient accuracy and reliability. The radiological criteria of diverticular disease are illustrated by a number of figures.

Fuchs, H.F.

1983-12-01

216

Contrast radiography in small bowel obstruction. A randomized trial of barium sulfate and a nonionic low-osmolar contrast medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-six adult patients clinically suspected of small bowel obstruction underwent small bowel contrast radiography with either barium sulfate or a nonionic low-osmolar contrast medium after randomization. Films were taken after 2, 4, and 8 hours and later when needed. No difference as regards visualization and diagnostic quality was found between the 2 media. It is concluded that a nonionic low-osmolar contrast medium is an alternative to barium sulfate for small bowel contrast radiography where small bowel obstruction is suspected. (orig.)

217

Laparoscopic treatment for acute diverticular disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon involves more than 50% of population over 60 years, and much more in people older than 80 years. Most patients remain asymptomatic, but, about 10-20% develop complications requiring surgery. Colonic diverticulitis represents an acute bowel inflammation, in many cases, confined only to the sigmoid and descending colon. Recurrent attacks and complications of diverticulitis require surgical procedure, although most cases can be managed medically. The cause of acute diverticulitis remains obscure. It has been speculated that obstruction at the mouth of the diverticulum results in diverticulitis, similar to appendicitis, but this is no longer the accepted theory, and some feel that chronic inflammation precedes clinical diverticulitis. .

Pignata Giusto

2006-01-01

218

Ileus and Small Bowel Obstruction in an Emergency Department Observation Unit: Are there Outcome Predictors?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of our study was to describe the evaluation and outcome of patients with ileus and bowel obstruction admitted to an emergency department (ED observation unit (OU and to identify predictors of successful management for such patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 129 patients admitted to a university-affiliated, urban, tertiary hospital ED OU from January 1999 through November 2004. Inclusion criteria were all adult patients admitted to the OU with an ED diagnosis of ileus, partial small bowel obstruction, or small bowel obstruction, and electronic medical records available for review. The following variables were examined: ED diagnosis, history of similar admission, number of prior abdominal surgeries, surgery in the month before, administration of opioid analgesia at any time after presentation, radiographs demonstrating air–fluid levels or dilated loops of small bowel, hypokalemia, use of nasogastric decompression, and surgical consultation. Results: Treatment failure, defined as hospital admission from the OU, occurred in 65 (50.4% of 129 patients. Only the use of a nasogastric tube was associated with OU failure (21% discharged versus 79% requiring admission, P ¼ 0.0004; odds ratio, 5.294; confidence interval, 1.982–14.14. Conclusion: Half of the patients admitted to our ED OU with ileus or varying degrees of small bowel obstruction required hospital admission. The requirement of a nasogastric tube in such patients was associated with a greater rate of observation unit failure. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:404–407.

Charles L. Emerman

2011-05-01

219

Predictors of failure of the laparoscopic approach for the management of small bowel obstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common cause of hospital admission. Our objective is to determine variables that correlate with failure of the laparoscopic approach for SBO. Twenty-three consecutive patients underwent diagnostic laparoscopy with curative intent for treatment of SBO by a single surgeon over a 3-year period. The laparoscopic approach was successful in 18 patients (78%); there were five (22%) conversions to laparotomy. The causes of obstruction included adhesive band in 16 patients; and small bowel lymphoma, metastatic esophageal cancer, small bowel gangrene, Meckel diverticulum, gallstones ileus, and incarcerated incisional hernia in two. Using the Fisher two-sided test, no significant predictor for conversion was identified using gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, previous bowel obstruction, history of adhesiolysis, abdominal distention, pelvic surgeries, chemotherapy, radiation, malignancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, coronary artery disease, hypertension, or hypercholesterolenemia. The Wilcoxon two-sided test did not show significance for age, weight, number of previous abdominal surgeries, or small bowel diameter. The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter in the laparoscopic group compared with those who needed conversion (3 vs. 9 days) with P = 0.0019. No mortality was noted in any patients. The laparoscopic is safe and feasible for the management of SBO. We believe that the laparoscopic approach should be offered to all patients with SBO unless there is an absolute contraindication to laparoscopic surgery. PMID:20836340

Qureshi, Irfan; Awad, Ziat T

2010-09-01

220

A case of Churg-Strauss vasculitis complicated by small bowel necrosis.  

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A case of Churg-Strauss syndrome causing mesenteric intestinal ischaemia and small bowel necrosis is described in a 29-year-old man. Despite conservative management, the patient's condition deteriorated and he underwent five laparotomies. Small and medium-sized arteries within the mesentery and lymph nodes showed necrotizing vasculitis. Currently he is doing well on oral nutrition and medical management.

Schoretsanitis, G. N.; Wakely, D. M.; Maddox, T.; Wastell, C.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Small bowel obstruction secondary to migration of a fragment of lithobezoar: a case report.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

INTRODUCTION: Small bowel obstruction is a common world-wide condition that has a range of etiological factors. The management is largely dependent on the cause of the obstruction. Small bowel obstruction caused by foreign body ingestion is rare; many items have been reported as responsible, but there are no reports implicating polyurethane foam. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 44-year-old Irish male who presented following ingestion of polyurethane foam. He was asymptomatic on presentation but developed a small bowel obstruction shortly thereafter. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting following ingestion of polyurethane foam should be scheduled for elective laparotomy, gastrotomy, and retrieval of the cast on the next available theatre list - given that they are suitable for surgery.

Medani, Mekki

2009-01-01

222

Ume (Japanese Apricot)-Induced Small Bowel Obstruction with Chronic Radiation Enteritis  

Science.gov (United States)

Stricture formation is recognized as one of the complications of chronic radiation enteritis. Here, we present a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with small bowel obstruction 16 years after pelvic irradiation for uterine cancer. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the abdomen demonstrated a 1-cm foreign body in the terminal ileum. Laparotomy revealed a stone of ume (Japanese apricot) stuck in an ileal stricture, leading to complete impaction and perforation. She was successfully treated with ileocecal resection and ileocolic anastomosis without any complication. Pathological study revealed that the low compliance caused by fibrosis of the bowel wall prevented the small ume stone from passing through the irradiated ileum. Our case implies the specific risk of food-induced small bowel obstruction in patients with a history of pelvic irradiation. PMID:21487567

Hashimoto, Takuya; Kitayama, Joji; Hidemura, Akio; Ishigami, Hironori; Kaizaki, Shoichi; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Miyata, Tetsuro; Nagawa, Hirokazu

2007-01-01

223

The role of capsule endoscopy in the detection of small bowel disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Videocapsule endoscopy (VCE) can identify lesions in the small bowel which would otherwise be hard to detect. We have selected 53 patients with digestive symptoms in which upper and lower endoscopy had provided no findings. Patients were classified into three groups, based on their main indication for VCE exploration: group one--obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB); group two--unspecific abdominal symptoms; group 3--monitoring of a prior known pathology. We found that VCE has high predictive values, sensibility and specificity in the diagnosis of OGIB. VCE was also useful in the detection and extent evaluation of lesions in Crohn's and celiac disease. VCE is also able to detect tumors of the small bowel with sufficient accuracy, and can be used to monitor patients with hereditary pre-malignant diseases such as FAP. There were few light adverse effects and no major complications. We conclude that VCE is a safe and effective procedure for the detection of small bowel lesions. PMID:22844834

Vere, C C; Rogoveanu, I; Streba, C T; Popescu, A; Ciocalteu, A; Ciurea, T

2012-01-01

224

Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group

225

Laparoscopic management of diverticular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laparoscopy surgery has achieved wide acceptance for the treatment of benign disease of the colon. A review of the literature regarding the indications, surgical technique, and outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease is presented. PMID:20011275

Larach, Sergio

2004-08-01

226

Does ispaghula husk stimulate the entire colon in diverticular disease?  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of ispaghula husk on colonic motility of the right and left side was examined in 10 patients with left sided diverticular disease using an untethered pressure sensitive radiotelemetry capsule. After treatment, ispaghula husk reduced mouth to rectum transit by a median of 8.8 hours and the time to midtransverse colon by five hours. In the right colon there was an increase in the median percentage activity of 7% and the median number of pressure waves greater than 5 mm Hg/hour rose by 35.3. Motility changes in the left colon were less pronounced. Five of the seven patients with abdominal pain and six of the nine patients with altered bowel habit responded to treatment. These results suggest that it is ispaghula husk's action on the right unaffected colon which alleviates the symptoms of left sided diverticular disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:1568654

Thorburn, H A; Carter, K B; Goldberg, J A; Finlay, I G

1992-01-01

227

Microscopy of bacterial translocation during small bowel obstruction and ischemia in vivo – a new animal model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing animal models provide only indirect information about the pathogenesis of infections caused by indigenous gastrointestinal microflora and the kinetics of bacterial translocation. The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model to assess bacterial translocation and intestinal barrier function in vivo. Methods In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, 0.5 ml of a suspension of green fluorescent protein-transfected E. coli was administered by intraluminal injection in a model of small bowel obstruction. Animals were randomly subjected to non-ischemic or ischemic bowel obstruction. Ischemia was induced by selective clamping of the terminal mesenteric vessels feeding the obstructed bowel loop. Time intervals necessary for translocation of E. coli into the submucosal stroma and the muscularis propria was assessed using intravital microscopy. Results Bacterial translocation into the submucosa and muscularis propria took a mean of 36 ± 8 min and 80 ± 10 min, respectively, in small bowel obstruction. Intestinal ischemia significantly accelerated bacterial translocation into the submucosa (11 ± 5 min, p E. coli were visible in frozen sections of small bowel, mesentery, liver and spleen taken two hours after E. coli administration. Conclusions Intravital microscopy of fluorescent bacteria is a novel approach to study bacterial translocation in vivo. We have applied this technique to define minimal bacterial transit time as a functional parameter of intestinal barrier function.

Hafner Mathias

2002-08-01

228

Eosinophilic small bowel enteritis in response to folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin chemotherapy  

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A 70-year-old woman being treated with folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) therapy for relapsed colon cancer metastatic to the lung presented to the hospital with a 1-week history of abdominal pain, anorexia, a 1-day history of diarrhea, and a fever of 101°F. Neutropenia and a peripheral eosinophilia were present, and computed tomogram of the abdomen showed thickening of the wall of a segment of small bowel with luminal stenosis. Colonoscopy and double-balloon small bowel en...

Pearson, Edward J.; Mennel, Robert

2013-01-01

229

The efficacy of helical CT in the diagnosis of small bowel obstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the usefulness and reliability of helical computed tomography (CT) for patients with small bowel obstruction. Methods and material: Helical CT findings of 41 patients were evaluated prospectively on the basis of the presence and the cause of obstruction, and the presence of strangulation. Results: In the determination of the cause of the obstruction sensitivity and specificity of CT were 84 and 90%, respectively. Of the 19 patients undergoing surgery, 6 had strangulation and were correctly identified by CT. Conclusion: Helical CT is an accurate method in the detection of small bowel obstruction, especially for evaluating the cause and vascular complications of obstruction

230

The efficacy of helical CT in the diagnosis of small bowel obstruction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: To evaluate the usefulness and reliability of helical computed tomography (CT) for patients with small bowel obstruction. Methods and material: Helical CT findings of 41 patients were evaluated prospectively on the basis of the presence and the cause of obstruction, and the presence of strangulation. Results: In the determination of the cause of the obstruction sensitivity and specificity of CT were 84 and 90%, respectively. Of the 19 patients undergoing surgery, 6 had strangulation and were correctly identified by CT. Conclusion: Helical CT is an accurate method in the detection of small bowel obstruction, especially for evaluating the cause and vascular complications of obstruction.

Obuz, Funda E-mail: fobuz@deu.edu.tr; Terzi, Cem; Soekmen, Selman; Yilmaz, Erkan; Yildiz, Didem; Fuezuen, Mehmet

2003-12-01

231

Extraskeletal Ewings sarcoma of the small bowel: case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extraskeletal Ewings sarcoma is a tumour of neuroectodermal origin sharing close similarities with Ewings sarcoma of bone. We report the case of a 21 year old 16 week pregnant woman presenting with vomiting and weight loss and found to have an extraskeletal Ewings sarcoma of the small bowel. In a review of the literature there are no previous reports of extraskeletal Ewings sarcoma occurring in the small bowel. The diagnosis of extraskeletal Ewings sarcoma and the complicated management of a young pregnant woman with a malignant tumour are described. PMID:11768578

Adair, A; Harris, S A; Coppen, M J; Hurley, P R

2001-12-01

232

A rare case of small bowel obstruction secondary to ovarian torsion in an IVF pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

A 39-?year-old woman, who conceived following in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment, presented at 12?weeks gestation with symptoms of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Subsequent investigations found small bowel obstruction  secondary to ovarian torsion. Surgical management to remove a necrotic ovary and fallopian tube led to a good recovery from the acute illness. A postoperative ultrasound scan confirmed a viable pregnancy and the patient was discharged. Her case demonstrates a rare complication of OHSS and ovarian torsion leading to small bowel obstruction. PMID:23417952

Lazaridis, Alexandros; Maclaran, Kate; Behar, Nebil; Narayanan, Priya

2013-01-01

233

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Novel Insight in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

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A total of 65-84% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) presents with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). SIBO is defined as the presence of more than 105 cfu/ml of colonic type bacteria in the lumen of the small bowel. It is more common in patients with IBS and predominant bloating and diarrhea. Based on the implication of SIBO in the pathogenesis of IBS, six trials have been conducted and analyzed in this review aiming to define a role of rifaximin for the management of ...

Giamarellos Bourboulis, Evangelos J.; Michalis Tzivras

2009-01-01

234

Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Meaningful association or unnecessary hype  

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and altered stool form and passage. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which there is overgrowth of bacteria in small bowel in excess of 105 colony forming units per milliliter on culture of the upper gut aspirate. Frequency of SIBO varied from 4%-78% among patients with IBS and from 1%-40% among controls. Higher frequency in some studies might be due to fa...

Ghoshal, Uday C.; Srivastava, Deepakshi

2014-01-01

235

Small bowel adenocarcinoma and Crohn's disease: Any further ahead than 50 years ago?  

Science.gov (United States)

This review of the literature on small bowel carcinoma associated with Crohn’s disease specifically addresses the incidence, risk factors, and protective factors which have been identified. It also reviews the clinical presentation, the current modalities of diagnosis, the pathology, treatment, and surveillance. Finally, the prognosis and future direction are addressed. Our experience with small bowel adenocarcinoma in Crohn’s disease is reported. Readers will be provided with a better understanding of this rare and often poorly recognized complication of Crohn’s disease. PMID:25206256

Cahill, Caitlin; Gordon, Philip H; Petrucci, Andrea; Boutros, Marylise

2014-01-01

236

Nut, corn and popcorn consumption and the incidence of diverticular disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Patients with diverticular disease are frequently advised to avoid nuts, corn, popcorn and seeds to reduce the risk of complications. However, there is little evidence to support this recommendation. Objective: To determine if nut, corn and popcorn consumption are associated with diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Design and Setting: The Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a cohort of men followed prospectively from 1986 to 2004 via self-administered medical (biennial) and dietary (every 4 years) questionnaires. Men reporting newly diagnosed diverticulosis or diverticulitis were mailed supplemental questionnaires. Participants: 47,228 men aged 40-75 years who at baseline were free of diverticulosis or its complications, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease, and returned a food frequency questionnaire. Main Outcome Measures: Incident diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Results: During 18 years of follow-up, there were 801 incident cases of diverticulitis and 383 incident cases of diverticular bleeding. We found inverse associations between nut, and popcorn consumption and the risk of diverticulitis. The multivariable hazard ratios for men with the highest intake of each food (at least twice per week) compared to men with the lowest intake (less than once per month) were 0.80 (95% CI 0.63-1.01; P for trend 0.04) for nuts, and 0.72 (95% CI 0.56-0.92; P for trend 0.007) for popcorn. No associations were seen between corn consumption and diverticulitis, or between nut, corn, or popcorn consumption and diverticular bleeding or uncomplicated diverticulosis. Conclusions: In this large, prospective study of men without known diverticular disease, nut, corn and popcorn consumption did not increase the risk of diverticulosis or diverticular complications. The recommendation to avoid these foods to prevent diverticular complications should be reconsidered. PMID:18728264

Strate, Lisa L.; Liu, Yan L.; Syngal, Sapna; Aldoori, Walid H.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

2009-01-01

237

Small bowel intussusception due to metastatic malignant melanoma. A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small bowel metastatic deposits attributed to malignant melanoma are found in 2-5% of patients with malignant melanoma of the skin. Ileo-ileo intussusception caused by metastatic melanoma is a very rare condition. The prognosis of metastatic melanoma is poor. We report a case of a cutaneous malignant melanoma which metastasised to the small bowel causing enteroenteric intussusception. This case refers to a 66-year-old male patient who underwent surgery for suspected enteric intussusception. This diagnosis was suggested by computer tomography scan. The patient had had previous surgery for a primary malignant melanoma in the eyelid of the right eye. Segmental intestinal resection with regional lymph node dissection and ileo-ileo anastomosis was performed. Metastatic melanoma in the gastrointestinal tract should be suspected in patients with history of melanoma of the skin and acute gastrointestinal symptoms. Immediate laparotomy and excision of the affected bowel segment is the appropriate treatment. PMID:15655601

Gatsoulis, N; Roukounakis, N; Kafetzis, I; Gasteratos, S; Mavrakis, G

2004-11-01

238

Primer trasplante de intestino en Chile: Caso clínico / Small bowel transplantation: Report of a single case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Small bowel transplantation is associated with a patient survival at one and five years, of 80% and 63%, respectively. We repon a 36 year-old female with short bowel syndrome, subjected to the first small bowel transplantation performed in Chile. A cadaveric gran was used. Immunosuppression was achi [...] eved by means of alemtuzumab, tacrolimus, sirolimus, micofenolate mofetil and steroids. Serial endoscopies and biopsies were performed during seven months after transplantation. The most important ¡ate complications were a drug induced renal failure, infections caused by opportunistic agents and a gastrointestinal bleedingprobably induced by drugs. After 29 months of follow up, the patient is ambulatory, on oral diet only and with no evidence of graft rejection.

Erwin, Buckel G; Mario, Ferrario B; Mario, Uribe M; Gloria, González G; Jorge, Godoy L; Fernando, Fluxá G; Rodrigo, Quera P; Verner, Codoceo R; Jorge, Morales B; David, Benavente M; María Teresa, Santander D; Cristina, Herzog O.

2009-02-01

239

Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug interventionntion

240

Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug interventio000.

Hoad, C L [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Marciani, L [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Foley, S [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Totman, J J [Brain and Body Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Wright, J [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Bush, D [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cox, E F [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Campbell, E [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Spiller, R C [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Gowland, P A [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2007-12-07

 
 
 
 
241

Metastatic melanoma causing small bowel intussusception: diagnosis by {sup 1}8F-FDG PET/CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malignant melanoma is a common and aggressive disease that frequently causes metastases to the small bowel. This study illustrates a case of small bowel intussusception secondary to metastatic melanoma visualized at {sup 1}8F-FDG PET/CT in a 48-year-old woman who had this examination for restaging purposes. (author)

Souza, Frederico Ferreira de; Johnston, Ciaran [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Brigham and Women' s Hospital. Dana Farber Cancer Institute], e-mail: ffsouza@partners.org; Souza, Felipe Ferreira de; Souza, Daniel Andrade Tinoco de [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, (United States). Brigham and Women' s Hospital

2009-09-15

242

Direct diverticular inguinal hernia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nineteen patients with direct diverticular inguinal hernia (DDIH) were examined with herniography and surgically explored. A lump medially in the groin and pain were the prominent clinical manifestations in 18 patients. Physical examination indicated the presence of a DDIH in 6 patients. In 16 patients herniography revealed hernial sacs protruding from the supravesical fossa in 5 and from the medial inguinal fossa in 11. At operation a circumscribed defect was found in the transverse fascia laterally and cranially to the pubic tubercle in all patients. In 16 patients peritoneal hernial sacs were demonstrated at surgery while in 3 only lipomas (fatty hernia) were contained within the defect. In our opinion DDIH is a specific variety of inguinal hernia with a fairly typical clinical presentation and radiographic appearance but probably often overlooked at surgery. (orig.)

243

Adenocarcinoma arising in a cystic duplication of the small bowel: case report and review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Enteric duplications are rare, but can occur anywhere along the digestive tract. Most of the patients become symptomatic in early childhood and only a few cases of adult patients have been reported in literature. Here we report a unique case of an adenocarcinoma arising in a coincidentally found cystic duplication of the small bowel.

Blank Gregor

2012-04-01

244

Incisional hernia and small bowel obstruction following laparoscopic surgery: computed tomography diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incisional hernias are a relatively uncommon complication of laparoscopic surgery. Early CT diagnosis of small bowel obstruction due to incarceration in an incisional hernia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy enabled early surgery to be carried out, thereby preventing gut ischaemia and resection. Copyright (2000) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

245

Diseases of the small bowel in chronic diarrhea: diagnosis and treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The incidence of chronic diarrhea in Asia is between 0.8-1.0%. The diseases and abnormalities according to the location, which can cause chronic diarrhea, are divided into three locations: the small bowel, the large bowel and extraintestinal. The small bowel diseases include infectious and non-infectious diseases. The infectious diseases are bacterial infections, parasitic infections etc. The non-infectious diseases include of Crohn’s disease, Celiac sprue, NSAID enteropathy, lactose intolerance, benign tumor, carcinoid tumor, carcinoma, post surgery complications, laxative etc. The approaches to diagnosis include good anamnesis, careful physical examination, supporting laboratory tests, more specialized supporting examinations including X-ray of the colon, esophagogastroduodenum follow-through, enteroclysis, ileo-colonoscopy and endoscopy on the upper portion of the digestive tract including the small intestine with biopsy for histopathology examinations. The treatment for chronic diarrhea is divided into supportive and causal therapy. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 179-89 Keywords: small bowel, chronic diarrhea, approaches to diagnosis, treatment

M. Simadibrata

2002-08-01

246

Ileoscopy reduces the need for small bowel imaging in suspected Crohn's disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In suspected Crohn's disease (CD), current diagnostic guidelines recommend additional small bowel imaging irrespective of the findings at ileocolonoscopy. Magnetic resonance imaging enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) are regarded first line imaging techniques and should generally precede capsule endoscopy.

Jensen, Michael Dam; Nathan, Torben

2012-01-01

247

Retro-ureteral internal hernia after transperitoneal ureter reimplantation: an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction.  

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Report of a case of surgically confirmed closed-loop small bowel obstruction due to internal hernia following transperitoneal ureter reimplantation. Multidetector computed tomography (CT) demonstrated the presence and the cause of this unusual postsurgical internal hernia. The CT findings are presented herein. PMID:25123420

Flores, Arnaud; Azizi, Amel; Idelcadi, Ouaji; Tholozan, Anne-Sarah; Badet, Nicolas; Delabrousse, Eric

2015-01-01

248

Use of a preparation of galactomannane for translucent small bowel presentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improvement of radiological small bowel examination is achieved by a specially composed contrast medium, the use of a galactomannane based non methylcellulose containing distention medium and a specially adapted instillation technique. The distention of the terminal ileum can be supported pharmacologically by ceruletid. (orig.)

249

Spontaneous perforation of small bowel lymphoma causing massive pneumoperitoneum: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gastrointestinal lymphoma is a well known entity for bleeding or perforation during treatment, but spontaneous perforation is not common. We report the CT findings of an unusual case of small bowel lymphoma which presented with massive pneumoperitoneum following spontaneous perforation

250

NSAID-induced deleterious effects on the proximal and mid small bowel in seronegative spondyloarthropathy patients  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the small bowel of seronegative spondyloarthropathy (SpA patients in order to ascertain the presence of mucosal lesions.METHODS: Between January 2008 and June 2010, 54 consecutive patients were enrolled and submitted to avideo capsule endoscopy (VCE examination. History and demographic data were taken, as well as the history of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID consumption. After reading each VCE recording, a capsule endoscopy scoring index for small bowel mucosal inflammatory change (Lewis score was calculated. Statistical analysis of the data was performed.RESULTS: The Lewis score for the whole cohort was 397.73. It was higher in the NSAID consumption subgroup (P = 0.036. The difference in Lewis score between NSAID users and non-users was reproduced for the first and second proximal tertiles of the small bowel, but not for its distal third (P values of 0.036, 0.001 and 0.18, respectively. There was no statistical significant difference between the groups with regard to age or sex of the patients.CONCLUSION: The intestinal inflammatory involvement of SpA patients is more prominent in NSAID users for the proximal/mid small bowel, but not for its distal part.

Mihai Rimba?, M?d?lina Marinescu, Mihail Radu Voiosu, Cristian R?svan B?icu?, Simona Caraiola, Adriana Nicolau, Doina Ni?escu, Georgeta Camelia Badea, Magda Ileana Pârvu

2011-02-01

251

Penetrating ectopic peptic ulcer in the absence of Meckel's diverticulum ultimately presenting as small bowel obstruction.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

We report here how a heterotopic penetrating peptic ulcer progressed to cause small bowel obstruction in a patient with multiple previous negative investigations. The clinical presentation, radiographic features and pathological findings of this case are described, along with the salient lessons learnt. The added value of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in such circumstances is debated.

Hurley, Hilary

2012-02-03

252

Prospective evaluation of small bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate for capsule endoscopy  

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Full Text Available AIM: To determine the effect of Prepacol®, a combination of sodium phosphate and bisacodyl, on transit and quality of capsule endoscopy (CE.METHODS: Fivety two consecutive patients were included in this prospective study. CE was performed following a 12 h fasting period. Twenty six patients were randomized for additional preparation with Prepacol®. The quality of CE was assessed separately for the proximal and the distal small bowel by 3 experienced endoscopists on the basis of a graduation which was initially developed with 20 previous CE.RESULTS: Preparation with Prepacol® accelerated small bowel transit time (262 ± 55 min vs 287 ± 97 min, but had no effect on the quality of CE. Visibility was significantly reduced in the distal compared to the proximal small bowel.CONCLUSION: The significantly reduced visibility of CE in the distal small bowel allocates the need for a good preparation. Since Prepacol® has no beneficial effect on CE the modality of preparation and the ideal time of application remains unclear. Further standardized examinations are necessary to identify sufficient preparation procedures and to determine the impact of the volume of the preparation solution.

Andreas Franke, Frank Hummel, Phillip Knebel, Christoph Antoni, Ulrich Böcker, Manfred V Singer, Matthias Löhr

2008-04-01

253

Signet Ring Cell Lymphoma of the Small Bowel: A case report  

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Full Text Available Gastrointestinal lymphoma of the bowel is uncommon compared to adenocarcinoma. Signet ring cell lymphoma (SRCL is a rare variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that is characterized by clear cytoplasm with displaced nuclei to the periphery giving a signet ring appearance. Small bowel involvement has not been previously reported. We report the rare case of a 78-year-old female who presented with short history of fever, loss of appetite, nausea,vomiting, mild weight loss with abdominal discomfort and was later diagnosed to have SRCL of the ileum.

Norwani Basir

2012-11-01

254

Small and large bowel volvulus: Clues to early recognition and complications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small and large bowel volvulus are uncommon causes of bowel obstruction with nonspecific clinical manifestations which may delay the diagnosis and increase morbidity. Therefore, radiologists play an important role in promptly establishing the diagnosis, recognizing underlying congenital or acquired risk factors and detecting potentially life-threatening complications. Multidetector CT performed with intravenous contrast is currently the preferred modality for the evaluation of volvulus, which is best appreciated when imaging is perpendicular to the axis of bowel rotation, hence the benefit of multiplanar reformations. In this pictorial essay we review the pathophysiology of the different types of intestinal volvulus, discuss diagnostic criteria for prompt diagnosis of volvulus and emphasize early recognition of the complications.

Lepage-Saucier, Marianne [Departement de radiologie, Hopital Saint-Luc, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), 1058 rue Saint-Denis, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 3J4 (Canada); Tang, An [Departement de radiologie, Hopital Saint-Luc, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), 1058 rue Saint-Denis, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 3J4 (Canada)], E-mail: duotango@gmail.com; Billiard, Jean-Sebastien; Murphy-Lavallee, Jessica; Lepanto, Luigi [Departement de radiologie, Hopital Saint-Luc, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), 1058 rue Saint-Denis, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 3J4 (Canada)

2010-04-15

255

Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection presenting as subacute small bowel obstruction following immunosuppressive chemotherapy for multiple myeloma.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a 59-year-old Afro-Caribbean woman who presented with symptoms of anorexia, lethargy, abdominal distension and vomiting on the background of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, treated with one cycle of cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone chemotherapy 20 days previously. A diagnosis of subacute bowel obstruction was made; however, the aetiology of the obstruction remained elusive. Common electrolyte abnormalities were excluded and a midline laparotomy revealed minimal intra-abdominal adhesions. Histological examination of a small bowel mesentery biopsy showed inflammatory cell infiltrate composed of lymphocytes, eosinophils and occasional plasma cells with a foreign body giant cell reaction suggestive of worm infection. A postoperative stool sample revealed heavy infestation with the rhabditiform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. The patient recovered following ivermectin treatment. In the absence of other causality, we attribute the subacute bowel obstruction to S stercoralis hyperinfection, triggered by immunosuppression secondary to chemotherapy and multiple myeloma. PMID:24469840

Shields, Adrian Matthew; Goderya, Rashida; Atta, Mustafa; Sinha, Prakash

2014-01-01

256

Multidetector CT of the small bowel: evaluation after oral hyperhydration with isotonic solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to assess the diagnostic capabilities of multidetector CT in the evaluation of the small bowel in different pathological conditions, with the use of oral hyperhydration with isotonic solution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study retrospectively evaluated 106 patients who underwent multidetector CT of the small bowel. Four groups were considered on the basis of the clinical findings: group A (48 cases), with suspected or certain chronic inflammatory disease of the small bowel; group B (16 cases), with suspected neoplastic lesion of the small bowel; group C (17 cases), patients affected by malabsorption; group D (25 cases), others: 13 cases with non-specific abdominal pain, 4 cases with occult bleeding, 8 cases affected by fever of unknown origin. Thirteen patients had previously undergone surgical intestinal resection. In all cases the CT examination was performed after the oral administration of 2000 mL polyethylene glycol electrolyte balanced solution; before the scan, N-butyl scopolamine or glucagon were administered intravenously to obtain rapid inhibition of bowel peristalsis. All multidetector CT scans were acquired at baseline and 50 seconds after the I.V. administration of 110-130 ml high-concentration non-ionic iodinated contrast medium. The images were subsequently processed on a dedicated workstation (Advantage Windows 4.0, GE Medical Systems) to obtain multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). We considered the following CT findings: fold distribution, wall thickening and stratification and contrast enhancement, extraparietal involvement and abnormalities of the abdominal organs. The CT diagnoses were compared with the clinical and laboratory findings (86 cases) and with the results of barium follow-through (55 cases), ileo-colonoscopy (45 cases) or surgery (28 cases). RESULTS: CT examination allowed the correct diagnosis in 86/106 cases (89%); 20 patients were not included in the study because of a poor (11 cases) or absent (9 cases) small bowel loop distension. The final diagnoses in the 86 patients were: Crohn's disease of the small bowel (38 cases), Crohn's disease of the duodenum (1 case), granulomatous colitis (3 cases), malabsorption (8 cases), neoplastic lesion (4 cases), post-radiation conglomeration of ileal loops (1 case), intestinal lymphangiectasia (1 case), ulceration of the last ileal loop (1 case). In 29 cases no abnormalities of the small bowel were found. Spiral CT yielded 52 true positive cases, 5 false negative cases, 2 false positive cases, and 27 true negative RESULTS: The sensitivity of the technique was 91%, specificity 93% and diagnostic accuracy 92%. CONCLUSIONS: Multidetector CT of the small bowel performed after oral hyperhydration with isosmotic solution, proved to be an accurate and thorough technique. It can be considered a safe and effective alternative to conventional radiographic studies and to small bowel spiral CT enema in patients that refuse the nasojejunal balloon catheter or the administration of methylcellulose. PMID:15973225

Mazzeo, S; Caramella, D; Belcari, A; Melai, L; Cappelli, C; Fontana, F; Bertini, R; Caproni, G; Giusti, P; Bartolozzi, C

2005-01-01

257

Management of diverticular disease is changing  

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Diverticular disease of the colon is primarily a disease of humans living in westernized and industrialized countries. Sixty percent of humans living in industrialized countries will develop colonic diverticula. It is rare before the age of 40, but more prone to complications when it occurs in the young. By age 80, over 65% of humans have colonic diverticula. The cause remains uncertain, but epidemiologic studies attribute it to dietary fiber deficiency. The cause of diverticulitis remains uncertain, but new observations and hypotheses suggest that it is due to chronic inflammation in the bowel wall. Standard medical therapies of bowel rest and antibiotics are still the recommended treatment. However, changing concepts and new therapies indicate that anti-inflammatory agents such as mesalamine and possibly probiotics may be helpful in shortening the course and perhaps preventing recurrences. Standard surgical treatment for perforation for severe acute disease has developed so that two-stage procedures are recommended. In addition, laparoscopic surgery has proven safe and may slowly become the technique of choice. PMID:16718843

Floch, Martin H; White, Jonathan A

2006-01-01

258

Treatment planning for colorectal cancer: radiation and surgical techniques and value of small-bowel films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For colorectal cancer, the adjuvant radiation dose levels required to achieve a high incidence of local control closely parallel the radiation tolerance of small bowel (4500-5000 rad), and for patients with partially resected or unresected disease, the dose levels exceed tolerance (6000-7000 rad). Therefore, both the surgeon and the radiation oncologist should use techniques that localize tumor volumes and decrease the amount of small intestine within the irradiation field. Surgical options include pelvic reconstruction and clip placement. Radiation options include the use of radiographs to define small bowel location and mobility combined with treatment techniques using multiple fields, bladder distention, shrinking or boost fields, and/or patient position changes. When both specialties interact in optimum fashion, local control can be increased with minimal side effects to the small intestine

259

Mucosal healing effect of mesalazine granules in naproxen-induced small bowel enteropathy  

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AIM: To investigate the effect of mesalazine granules on small intestinal injury induced by naproxen using capsule endoscopy (CE). METHODS: This was a single center, non-randomized, open-label, uncontrolled pilot study, using the PillCam SB CE system with RAPID 5 software. The Lewis Index Score (LIS) for small bowel injury was investigated to evaluate the severity of mucosal injury. Arthropathy patients with at least one month history of daily naproxen use of 1000 mg and proton pump inhibitor...

Xe Cz, Istv Xe N. R.; Szalai, Mil Xe N.; Valéria Kovács; Czi, Henriett Reg X.; Gyöngyi Kiss; Horv Xe Th, Zolt Xe N.

2013-01-01

260

MR imaging of the small bowel in Crohn's disease  

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MR and CT techniques optimized for small bowel imaging are playing an increasing role in the evaluation of small bowel disorders. Several studies have shown the advantage of these techniques over tradition barium fluoroscopic examinations secondary to improvements in spatial and temporal resolution combined with improved bowel distending agents. The preference of MR vs. CT has been geographical and based on expertise and public policy. With the increasing awareness of radiation exposure, there has been a more global interest in implementing techniques that either reduce or eliminate radiation exposure [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. This is especially important in patients with chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease who may require multiple studies over a lifetime or in studies that require sequential imaging time points such as in assessment of gastrointestinal motility [Froehlich JM, Patak MA, von Weymarn C, Juli CF, Zollikofer CL, Wentz KU. Small bowel motility assessment with magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2005;21:370-75]. A recent study showed that certain subgroups of patients with Crohn's disease may be exposed to higher doses of radiation; those diagnosed at an early age, those with upper tract inflammation, penetrating disease, requirement of intravenous steroids, infliximab or multiple surgeries [Desmond AN, O'Regan K, Curran C, et al. Crohn's disease: factors associated with exposure to high levels of diagnostic radiation. Gut 2008;57:1524-29]. Therefore it has been suggested that techniques that can reduce or eliminate radiation exposure should be considered for imaging [Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography-an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med 2007;357:2277-84]. Owing to the excellent softtissue contrast, direct multiplanar imaging capabilities, new ultrafast breath-holding pulse sequences, lack of ionizing radiation and availability of a variety of oral contrast agents, MR is well suited to play a critical role in the imaging of small bowel disorders. In this article we will review the technical issues related to the performance of MR enterography and enteroclysis and discuss the role and controversies of using MR in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease.

Siddiki, Hassan [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Fidler, Jeff [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail: fidler.jeff@mayo.edu

2009-03-15

 
 
 
 
261

Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages of the small bowel in patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune activation have repeatedly been suggested as pathogentic factors in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The driving force for immune activation in IBS remains unknown. The aim of our study was to find out if the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia could be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methods We studied 65 patients (61 females with IBS and 42 (29 females healthy controls in which IBS had been excluded. Full thickness biopsies from the jejunum and mucosa biopsies from the duodenum and the jejunum were stained with a monoclonal antibody to Chlamydia lipopolysaccharide (LPS and species-specific monoclonal antibodies to C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. We used polyclonal antibodies to chromogranin A, CD68, CD11c, and CD117 to identify enteroendocrine cells, macrophages, dendritic, and mast cells, respectively. Results Chlamydia LPS was present in 89% of patients with IBS, but in only 14% of healthy controls (p C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP. Staining for C. pneumoniae was negative in both patients and controls. Chlamydia LPS was detected in enteroendocrine cells of the mucosa in 90% of positive biopsies and in subepithelial macrophages in 69% of biopsies. Biopsies taken at different time points in 19 patients revealed persistence of Chlamydia LPS up to 11 years. The odds ratio for the association of Chlamydia LPS with presence of IBS (43.1; 95% CI: 13.2-140.7 is much higher than any previously described pathogenetic marker in IBS. Conclusions We found C. trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages in the small bowel mucosa of patients with IBS. Further studies are required to clarify if the presence of such antigens has a role in the pathogenesis of IBS.

Sandström Gunnar

2010-02-01

262

Stagnant loop syndrome resulting from small-bowel irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stagnant or blind-loop syndrome includes vitamin B12 malabsorption, steatorrhea, and bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. A case is presented to demonstrate this syndrome occurring after small-bowel irradiation injury with exaggeration postenterocolic by-pass. Alteration of normal small-bowel flora is basic to development of the stagnant-loop syndrome. Certain strains of bacteria as Bacteriodes and E. coli are capable of producing a malabsorption state. Definitive therapy for this syndrome developing after severe irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass includes antibiotics. Rapid symptomatic relief from diarrhea and improved malabsorption studies usually follow appropriate antibiotic therapy. Recolonization of the loop(s) with the offending bacterial species may produce exacerbation of symptoms. Since antibiotics are effective, recognition of this syndrome is important. Foul diarrheal stools should not be considered a necessary consequence of irradiation injury and intestinal by-pass

263

Colonic diverticular disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Diverticula (mucosal outpouching through the wall of the colon) are rare before the age of 40 years, after which prevalence increases steadily and reaches over 25% by 60 years. However, only 10% to 25% of affected people will develop symptoms such as lower abdominal pain. Recurrent symptoms are common, and 5% of people with diverticula eventually develop complications such as perforation, obstruction, haemorrhage, fistulae, or abscesses. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of: treatments for uncomplicated diverticular disease; treatments to prevent complications; and treatments for acute diverticulitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 16 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antispasmodics, elective surgery, increasing fibre intake with bran or ispaghula husk, lactulose, medical treatment, mesalazine, methylcellulose, rifaximin, and surgery. PMID:21401970

2011-01-01

264

14C-oxalic acid resorption in patients with small bowel resection, jejunoileal bypass, Crohn's disease, and chronic pancreatitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The enteric absorption of oxalic acid was determined with 14C-oxalic acid in patients with small bowel resection, jejunoileal bypass, Crohn's disease and chronic pancreatitis in comparison to the control group. Extreme hyperoxaluria was found in small bowel resections above 100 cm, after bypass operations and in ileocolitis Crohn with signs of clinical activity. Small bowel resections and relapses of Crohn's disease increase the absorption of oxalic acid. The significance of 14C-oxalic acid absorption test is the recognition of enteric hyperoxaluria. (author)

265

An unusual cause of small bowel obstruction caused by a Richter's-type hernia into the urinary bladder  

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INTRODUCTION The authors present an unusual case of small bowel obstruction in a 62-year-old man. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 62-year-old man with a background of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, distension, vomiting and had not opened his bowels for three days. 3 weeks previously he had a repeat Transurtheral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT), during which there was an iatrogenic perforation of the bladder. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed small bowel obstruction but did not identify a cause. At laparotomy the cause of the obstruction was identified as a section of the small bowel that had partially herniated into the bladder, via the perforation. The defect was repaired and the patient made an uneventful recovery. DISCUSSION Herniation of the bowel into a defect in the bladder wall is a rare event with only 6 previous cases reported in the literature. It can cause signs and symptoms of bowel obstruction. CONCLUSION In patients with known bladder perforations who present with symptoms and signs of bowel obstruction, bowel herniation into the bladder should be considered. Early surgical intervention may be necessary if the patient is clinically unwell with appropriate symptoms and signs and imaging does not provide conclusive answer. PMID:24858979

Sakai, Naomi S.; Acharya, Vikas; Mansour, Sami; Saleemi, Mohammed A.; Cheslyn-Curtis, Sarah

2014-01-01

266

Effect of infliximab on small bowel stenoses in patients with Crohns disease  

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Full Text Available AIM: To assess prospectively small bowel stenoses in Crohn’s disease (CD patients treated with infliximab using Small Intestine Contrast Ultrasonography (SICUS.METHODS: Twenty patients (M 12, age, 42.7 ± 11.8 years, 15 of whom showed obstructive symptoms indicating the presence of small bowel stenosis, and 5 without stenosis, were treated with infliximab (5 mg/kg at wk 0, 2, 6 and 5 mg/kg every 8 wk thereafter for steroid refractoriness, fistulizing disease, or to avoid high-risk surgery. SICUS was performed at the induction phase and at regular time intervals during the follow-up period of 34.7 ± 16.1 mo (range 7-58. Small bowel stenoses were detected by SICUS, endoscopy and MRI.RESULTS: In no case was progression of stenoses or the appearance of new ones seen. Of the 15 patients with stenosis, 5 stopped treatment after the induction phase (2 for no response, 3 for drug intolerance, one of whom showed complete regression of one stenosis. Among the remaining 10 patients, a complete regression of 8 stenoses (1 stenosis in 5 patients and 3 stenoses in one patient was observed after 6-22 infliximab infusions.CONCLUSION: In patients with CD treated with infliximab we observed: (a No progression of small bowel stenosis and no appearance of new ones, (b Complete regression of 1/22 stenosis after the induction phase and of 8/15 (53.3% stenosis after 6-22 infusions during maintenance therapy.

Nadia Pallotta, Fausto Barberani, Naima Abdulkadir Hassan, Danila Guagnozzi, Giuseppina Vincoli, Enrico Corazziari

2008-03-01

267

Interventional digital subtraction angiography for small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumors with bleeding  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of interventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for bleeding small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). METHODS: Between January 2006 and December 2013, small bowel tumors in 25 consecutive patients undergoing emergency interventional DSA were histopathologically confirmed as GIST after surgical resection. The medical records of these patients and the effects of interventional DSA and the presentation and management of the condition were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 25 patients with an age range from 34- to 70-year-old (mean: 54 ± 12 years), 8 were male and 17 were female. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, including tarry or bloody stool and intermittent melena, was observed in all cases, and one case also involved hematemesis. Nineteen patients required acute blood transfusion. There were a total of 28 small bowel tumors detected by DSA. Among these, 20 were located in the jejunum and 8 were located in the ileum. The DSA characteristics of the GISTs included a hypervascular mass of well-defined, homogeneous enhancement and early developed draining veins. One case involved a complication of intussusception of the small intestine that was discovered during surgery. No pseudoaneurysms, arteriovenous malformations or fistulae, or arterial rupture were observed. The completely excised size was approximately 1.20 to 5.50 cm (mean: 3.05 ± 1.25 cm) in maximum diameter based on measurements after the resection. There were ulcerations (n = 8), erosions (n = 10), hyperemia and edema (n = 10) on the intra-luminal side of the tumors. Eight tumors in patients with a large amount of blood loss were treated with transcatheter arterial embolization with gelfoam particles during interventional DSA. CONCLUSION: Emergency interventional DSA is a useful imaging option for locating and diagnosing small bowel GISTs in patients with bleeding, and is an effective treatment modality.

Chen, Yao-Ting; Sun, Hong-Liang; Luo, Jiang-Hong; Ni, Jia-Yan; Chen, Dong; Jiang, Xiong-Ying; Zhou, Jing-Xing; Xu, Lin-Feng

2014-01-01

268

Adenocarcinoma of the Small Bowel – A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a rare case of a patient with adenocarcinoma of the small intestine who reported to the hospital due to non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms. Following diagnostic examinations, the patient underwent a surgery. The post-operative period proceeded with no complications. The case presented below confirms the usefulness of imaging examinations (abdominal CT when pathologies within the small intestine are suspected. An accurate interpretation of the result was an indication for a surgical intervention, but the final diagnosis is still established on the basis of the histopathological examination

Kulesza Jakub

2014-06-01

269

Bariumexaminations of the small intestine and the colon in inflammatory bowel disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article gives an overview of the possibilities of conventional radiography in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease of the small intestine and colon.Material and methods For more than 25 years we examine the small bowel employing enteroclysis with barium and methylcellulose and the colon with the usual double-contrast method. In the last 152 months 1560 small bowel enemas were performed. In the last 40 months 410 examinations of the colon were performed. There is a thirty percent decrease in enteroclysis examinations within the past 5 years,however, the rate of examinations with positive results increased from 46 to 57%.The proportion of the inflammatory small intestinal diseases (not only Crohn's disease) remained constant with 18%.Concerning the examinations of the colon for inflammatory disease we confirmed the diagnosis in seven cases.The radiation exposure for the enteroclysis in inflammatory diseases was 7mSv, for colon examinations 14 mSv. Barium examinations, especially of the stomach and colon are decreasing in frequency.Therefore the art of performance and interpretation might get lost.Enteroclysis, however, is still the method of reference for the other imaging methods.The advantages compared to the other imaging methods are the excellent presentation of the details of the mucosal surface and the observation of functional disorders. (orig.)

270

Warfarin Overdose Induced Intramural Small-Bowel Hematoma (Case Report)  

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Uncontrolled use of anticoagulants may cause bleeding. Warfarin- dependent spontaneous intramural hematoma of the small intestine is a rare complication. Although warfarin using patients with abdominal pain were usually treated medically, surgical interventions should be considered in selected cases with intestinal intramural hematoma. Here we present a patient who was treated surgically to bring to mind this rare condition.

Ersan Semerci; Orhan Veli Özkan2; Muyittin Temiz; Ahmet Aslan; ?brahim Yetim

2011-01-01

271

Radiologic findings of small bowel rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bowel rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma is no longer rare, and is among the most challenging problems that confront the physicians and radiologists. It is frequently difficult to diagnose because the symptoms may be trivial during the early stage and masked by more obvious, but less lethal injuries. It is well known that the roentgen examination of the abdomen is also of little value to exclude bowel rupture because of infrequency of positive findings and free gas. The plain films of 23 cases of jejunal rupture and 8 cases of ileal rupture were evaluated to sort and diagnostic features of small bowel rupture caused by blunt abdominal trauma. 1. Free intraperitoneal gas was noted in 6 cases of jejunal rupture (26%) and 1 case of ileal rupture (13%), and definite radiological evidence of free intraperitoneal fluid was present in 16 cases of patients (52%). 2. The contour change of bowel loops such as tapering or indentation were seen in 11 cases of patients (36%), and local opacity along the mesenteric root axis was demonstrated in 19 cases of patients (61%). 3. Paralytic ileus was localized to LUQ in jejunal rupture and to mid-abdomen in ileal rupture, and gastric and transverse-colon distension with gas was noticeable especially in jejunal rupture

272

Histological assessment of small bowel hypoperfusion lesions in the pig  

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Background Authors propose the use of a quantitative morphological assessment for helping in studies concerning intestinal hypoperfusion. The method was applied to the small intestine mucosa stained with the standard hematoxylin and eosin, from pigs that underwent severe hypotension due to acute hemorrhage.,. Methods Six Large White pigs underwent total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil. 25 ml/kg of arterial blood were passively removed from the femoral artery...

Oliveira, A. L.; Ferreira, D.; Vala, Helena

2010-01-01

273

Evaluation of gastrointestinal injury and blood flow of small bowel during low-dose aspirin administration  

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Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid has been widely used. We evaluated small bowel and gastric injuries during acetylsalicylic acid administration using video capsule endoscopy and gastroduodenal endoscopy. We also investigated blood flow using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Six healthy volunteers were enrolled in this preliminary study. The subjects were administered 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin daily for 14 days. Video capsule endoscopy and gastroduodenal endoscopy were simultaneously pe...

Nishida, Urara; Kato, Mototsugu; Nishida, Mutsumi; Kamada, Go; Ono, Shouko; Shimizu, Yuichi; Fujimori, Shunji; Asaka, Masahiro

2011-01-01

274

Small bowel intussussception due to metastatic melanoma of unknown primary site. Case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma is characterized by metastases also to the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the small bowel. The diagnosis is often delayed because unspecific clinical presentation (frequently as chronic iron deficiency anemia, rectal bleeding or intestinal obstruction). We present a case of melanoma of unknown primary site, with clinical presentation of intestinal obstruction. A segmental resection of the ileum was performed including mesentery with lymph nodes. Histology revealed metastatic melanoma from unknown primary. PET and MRI confirmed disseminated disease without brain metastasis. PMID:25419593

Stagnitti, F; Orsini, S; Martellucci, A; Tudisco, A; Avallone, M; Aiuti, F; Di Girolamo, V; Stefanelli, F; De Angelis, Francesco; Di Grazia, C; Napoleoni, A; Nicodemi, S; Cipriani, B; Ceci, F; Mosillo, R; Corelli, S; Casciaro, G; Spaziani, E

2014-01-01

275

Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder presenting as a small bowel obstruction in a patient with pancreas transplantation alone  

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Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-known complication associated with the transplant recipient. We chronicle a case of PTLD in a failed graft presenting as a small bowel obstruction in a pancreas-only transplant patient. While typical symptoms may be elusive in the complex immunosuppressed patient, graft pain along with persistent graft pancreatitis and a positive Epstein-Barr viremia should raise suspicion for an underlying PTLD. PMID:25484508

Kruel, Cleber R.; Shiller, S. Michelle; Anthony, Tiffany L.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Kim, Peter T. W.; Levy, Marlon F.; McKenna, Gregory J.; Onaca, Nicholas; Testa, Giuliano; Klintmalm, Goran B.

2014-01-01

276

Small bowel intussussception due to metastatic melanoma of unknown primary site. Case report  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma is characterized by metastases also to the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the small bowel. The diagnosis is often delayed because unspecific clinical presentation (frequently as chronic iron deficiency anemia, rectal bleeding or intestinal obstruction). We present a case of melanoma of unknown primary site, with clinical presentation of intestinal obstruction. A segmental resection of the ileum was performed including mesentery with lymph nodes. Histology revealed metastatic melanoma from unknown primary. PET and MRI confirmed disseminated disease without brain metastasis. PMID:25419593

STAGNITTI, F.; ORSINI, S.; MARTELLUCCI, A.; TUDISCO, A.; AVALLONE, M.; AIUTI, F.; DI GIROLAMO, V.; STEFANELLI, F.; DE ANGELIS, F.; COSTANTINO, A.; DI GRAZIA, C.; NAPOLEONI, A.; NICODEMI, S.; CIPRIANI, B.; CECI, F.; MOSILLO, R.; CORELLI, S.; CASCIARO, G.; SPAZIANI, E.

2014-01-01

277

Is colonic electrical activity a similar phenomena to small-bowel electrical activity?  

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PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate colonic spike bursts regarding 1) their migration behavior, 2) their pressure correlates, and 3) comparing colonic short spike bursts with spike bursts from migrating myoelectric complex from the small bowel. METHODS: Rectosigmoid electromyography and manometry were recorded simultaneously in seven normal volunteers and electromyography alone in five others during two hours of fasting and for two hours after one 2,100-kJ meal. One patient with a...

Medeiros, Jose? A. S.; Pontes, Fausto A.; Mesquita, Octa?vio A. R. O.

1997-01-01

278

In vitro allograft irradiation prevents graft-versus-host disease in small-bowel transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In small-bowel transplantation, the transfer of large numbers of donor lymphocytes with the intestinal allograft may provoke a lethal graft-versus-host reaction. The effectiveness of allograft irradiation in vitro as a method of preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was studied in a rat model of small-bowel transplantation, with the Lewis----Lewis X Brown Norway F1 hybrid strain combination. Cold harvested small-bowel allografts were irradiated immediately prior to heterotopic or orthotopic transplantation. Animals that had received heterotopic allografts irradiated with 0, 250, or 500 rad all died of GVHD after 14.4 +/- 3.0, 15.0 +/- 1.3, and 14.2 +/- 1.9 days, respectively. None of the animals that had received allografts treated with 1000 rad developed clinical or pathologic evidence of GVHD, however, and all survived for more than 6 months (P less than 0.001). Allograft function was studied in animals that underwent orthotopic transplantation. Recipients of nonirradiated orthotopic allografts all died of GVHD after 14.0 +/- 0.7 days, whereas recipients of allografts irradiated with 1000 rad all survived for more than 5 months (P less than 0.001). After 120 days, weight gain (51.8 +/- 11.7%), serum albumin (3.9 +/- 0.7 g/dl), serum triglycerides (67.0 +/- 24.3 mg/dl), CBC, and differential in these animals were not statistically different from those in either age-matched isograft recipients or normal animals, and when the rats were sacrificed, irradiated allo the rats were sacrificed, irradiated allografts showed no changes suggestive of radiation injury. These results indicate that irradiation of small-bowel allografts in vitro prevents development of GVHD, and that this can be achieved at a dose which does not cause injury to or malfunction of the allograft

279

Small bowel haemangioma with local lymph node involvement presenting as intussusception  

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Gastrointestinal haemangiomas make up 0.05% of all intestinal neoplasms. They are sometimes multiple and usually present with pain, bleeding, and obstruction. An associated haemangiomatous change in regional lymph nodes has not been reported previously. A woman of 21 years presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan showed a lower abdominal mass. Laparotomy revealed a small bowel tumour causing an intussusception together with enlarged mesente...

Morgan, D.; Mylankal, K.; Barghouti, N.; Dixon, M.

2000-01-01

280

Hepatic and small bowel mucormycosis after chemotherapy in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia.  

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Mucormycosis is a rare but invasive opportunistic fungal infection with increased frequency during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The clinical infections due to Mucor include rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, gastrointestinal and disseminated diseases. The first two are the most common diseases and all entities are associated with a high mortality rate. Still hepatic involvement of Mucor is rarely reported. We experienced a case of hepatic and small bowel mucormycosis in a 56-year-old w...

Suh, I. W.; Park, C. S.; Lee, M. S.; Lee, J. H.; Chang, M. S.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, I. C.; Ryu, J. S.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Ume (Japanese Apricot)-Induced Small Bowel Obstruction with Chronic Radiation Enteritis  

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Stricture formation is recognized as one of the complications of chronic radiation enteritis. Here, we present a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with small bowel obstruction 16 years after pelvic irradiation for uterine cancer. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the abdomen demonstrated a 1-cm foreign body in the terminal ileum. Laparotomy revealed a stone of ume (Japanese apricot) stuck in an ileal stricture, leading to complete impaction and perforation. She was successfully treate...

Hashimoto, Takuya; Kitayama, Joji; Hidemura, Akio; Ishigami, Hironori; Kaizaki, Shoichi; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Miyata, Tetsuro; Nagawa, Hirokazu

2007-01-01

282

An Unusual Cause of Small Bowel Obstruction in a Child: Ingested Rhubarb  

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Small bowel obstruction is rarely caused by bezoars concretions formed from undigested foreign material in the gastrointestinal tract. An important cause of bezoars is phytobezoars, formed from vegetables or fruits. A four-year-old boy presented to our emergency department with symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction. Upright plain abdominal radiography revealed multiple air fluid levels. Ultrasound showed no abnormalities, and because of worsening symptoms computed tomography of abdomen was...

Sergei Keidar; Dennis Scolnik; Miguel Glatstein; Ayelet Rimon; Dana Danino

2013-01-01

283

Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms: Experience with Rifaximin  

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AIM: To estimate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in our geographical area (Western Sicily, Italy) by means of an observational study, and to gather information on the use of locally active, non-absorbable antibiotics for treatment of SIBO.METHODS: Our survey included 115 patients fulfilling the Rome II criteria for diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); a total of 97 patients accepted to perform a breath test with lactulose (BTLact), and those who had a po...

Sergio Peralta, Claudia Cottone

2009-01-01

284

Lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery: A case report and review of the literature  

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Lymphangioma is a rare benign condition characterized by proliferation of lymphatic spaces. It is usually found in the head and neck of affected children. Lymphangioma of the small-bowel mesentery is rare, having been reported for less than 1% of all lymphangiomas. Importantly, it can cause fatal complications such as volvulus or involvement of the main branch of the mesenteric arteries, requiring emergency surgery. Moreover, the gross and histopathologic findings may resemble benign multicys...

Worapop Suthiwartnarueput; Siriphut Kiatipunsodsai; Amolchaya Kwankua; Utairat Chaumrattanakul

2012-01-01

285

Small bowel adenocarcinoma in a patient with Coeliac disease: A case report  

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Coeliac disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut with increased risk of gastrointestinal malignancy. Although enteropathy T-lymphoma is the most common neoplasm in patient affected by coeliac disease, an increased frequency of small bowel carcinoma has been described. We present a case of jejunal carcinoma in a patient suffering for coeliac disease in which gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms of disease developed although he was treated with a gluten-free diet.

Lombardo, Mauro; Giorgetti, Gian Marco

2008-01-01

286

Untreated Celiac Disease in a Patient with Dermatitis Herpetiformis Leading to a Small Bowel Carcinoma  

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Usually, celiac disease has a benign course, though the overall morbidity and mortality have increased. Treatment with a gluten-free diet restores the damaged intestinal mucosa. In rare cases a small bowel adenocarcinoma develops. Unfortunately, the clinical presentation is not always recognized and prognosis is bad. We present a 69-year-old man with a history of dermatitis herpetiformis who presented to our tertiary center for a second opinion for a suspected gastric motility disorder. This ...

Derikx, Monique H. M.; Bisseling, Tanya M.

2012-01-01

287

Spontaneous transmesenteric hernia: a rare cause of small bowel obstruction in an adult  

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Full Text Available The authors report a case of spontaneous transmesenteric hernia with strangulation in an adult. Transmesenteric hernia (TMH is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction and is seldom diagnosed preoperatively, and most TMHs in adults are related to predisposing factors, such as previous surgery, abdominal trauma, and peritonitis. TMH are more likely to develop volvulus and strangulation or ischemia. A brief review of etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment is discussed.

Poras Chaudhary

2013-01-01

288

Modifications in ornithine decarboxylase and diamine oxidase in small bowel mucosa of starved and refed rats.  

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Starvation followed by refeeding, which provides a model of intestinal adaptation characterised by proliferative and biochemical changes, was used to clarify the biological roles of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and diamine oxidase (DAO)--enzymes involved in polyamines metabolism. Ornithine decarboxylase and DAO were assayed in the proximal and distal small bowel mucosa of 55 rats, starved for four days and then refed. Rats (five per day) were killed after four days' starvation and at days 1,...

D Agostino, L.; Daniele, B.; Pignata, S.; Barone, M. V.; D Argenio, G.; Mazzacca, G.

1987-01-01

289

Crohns disease complicated by multiple stenoses and internal fistulas clinically mimicking small bowel endometriosis  

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Full Text Available We report a 31-year-old woman with Crohn’s disease complicated by multiple stenoses and internal fistulas clinically misdiagnosed as small bowell endometriosis, due to the patient’s perimenstrual symptoms of mechanical subileus for 3 years; at first monthly, but later continuous, and gradually increasing in severity. We performed an exploratory laparotomy for small bowel obstruction, and found multiple ileal strictures and internal enteric fistulas. Because intraoperative findings were thought to indicate Crohn’s disease, a right hemicolectomy and partial distal ileum resection were performed for obstructive Crohn’s ileitis. Histopathology of the resected specimen revealed Crohn’s disease without endometrial tissue. The patient made an uneventful recovery from this procedure and was discharged home 10 d post-operatively. The differential diagnosis of Crohn’s diease with intestinal endometriosis may be difficult pre-operatively. The two entities share many overlapping clinical, radiological and pathological features. Nevertheless, when it is difficult to identify the cause of intestinal obstruction in a woman of child-bearing age with cyclical symptoms suggestive of small bowel endometriosis, Crohn’s disease should be included in the differential diagnosis.

Zafer Teke, Faruk Onder Aytekin, Ali Ozgur Atalay, Nese Calli Demirkan

2008-01-01

290

Accuracy of enteroclysis in Crohn's disease of the small bowel: a retrospective study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of enteroclysis in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease of the small bowel in a group of consecutive patients. From January 1992 to December 1995, 165 patients with suspected Crohn's disease of the small bowel presented to our institution for enteroclysis. In 14 patients up to three enteroclysis exams were performed. Most patients (78 %) underwent colonoscopy and retrograde ileoscopy. In the remaining patients clinical follow-up was used as gold standard. In 79 patients no radiographic abnormalities were found. Sixty-one patients (40 men and 21 women; mean age 34.2 years) had a radiological diagnosis of Crohn's disease. This involved the terminal ileum in 39 patients (64 %) either alone (n = 25) or in association with the pelvic ileum (n = 14). In 12 of these patients retrograde ileoscopy was not feasible. Twenty-one patients underwent surgery. In 4 patients pathology revealed diseases other than Crohn's. These patients had all ileocecal diseases (tuberculosis = 2; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma = 1; adenocarcinoma = 1). One false-negative result was observed. Overall, enteroclysis showed a sensitivity of 98.2 % and a positive predictive value of 93.4 %. Enteroclysis is a sensitive technique in evaluating both the extent and the severity of small bowel involvement in Crohn's disease, although the overlap of radiographic findings may hamper its accuracy when the disease is confined to the ileocecal area. (orig.)ileocecal area. (orig.)

291

Multi-slice spiral CT evaluation in Crohn's disease of small bowel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the value of enhanced MSCT scan for the Crohn's disease of small bowel. Methods: Fourty-five patients of small bowel Crohn's disease who were proved by multi-method were examined by two-phase enhanced scan with MSCT. The images were reformed in ADW 4.2 by MPR mainly. The CT values of the lesion segments in different phases were tested, with one way ANOVA in statistical analysis; the density difference between the lesion segments and normal segments in different phases were tested, the cases were divided according to 10 HU, and compared them with each other by ?2 test. Results: The average CT value of lesion segments was (39.3±3.7) HU in plain scan, (74.8±13.8) HU in artery phase, (90.2±12.3) HU in portal vein phase, there were sinigicant difference in them (F=258.87, P10 HU respectively in plain scan, 6 cases and 39 cases in artery phase, 2 cases and 43 cases in portal vein phase, by ?2 test, there were sinigicant difference between plain scan and artery phase (?2=32.49, P2= 39.22, P2= 1.10, P>0.05). Afterup>2= 1.10, P>0.05). After enhancement, the lesions can display clearly than plain scan, and the detectable rate was raised highly. Conclusion: Two-phase enhancement scan can diagnosis the Crohn's disease of small bowel and evaluate it overall. (authors)

292

Accuracy of enteroclysis in Crohn's disease of the small bowel: a retrospective study  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of enteroclysis in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease of the small bowel in a group of consecutive patients. From January 1992 to December 1995, 165 patients with suspected Crohn's disease of the small bowel presented to our institution for enteroclysis. In 14 patients up to three enteroclysis exams were performed. Most patients (78 %) underwent colonoscopy and retrograde ileoscopy. In the remaining patients clinical follow-up was used as gold standard. In 79 patients no radiographic abnormalities were found. Sixty-one patients (40 men and 21 women; mean age 34.2 years) had a radiological diagnosis of Crohn's disease. This involved the terminal ileum in 39 patients (64 %) either alone (n = 25) or in association with the pelvic ileum (n = 14). In 12 of these patients retrograde ileoscopy was not feasible. Twenty-one patients underwent surgery. In 4 patients pathology revealed diseases other than Crohn's. These patients had all ileocecal diseases (tuberculosis = 2; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma = 1; adenocarcinoma = 1). One false-negative result was observed. Overall, enteroclysis showed a sensitivity of 98.2 % and a positive predictive value of 93.4 %. Enteroclysis is a sensitive technique in evaluating both the extent and the severity of small bowel involvement in Crohn's disease, although the overlap of radiographic findings may hamper its accuracy when the disease is confined to the ileocecal area. (orig.)

Cirillo, L.C.; Della Noce, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Camera, L.; Salvatore, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); National Research Council, Center of Nuclear Medicine, Naples (Italy); Castiglione, F.; Mazzacca, G. [Dept. of Gastroenterology, University ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy)

2000-12-01

293

Decompression of the small bowel by endoscopic long-tube placement  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate and compare the decompression effect on small bowel obstruction of a long tube inserted using either endoscopic or fluoroscopic placement. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients with small bowel obstruction requiring decompression were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups. Intubation of a long tube was guided by fluoroscopy in one group and by endoscopy in the other. The duration of the procedure and the success rate for each group were evaluated. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference in the mean duration of the procedure was found between the fluoroscopic group (32.6 ± 14.6 min and the endoscopic group (16.5 ± 7.8 min among the cases classified as successful (P < 0.05. The success rate was significantly different between the groups: 88.6% in the fluoroscopic group and 100% in the endoscopic group (P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: For patients with adhesive small bowel obstruction, long-tube decompression is recommended and long-tube insertion by endoscopy was superior to fluoroscopic placement.

Shi-Bin Guo

2012-01-01

294

Graft-versus-host reaction in small bowel transplantation and possibilities for its circumvention  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe GVHR in small bowel transplantation and its underlying mechanisms and to find methods for circumventing that response, accessory small bowel transplantation was carried out in the rat model. Animals not treated with cyclosporine, irradiation, or removal of the mesenteric lymph nodes of the graft died within 22 days postoperatively due to graft versus host disease. Mesenteric lymph nodes of the graft and recipient spleen and peripheral lymph nodes showed strong immunologic stimulation histologically and high antihost T-cell-mediated cytotoxic antihost reactivity. Seventy-one percent of the animals that had received 15 mg of cyclosporine per kilogram body weight orally survived 150 days after transplantation. After donor irradiation with 50 rads, 77 percent of the recipients survived 120 days. After microsurgical removal of the mesenteric lymph nodes of the graft, 89 percent survived 120 days. We conclude that GVHR plays an important role in small bowel transplantation and that the experimental regimens of donor, graft, and recipient treatment described herein have proved their efficacy for circumventing GVHR

295

Spontaneous sublingual and intramural small-bowel hematoma in a patient on oral anticoagulation  

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Full Text Available Spontaneous sublingual hematoma and intramural small bowel hematoma are rare and serious complications of anticoagulant therapy. Though previously reported individually, there has been no previous report of the same two complications occurring in a single patient. A 71-year-old Caucasian man, who was on warfarin for atrial fibrillation, presented with difficulty in swallowing due to a sublingual hematoma. He was observed in our intensive care unit, his warfarin was held and he recovered with conservative management. He represented two months later with a two day history of abdominal pain and distension. An abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT scan now showed small bowel obstruction due to intramural small bowel hematoma and haemorrhagic ascites. Again, this was treated expectantly with a good outcome. In conclusion, life threatening haemorrhagic complications of oral anticoagulant therapy can recur. Conservative treatment is successful in most cases, but an accurate diagnosis is mandatory to avoid unnecessary surgery. CT scan is the investigation of choice for the diagnosis of suspected haemorrhagic complications of over coagulation.

Sean Johnston

2012-07-01

296

Detected peritoneal fluid in small bowel obstruction is associated with the need for surgical intervention.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Predicting the clinical course in adhesional small bowel obstruction is difficult. There are no validated clinical or radiologic features that allow early identification of patients likely to require surgical intervention. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 100 patients consecutively admitted to a tertiary level teaching hospital over a 3-year period (2002-2004) who had acute adhesional small bowel obstruction and underwent computed tomography (CT). The primary outcomes that we assessed were conservative management or the need for surgical intervention. We investigated time to physiologic gastrointestinal function recovery as a secondary outcome. We examined independent predictors of surgical intervention in a bivariate analysis using a stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients investigated, we excluded 12. Of the 88 remaining patients, 58 (66%) were managed conservatively and 30 (34%) underwent surgery. Peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan (n = 37) was associated more frequently with surgery than conservative management (46% v. 29%, p = 0.046, chi(2)). Logistical regression identified peritoneal fluid detected on a CT scan as an independent predictor of surgical intervention (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.15-7.84). CONCLUSION: The presence of peritoneal fluid on a CT scan in patients with adhesional small bowel obstruction is an independent predictor of surgical intervention and should alert the clinician that the patient is 3 times more likely to require surgery.

O'Daly, Brendan J

2009-06-01

297

Mucosal healing effect of mesalazine granules in naproxen-induced small bowel enteropathy  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of mesalazine granules on small intestinal injury induced by naproxen using capsule endoscopy (CE. METHODS: This was a single center, non-randomized, open-label, uncontrolled pilot study, using the PillCam SB CE system with RAPID 5 software. The Lewis Index Score (LIS for small bowel injury was investigated to evaluate the severity of mucosal injury. Arthropathy patients with at least one month history of daily naproxen use of 1000 mg and proton pump inhibitor co-therapy were screened. Patients with a minimum LIS of 135 were eligible to enter the 4-wk treatment phase of the study. During this treatment period, 3 × 1000 mg/d mesalazine granules were added to ongoing therapies of 1000 mg/d naproxen and 20 mg/d omeprazole. At the end of the 4-wk combined treatment period, a second small bowel CE was performed to re-evaluate the enteropathy according to the LIS results. The primary objective of this study was to assess the mucosal changes after 4 wk of mesalazine treatment. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients (16 females, ranging in age from 46 to 78 years (mean age 60.3 years were screened, all had been taking 1000 mg/d naproxen for at least one month. Eight patients were excluded from the mesalazine therapeutic phase of the study for the following reasons: the screening CE showed normal small bowel mucosa or only insignificant damages (LIS < 135 in five patients, the screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric ulcer in one patient, capsule technical failure and incomplete CE due to poor small bowel cleanliness in two patients. Ten patients (9 female, mean age 56.2 years whose initial LIS reached mild and moderate-to-severe enteropathy grades (between 135 and 790 and ? 790 entered the 4-wk therapeutic phase and a repeat CE was performed. When comparing the change in LIS from baseline to end of treatment in all patients, a marked decrease was seen (mean LIS: 1236.4 ± 821.9 vs 925.2 ± 543.4, P = 0.271. Moreover, a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment mean total LIS was detected in 7 patients who had moderate-to-severe enteropathy gradings at the inclusion CE (mean LIS: 1615 ± 672 vs 1064 ± 424, P = 0.033. CONCLUSION: According to the small bowel CE evaluation mesalazine granules significantly attenuated mucosal injuries in patients with moderate-to-severe enteropathies induced by naproxen.

István Rácz

2013-01-01

298

Special diaphragm-like strictures of small bowel unrelated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs  

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Full Text Available AIM: To summarize clinical, endoscopic, radiologic and pathologic features of special diaphragm-like strictures found in small bowel, with no patient use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2009, 5 cases (2 men and 3 women, with a mean age of 41.6 years were diagnosed as having diaphragm-like strictures of small bowel on imaging, operation and pathology. All the patients denied the use of NSAIDs. The clinical, endoscopic, radiologic and pathologic findings in these 5 patients were retrospectively reviewed from the hospital database. Images of capsule endoscopy (CE and small bowel follow-through (SBFT obtained in 3 and 3 patients, respectively, and images of double-balloon enteroscopy and computed tomography enterography (CTE obtained in all 5 patients were available for review. RESULTS: All patients presented with long-term (2-16 years symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding and varying degrees of anemia. There was only one stricture in four cases and three lesions in one case, and all the lesions were located in the middle or distal segment of ileum. Circumferential stricture was shown in the small bowel in three cases in the CE image, but the capsule was retained in the small bowel of 2 patients. Routine abdomen computed tomography scan showed no other abnormal results except gallstones in one patient. The lesions were shown as circumferential strictures accompanied by dilated small bowel loops in the small bowel on the images of CTE (in all 5 cases, SBFT (in 2 cases and double-balloon enteroscopy (in all cases. On microscopy, a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and circumferential diaphragm were found in all lesions. CONCLUSION: Diaphragm-like strictures of small bowel might be a special consequence of unclear damaging insults to the intestine, having similar clinical, endoscopic, radiologic and pathologic features.

Ming-Liang Wang

2011-01-01

299

Tuberculosis versus non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas involving small bowel mesentery: Evaluation with contrast-enhanced computed tomography  

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AIM: To evaluate the specific computed tomography (CT) imaging criteria for differentiating tuberculosis involving the small bowel mesenteric lymph nodes from lymphomas.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the anatomic distribution, CT enhancement patterns of lymphoma in 18 patients with mesenteric tuberculosis and 22 with untreated non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL) involving small bowel mesentery (SBM). Of the 18 patients with tuberculosis, 9 had purely mesenteric tuberculous lymphadenopathy (...

Peng Dong, Bin Wang

2008-01-01

300

Lactose malabsorption in Greek adults: correlation of small bowel transit time with the severity of lactose intolerance.  

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Using breath hydrogen analysis after 139 mmol (50 g) oral lactose load, we investigated the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in 200 Greek adults and examined the relationship between symptoms and small bowel transit time. One hundred and fifty subjects had increased breath hydrogen concentrations (greater than 20 ppm) after the lactose load. In these individuals peak breath hydrogen concentration was inversely related to small bowel transit time (r = 0.63, 6 = 6.854, p less than 0.001) and...

Ladas, S.; Papanikos, J.; Arapakis, G.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Small bowel obstruction following computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography using psyllium seed husk as an oral contrast agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report a case series describing four patients who developed small bowel obstruction following the use of psyllium seed husk as an oral contrast agent for computed tomography or magnetic resonance enterography. Radiologists who oversee computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography should be aware of this potential complication when using psyllium seed husk and other bulking agents, particularly when imaging patients with known or suspected small bowel strictures or active inflammation. PMID:25157531

Chen, Yingming Amy; Cervini, Patrick; Kirpalani, Anish; Vlachou, Paraskevi A; Grover, Samir C; Colak, Errol

2014-01-01

302

Diverticular Disease and the Obese Patient  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverticular disease is common in the Western world and is a considerable source of morbidity. Many have proposed an association between diverticular disease, its complications, and obesity. We examine this question through a review of the available literature. While it is likely that an association between diverticular disease and obesity exists, there is no evidence suggesting that obese patients should be managed any differently from the non-obese. PMID:23204940

Johnson, Eric K.; Champagne, Bradley J.

2011-01-01

303

Diverticular Disease and the Obese Patient  

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Diverticular disease is common in the Western world and is a considerable source of morbidity. Many have proposed an association between diverticular disease, its complications, and obesity. We examine this question through a review of the available literature. While it is likely that an association between diverticular disease and obesity exists, there is no evidence suggesting that obese patients should be managed any differently from the non-obese.

Johnson, Eric K.; Champagne, Bradley J.

2011-01-01

304

Long Term Survival after Resection of a Small Bowel Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Background: Small bowel metastases of lung adenocarcinoma represent a rare clinical entity, often diagnosed after complications due to obstruction, bleeding or bowel perforation. Case Report: We report a case of ileal metastasis discovered during an intestinal perforation. The patient was a 47-year-old man hospitalized in emergency for acute abdominal pain, with right lower quadrant abdominal defense and a clinical history of left lower pulmonary lobectomy for lung adenocarcinoma 6 months before. Exploratory laparotomy for peritonitis revealed a single ileal tumor which was resected with lymph nodes excision. Pathology finding revealed that it was compatible with an ileal metastasis of his lung adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: The suspicion of a small bowel metastasis of lung carcinoma, although rare, must be taken in consideration and to carry out an extensive surgery, because only this will have an improvement on the survival of these patients. The purpose of this investigation is to add a new case report to the few that exist in order to provide a therapeutic approach to these exceptional cases.

Laurent Sulpice

2011-12-01

305

Small Bowel Obstruction Caused by an Incarcerated Hernia after Iliac Crest Bone Harvest  

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The iliac crest has become an often used site for autogenous bone graft, because of the easy access it affords. One of the less common complications that can occur after removal is a graft-site hernia. It was first reported in 1945 (see the work by Oldfield, 1945). We report a case of iliac crest bone hernia in a 53-year-old male who was admitted for elective resection of a pseudarthrosis and reconstruction of the left femur with iliac crest bone from the right side. One and a half months after initial surgery, the patient presented with increasing abdominal pain and signs of bowel obstruction. A CT scan of the abdominal cavity showed an obstruction of the small bowel caused by the bone defect of the right iliac crest. A laparoscopy showed a herniation of the small bowel. Due to collateral vessels of the peritoneum caused by portal hypertension, an IPOM (intraperitoneal onlay-mesh) occlusion could not be performed. We performed a conventional ventral hernia repair with an onlay mesh. The recovery was uneventful. PMID:22084778

d'Hondt, Steven; Soysal, Savas; Kirchhoff, Philipp; Oertli, Daniel; Heizmann, Oleg

2011-01-01

306

Breathhold MRI of the small bowel in Crohn's disease after enteroklysis with oral magnetic particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of breathhold MRI following enteroclysis with addition of oral magnetic particles to study the extension, detection of stenoses and extraluminal manifestations in Crohn's disease. Results: Typical findings were marked bowel wall thickening with strong contrast enhancement. 95.8% of affected small bowel segments and 94.7% of stenoses were correctly detected by MRI. All four fistulas were detected and important extraluminal findings were seen in 6/18 patients. Additionally, one ileoileal and two ileosigmoidal adhesions, two extraluminal abscesses and affection of the right ureter were delineated. Conclusion: MRI in Crohn's disease offers the potential to avoid radiation exposure in this relatively young patient group. Important additional findings relevant to indication of surgery are seen in approximately one third of cases. The replacement of transduodenal intubation by oral contrast application remains to be further studied. (orig./AJ)

307

Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

308

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor causing small bowel intussusception in a patient with Crohns disease  

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Full Text Available We report a case of jejunoileal intussusception in a 42-year-old patient with Crohn’s disease caused by a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The patient complained of vague diffuse abdominal pain for a period of 4 mo. Intussusception was suspected at computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Segmental resection of the small intestine was performed. Pathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed a gastrointestinal stromal tumor as well as aphthous ulcerations and areas of inflammation, which were characteristic of Crohn’s disease. This is the first report of small bowel intussusception due to a gastrointestinal stromal tumor coexisting with Crohn’s disease.

George E Theodoropoulos, Dimitrios Linardoutsos, Dimitrios Tsamis, Paraskevas Stamopoulos, Dimitrios Giannopoulos, Flora Zagouri, Nikolaos V Michalopoulos

2009-11-01

309

The "Pavia model" of experimental small bowel transplantation in pigs: technical variations for ischemia reperfusion injury studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major field of study in small bowel transplantation because of its implications regarding intestinal immunity. In this study, we have introduced some variations to the described models of IRI in pigs to make possible a complete isolation of the small bowel for IRI studies. In swine, two anatomical barriers make impossible a complete isolation of the small bowel at the origin of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and vein (SMV): the main colic vessels, which originate distally to form SMA and SMV, and the blood supply of the distal portion of the duodenum and the cephalic part of the pancreas. In a group of Large White pigs (n = 5), we have performed a complete isolation of the small bowel, including sub-total colectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy. Both SMA and SMV were isolated at the origin from the aorta and at the junction of the splenic vein, respectively. Intestinal continuity was restored with duodenojejunal anastomosis and with ileotransverse colon anastomosis. One pig died on postoperative day 5 from intestinal occlusion due to adhesions. The remaining four pigs were killed on postoperative day 7 after an uneventful postoperative course. No complications were found at autopsy. In swine, resection of part of the pancreas and duodenum and removal of the large bowel does not affect short-term survival, allowing a full isolation of the entire small bowel mimicking the transplantation procedure. Thus, this model appears to be attractive for IRI studies in the field of intestinal transplantation. PMID:25131126

Alessiani, M; Cobianchi, L; Viganò, J; Dominioni, T; Bottazzi, A; Zonta, S; Dionigi, P

2014-01-01

310

Are fibre supplements really necessary in diverticular disease of the colon? A controlled clinical trial.  

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Fifty-eight patients with uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon took bran crispbread, ispaghula drink, and placebo for four months each in a randomised, cross-over, double-blind controlled trial. Assessments were made subjectively, using a monthly self-administered questionnaire, and objectively, by examining a seven-day stool collection at the end of each treatment period. In terms of a pain score, lower bowel symptom score (the pain score and sensation of incomplete emptying, stra...

Ornstein, M. H.; Littlewood, E. R.; Baird, I. M.; Fowler, J.; North, W. R.; Cox, A. G.

1981-01-01

311

Interstitial cells of Cajal, enteric nerves, and glial cells in colonic diverticular disease  

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BACKGROUND: Colonic diverticular disease (diverticulosis) is a common disorder in Western countries. Although its pathogenesis is probably multifactorial, motor abnormalities of the large bowel are thought to play an important role. However, little is known about the basic mechanism that may underlie abnormal colon motility in diverticulosis. AIMS: To investigate the interstitial cells of Cajal (the gut pacemaker cells), together with myenteric and submucosal ganglion and glial cells, in pati...

Bassotti, G.; Battaglia, E.; Bellone, G.; Dughera, L.; Fisogni, S.; Zambelli, C.; Morelli, A.; Mioli, P.; Emanuelli, G.; Villanacci, V.

2005-01-01

312

Occult small bowel perforation in a patient with Ehlers Danlos syndrome: a case report and review of the literature  

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Patients who present with a co-existing connective tissue disorder add a degree of complexity to operative intervention. We present an unusual case of a 53-year-old Caucasian female patient with Ehlers Danlos syndrome who presented with an occult perforation of the distal ileum. The patient had known small bowel diverticulae yet the perforation occurred within the normal bowel wall. The pre-operative CT only showed malrotation of the large bowel and did not correlate with the intra-operative ...

Leake, Tessa Frances; Singhal, Tarun; Chandra, Aninda; Ashcroft, Alexandra; Doddi, Sudeendra; Hussain, Abdulzahra; Smedley, Frank

2010-01-01

313

Morphometric and biomechanical remodelling in the intestine after small bowel resection in the rat  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The short-bowel syndrome is a clinical condition caused by intestinal resection. As intestinal adaptation occurs after resection, it can be used as a model for studying morphometric and biomechanical remodelling in the small intestine and to get a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the short-bowel syndrome. The resected rats had a 67% resection of jejunum and ileum. Control animals underwent no operation (nonoperated controls) or an ileal transection with subsequent end-to-end anastomosis (sham-resected controls). The animals were followed for up to 4 weeks after the operation. Changes in biomechanical properties were studied in terms of residual strain (the internal strain remaining when all external loads are removed), opening angle and stress--strain relations referenced to the zero-stress state (the cut-open state where external and internal stresses are released). The resected animals gained less weight than the controls. The intestinal length and diameter increased more in the resected groups than the control groups (P < 0.05), resulting in a larger absorptive surface. Resection induced profound gross morphometric changes and histological alterations characterized by proliferative increases in the tissue layers. The opening angle, along with residual strain at the mucosal and serosal surface, increased in the remnant small intestine (P < 0.05). All changes increased as function of postoperative time and were most prominent in the remnant ileum. However, the stress-strain relationship remained unchanged. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that resection of the majority of the small bowel results in significant remodelling in structural and residual strain properties in the remnant small intestine. The remodelling seems to be guided by the need for a greater absorptive surface area rather than for a change in the stress-strain properties.

Dou, Y; Lu, X

2002-01-01

314

Aminoguanidine Alleviates Radiation-Induced Small-Bowel Damage Through Its Antioxidant Effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the effect and its mechanism of aminoguanidine (AG) on small-bowel protection after whole-abdominal irradiation (WAI) in rats. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-400 g) subjected to 12 Gy WAI were used for the study. Aminoguanidine at a dose of 50-800 mg/kg was administered by the gavage route 2 h before WAI. Mucosal damage of small bowel was evaluated by the grade of diarrhea and crypt survival; oxidative stress was determined by the level of 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) with immunohistochemistry (IHC). Nitrosative stress was evaluated by the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) with IHC, and systemic and portal vein NOx (nitrite + nitrate) levels were measured and compared with and without AG treatment after WAI. Results: Aminoguanidine showed a dose-dependent effect against WAI-induced diarrhea. Aminoguanidine at a dose of 400 mg/kg had the best protective effect, from 92% to 17% (p = 0.002). Aminoguanidine increased crypt survival from 23% to 46% (p = 0.003). It also significantly attenuated 8-OHdG expression but not 3-NT and iNOS expression at both 4 and 8 h after 12-Gy WAI. Aminoguanidine did not alter the portal vein NOx levels 4 and 8 h after 12-Gy WAI. Conclusion: Aminoguanidine has a radioprotective effect against radiation-induced small-bowel damage due to its antioxidant effect but not inhibition of nitric oxide production. Dietary AG may have a potentially protectiveetary AG may have a potentially protective effect on the small intestine of patients subjected to pelvic and abdominal radiotherapies.

315

Enhanced Diagnostic Yield with Prolonged Small Bowel Transit Time during Capsule Endoscopy  

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Full Text Available Background: The effect of small bowel transit time (SBTT on diagnostic yield during capsule endoscopy (CE has not been previously evaluated. Our study aim was to assess the effect of SBTT on the likelihood of detecting intestinal pathology during CE. Methods: We reviewed collected data on CE studies performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital from January 2006 to June 2007. In patients investigated for anemia or obscure bleeding, the following lesions were considered relevant: ulcers, erosions, AVMs, red spots, varices, vascular ectasias, and presence of blood. In patients with diarrhea or abdominal pain, ulcers, erosions, and blood were considered relevant. Age, gender, study indication, hospital status, and quality of bowel preparation were identified as candidate risk factors affecting SBTT. Univariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to study the effect of SBTT on diagnostic yield. Results: Total of 212 CE studies were analyzed; most were in outpatients (n=175, 82.9% and with excellent bowel preparation (n=177, 83.5%. Mean SBTT was 237.0min (3.9hrs. Age, gender, bowel prep, hospital status, and study indication did not significantly affect SBTT. However, increased SBTT was independently associated with increased diagnostic yield; OR=1.7 in SBTT=2-4hr (p=0.41, OR=1.8 in SBTT=4-6hrs (p=0.30, OR=9.6 in SBTT=6-8hrs (p=0.05. Conclusion: Prolonged SBTT during CE (>6 hr is associated with an increased diagnostic yield. This may be due to a positive effect on image quality during a “slower” study. The use of promotility agents may adversely affect the ability of CE to detect significant intestinal pathology.

Jonathan M. Buscaglia, Sumit Kapoor, John O. Clarke, Juan Carlos Bucobo, Samuel A. Giday, Priscilla Magno, Elaine Yong, Gerard E. Mullin

2008-01-01

316

Audit on complicated diverticular disease  

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Seventy-three patients were seen between 1970 and 1983 with complicated diverticular disease. There were only six hospital deaths (8%). Two out of 7 patients with faecal peritonitis died, 2 of 27 patients with purulent peritonitis died and there was one death each associated with an inflammatory mass and a peridiverticular abscess. Five of the six hospital deaths were from cardiorespiratory disease and only one was from sepsis. Three of the early deaths were in patients who were receiving ste...

Shephard, A. A.; Keighley, M. R.

1986-01-01

317

Diverticular disease treated with corticotrophin  

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Since 1968 the inflammatory stage of diverticular disease (acute and chronic diverticulitis) has been treated with tetracosactrin in one practice. This paper reviews 100 episodes treated in this way and compares these with 50 episodes treated with rest in bed and dietary measures. Abatement of pyrexia, swelling and tenderness, as well as relief of the symptoms of pain and malaise, were usually found to occur within 24 hours of the administration of tetracosactrin zinc (1 mg) intramuscularly. ...

Steer, Charles

1985-01-01

318

Diverticular Disease: Reconsidering Conventional Wisdom  

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Colonic diverticula are common in developed countries and complications of colonic diverticulosis are responsible for a significant burden of disease. Several recent publications have called into question long held beliefs about diverticular disease. Contrary to conventional wisdom, studies have not shown that a high fiber diet protects against asymptomatic diverticulosis. The risk of developing diverticulitis among individuals with diverticulosis is lower than the 10–25% commonly quoted, a...

Peery, Anne F.; Sandler, Robert S.

2013-01-01

319

Serotonin Signaling in Diverticular Disease  

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Diverticulosis is extremely common in Western societies and is associated with complications in up to 15 percent of cases. Altered motility is an important feature of the pathogenesis of diverticular disease, and serotonin (5-HT) release is a primary trigger of gut motility. This study aims to determine whether colonic 5-HT signaling is altered in patients with diverticulosis or diverticulitis, and whether differences in serotonin signaling may distinguish patients with asymptomatic diverticu...

Costedio, Meagan M.; Coates, Matthew D.; Danielson, Amy B.; Buttolph, Thomas R.; Blaszyk, Hagen J.; Mawe, Gary M.; Hyman, Neil H.

2008-01-01

320

Does super efficient starch absorption promote diverticular disease?  

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The amount of starch escaping absorption in the small intestine was measured in eight patients with symptomatic diverticular disease and eight controls. Unabsorbed starch was calculated from breath hydrogen measurements after a potato meal compared with the hydrogen response to lactulose. The proportion of unabsorbed starch was low in all the patients (mean 3.3%) and was only about a quarter of that in the controls (12.4%; p less than 0.01). These findings confirm that unabsorbed starch provi...

Thornton, J. R.; Dryden, A.; Kelleher, J.; Losowsky, M. S.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Diverticular disease: reconsidering conventional wisdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colonic diverticula are common in developed countries and complications of colonic diverticulosis are responsible for a significant burden of disease. Several recent publications have called into question long-held beliefs about diverticular disease. Contrary to conventional wisdom, studies have not shown that a high-fiber diet protects against asymptomatic diverticulosis. The risk of developing diverticulitis among individuals with diverticulosis is lower than the 10% to 25% proportion that commonly is quoted, and may be as low as 1% over 11 years. Nuts and seeds do not increase the risk of diverticulitis or diverticular bleeding. It is unclear whether diverticulosis, absent diverticulitis, or overt colitis is responsible for chronic gastrointestinal symptoms or worse quality of life. The role of antibiotics in acute diverticulitis has been challenged by a large randomized trial that showed no benefit in selected patients. The decision to perform elective surgery should be made on a case-by-case basis and not routinely after a second episode of diverticulitis, when there has been a complication, or in young people. A colonoscopy should be performed to exclude colon cancer after an attack of acute diverticulitis but may not alter outcomes among individuals who have had a colonoscopy before the attack. Given these surprising findings, it is time to reconsider conventional wisdom about diverticular disease. PMID:23669306

Peery, Anne F; Sandler, Robert S

2013-12-01

322

Diverticular disease in CT colonography  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate findings on CT colonography (CTC) in patients with diverticular disease. In a retrospective analysis of 160 consecutive patients, who underwent CTC and conventional colonoscopy (CC), patients with diverticular disease were retrieved. The CTC images were compared with CC and, if possible, with pathology. Findings on both 2D and 3D images are illustrated with emphasis on diagnostic problems and the possible solutions to overcome these problems. Several aspects of diverticulosis were detected: prediverticulosis (3%); global (55.6%); and focal wall thickening (4%) caused by thickened haustral folds, fibrosis, inflammation and adenocarcinoma; diverticula (52%); pseudopolypoid lesions caused by diverticular fecaliths (39%); inverted diverticula (1.2%); and mucosal prolapse (0.6%). Solutions to overcome pitfalls are described as abdominal windowing, content of the pseudopolypoid lesion, comparison of 2D and 3D images, prone-supine imaging and the aspect of the pericolic fat. In this series there were equivocal findings in case of mucosal prolapse (0.6%) and focal wall thickening (4%). Diverticulosis is a challenge for CTC to avoid false-positive diagnosis of polypoid and tumoral disease. Knowledge of possible false causes of polypoid disease and comparison of 2D and 3D images are necessary to avoid false-positive diagnosis. In case of equivocal findings additional conventional colonoscopy should be advised whenever a clinically significant lesion ({>=}1 cm) is suspected. (orig.)

Lefere, P.; Gryspeerdt, S.; Baekelandt, M.; Holsbeeck, B. van [Dept. of Radiology, Roeselare (Belgium); Dewyspelaere, J. [Dept. of Gastroenterology, Roeselare (Belgium)

2003-12-01

323

Studies of the small bowel surface by scanning electron microscopy in infants with persistent diarrhea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe the ultrastructural abnormalities of the small bowel surface in 16 infants with persistent diarrhea. The age range of the patients was 2 to 10 months, mean 4.8 months. All patients had diarrhea lasting 14 or more days. Bacterial overgrowth of the colonic microflora in the jejunal secretion, at concentrations above 10(4 colonies/ml, was present in 11 (68.7% patients. The stool culture was positive for an enteropathogenic agent in 8 (50.0% patients: for EPEC O111 in 2, EPEC O119 in 1, EAEC in 1, and Shigella flexneri in 1; mixed infections due to EPEC O111 and EAEC in 1 patient, EPEC O119 and EAEC in 1 and EPEC O55, EPEC O111, EAEC and Shigella sonnei in 1. Morphological abnormalities in the small bowel mucosa were observed in all 16 patients, varying in intensity from moderate 9 (56.3% to severe 7 (43.7%. The scanning electron microscopic study of small bowel biopsies from these subjects showed several surface abnormalities. At low magnification (100X most of the villi showed mild to moderate stunting, but on several occasions there was subtotal villus atrophy. At higher magnification (7,500X photomicrographs showed derangement of the enterocytes; on several occasions the cell borders were not clearly defined and very often microvilli were decreased in number and height; in some areas there was a total disappearance of the microvilli. In half of the patients a mucus-fibrinoid pseudomembrane was seen partially coating the enterocytes, a finding that provides additional information on the pathophysiology of persistent diarrhea.

U. Fagundes-Neto

2000-12-01

324

Accelerating the transit time of barium sulphate suspensions in small bowel examinations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine whether hyperosmolar and effervescent agents proven individually to accelerate transit time in the barium small bowel examination have an additive effect when combined, surpassing that of either agent alone. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty-nine patients were randomised to four groups. Three hundred milliliters of barium sulphate alone was given to the first group. Fifteen milliliters of iodinated hyperosmolar contrast agent (Gastrografin, meglumine/sodium diatrizoate, Schering) was given in addition to barium sulphate to the second group while six packets of effervescent granules (Carbex, Ferring) were added for the third group. The final group was given a combination of both additives and barium sulphate. The time taken following ingestion for the contrast column to reach the caecum, as assessed by frequent interval fluoroscopy, was recorded. A subgroup of 32 patients were selected randomly from the four groups, 8 from each and assessed for quality of examination. Statistical assessments were made using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients were analysed after exclusions. The addition of accelerant to barium sulphate, both individually and in combination significantly reduced the small bowel transit time (p < 0.001). No significant difference existed between the additives when used with barium alone. The combined group had significantly faster transit times compared to the hyperosmolar grosit times compared to the hyperosmolar group (p = 0.02). Differences between combined and effervescent groups tended towards significance (p = 0.09). No significant difference existed between groups when examination quality was assessed. Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of combined effervescent and hyperosmolar agents to the barium suspension may significantly shorten the small bowel transit time without adversely affecting examination quality. This has implications for patient acceptability of the examination as well as potentially reducing screening time and therefore radiation dose

325

Management of small-bowel polyps at double-balloon enteroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small bowel tumors (SBTs) are uncommon, insidious in presentation, and frequently represent a diagnostic challenge. The advent of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) and double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) is a significant breakthrough for visual diagnosis of SBTs throughout the small bowel. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and fluoroscopic enteroclysis had significantly lower diagnostic yields of tumors that were 10 mm or smaller in diameter, but VCE and DBE had high diagnostic yields regardless of tumor size. Regarding SBTs larger than 10 mm in diameter, CECT had a significantly lower diagnostic yield of epithelial tumors compared to subepithelial tumors, whereas fluoroscopic enteroclysis and DBE had high diagnostic yields regardless of the tumor type. VCE had a slightly lower diagnostic yield of subepithelial tumors (78%) compared to epithelial tumors. Therefore, a combined examination method by using CECT and VCE is useful for screening of SBTs. In case suspicious of stenosis, patency capsule should be performed to confirm passage before VCE. DBE is useful for further precise examination including biopsy and ultrasonography by using miniature probe, and enteroscopic treatment. After medical, enteroscopic, and surgical treatment, VCE is helpful for follow-up. DBE is safe and useful in resecting the SBTs deep within the small bowel without laparotomy. Indications of enteroscopic resection may be benign tumors regardless of epithelial or subepithelial type, localizing in the mucosal or submucosal layer, which are symptomatic at present or possibly symptomatic or transforming in the future. Malignant tumors localized in the mucosal layer may be indications although detecting at an early stage is challenging. In this review article, we describe management of SBTs/polyps by various modalities. PMID:25333006

Ohmiya, Naoki; Nakamura, Masanao; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi; Hirata, Ichiro

2014-03-01

326

Studies of the small bowel surface by scanning electron microscopy in infants with persistent diarrhea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We describe the ultrastructural abnormalities of the small bowel surface in 16 infants with persistent diarrhea. The age range of the patients was 2 to 10 months, mean 4.8 months. All patients had diarrhea lasting 14 or more days. Bacterial overgrowth of the colonic microflora in the jejunal secreti [...] on, at concentrations above 10(4) colonies/ml, was present in 11 (68.7%) patients. The stool culture was positive for an enteropathogenic agent in 8 (50.0%) patients: for EPEC O111 in 2, EPEC O119 in 1, EAEC in 1, and Shigella flexneri in 1; mixed infections due to EPEC O111 and EAEC in 1 patient, EPEC O119 and EAEC in 1 and EPEC O55, EPEC O111, EAEC and Shigella sonnei in 1. Morphological abnormalities in the small bowel mucosa were observed in all 16 patients, varying in intensity from moderate 9 (56.3%) to severe 7 (43.7%). The scanning electron microscopic study of small bowel biopsies from these subjects showed several surface abnormalities. At low magnification (100X) most of the villi showed mild to moderate stunting, but on several occasions there was subtotal villus atrophy. At higher magnification (7,500X) photomicrographs showed derangement of the enterocytes; on several occasions the cell borders were not clearly defined and very often microvilli were decreased in number and height; in some areas there was a total disappearance of the microvilli. In half of the patients a mucus-fibrinoid pseudomembrane was seen partially coating the enterocytes, a finding that provides additional information on the pathophysiology of persistent diarrhea.

U., Fagundes-Neto; S., De Martini-Costa; M.Z., Pedroso; I.C.A., Scaletsky.

1437-14-01

327

Double-balloon enteroscopy for mesenchymal tumors of small bowel: Nine years’ experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To assess the value of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors (GIMTs in the small bowel and clarify their clinical and endoscopic characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective review in a total of 783 patients who underwent a DBE procedure from January 2003 to December 2011 was conducted. Data from patients with pathologically confirmed GIMTs were analyzed at a single tertiary center with nine years’ experience. The primary outcomes assessed included characteristics of patients with GIMTs, indications for DBE, overall diagnostic yield of GIMTs, endoscopic morphology, positive biopsy, comparison of diagnosis with capsule endoscopy, and subsequent interventional management. RESULTS: GIMTs were identified and analyzed in 77 patients. The mean age was 47.74 ± 14.14 years (range: 20-77 years, with 63.6% being males. The majority of individuals presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, accounting for 81.8%, followed by abdominal pain, accounting for 10.4%. Small bowel pathologies were found in 71 patients, the detection rate was 92.2%. The diagnostic yield of DBE for GIMTs was 88.3%. DBE was superior to capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of GIMTs (P = 0.006; McNemar’s ?2 test. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor was the most frequent and leiomyoma was the second frequent GIMT. Single and focal lesions were typical of GIMTs, and masses with smooth or unsmooth surface were the most common in the small bowel. GIMTs were removed from all the patients surgically except one patient treated with endoscopic resection. CONCLUSION: DBE is a safe and valuable procedure for patients with suspected GIMTs, and it provides an accurate position for subsequent surgical intervention.

Qiong He

2013-01-01

328

Epidemiology of perforated colonic diverticular disease  

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Perforated colonic diverticular disease results in considerable mortality and morbidity. This review appraises existing evidence on the epidemiology and mechanisms of perforation, highlights areas of further study, and suggests an epidemiological approach towards preventing the condition. Computerised searches were used to identify published articles relating to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical features of perforated colonic diverticular disease. Several drug and dietary exposu...

Morris, C.; Harvey, I.; Stebbings, W.; Speakman, C.; Kennedy, H.; Hart, A.

2002-01-01

329

Colorectal visceral perception in diverticular disease  

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Background and aims: The pathogenesis of asymptomatic diverticular disease (ADD) and symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) has not been elucidated. The aim of our study was to assess whether altered visceral perception or abnormal compliance of the colorectal wall play a role in these clinical entities.

Clemens, C. H. M.; Samsom, M.; Roelofs, J.; Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

2004-01-01

330

Etiology and Pathophysiology of Diverticular Disease  

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Diverticular disease is prevalent in Western countries and yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The common theories of the cause of diverticular disease have focused on colonic motility, the structural aspects of the colonic wall, and the role of dietary factors, particularly fiber.

Hobson, Kristina G.; Roberts, Patricia L.

2004-01-01

331

Ectopic intestinal glands after segmental small bowel irradiation in the cat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following segmental irradiation of the small bowel, 5 of 64 cats demonstrated ectopic intestinal glands in the submucosal tissue. In addition, one of these 5 cats had foci of abnormal glands in the muscularis mucosae. In 2 of the 5 animals, cellular polymorphism, nucleolar irregularity and loss of cellular polarity were present in irradiation-induced ectopic intestinal glands. The review of the literature indicates that intestinal irradiation may induce intestinal adenocarcinomas with metastatic growth. The possibility that ectopic intestinal glands are precancerous lesions in the irradiated cat is discussed. (Auth.)

332

Double-contrast small bowel examination: A methodical comparison between transnasal and peroral probing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new flexible probe to be introduced through the nose was used for the intubation of the jejunum for double-contrast small bowel enema. The new probe has a diameter of only 2.8 mm and was better tolerated than the normally applied Camus probe. Nevertheless, the failure rate (intubation of jejunum not successful) with the new probe as compared to the Camus probe was higher (17% versus 1%). We, therefore, conclude that the new probe should mainly be used by experienced examiners. (orig.)

333

Small bowel parasitosis as cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding diagnosed by capsule endoscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Hookworm infection is a relatively common cause of anemia in endemic areas. However, it is rarely encountered in Europe. In this report we describe the case of a 24-year old patient originating from an endemic area who was admitted due to severe anemia, with an Hct of 15.6% and eosinophilia (Eosinophils: 22.4%). While both esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were non-diagnostic, capsule endoscopy revealed a large number of hookworms infesting his small bowel and withdrawing blood. The patient was successfully treated with Albendazole. Capsule endoscopy was proven an important tool in diagnosing intestinal parasitosis. PMID:21173914

Christodoulou, Dimitrios K; Sigounas, Dimitrios E; Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Dimos, Georgios; Tsianos, Epameinondas V

2010-01-01

334

Small bowel parasitosis as cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding diagnosed by capsule endoscopy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hookworm infection is a relatively common cause of anemia in endemic areas. However, it is rarely encountered in Europe. In this report we describe the case of a 24-year old patient originating from an endemic area who was admitted due to severe anemia, with an Hct of 15.6% and eosinophilia (Eosinophils: 22.4%. While both esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were non-diagnostic, capsule endoscopy revealed a large number of hookworms infesting his small bowel and withdrawing blood. The patient was successfully treated with Albendazole. Capsule endoscopy was proven an important tool in diagnosing intestinal parasitosis.

Dimitrios K Christodoulou

2010-11-01

335

Double contrast small bowel enema in a case of selective duodeno-jejunal amyloidosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Double contrast small bowel enema in a patient with selective amyloidosis of the duodenum and jejunum revealed an unusual radiologic pattern, mimicking multiple polyposis. Many submucosal polypoid lesions, sessile or pedunculated, were scattered throughout the duodenum and proximal jejunum. The lesions had smooth borders and did not show any retraction at the base. Other typical radiologic patterns of intestinal amyloidosis described in the literature were not observed in the present case. Differential diagnosis from multiple polyposis and diffuse lymphoproliferative neoplastic diseases is discussed. (orig.)

336

Successful treatment of recurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma by cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy: a case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Small bowel adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy associated with a poor prognosis and there is little evidence of effective treatment. Recurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma is an intractable disease for which there is little information available regarding its treatment by palliative therapy. We present a case of recurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma successfully treated by cytoreductive surgery and palliative chemotherapy. Case presentation We report the case of a 72-year-old Japanese female who developed a peritoneal metastasis from recurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma after curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 and polysaccharide K. She underwent cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy with folinic acid/fluorouracil/oxaliplatin and folinic acid/fluorouracil/irinotecan with polysaccharide K. Subsequently, no sign of a recurrence was observed 42 months after the second operation. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of the successful treatment of peritoneal metastasis from small bowel adenocarcinoma by cytoreductive surgery and combination chemotherapy (folinic acid/fluorouracil/oxaliplatin and folinic acid/fluorouracil/irinotecan with polysaccharide K.

Takada Toshiaki

2010-07-01

337

An unusual case of biliary bezoar causing small bowel obstruction in a patient with ampullary diverticulum and stapled gastroplasty.  

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Primary small bowel bezoars constitute 0.44% of small bowel obstructions (SBO). We report a case of a man with a history of gastroplasty who presented with lower abdominal pain. Initial examination revealed leucocytosis and serum lipase. CT of the abdomen/pelvis was consistent with pancreatitis, cholelithiasis and a stable, 3.8?cm, ampullary diverticulum, without obstruction of the pancreatic/common bile duct. Considering this was the patient's first episode of pancreatitis with evidence of cholelithiasis, it seemed prudent that he would benefit from cholecystectomy but not diverticulectomy. Post-cholecystectomy he represented to the hospital with biliary emesis. CT of the abdomen/pelvis revealed postsurgical changes. Owing to non-resolution of the symptoms, 48?h later a small bowel follow-through was obtained that suggested partial SBO. Ultimately, the patient was taken for exploratory laparoscopy and small bowel resection, after a large intramural mass was encountered in the small bowel. Final pathology revealed a 3?cm biliary bezoar causing obstruction and stercoral ulceration. PMID:25498113

Ashfaq, Awais; Madura, James A; Chapital, Alyssa B

2014-01-01

338

Surgery for small bowel Crohn?s disease: Experience of a tertiary referral center  

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Full Text Available The aim: The study aims to evaluate the clinical presentation and surgical management of small bowel Crohn?s disease (CD at a tertiary referral center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients with the diagnosis of small bowel CD from March 1999 up to December 2003. The records of 28 patients were reviewed for demographic data, clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, indications of surgery, surgical procedures, postoperative complications and follow-up. The final diagnosis of CD was based on paraffin section histopathology reports. Results: The mean age was 34 years, female to male ratio was 1:2.1. The medical treatment was offered to 22 patients in whom the diagnosis of CD was established after investigations or they were known to have CD before admission. Thirteen patients (46.4% responded to medical treatment, whereas 15 patients (53.6% required surgery. The indications for surgery were intestinal obstruction (seven patients, right iliac fossa mass lesion of uncertain nature (three patients, enterocutaneous fistula and pelvic collection (one patient, failure of medical treatment (two patients, and acute abdomen (two patients. The surgical procedures carried out were limited right hemicolectomy in ten patients, segmental bowel resection (two patients and stricturoplasty of the stenosed segment (three patients. Conclusion: Crohn?s disease is not uncommon in KSA. It is a disease of young patients, half of patients needed surgery at some stage. Intestinal obstruction remains the most common indication of surgery. The surgery of CD needs a good cooperation between the surgeon, radiologist and gastroenterologist

Al Salamah Saleh

2005-01-01

339

Xanthomatosis of the gastrointestinal tract with focus on small bowel involvement  

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Accumulation of foamy lipid-laden histiocytic cells is most often seen in the skin and tendons, usually associated with congenital or acquired hyperlipidaemia, as seen in patients with diabetes mellitus, obstructive jaundice, and familial hypercholesterolaemia. The pathogenesis of xanthomatous lesions in other sites, including the urinary bladder, prostate, and gastrointestinal tract seems to be less consistent. Within the gastrointestinal tract the gastric mucosa is the most frequently cited location. Involvement of the oesophagus and bowel has rarely been described. Only three such cases largely confined to the small bowel have previously been documented. We here present an additional small bowel example accompanied by a short review of the existing literature in English on gastrointestinal xanthomatous lesions, including a discussion on its possible pathogenesis. Histologically, the lesion is unique and a correct diagnosis does not pose significant difficulties. Identification of diverse phagocytosed cytoplasmic deposits in other histiocytic lesions may require ancillary studies. More importantly, malignant lesions composed of clear cells or signet ring cells, primary or metastatic, need consideration. With a high index of suspicion coupled with appropriate histochemical and immunohistochemical reactions, the correct diagnosis will easily be accomplished. The process is characterised by aggregates of foamy histiocytes, unaccompanied by fibrosis or giant cells as seen in xanthogranulomatous lesions.  Well-defined clusters of such foamy histiocytes have been labelled xanthoma. The diffusely infiltrating counterpart has been termed xanthomatosis. When forming a bulky mass lesion, the label xanthomatous pseudotumour has been applied 11 12 and the subtle collection of xanthoma cells is often referred to as xanthelasma. 13 In this letter we collectively refer to these lesions, which may be related, as xanthomatous lesions (XAN).

Nielsen, S.L.; Ingeholm, P.

2007-01-01

340

The dose-volume relationship of acute small bowel toxicity from concurrent 5-FU-based chemotherapy and radiation therapy for rectal cancer  

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Purpose: A direct relationship between the volume of small bowel irradiated and the degree of acute small bowel toxicity experienced during concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiotherapy for rectal carcinoma is well recognized but poorly quantified. This study uses three-dimensional treatment-planning tools to more precisely quantify this dose-volume relationship. Methods and Materials: Forty patients receiving concurrent 5-FU-based chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation for rectal carcinoma had treatment-planning CT scans with small bowel contrast. A median isocentric dose of 50.4 Gy was delivered using a posterior-anterior and opposed lateral field arrangement. Bowel exclusion techniques were routinely used, including prone treatment position on a vacuum bag cradle to allow anterior displacement of the abdominal contents and bladder distension. Individual loops of small bowel were contoured on each slice of the planning CT scan, and a small bowel dose-volume histogram was generated for the initial pelvis field receiving 45 Gy. The volume of small bowel receiving each dose between 5 and 40 Gy was recorded at 5-Gy intervals. Results: Ten patients (25%) experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity. A highly statistically significant association between the development of Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity and the volume of small bowel irradiated was found at each dose level. Specific dose-volume threshold levels were found, below whiume threshold levels were found, below which no Grade 3+ toxicity occurred and above which 50-60% of patients developed Grade 3+ toxicity. The volume of small bowel receiving at least 15 Gy (V15) was strongly associated with the degree of toxicity. Univariate analysis of patient and treatment-related factors revealed no other significant predictors of severe toxicity. Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists for the development of Grade 3+ acute small bowel toxicity in patients receiving concurrent 5-FU-based chemoradiotherapy for rectal carcinoma

 
 
 
 
341

Quantitative in vivo analysis of small bowel motility using MRI examinations in mice - proof of concept study.  

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Small bowel motility analyses using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could reduce current invasive techniques in animal studies and comply with the 'three Rs' rule for human animal experimentation. Thus we investigated the feasibility of in vivo small bowel motility analyses in mice using dynamic MRI acquisitions. All experimental procedures were approved by the institutional animal care committee. Six C57BL/6 mice underwent MRI without additional preparation after isoflurane anaesthetization in the prone position on a 4.7 T small animal imager equipped with a linear polarized hydrogen birdcage whole-body mouse coil. Motility was assessed using a true fast imaging in a steady precession sequence in the coronal orientation (acquisition time per slice 512?ms, in-plane resolution 234?×?234?µm, matrix size 128?×?128, slice thickness 1?mm) over 30?s corresponding to 60 acquisitions. Motility was manually assessed measuring the small bowel diameter change over time. The resulting motility curves were analysed for the following parameters: contraction frequency per minute (cpm), maximal contraction amplitude (maximum to minimum [mm]), luminal diameter (mm) and luminal occlusion rate. Small bowel motility quantification was found to be possible in all animals with a mean small bowel contraction frequency of 10.67?cpm (SD?±?3.84), a mean amplitude of the contractions of 1.33?mm (SD?±?0.43) and a mean luminal diameter of 1.37?mm (SD?±?0.42). The mean luminal occlusion rate was 1.044 (SD?±?0.45%/100). The mean duration needed for a single motility assessment was 185?s (SD?±?54.02). Thus our study demonstrated the feasibility of an easy and time-sparing functional assessment for in vivo small bowel motility analyses in mice. This could improve the development of small animal models of intestinal diseases and provide a method similar to clinical MR examinations that is in concordance with the 'three Rs' for humane animal experimentation. PMID:25266965

Bickelhaupt, S; Wurnig, M C; Lesurtel, M; Patak, M A; Boss, A

2015-01-01

342

Is prophylactic resection valid as an indication for elective surgery in diverticular disease?  

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Objective To determine whether interval resection in asymptomatic patients after 1 or 2 episodes of acute diverticulitis (prophylactic resection) is justified as a means of preventing late inflammatory complications of diverticular disease. Design A retrospective analysis. Setting A university-affiliated tertiary care hospital. Patients Those requiring hospitalization from 1987 to 1995 for treatment of acquired diverticular disease of the colon. Twenty-eight patients underwent elective resection and 154 were treated for inflammatory complications (perforation, fistula, complete large-bowel obstruction). Interventions Standard surgical management for diverticular disease, but only 3 prophylactic resections were undertaken during this period. Outcome measures Type of operation, stoma creation and closure, hospital death. In those treated for complicated disease, the effects on outcome of all previous outpatient treatment and hospitalizations. Results Only 10% of those presenting with complications had been treated conservatively for acute diverticulitis and only 5% had been hospitalized for this reason. Conclusions Prophylactic resection is unlikely to prevent late major complications of diverticular disease; therefore, as an elective indication for surgery in this disease its use is questionable. PMID:9416254

Lorimer, John W.

1997-01-01

343

Complicated diverticular disease: the changing paradigm for treatment Doença diverticular complicada: alterando o padrão de tratamento  

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Full Text Available The term "complicated" diverticulitis is reserved for inflamed diverticular disease complicated by bleeding, abscess, peritonitis, fistula or bowel obstruction. Hemorrhage is best treated by angioembolization (interventional radiology. Treatment of infected diverticulitis has evolved enormously thanks to: 1 laparoscopic colonic resection followed or not (Hartmann's procedure by restoration of intestinal continuity, 2 simple laparoscopic lavage (for peritonitis +/- resection. Diverticulitis (inflammation may be treated with antibiotics alone, anti-inflammatory drugs, combined with bed rest and hygienic measures. Diverticular abscesses (Hinchey Grades I, II may be initially treated by antibiotics alone and/or percutaneous drainage, depending on the size of the abscess. Generalized purulent peritonitis (Hinchey III may be treated by the classic Hartmann procedure, or exteriorization of the perforation as a stoma, primary resection with or without anastomosis, with or without diversion, and last, simple laparoscopic lavage, usually even without drainage. Feculent peritonitis (Hinchey IV, a traditional indication for Hartmann's procedure, may also benefit from primary resection followed by anastomosis, with or without diversion, and even laparoscopic lavage. Acute obstruction (nearby inflammation, or adhesions, pseudotumoral formation, chronic strictures and fistula are most often treated by resection, ideally laparoscopic. Minimal invasive therapeutic algorithms that, combined with less strict indications for radical surgery before a definite recurrence pattern is established, has definitely lead to fewer resections and/or stomas, reducing their attendant morbidity and mortality, improved post-interventional quality of life, and less costly therapeutic policies.O termo diverticulite "complicada" é reservado para a doença diverticular complicada por sangramento, abscesso, peritonite, fístula ou obstrução intestinal. A hemorragia é melhor tratada por angioembolização (radiologia intervencionista. O tratamento de diverticulite infectada evoluiu enormemente graças a: 1 ressecção laparoscópica do cólon seguida ou não (procedimento de Hartmann pelo restabelecimento de continuidade intestinal, 2 lavado laparoscópico simples (peritonite + / - ressecção. A diverticulite (inflamação pode ser tratada somente com antibióticos, anti-inflamatórios, combinados com repouso e medidas de higiene. O abscesso diverticular (Hinchey graus I, II pode ser inicialmente tratado somente com antibióticos e / ou drenagem percutânea, dependendo do tamanho do abcesso. A peritonite purulenta generalizada (Hinchey III pode ser tratada pelo clássico procedimento Hartmann, pela exteriorização da perfuração, como se fosse um estoma, pela ressecção primária com ou sem anastomose, com ou sem desvio do trânsito e, por último, a simples lavagem laparoscópica, geralmente, sem drenagem. A peritonite por fezes (Hinchey IV, uma indicação para o tradicional procedimento de Hartmann, também pode se beneficiar da ressecção primária seguida de anastomose, com ou sem desvio e lavagem laparoscópica. A obstrução aguda (inflamação local, ou aderências, formação pseudotumoral, estenoses crônicas e fístula são, na maioria das vezes, tratadas por ressecção, preferencialmente, laparoscópica. Algoritmos terapêuticos pouco invasivos combinadas com indicações menos rigorosas para a o emprego da cirurgia radical antes de um padrão definido de recorrência, estão estabelecidos, ocasionando um número menor de ressecções e / ou estomas, reduzindo a morbidade e a mortalidade, melhorando a qualidade de vida após a intervenção, e geram uma tratamento menos dispendioso.

Abe Fingerhut

2012-08-01

344

CT enterography: a preliminary experience in the evaluation of small bowel diseases  

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Objective: the present study was aimed at demonstrating the value of computed tomography enterography (CT enterography) and how this imaging method can be useful in the diagnostic elucidation and assessment of patients with small bowel diseases. Materials and methods: retrospective evaluation of 35 patients submitted to CT enterography in a 16-row multidetector CT equipment from May/2008 to March/2009. All the patients received intravenous and neutral oral iodinated contrast agents (polyethylene glycol). Main indications were: Crohn's disease, diarrhea of undetermined origin and suspicion of neoplasia. Results: a good correlation was observed between CT enterography findings and clinical, laboratory and endoscopic data related to the disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease. In 15 cases alterations compatible with Crohn's disease were identified, nine of them suggesting disease activity. A diagnosis was achieved in the majority of the patients with diarrhea. Carcinoid tumors were identified in two patients. Conclusion: CT enterography is a simple and effective method in the evaluation of inflammatory/neoplastic small bowel diseases, particularly in cases of Crohn's disease, indicating disease activity. One of the main advantages of this method is the possibility of evaluating associated mesenteric and extraintestinal alterations (author)

345

CT enterography: a preliminary experience in the evaluation of small bowel diseases  

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Objective: the present study was aimed at demonstrating the value of computed tomography enterography (CT enterography) and how this imaging method can be useful in the diagnostic elucidation and assessment of patients with small bowel diseases. Materials and methods: retrospective evaluation of 35 patients submitted to CT enterography in a 16-row multidetector CT equipment from May/2008 to March/2009. All the patients received intravenous and neutral oral iodinated contrast agents (polyethylene glycol). Main indications were: Crohn's disease, diarrhea of undetermined origin and suspicion of neoplasia. Results: a good correlation was observed between CT enterography findings and clinical, laboratory and endoscopic data related to the disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease. In 15 cases alterations compatible with Crohn's disease were identified, nine of them suggesting disease activity. A diagnosis was achieved in the majority of the patients with diarrhea. Carcinoid tumors were identified in two patients. Conclusion: CT enterography is a simple and effective method in the evaluation of inflammatory/neoplastic small bowel diseases, particularly in cases of Crohn's disease, indicating disease activity. One of the main advantages of this method is the possibility of evaluating associated mesenteric and extraintestinal alterations (author)

Costa-Silva, Luciana [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Medical School. Dept. of Supplementary Propedeutics; Martins, Tatiana [Ecoar Medicina Diagnostica, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Passos, Maria do Carmo Friche [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Medical School. Dept. of Medical Practice

2010-09-15

346

Upper oesophageal images and Z-line detection with 2 different small-bowel capsule systems  

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Full Text Available Transmission of oesophageal images may vary between different small-bowel capsule endoscopy models. A retrospective review of 100 examinations performed with 2 different Small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE systems (PillCam® and MiroCam® was performed. The oral cavity/aero-digestive tract (i.e., tongue, uvula and/or epiglottis was captured/identified in almost all (99% of PillCam® videos but in none of MiroCam® cases, P < 0.0001. Furthermore, oesophageal images (i.e., from the upper oesophageal sphincter to the Z-line were captured in 99% of PillCam® videos (mean ± SD, 60.5 ± 334.1 frames, range: 0-3329 frames and in 66% of MiroCam® cases (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 46.5 frames, range: 0-382 frames, P < 0.0001. The Z-line was identified in 42% of PillCam® videos and 17% of MiroCam®, P = 0.0002. This information might be useful when performing SBCE in patients with high risks for aspiration.

Anastasios Koulaouzidis

2012-01-01

347

Nonoperative management of small-bowel obstruction with endoscopic long intestinal tube placement.  

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Intestinal obstruction remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. We reviewed the records of 77 patients with mechanical small-bowel obstruction who were treated with endoscopically and fluoroscopically placed Leonard long intestinal tube decompression. Most patients (59%) had failed a trial of nasogastric tube or Miller-Abbott tube decompression. Overall, 29 per cent of patients were able to resolve their obstruction with Leonard tube decompression alone. Subdivision of patients on the basis of the etiology of their obstruction demonstrated a much higher rate of success for tube decompression in adhesive obstruction (37%) versus malignant obstruction (12%) or inflammatory obstruction (no successes). Patients with radiographic and clinical evidence of complete intestinal obstruction were significantly less likely to respond to long intestinal tube treatment (13%). The long intestinal tube was easily passed in all patients. There were no complications of the intubation procedure in our series, and the incidence of tube-related complications was four per cent. We conclude that an initial period of long intestinal tube decompression allows a significant percentage of patients with mechanical small-bowel obstruction to be treated nonoperatively, particularly if a partial obstruction from postoperative adhesions is present. Patients who have failed a trial of nasogastric tube decompression and are poor operative risks should also be considered for long intestinal tube placement. PMID:2221605

Snyder, C L; Ferrell, K L; Goodale, R L; Leonard, A S

1990-10-01

348

Evaluation of small bowel blood flow in healthy subjects receiving low-dose aspirin  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between low-dose aspirin-induced small bowel mucosal damage and blood flow, and the effect of rebamipide.METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups: a placebo group given low-dose aspirin plus placebo and a rebamipide group given low-dose aspirin plus rebamipide for a period of 14 d. Capsule endoscopy and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were performed before and after administration of drugs. Areas under the curves and peak value of time-intensity curve were calculated.RESULTS: Absolute differences in areas under the curves were -1102.5 (95% CI: -1980.3 to -224.7, P = 0.0194 in the placebo group and -152.7 (95% CI: -1604.2 to 641.6, P = 0.8172 in the rebamipide group. Peak values of time intensity curves were -148.0 (95% CI: -269.4 to -26.2, P = 0.0225 in the placebo group and 28.3 (95% CI: -269.0 to 325.6, P = 0.8343 in the rebamipide group. Capsule endoscopy showed mucosal breaks only in the placebo group.CONCLUSION: Short-term administration of low-dose aspirin is associated with small bowel injuries and blood flow.

Urara Nishida, Mototsugu Kato, Mutsumi Nishida, Go Kamada, Takeshi Yoshida, Shouko Ono, Yuichi Shimizu, Masahiro Asaka

2011-01-01

349

Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: meaningful association or unnecessary hype.  

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and altered stool form and passage. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition in which there is overgrowth of bacteria in small bowel in excess of 10? colony forming units per milliliter on culture of the upper gut aspirate. Frequency of SIBO varied from 4%-78% among patients with IBS and from 1%-40% among controls. Higher frequency in some studies might be due to fallacious criteria [post-lactulose breath-hydrogen rise 20 PPM above basal within 90 min (early-peak)]. Glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT) has a low sensitivity to diagnose SIBO. Hence, studies based on GHBT might have under-estimated frequency of SIBO. Therefore, it is important to analyze these studies carefully to evaluate whether the reported association between IBS and SIBO is over or under-projected. This review evaluates studies on association between SIBO and IBS, discordance between different studies, their strength and weakness including methodological issues and evidence on therapeutic manipulation of gut flora on symptoms of IBS. PMID:24627585

Ghoshal, Uday C; Srivastava, Deepakshi

2014-03-14

350

Recent trends in the treatment of well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the small bowel  

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Full Text Available Well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the small bowel are fairly rare neoplasms that present many clinical challenges. They secrete peptides and neuroamines that may cause carcinoid syndrome. However, many are clinically silent until late presentation with major effects. Initial treatment aims to control carcinoid syndrome with somatostatin analogs. Even if there is metastatic spread, surgical resection of the primitive tumor should be discussed in cases of retractile mesenteritis, small bowel ischemia or subocclusive syndrome in order to avoid any acute complication, in particular at the beginning of somatostatin analog treatment. The choice of treatment depends on the symptoms, general health of the patient, tumor burden, degree of uptake of radionuclide, histological features of the tumor, and tumor growth. Management strategies include surgery for cure (which is rarely achieved or for cytoreduction, radiological interventions (transarterial embolization or radiofrequency ablation, and chemotherapy (interferon and somatostatin analogs. New biological agent and radionuclide targeted therapies are under investigation. Diffuse and non-evolving lesions should also be simply monitored. Finally, it has to be emphasized that it is of the utmost importance to enroll these patients with a rare disease in prospective clinical trials assessing new therapeutic strategies.

Gilles Poncet, Jean-Luc Faucheron, Thomas Walter

2010-04-01

351

Closed loop obstructions of the small bowel: role of Computed Tomography  

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Small bowel obstructions can be distinguished into more simple and closed loop obstructions. The latter is a more severe condition which is often complicated by strangulation with vascular impairment, edema and intramural and mesenteric hemorrhage. Consequent arterial insufficiency rapidly leads to ischemia, infarction and necrosis. The radiologist plays a role in the early recognition of the closed loop obstruction and of any sign of strangulation. The role of CT in the diagnosis and workup of patients with suspected intestinal occlusion has been analyzed in the literature with reported 63% sensitivity, 78% specificity and 66% accuracy. CT is also capable of revealing the causes of occlusion in 73-95% of cases. The above CT signs allow to identify closed loop obstruction and also small bowel strangulation, thus supplying a valuable contribution to diagnosis and accurate preoperative evaluation. The conclusion is that CT can accurately demonstrate the presence of closed loop obstruction and can be the technique of choice in patients in whom obstruction is associated with clinical signs suggestive of strangulation

352

Effect of acetylcysteine on adaptation of intestinal smooth muscle after small bowel bypass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have postulated that the adaptive changes in function and structure of bypassed segments of small bowel are due in part to the change in intestinal contents following operation. The purpose of these experiments was to determine if a mucolytic agent could alter the adaptation. Rats were anesthetized and a 70% jejunoileal bypass was performed. The bypassed segments then were perfused with either saline or acetylcysteine for 3-12 days. Then, either intestinal transit was determined using Cr-51, or segments were taken for morphometric analysis. Transit, as assessed by the geometric center, was increased 32% by acetylcysteine treatment. Treatment also caused a decrease in hypertrophy of the muscularis. Muscle wet weight, muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle layer thickness all were significantly less in those animals infused with acetyl-cysteine. No decreases in hypertrophy were seen in the in-continuity segments. These data indicate that alterations in intestinal content can affect the course of adaptation of intestinal muscle in response to small bowel bypass

353

Gradient-enhanced volume rendering: an image processing strategy to facilitate whole small bowel imaging with MRI  

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MRI of the small bowel with positive contrast from orally administered contrast agent is a promising non-invasive imaging method. The aim of our study was to introduce small bowel MRI in a display format that clinicians are accustomed to and that maximizes the amount of information visualized on a single image. Twelve healthy volunteers, median age 32 years (range 18-49 years) participated in the study. A mixture of 20 ml Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), 0.8 g/kg body weight psyllium fibre (Metamucil) and 1.2 l water were sequentially administered over a period of 4 h. Imaging was performed on a 1.5 T unit (Philips Gyroscan, Intera). Fat-saturated, 3D, gradient echo imaging was performed while the patient was in apnea (30 s). Bowel motion was reduced with 40 mg intravenously administered scopolamine (Buscopan). A 3D, gradient-enhanced, volume rendering technique was applied to the 3D data sets. Standard projections [left anterior oblique (LAO), right anterior oblique (RAO), supine and prone] resembling conventional enteroclysis were successfully generated within fewer than 10 min processing time. Reconstructions were reproducible and provided an entire overview of the small bowel. In addition thin-slab volume rendering allowed an overlap-free display of individual structures. Positive contrast from orally administered contrast agent, combined with a gradient enhanced volume rendering method, allows the reconstruction of the small bowel in a pattern resembling conventional double-contrast enteroclysis. Segmental display without overlay is possible. (orig.)

Wyss, Michael [Cantonal Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); ETH and University of Zuerich, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M.; Patak, Michael A.; Juli, Christoph F.; Zollikofer, Christoph L. [Cantonal Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Scheidegger, Markus B. [ETH and University of Zuerich, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Wentz, Klaus U. [Cantonal Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); University of Witten Herdecke, Herdecke (Germany)

2007-04-15

354

Small bowel ischaemia and perforation as a complication of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura in a previously healthy adult  

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Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a small vessel vasculitis with multi-system manifestations that commonly affects children. We describe a case of new onset Henoch-Schönlein purpura in a previously healthy 42-year-old female who required an emergency laparotomy for small bowel perforation.

Locke, T. E.; Stewart, D.; Patel, K.; Takou, A.

2012-01-01

355

Efficacy of a belly board device with CT-simulation in reducing small bowel volume within pelvic irradiation fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose/Objective: Acute and chronic small bowel toxicity associated with pelvic irradiation limits dose escalation for both chemotherapy and radiotherapy for rectal cancer. Various surgical and technical maneuvers including compression and belly board devices (BBD) have been used to reduce small bowel volume in treatment fields. However, quantitative dose volume advantages of such methods have not been reported. In this study, the efficacy of BBD with CT-simulation is presented with dose-volume histogram (DVH) analyses for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Twelve consecutive patients referred to our department with rectal cancer were included in this study. Patients were given oral contrast 1.5 h prior to scanning and instructed not to empty their bladder during the procedure. The initial CT scan without BBD was taken in the prone position with an immobilization cast. A second CT study was performed with a commercially available BBD consisting of an 18-cm thick hard sponge with an adjustable opening (maximum 42 x 42 cm2). All patients were positioned prone over the BBD so that the opening was above the treatment volume and usually extended from the diaphragm to the bottom of the fourth lumbar spine. Image fusion between both sets of CT scans (with and without BBD) was performed using common bony landmarks to maintain the same target volume. The critical structures including small bowel and bladder were delineated on each slice for DVH analysis. On eached on each slice for DVH analysis. On each study, a three-field optimized plan with conformal blocks in beams-eye-view was generated for volumetric analysis. The DVHs with and without BBD were evaluated for each patient. Results: The median age and body weight of 12 patients (4 females and 8 males) were 57.5 years and 82.7 kg, respectively. The changes in posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral separation with and without BBD at central axis slices were analyzed. The changes in lateral separation were minimal (<0.8 cm); however, the PA separation was reduced by 11.3 ± 3.3% when BBD was used. The reduction in PA separation was directly related to the reduction is small bowel volume. The small bowel volume was significantly reduced with a median reduction of 70% (range 10-100%) compared to the small bowel volume without BBD. The small bowel volume reduction did not correlate either with body weight, age, gender, or sequence of radiation treatment with surgery (pre-op vs. post-op). The DVH analysis of small bowel with BBD showed significant volume reduction at each dose level. For 50% patients, the DVH analysis demonstrated an increase in bladder volume with BBD. All patients treated with the BBD completed their treatment without any break and without significant acute gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: For rectal cancers, small bowel is the dose-limiting structure for acute and chronic toxicity. The use of the BBD should improve the tolerance of aggressive combined modality treatment by reducing the small bowel volume within the pelvis compared to the prone position alone. The BBD provides an easy, economical, comfortable, and noninvasive technique to displace small bowel from pelvic treatment fields. The small bowel volume is dramatically reduced at each dose level. The volume reduction does not correlate with gender, age, weight, pelvic separation, and sequence of radiation treatment vs. surgery

356

Small bowel obstruction: the role of computed tomography in its diagnosis and management with reference to other imaging modalities  

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Small bowel obstruction is a leading cause of acute surgical admissions for abdominal pain. There is an increasing tendency for initial conservative management rather than immediate operative intervention, as a proportion of cases will resolve spontaneously. This has resulted in a growing reliance on radiological investigations to reassure the surgeon that medical therapy can be safely instituted. The onus therefore rests with radiologists to guide their surgical colleagues by correctly interpreting the plain abdominal radiograph and suggesting appropriate further investigation if warranted. Recently, computed tomography (CT) has been proposed as the test of choice to define the level and cause of acute small bowel obstruction and to identify complications such as ischaemia and perforation which will prompt surgical intervention. This review will discuss the utility of early CT in the diagnosis of acute small bowel obstruction and outline its impact on patient management. (orig.)

357

[Clinical and morphological variants of diverticular disease in colon].  

Science.gov (United States)

Our own results of two-stage research are presented in the article. The first stage contains the retrospective analysis of 3682 X-ray examining of large bowel which were conducted in 2002-2004 to define the structure of colon disease and to determine gender differences. The second stage is prospective research which took place from 2003 to 2012 and 486 patients with diverticular disease were regularly observed. Following parameters were estimated: dynamics of complaints, life quality, clinical symptoms. Multiple X-ray and endoscopic examining were done with estimation of quantity and size of diverticula, changes of colon mucosa, comparison of X-ray and endoscopic methods in prognosis of complications. Two basic clinical morphological variants of diverticular disease (DD) of colon are made out as a result of our research. There are IBD-like and DD with ischemic component. The variants differ by pain characteristics, presence of accompanying diseases, life quality parameters and description of colon mucosa morphological research. We suppose that different ethiopathogenetic factors of development of both variants mentioned above influence the disease prognosis and selection of treatment. PMID:24294768

Levchenko, S V; Lazebnik, L B; Potapova, V B; Rogozina, V A

2013-01-01

358

Diffuse mesenterial sclerosis: a characteristic feature of chronic small-bowel allograft rejection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic rejection is the major cause of late intestinal allograft dysfunction. The aim of this study was to analyze in detail the histopathological features of chronic rejection in the ACI-to-Lewis rat model of intestinal transplantation. Chronic rejection was achieved in orthotopic small-bowel allografts (ACI-Lewis) by limited immunosuppression with cyclosporin A (CyA). Isogeneic transplants (ACI-ACI) as well as native bowels (ACI) with and without immunosuppression served as controls. Bowels were removed together with the mesenteries 90 days postoperatively and analyzed using sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin as well as Masson's trichrome. The slides were coded, randomized and analyzed by grading of histological abnormalities. The most striking alterations of the allografts were noticed in the mesenteries exhibiting an extensive infiltration by mononuclear cells accompanied by a progressive diffuse fibrosis with shrinking of the mesenteries. These changes were most pronounced in the perivascular areas of the mesenteric arteriae and venae rectae. Three of five allografts showed vasculitis with myointimal proliferation of the arteriae rectae. Focally, there was spill-over of the inflammatory cells onto the intestinal muscularis propria. The mucosa of the allografts showed mild blunting, lymphocytic infiltration of the crypt epithelium and increased crypt cell apoptoses. The submucosa was unaffected, and there were no detectable abnormalities of the enteric ganglion cells. The present data support the view that chronic rejection of intestinal allografts is characterized by a diffuse sclerosing mesenteritis which may significantly contribute to late graft dysfunction. The present model may be useful to study the pathomechanisms of this inflammatory fibrosing process. PMID:12536314

Klaus, Alexander; Margreiter, Raimund; Pernthaler, Heinz; Klima, Günther; Offner, Felix A

2003-01-01

359

Invasive aspergillosis causing small bowel infarction in a patient of carcinoma breast undergoing chemotherapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a 45 year old lady presenting with proximal jejunal gangrene due to invasive Aspergillosis. The patient was undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for advance carcinoma of breast (Stage IV. Methods The patient was referred to our surgical emergency for acute abdominal symptoms for 6 hours. Histopathology revealed bowel wall necrosis and vascular invasion by Aspergillus Fumigatus. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the patient received Amphotericin-B (1 mg/kg/day for invasive aspergillosis. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was confirmed by isolating Aspergillus Fumigatus from bronchoalveolar lavage and by a positive circulating galactomannan test (ELISA Assay. Results Detailed history revealed dry cough and two episodes of haemoptesis for 2 weeks. Haemogram and counts revealed anemia and neutropenia. Plain X – ray of the abdomen showed multiple air fluid levels and ultrasound of the abdomen revealed distended bowel loops. On exploration small bowel was found to be gangrenous. The patient was successfully managed by supportive treatment and conventional intravenous Amphotericin-B for 2 weeks. The lady was discharged one week after completion of antifungal therapy and one month later she underwent toilet mastectomy. The lady came to follow up for 1 year and she is currently under hormone therapy. Conclusion With the emergence of new and powerful immunosuppressive, anticancer drugs and potent antibiotics the survival of transplant and critically ill patients has remarkably increased but it has shown a significant rise in the incidence of invasive opportunistic fungal infections. We conclude hat the diagnosis of invasive gastrointestinal aspergillosis may be considered in a neutropenic patient with acute abdominal symptoms.

Jain Vinod

2006-01-01

360

MR enteroclysis for MR diagnosis of inflammatory small bowel disease with contrast enhancement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate MRI for effectiveness in assessment of intra- und extramural changes in the small intestine. Methods: 40 patients with known or suspected small bowel disease underwent MR imaging immediately after conventional enteroclysis with barium and a mixture of methyl cellulose and gadolinium-DTPA. Results: In 6 of 24 patients with no pathological findings in conventional enteroclysis, intraabdominal pathology such as thickening of the intestinal wall and an abscess were identified. In the remaining patients, MRI showed good correlation with conventionally obtained data and provided important additional information regarding extraluminal involvement such as enlargement of mesenterial lymph nodes and fistulas as well as abscesses. Conclusions: MRI, carried out using this technique, provides important additional information regarding intra- and extraluminal changes with good image quality. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
361

Diverticular disease: An experience at King Faisal specialist hospital  

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Full Text Available Background: Diverticular disease of the colon is rarely seen in Saudi Arabia and this paper describes our experience with 16 patients admitted to hospital during an 8-year period (March 1990 - February 1998. Patients and Methods: A computerized data base of patients having colorectal surgery was searched to identify patients admitted to the colorectal unit suffering from diverticular disease of the colon or it?s complications. The records of these patients were examined and form the basis of this report. Results: Sixteen patients were admitted to the colorectal unit for the management of diverticular disease or it?s complications during an 8-year period. One patient presented with a localized abscess which was drained percutaneously. Fifteen patients underwent one or more surgical interventions. There were three female patients. One patient was referred for stoma closure, four for elective surgery and ten with acute perforation of whom one underwent right hemicolectomy for a perforated caecal diverticulum and nine underwent Hartmann?s procedure for sigmoid perforation. Two patients required multiple abdominal washouts. Post-operatively two patients developed severe chest infections, one developed renal failure and two urinary infections. Four wounds became infected and two intra abdominal collections were drained percutaneously. No patient died. Eight stomata (89% were subsequently closed. The mean duration of follow up was 2.7 yr. Four patients were lost to follow up. Conclusion: This small series documents the presence of diverticular disease and it?s complications in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and suggests that the commonest method of presentation may be an acute one. Surgeons must thus be mindful of the condition and take appropriate action. Hartmann?s? operation was safe and resulted in a low morbidity and no mortality. 89% of the stomata were closed at a later procedure.

Isbister William

2001-01-01

362

Diverticular bile duct lesion in chronic active hepatitis.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Liver needle biopsies from patients with non-A, non-B chronic active hepatitis and so-called abnormal bile duct epithelium were studied with a three-dimensional method. Photographs of bile duct structures in serial sections were transferred to acrylic plates. Five bile duct lesions of a not previously described diverticular type were revealed. The diverticuli were of varying shape with a diameter of 30 to 110 microns and a length of 75 to 150 microns budding from small (12 to 25 microns), slightly ectatic bile ducts. The diverticular epithelium was disordered. Some cells appeared as bile duct cells, but most were larger, with rounded nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, sometimes with periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant granules. The lesions were only partly surrounded by a basement membrane. They were all embedded in a tight mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate associated with pronounced periportal piecemeal necrosis. In two cases, a germinal center was adjacent to the epithelium. The pathogenesis of the diverticular bile duct lesion is unknown, but the diverticuli probably represent Hering ducts and groups of periportal liver cells which have escaped the piecemeal necrosis.

Vyberg, M

1989-01-01

363

TRATAMIENTO LAPAROSCÓPICO DE LA OBSTRUCCIÓN INTESTINAL POR BRIDAS / Laparoscopic treatment of adhesive small bowel obstruction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El tratamiento de la Obstrucción Intestinal por Bridas (OIB) incluye alternativas conservadoras y quirúrgicas, esta última tradicionalmente a través de cirugía abierta. El abordaje laparoscópico ha sido incorporado recientemente, sin embargo, existe información limitada sobre su seguri [...] dad y sus resultados varían considerablemente. Nuestro objetivo es presentar la experiencia de nuestro centro en el tratamiento laparoscópico de la OIB. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo incluyendo pacientes con el diagnóstico de OIB que fueron sometidos a cirugía laparoscópica en nuestro centro, entre junio de 2003 y abril de 2013. Análisis de variables demográficas, quirúrgicas y resultados obtenidos en términos de tasa de conversión, tiempo operatorio, tiempo de realimentación y estadía hospitalaria. Análisis estadístico con pruebas no paramétricas. Resultados: Serie de 38 pacientes, edad promedio: 51 ± 16 años, 47% sexo masculino. 53% con antecedente de cirugía abdominal previa. Resolución completa por laparoscopía fue posible en 31 pacientes (82%), con 7 conversiones a cirugía abierta. La mediana de tiempo operatorio fue de 60 m (25-180), la mediana de tiempo a la realimentación fue de 24 h (24-192) y la mediana de estadía hospitalaria de 4 (2-52) días. Dos pacientes requirieron reoperaciones durante su hospitalización; uno debido a obstrucción intestinal persistente y otro debido a colitis isquémica. No se presentaron otras complicaciones ni mortalidad en esta serie. Conclusiones: El abordaje laparoscópico en OIB es factible de realizar en pacientes seleccionados, logrando buenos resultados en caso de resolución completa por laparoscopía. Pacientes sin cirugías abdominales previas son buenos candidatos para un abordaje laparoscópico inicial. Abstract in english Background: Treatment options for adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) involve conservative and surgical management, traditionally through open adhesiolysis. Laparoscopic approach has been performed in recent years; however, limited data exist on its safety and results vary considerably. Our aim [...] is to report our experience of laparoscopic treatment for ASBO. Methods: Retrospective study including patients admitted with the diagnosis of adhesive small bowel obstruction and that were submitted to laparoscopic exploration, between June 2003 and April 2013. We analyzed demographic, surgical variables and outcomes in terms of conversion rate, operative time, re-feeding time and length of stay. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Series of 38 patients submitted to laparoscopic exploration, mean age: 51 ± 16 years, 47% male. 53% had prior intra-abdominal surgeries. Laparoscopic resolution of bowel obstruction was possible in 31 patients (82%), with 7 conversions to open surgery. Median operative time was 60 (25-180) minutes, median re-feeding time was 24 (24-192) hours and median length of stay was 4 (2-52) days. Two patients required re-intervention during their hospital stay, one due to persistent bowel obstruction and one due to ischemic colitis. There were no other complications or mortality. Conclusions: Laparoscopy in adhesive small bowel obstruction was a feasible approach in this series, with good results when laparoscopic resolution is achieved. Patients with no prior surgeries seem to be good candidates for this approach.

Nicolás, Quezada S; Felipe, León F; Juan de la, Llera K; Ricardo, Funke H; Mauricio, Gabrielli N; Fernando, Crovari E; Jorge, Martínez C; Camilo, Boza W; Nicolás, Jarufe C.

2014-09-01

364

Computed tomography to detect body packing: an unusual cause of small bowel obstruction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concealment of illicit drugs within the alimentary tract is now an established method used by both smugglers and traffickers to evade detection by authorities. Those who ingest wrapped packets of drugs to transport them across international borders are known as 'body packers,' whereas those who ingest packages of drugs upon an unexpected encounter with law enforcement agents are known as 'body stuffers' or 'quick swallowers. Although most of these individuals require no medical care, acute drug toxicity (from inadvertent leaking of contents or rupture of the drug packet) and bowel obstruction are recognized hazards of drug packet ingestion. The detection of these packets is a challenge to custom officials and police interested in preventing the import and trafficking of illegal drugs, as well as to physicians who have to treat individuals who have ingested them. We report a case of a 38-year-old intravenous drug abuser who presented with an acute small bowel obstruction secondary to an impacted intraluminal heroin balloon in the mid jejunum. The value of computed tomography (CT) in the patient's diagnostic evaluation is highlighted. (author)

Brown, J.A. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Phang, T. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Surgery, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Enns, R. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Butchart, M.K. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Filipenko, J.D. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Pathology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Mason, A.C.; Cooperberg, P.I. [St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

2002-04-01

365

Perforated Sigmoid Diverticular Disease: a Management Protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: To develop an evidence-based protocol for the management of perforated sigmoid diverticular disease. Methods: A search of the literature was undertaken. All publications pertaining to perforated sigmoid diverticular disease were analyzed and then categorized according to their level of evidence. Recommendations were then made on the basis of this. Results: Multiple case reports suggest that primary closure of perforation of sigmoid diverticula is safe in the absence of peritoneal contamination. Conclusions: A 2-stage laparoscopic approach incorporating the principles of damage limitation surgery may be a safe strategy in the management of perforated diverticular disease. PMID:18435896

Moin, Thajammul

2008-01-01

366

Hemorragia digestiva secundaria a enfermedad diverticular del yeyuno: Reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura / Gastrointestinal Hemorrhaging Secondary to Diverticular Disease of the Jejunum: Case Report and Literature Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los divertículos del intestino delgado son una entidad poco común. Se presentan, por lo general, durante la séptima década de la vida; son de cinco a ocho veces más habituales en el yeyuno que en el íleon y son múltiples en el 75% de los pacientes. Aún más raras son sus complicaciones, aunque estas [...] tienen una gran relevancia, por el riesgo vital que pueden conllevar. Entre dichas complicaciones se encuentra la hemorragia, descrita, hasta 2000, en menos de 70 casos. En el presente artículo se presenta el caso de una paciente de 80 años con un cuadro de shock hipovolémico secundario a enfermedad diverticular hemorrágica del yeyuno, que requirió politransfusión y manejo quirúrgico; con posterioridad al diagnóstico, realizado por enteroscopia, se presenta una breve revisión de la literatura, donde se destaca la importancia de la enteroscopia para el estudio y el manejo este tipo de patología Abstract in english Small bowel diverticula are rare and usually occur in the seventh decade of life. They are five to eight times more common in the ileum than in the jejunum. More than one diverticula occur together in 75 % of patients. Although they occur infrequently, they are highly relevant because of the potenti [...] al lethal risks include bleeding. Until the year 2000 less than 70 cases had been described. In this paper we present the case of an 80 year old patient suffering from hypovolemic shock secondary to jejunal hemorrhaging due to diverticular disease. This required multiple transfusions and surgical management after diagnosis by enteroscopy. This article presents a brief review of the literature highlighting the importance of enteroscopy for the study and handling this type of pathology

John, Ospina Nieto.

2013-12-30

367

Videocapsule endoscopy and single balloon enteroscopy: novel diagnostic techniques in small bowel pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Videocapsule endoscopic (VCE) exploration represents a major breakthrough in non-invasive imagistic, especially of the small bowel. Our study group consisted of 29 initial subjects admitted in the 1st Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology Clinic at the Emergency County Hospital of Craiova between June 2008 and March 2009. We have excluded a number of eight subjects from the VCE-group, as their pathology represented an absolute contraindication for capsule ingestion. The remaining 21 patients (11 men - 52.38% vs. 10 women - 47.61%) underwent videocapsule diagnostic investigation followed by single balloon enteroscopy with biopsy or surgical removal, where case. Large resection cups were histologically prepared in the Pathology Department of the Emergency County Hospital of Craiova. We performed a statistical analysis of the data using Fisher's Exact Test, which is applicable to small numbered lots. In five cases (23.80%) VCE investigation did not reveal any abnormalities. Five (23.80%) cases had non-tumoral pathology, all of them being inflammatory lesions. We found tumoral lesions in 11 (52.38%) cases: five (23.80%) benign and six (28.57%) malign. We found that inflammatory lesions predominantly affected subjects in the 15-30 and 30-45 years intervals (p=0.00103), whereas tumoral lesions are positively correlated with old age, predominantly affecting the 45-60 and above 60-year-old groups (p=0.00216). VCE combined with SBE open new frontiers for small bowel exploration. Histology remains the single most accurate test for establishing the nature of a lesion. PMID:19690776

Vere, C C; Foarf?, Camelia; Streba, C T; Cazacu, S; Pârvu, D; Ciurea, T

2009-01-01

368

Outcome of Jejuno-Ileal Atresia Associated with Intraoperative Finding of Volvulus of Small Bowel  

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Full Text Available Aim: To compare the outcome of patients with jeuno-ileal atresia (JIA associated with the intraoperative finding of volvulus of small bowel (group A with that of JIA without volvulus (group B. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective observational study conducted at one of the two units of Pediatric Surgery, in a tertiary care public hospital of India, from January 2001 to December 2010. Hospital records were retrieved and analyzed. During this time period, 65 patients with JIA were operated of which 40 (61.5% had ileal atresia (IA and 25 (38.5% had jejunal atresia (JA. Eleven (16.9% patients had associated intraoperative finding of volvulus of small bowel (Group A and were studied and compared with group B- not associated with intraoperative findings of volvulus of small bowel (n=54. The demography, clinical features, operative findings, associated anomalies, anastomotic leakage, and outcome were compared. Results: Group A comprising of 6 boys and 5 girls, had 8 IA and 3 JA; one case each of Type 3b and Type 4 JIA was seen. Associated anomalies included meconium ileus (n=2, Down’s syndrome (n=1 and malrotation (n=1. Anastomotic leak rate was 75% for IA and 66.7% for JA. The mortality was 91% in Group A, 100% for IA and 67% for JA. Group B comprising of 37 boys and 17 girls, had 32 IA and 22 JA; 2 cases of Type 4 and 1 case of Type 3b JIA was seen. Associated anomalies were malrotation (n=2, meconium ileus (n=1, exomphalos (n=1, gastroschisis (n=1 and ileal duplication cyst (n=1. The anastomotic leak rate for JA was 8/21 (38.1% and IA was 3/28 (10.7%; persistent obstruction was seen in 3/21(14.3% JA and 1/28 (3.6% IA patients. In group B, overall mortality rate was 8/22 (36.4% for JA and 9/32 (28% for IA. The morbidity and mortality was significantly higher in group A when compared to group B. Conclusions: JIA associated with volvulus (without malrotation is a sinister entity with a dismal outcome in our experience.

Shalini Sinha

2012-07-01

369

Efficacy of belly board device with CT-simulation in reducing small bowel volume within pelvic irradiation fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose/Objective: Acute and chronic small bowel toxicity associated with pelvic irradiation limits dose escalation with both chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) for rectal cancer. Various surgical and technical maneuvers including compression and belly board devices (BBD) have been used to reduce small bowel volume in treatment fields. However, quantitative dose volume advantages of such methods have not been reported. In this study, the efficacy of BBD with CT-simulation is presented with dose-volume histogram (DVH) analyses for rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: Five consecutive patients referred to our department with rectal cancer (2 preoperative, 3 postoperative RT) were included in this study. Each patient was asked to drink 450 cc of oral contrast 60 minutes prior to scanning and an additional 450 cc 15 minutes before CT-simulation. Patients were advised not to void for at least 2 hours prior to CT-simulation for optimal bladder distention. Patients were initially scanned in the prone position with alpha-cradle immobilization. A second CT study was conducted with a commercially available BBD which is made up of a hard sponge 18 cm thick with an adjustable opening (maximum 40x40 cm2). Patients were positioned prone over the BBD opening which was placed between the diaphragm and fourth lumbar spine of the patient. With the spiral CT-scanner, the entire scanning process was accomplished within 30 minutes. Image fusion between both sets of CT scans (wge fusion between both sets of CT scans (with and without BBD) was performed using three common bony landmarks. The critical structures including small bowel, bladder, and target volumes were delineated on each slice for DVH calculation. The target volumes were maintained in both studies. On each study, a three field optimized plan with conformal blocks in beams-eye-view was generated for volumetric analysis. The DVHs with and without BBD were evaluated for each patient. Results: The average weight of the patients was 80.3±10.1 kg. The central axis anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral separation with and without BBD were measured. The changes in lateral separation were minimal (<0.5 cm), however the changes in AP separation were reduced by 2.5±0.8 cm when BBD was used. With the BBD, the small bowel volume was significantly reduced with a mean reduction of 50.3% (range 34%-71%). The volume reduction was not correlated with body weight or sequence of RT (preop vs. post op). The DVH analysis of small bowel with and without BBD is shown in Table 1 for limited dose levels. The reduction of small bowel volume can be seen at each dose level. A representative DVH of small bowel with and without BBD is shown in Fig. 1. Figure 2 shows the ratio of volumes with and without BBD at various dose levels for each patients. A ratio below 1.0 represents a reduction of small bowel volume. A slight increase in bladder dose volume with BBD was also noted in a few patients. Conclusions: The belly board provides an easy technique to displace small bowel from pelvic RT treatment fields. The small bowel volume reduction is significant and is not related to body weight, separation, and sequence of RT with surgery. The volume reduction is appreciable at each dose level with a maximum of 70%. For some patients, the bladder dose volume may be increased moderately. Further study of the clinical efficacy of the BBD with specific attention to acute and chronic bowel complications and tolerances of full dose chemoradiation will continue

370

Capsule endoscopy in suspected small bowel Crohns disease: Economic impact of disease diagnosis and treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To model clinical and economic benefits of capsule endoscopy (CE compared to ileo-colonoscopy and small bowel follow-through (SBFT for evaluation of suspected Crohn’s disease (CD.METHODS: Using decision analytic modeling, total and yearly costs of diagnostic work-up for suspected CD were calculated, including procedure-related adverse events, hospitalizations, office visits, and medications. The model compared CE to SBFT following ileo-colonoscopy and secondarily compared CE to SBFT for initial evaluation.RESULTS: Aggregate charges for newly diagnosed, medically managed patients are approximately $8295. Patients requiring aggressive medical management costs are $29?508; requiring hospitalization, $49?074. At sensitivity > 98.7% and specificity of > 86.4%, CE is less costly than SBFT.CONCLUSION: Costs of CE for diagnostic evaluation of suspected CD is comparable to SBFT and may be used immediately following ileo-colonoscopy.

Jonathan A Leighton, Ian M Gralnek, Randel E Richner, Michael J Lacey, Frank J Papatheofanis

2009-12-01

371

Volvulus of Small Bowel in a Case of Simple Meconium Ileus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Meconium ileus is one of important causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Many patients respond well to nonsurgical management with enemas, however, few patients may develop complications in the postnatal period thus requiring urgent operation. A 2 day old newborn presented with clinical features of intestinal obstruction. There was a suspicion of meconium ileus. Contrast x-ray with gastrografin enema was suggestive of unused colon with beaded appearance. Patient had to be surgery as repeated enemas did not improve the condition and progressive abdominal distension occurred. At exploration twist of the dilated, meconium filled loop of small bowel found. De-twisting of the volvulus done and Bishop Koop ileostomy fashioned. Patient made an uneventful recovery. Stoma was closed six months later.

Kanchan Kayastha

2011-03-01

372

Volvulus of small bowel in a case of simple meconium ileus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meconium ileus is one of important causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Many patients respond well to nonsurgical management with enemas, however, few patients may develop complications in the postnatal period thus requiring urgent operation. A 2 day old newborn presented with clinical features of intestinal obstruction. There was a suspicion of meconium ileus. Contrast x-ray with gastrografin enema was suggestive of unused colon with beaded appearance. Patient had to be surgery as repeated enemas did not improve the condition and progressive abdominal distension occurred. At exploration twist of the dilated, meconium filled loop of small bowel found. De-twisting of the volvulus done and Bishop Koop ileostomy fashioned. Patient made an uneventful recovery. Stoma was closed six months later. PMID:22953274

Kayastha, Kanchan; Mirza, Bilal; Sheikh, Afzal

2011-01-01

373

Acute small bowel obstruction caused by endometriosis: A case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement of endometriosis has been found in 3%-37% of menstruating women and exclusive localization on the ileum is very rare (1%-7%. Endometriosis of the distal ileum is an infrequent cause of intestinal obstruction, ranging from 7% to 23% of all cases with intestinal involvement. We report a case in which endometrial infiltration of the small bowel caused acute obstruction requiring emergency surgery, in a woman whose symptoms were not related to menses. Histology of the resected specimen showed that endometriosis was mainly prevalent in the muscularis propria and submucosa and that the mucosa was not ulcerated but had inflammation and glandular alteration. Endometrial lymph node involvement, with a cystic glandular pattern was also detected.

Antonella De Ceglie, Claudio Bilardi, Sabrina Blanchi, Massimo Picasso, Marcello Di Muzio, Alberto Trimarchi, Massimo Conio

2008-06-01

374

Seatbelt injury causing small bowel devascularisation: case series and review of the literature.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The use of seatbelts has increased significantly in the last twenty years, leading to a decrease in mortality from road traffic accidents (RTA). However, this increase in seatbelt use has also led to a change in the spectrum of injuries from RTA; abdominal injuries, particularly intestinal injuries have dramatically increased with the routine use of seatbelts. Such intestinal injuries frequently result from improper placement of the "lap belt". We present 3 cases in which passengers wearing a seatbelt sustained significant devascularisation injuries to the small bowel requiring emergency surgical intervention. A high index of suspicion is crucial in such cases to prevent delays in diagnosis that can lead to severe complications and adverse outcomes. It is evident that while advocating seatbelt use, the importance of education in correct seatbelt placement should also be a focus of public health strategies to reduce RTA morbidity and mortality.

O'Dowd, Vincent

2012-01-31

375

Laparoscopy Improves Short-term Outcomes After Surgery for Diverticular Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND & AIMS Observational studies and small randomized controlled trials have shown that the use of laparoscopy in colon resection for diverticular disease is feasible and results in fewer complications. We analyzed data from a large, prospectively maintained, multicenter database (National Surgical Quality Initiative Program) to determine whether the use of laparoscopy in the elective treatment of diverticular disease decreases rates of complications compared with open surgery, independent of preoperative comorbid factors. METHODS The analysis included data from 6970 patients who underwent elective surgeries for diverticular disease from 2005 to 2008. Patients with diverticular disease were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision codes and then categorized into open or laparoscopic groups based on Current Procedural Terminology codes. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were analyzed to determine factors associated with increased risk for postoperative complications. RESULTS Data were analyzed from 3468 patients who underwent open surgery and 3502 patients who underwent laparoscopic procedures. After correcting for probability of morbidity, American Society of Anesthesiology class, and ostomy creation, overall complications (including superficial surgical site infections, deep incisional surgical site infections, sepsis, and septic shock) occurred with significantly lower incidence among patients who underwent laparoscopic procedures compared with those who received open operations. CONCLUSIONS The use of laparoscopy for treating diverticular disease, in the absence of absolute contraindications, results in fewer postoperative complications compared with open surgery. PMID:20193685

RUSS, ANDREW J.; OBMA, KARI L.; RAJAMANICKAM, VICTORIA; WAN, YIN; HEISE, CHARLES P.; FOLEY, EUGENE F.; HARMS, BRUCE; KENNEDY, GREGORY D.

2012-01-01

376

Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Diverticular Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diverticular disease is common and thought to result from structural abnormalities of the colonic wall, disordered intestinal motility, or deficiencies of dietary fiber. Signs and symptoms of inflammation include fever, abdominal pain, and leukocytosis.

Matrana, Marc R.; Margolin, David A.

2009-01-01

377

Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Diverticular Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverticular disease is common and thought to result from structural abnormalities of the colonic wall, disordered intestinal motility, or deficiencies of dietary fiber. Signs and symptoms of inflammation include fever, abdominal pain, and leukocytosis. PMID:20676256

Matrana, Marc R.; Margolin, David A.

2009-01-01

378

Jejunal intussusception and small bowel transmural infarction in a baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4.3-y-old, colony-bred female baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis) of low social rank and exhibiting no clinically significant signs of illness or distress was found dead at the Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center baboon breeding facility at El Reno, OK. Prior to death she exhibited excessive grooming behavior both toward herself and other baboons. In addition, she was consistently shy, timid, reclusive, and prone to minimal sustained movement (that is, generally lethargic behavior). Animals of low social rank typically exhibit some degree of these behaviors in order to avoid surplus interactions with other animals within their groups, which can lead to conflict and injury. Accordingly, her death was surprising in view of the apparent lack of clinical signs. Necropsy established the cause for death as systemic shock with resultant cardiovascular collapse resulting from a massive jejunal intussusception. This intussusception and resulting entrapment of the jejunal mesenteric vasculature caused total occlusion of the small bowel blood supply, with resulting hemorrhage and ischemic necrosis (small bowel infarction). Jejunal intussusceptions generally are considered to be uncommon and therefore are rarely reported in either the veterinary or human literature. Of special interest was the cause for this intussusception, determined to have been a large hairball located at the most proximal portion of the jejunum. Extending from this hairball and traversing essentially the entire length of the jejunum was a braided strand of hair acting as a string foreign body about which the intussusception formed. In light of our findings we suggest that animals of low social rank exhibiting excessive grooming behavior and lethargy might merit clinical evaluation to rule out possible abdominal disorders. PMID:16542042

Cary, Max E; Suarez-Chavez, Maria; Wolf, Roman F; Kosanke, Stanley D; White, Gary L

2006-03-01

379

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Novel Insight in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

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Full Text Available A total of 65-84% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS presents with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. SIBO is defined as the presence of more than 105 cfu/ml of colonic type bacteria in the lumen of the small bowel. It is more common in patients with IBS and predominant bloating and diarrhea. Based on the implication of SIBO in the pathogenesis of IBS, six trials have been conducted and analyzed in this review aiming to define a role of rifaximin for the management of IBS. Rifaximin is an orally administered antimicrobial with limited systemic absorption and considerable potency against bacteria implicated in SIBO. In two trials patients with SIBO irrespective of the presence of IBS were enrolled. A positive effect of rifaximin was denoted in the eradication of SIBO in both.One double-blind, prospective randomized trial over placebo in patients with IBS denoted a substantial improvement of the global assessment of patients after treatment with rifaximin. Benefit remained for 10 weeks after stop of treatment. A major benefit was disclosed for bloating. Another three prospective randomized trials have been conducted in patients with both IBS and SIBO. Rifaximin significantly eradicated SIBO and improved bloating.These findings led the Task Force for IBS of the American College of Gastroenterology to appoint a grade of evidence of 1B for the administration of rifaximin in the management of IBS. The proposed oral regimen is 400 mg three times daily for 10 days. However, results of large Phase III trials are mandatory.

Evangelos J. Giamarellos Bourboulis

2009-05-01

380

Diagnostic accuracy of capsule endoscopy for small bowel Crohn's disease is superior to that of MR enterography or CT enterography  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Capsule endoscopy (CE) detects small bowel Crohn's disease with greater diagnostic yield than radiologic procedures, although there are concerns that CE has low specificity. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of CE, magnetic resonance imaging enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) in patients with suspected or newly diagnosed Crohn's disease.

Jensen, Michael Dam; Nathan, Torben

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Gorlin syndrome associated with small bowel carcinoma and mesenchymal proliferation of the gastrointestinal tract: case report and review of literature  

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Abstract Background and Case Presentation A patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome) presented with two unusual clinical features, i.e. adenocarcinoma of the small bowel and extensive mesenchymal proliferation of the lower gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions We discuss the possibility that these two features are pathogenetically linked to the formerly undescribed patient's PTCH germ line mutation.

Meyer Günther; Straka Christian; Maßmann Jörg; Sarbia Mario; Prodinger Peter M; Steinlein Ortrud K

2010-01-01

382

Treatment Options for Perforated Colonic Diverticular Disease  

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Diverticular disease is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract requiring in-hospital treatment in Western countries. Despite its high incidence, controversies remain about the optimal treatment of the different stages of this disease. Most people with diverticular disease remain asymptomatic; however, approximately 15% develop symptoms, and of these, 15% will develop significant complications such as perforation [1]. Although the...

Mulder, I. M.; Vermeulen, J.

2011-01-01

383

Diverticular disease of the right colon.  

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Abstract Background The incidence of colonic diverticular disease varies with national origin, cultural background and diet. The frequency of this disease increases with advancing age. Right-sided diverticular disease is uncommon and reported to occur in 1-2% of surgical specimens in European and American series. In contrast the disease is more prevalent and reported in 43-50% of specimens in Asian series. Various lines of evidence suggest this variation may represent heredit...

Boutross-Tadross Odette; Ramsay Jennifer A; Radhi Jasim M

1988-01-01

384

Short Bowel Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

... or more of the small intestine to treat intestinal diseases, injuries, or defects present at birth. In newborns, ... another part of the intestine Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disease bowel injury from loss of blood ...

385

Colectomía parcial laparoscópica electiva por enfermedad diverticular Elective laparoscopic colectomy for diverticular disease  

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La cirugía laparoscópica colorrectal, aunque de desarrollo lento, ha presentado en los últimos años ventajas con respecto a la cirugía abierta. Hay escasas publicaciones nacionales sobre esta técnica en enfermedad diverticular. Objetivo: Presentar nuestra experiencia en enfermedad diverticular en una serie consecutiva de pacientes con indicación quirúrgica electiva resueltos por vía laparoscópica. Material y Método: Se analizan los protocolos prospectivos de cirugía laparoscópica...

Ernesto Melkonian, T.; Marcelo Rodri?guez, G.; David Contreras, F.; Patricio Opazo, S.; Ignacio Robles, G.; Magdalena Bravo, H.

2011-01-01

386

What I Need to Know about Diverticular Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... KB) Spanish Version Alternate Language URL Español What I need to know about Diverticular Disease Page Content ... the end of the colon. [ Top ] What can I do about diverticular disease? Eat a high-fiber ...

387

Gradient-enhanced volume rendering: an image processing strategy to facilitate whole small bowel imaging with MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MRI of the small bowel with positive contrast from orally administered contrast agent is a promising non-invasive imaging method. The aim of our study was to introduce small bowel MRI in a display format that clinicians are accustomed to and that maximizes the amount of information visualized on a single image. Twelve healthy volunteers, median age 32 years (range 18-49 years) participated in the study. A mixture of 20 ml Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), 0.8 g/kg body weight psyllium fibre (Metamucil) and 1.2 l water were sequentially administered over a period of 4 h. Imaging was performed on a 1.5 T unit (Philips Gyroscan, Intera). Fat-saturated, 3D, gradient echo imaging was performed while the patient was in apnea (30 s). Bowel motion was reduced with 40 mg intravenously administered scopolamine (Buscopan). A 3D, gradient-enhanced, volume rendering technique was applied to the 3D data sets. Standard projections [left anterior oblique (LAO), right anterior oblique (RAO), supine and prone] resembling conventional enteroclysis were successfully generated within fewer than 10 min processing time. Reconstructions were reproducible and provided an entire overview of the small bowel. In addition thin-slab volume rendering allowed an overlap-free display of individual structures. Positive contrast from orally administered contrast agent, combined with a gradient enhanced volume rendering method, allows the reconstruction of the small bowel in a pattern resembling conventional double-co pattern resembling conventional double-contrast enteroclysis. Segmental display without overlay is possible. (orig.)

388

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: are there any predictors?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is a condition in which excessive levels of bacteria, mainly the colonic-type species are present in the small intestine. Recent data suggest that SIBO may contribute to the pathophysiology of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The purpose of this study was to identify potential predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Methods Adults with IBS based on Rome II criteria who had predominance of bloating and flatulence underwent a glucose breath test (GBT to determine the presence of SIBO. Breath samples were obtained at baseline and at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 50 g of glucose dissolved in 150 mL of water. Results of the glucose breath test, which measures hydrogen and methane levels in the breath, were considered positive for SIBO if 1 the hydrogen or methane peak was >20 ppm when the baseline was Results Ninety-eight patients were identified who underwent a GBT (mean age, 49 y; 78% female. Thirty-five patients (36% had a positive GBT result suggestive of SIBO. A positive GBT result was more likely in patients >55 years of age (odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-9.0 and in females (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-14.5. Hydrogen was detected more frequently in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.4-45, and methane was the main gas detected in patients with constipation-predominant IBS (OR, 8; 95% CI, 1.3-44. There was no significant correlation between the presence of SIBO and the predominant bowel pattern or concurrent use of tegaserod, proton pump inhibitors, or opiate analgesics. Conclusions Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was present in a sizeable percentage of patients with IBS with predominance of bloating and flatulence. Older age and female sex were predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS. Identification of possible predictors of SIBO in patients with IBS could aid in the development of successful treatment plans.

McCallum Richard W

2010-02-01

389

Intestinal small bowel lymphomas - diagnosis and treatment; Primaer intestinale Lymphome - Diagnosestellung mittels CT und Therapie  

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Primary intestinal lymphomas are most common in the stomach. The mucosa associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)-lymphoma which is closely associated with helicobacter pylori is very well known. In most cases, these malignancies are from B-cells origin. Another possible point of manifestation, although not well known, is the small bowel. Both tumors have enormous capabilities to enlarge in the abdominal cave. This is responding to their often asymptomatic manifestation. The symptoms, if they occur, are widespread and unspecific. Ileus, diarrhae, abdominal pain or bleeding will be observed, in rare cases also perforation or gastrointestinal or cutaneous fistulas. Diagnostic imaging often demonstrates a tumour of massive size by then, which is echopoor in the abdominal ultrasound. Our report concerns two cases of small intestine lymphomas, which were diagnosed by CT-scanning and treated in our clinic in only a short period of time. The first case was a low malignant jejunal lymphoma which was almost asymptomatic, whereas the second case had an ileus, due to compression of the intestine because of a high malignant lymphoma of the ileocecal region. (orig.)

Goessmann, H.; Reith, H.B. [Klinikum fuer Visceral-, Thorax und Gefaesschirurgie, Klinikum Konstanz (Germany); Goerlitz, T.; Beck, A. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum Konstanz (Germany)

2006-07-01

390

Transplante de intestino delgado: "una realidad en Colombia" Small bowel transplant: "a reality in Colombia"  

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Full Text Available Desde el año 2005, con previa capacitación de los integrantes del grupo en Pittsburgh (EU, y gracias al apoyo del hospital, decidimos crear la consulta de Rehabilitación Intestinal y Transplante de Intestino Delgado en el Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe de Medellín (Colombia, a donde nos remiten, desde diversos lugares del país, pacientes con dificultades para su nutrición, a los cuales, con asesoría, los tenemos controlados con nutrición enteral y en algunos casos con nutrición parenteral ambulatoria con colaboración de sus entidades prestadoras de salud. Algunos de estos pacientes presentan falla intestinal o pérdida de accesos vasculares centrales para su nutrición parenteral y se les ofrece la posibilidad de transplante de intestino delgado. El grupo de Transplante de Intestino Delgado del Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe está conformado por un equipo multidisciplinario de cirujanos de transplante, gastroenterólogos, anestesiólogos, nutricionistas, patólogos, trabajadora social, psicólogos, intensivistas y enfermeras. Desde febrero del año 2006 hemos realizado cuatro transplantes de intestino delgado aislado, a pacientes provenientes de distintas ciudades de Colombia, y hasta el momento hemos obtenido muy buenos resultados, logrando independencia nutricional, con una calidad de vida excelente que incluye retorno a su vida laboral. Todo esto ha sido posible gracias a la remisión de estos pacientes por médicos colegas de diferentes regiones del país, con el objeto de ofrecerles una opción de vida a estos individuos, que anteriormente fallecían en lamentables condiciones nutricionales y con infecciones sobreagregadas. Esperamos que en el futuro nos sigan enviando pacientes con este tipo de patologías para ofrecer con nuestro grupo multidisciplinario, esta alternativa de manejo.In 2005, with previous training of the medical team in Pittsburgh (USA and thanks to our hospital’s support, we decided to establish an Intestinal Rehabilitation and Small Bowel Transplant program at Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital in Medellin (Colombia, where people from many places of the country come with nutritional deficiencies. These patients, with the support of nutritional group, receive home enteral and total parenteral nutrition (TPN with collaboration of their health insurance services. Some of these patients have intestinal failure or difficulties with central vascular access for their TPN, and in some cases our program offers the possibility of small bowel transplantation. The Small Bowel Transplant group of Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital is integrated by multidisciplinary professionals (Transplant surgeons, gastroenterologist, anesthesiologist, pathologist, nutritionists, social work services, psychologist, intensive care physicians and nurses. Since February 2006 we have performed intestinal transplant in four adult patients, with excellent outcome, achieving nutritional independence and great quality of life. These results have been acquired thanks to early consultation and remission from our colleagues from different cities of Colombia. In the past, these patients frequently died secondary to severe malnutrition and infectious diseases. We hope in a near future to have the possibility of new cases in order to continue working with our main objective of offering an alternative to the management of these patients.

Fabián Juliao Baños

391

The volume effect in radiation-related late small bowel complications. Results of a clinical study of the EORTC Radiotherapy Cooperative Group in patients treated for rectal carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to quantify the correlation between irradiated small bowel volume and late occurring small bowel complications. Methods: Small bowel volumes in the high-dose region were measured using orthogonal barium films for 203 patients treated for rectal carcinoma with pelvic postoperative radiotherapy to 50 Gy in an EORTC multicentric study. Results: The 5-year estimate of lat pelvic small bowel obstruction requiring surgery was 11%. No correlation between the irradiated small bowel volume and obstruction was detected. The actuarial 5-year estimate of chronic diarrhea varied from 31% in patients with irradiated small bowel volumes below 77 cm3 to 42% in patients with volumes over 328 cm3. This correlation was significant in the univariate and multivariate analysis (p=0.025). The type of rectal surgery significantly influenced the incidence of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption, the actuarial 5-year estimate being 49% and 26% after low anterior resection and abdominoperineal resection, respectively (p=0.04). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that there is a volume-effect in radiation-induced diarrhea atr a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. No volume-effect for small bowel obstruction was detected at this dose-level in pelvic postoperative radiotherapy. A review of the literature data on small bowel obstruction indicates that the volume effect at this dose level can only be demonstrated in patients who were treated with extende in patients who were treated with extended field radiotherapy (estimated small bowel volume 800 cm3) after intra-abdominal surgery. (author). 22 refs., 5 tabs

392

The scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diffuse disturbance in gastrointestinal motility may be present in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To further investigate small intestinal motility in IBS patients small intestinal transit time (SITT) was determined and related to the symptom status. 11 female patients with IBS (mean age 29 years) were divided into those whose predominate symptom was diarrhea (N=6), and those with only constipation (N=5). All subjects ingested an isosmotic solution of lactulose (10 gm in 150cc of water) labeled with 99m-Tc-DTPA (Sn). The patient was studied supine under a 25 inch gamma camera with data collected at 1 frame per minute for 180 minutes or until activity appeared in the ascending colon. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the small intestinal transit time. SITT in the 5 normal females was 98.7 +- 13 min (mean +- SEM). SITT in the IBS patients with diarrhea, 67.3 +- 7 min was significantly faster (p< 0.08). SITT in the constipated IBS patients, 126 +- 12 min, was slower than normals and significantly different from diarrhea patients (p< 0.001). These studies show that IBS patients with diarrhea have significantly faster SITT than normals while constipated IBS patients have significantly slower SITT than the diarrhea subgroup. Further, this study emphasizes the need to study the various symptomatic subgroups of IBs patients independently and indicates a possible role for abnormal SITT in the pathogenesis of IBS

393

Comparison of magnetic resonance enterography, capsule endoscopy and gastrointestinal radiography of children with small bowel Crohn's disease.  

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The aim of this study was to compare magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) findings with those of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) or conventional gastrointestinal radiography (CGR) in pediatric patients with small bowel Crohn's disease. A total of 55 cases of small bowel Crohn's disease that were diagnosed through clinical, laboratory, surgical and histopathological findings were reviewed. Prior to the examination, children suspected of having other types of diseases of the small intestinal were identified. The pulse sequences included coronal T2-true-fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP) images, navigation axial and coronal T1-weighted images, T2-weighted fat-suppressed images and coronal fat-suppressed three-dimensional gradient-echo images, immediately followed by contrast-enhanced axial and coronal T1-weighted fat-suppressed images. Findings from MRE were compared with those of VCE (n=39) and CGR (n=37). MRE results exhibited a number of features characteristic to small bowel Crohn's disease, including wall thickening, mesenteric fibrofatty changes and mesenteric vasculature changes. VCE, MRE and CGR demonstrated sensitivities of 94.6, 85.7 and 71.1% with specificities of 72.7, 70 and 40%; accuracies of 89.6, 82.2 and 61.1%; positive predictive values of 92.1, 90.9 and 59.6%; and negative predictive values of 80, 58.3 and 40%, respectively. VCE depicted mucosal pathologies missed by MRE in three patients. MRE revealed 83 extraenteric findings in 55 patients and CGR was able to show the dynamic evolution of the gastrointestinal function. MRE is a simple, safe, non-invasive and effective method for evaluating small bowel Crohn's disease. VCE allows visualization and readily characterizes subtle mucosal lesions missed by MRE, whereas MRE yields additional mural, perienteric and extraenteric information. However, oral barium CGR utilizes radiation, which is not suitable for repeated use in children. PMID:23935731

Lai, Can; Zhou, Hai-Chun; Ma, Ming; Zhang, Hong-Xi; Jia, Xuan

2013-07-01

394

Impact of remote ischemic preconditioning on wound healing in small bowel anastomoses  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the influence of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC on anastomotic integrity.METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were randomized to six groups. The control group (n = 10 had an end-to-end ileal anastomosis without RIPC. The preconditioned groups (n = 34 varied in time of ischemia and time of reperfusion. One group received the amino acid L-arginine before constructing the anastomosis (n = 9. On postoperative day 4, the rats were re-laparotomized, and bursting pressure, hydroxyproline concentration, intra-abdominal adhesions, and a histological score concerning the mucosal ischemic injury were collected. The data are given as median (range.RESULTS: On postoperative day 4, median bursting pressure was 124 mmHg (60-146 mmHg in the control group. The experimental groups did not show a statistically significant difference (P > 0.05. Regarding the hydroxyproline concentration, we did not find any significant variation in the experimental groups. We detected significantly less mucosal injury in the RIPC groups. Furthermore, we assessed more extensive intra-abdominal adhesions in the preconditioned groups than in the control group.CONCLUSION: RIPC directly before performing small bowel anastomosis does not affect anastomotic stability in the early period, as seen in ischemic preconditioning.

Philipp Anton Holzner, Birte Kulemann, Simon Kuesters, Sylvia Timme, Jens Hoeppner, Ulrich Theodor Hopt, Goran Marjanovic

2011-03-01

395

Assessment of Crohn's disease activity in the small bowel with MR and conventional enteroclysis: preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Every single imaging finding that can be disclosed on conventional and MR enteroclysis was correlated with the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI). Nineteen consecutive patients with Crohn's disease underwent colon endoscopy and both conventional and MR enteroclysis examinations. Seventeen MR imaging findings and seven conventional enteroclysis findings were ranked on a four-point grading scale and correlated with CDAI, with a value of 150 considered as the threshold for disease activity. Six patients had active disease in the colon according to colon endoscopy. In the remaining 13 patients, the presence of deep ulcers (P=0.002), small bowel wall thickening (P=0.022) and gadolinium enhancement of mesenteric lymph nodes (P=0.014) identified on MR enteroclysis images were strongly correlated to disease activity. The product of deep ulcers and enhancement of lymph node ranks identified on MR enteroclysis were the optimum combination for discriminating active from non-active disease (F-test: 55.95, P<0.001). Additionally, the ranking of deep ulcers on conventional enteroclysis provided statistically significant differences between active and non-active patients (F-test: 14.12, P=0.004). Abnormalities strongly suggestive of active Crohn's disease can be disclosed on MR enteroclysis examinations and may provide pictorial information for local inflammatory activity. (orig.)

396

IGF-2 is necessary for retinoblastoma-mediated enhanced adaptation after small-bowel resection.  

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Previously, we have demonstrated that genetically disrupting retinoblastoma protein (Rb) expression in enterocytes results in taller villi, mimicking resection-induced adaption responses. Rb deficiency also results in elevated insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) expression in villus enterocytes. We propose that postoperative disruption of Rb results in enhanced adaptation which is driven by IGF-2. Inducible, intestine-specific Rb-null mice (iRbIKO) and wild-type (WT) littermates underwent a 50% proximal small-bowel resection (SBR) at 7-9 weeks of age. They were then given tamoxifen on postoperative days (PODs) 4-6 and harvested on POD 28. The experiment was then repeated on double knockouts of both IGF-2 and Rb (IGF-2 null/iRbIKO). iRbIKO mice demonstrated enhanced resection-induced adaptive villus growth after SBR and increased IGF-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) in ileal villus enterocytes compared to their WT littermates. In the IGF-2 null/iRbIKO double-knockout mice, there was no additional villus growth beyond what was expected of normal resection-induced adaptation. Adult mice in which Rb is inducibly deleted from the intestinal epithelium following SBR have augmented adaptive growth. IGF-2 expression is necessary for enhanced adaptation associated with acute intestinal Rb deficiency. PMID:25002022

Choi, Pamela M; Sun, Raphael C; Sommovilla, Josh; Diaz-Miron, Jose; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R; Warner, Brad W

2014-11-01

397

Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance enterography for the detection of mesenteric small bowel tumours  

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To prospectively evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) enterography for detecting mesenteric small-bowel tumours (MSBTs) and assess the added value of gadolinium-chelate injection. Over a 2-year period MR enterography examinations of 75 patients (33 men, 42 women; mean age, 53.8 years; range, 19-85) with suspected MSBT were blindly analysed by two readers for the presence of MSBT. Sensitivities, specificities, predictive positive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs) and accuracies of MR enterography for the detection of MSBT were calculated on per-patient and per-lesion bases. The McNemar test was used to compare sensitivities and specificities of the unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced sets of MR enterographies. Thirty-seven MSBTs were pathologically confirmed in 26 patients. The mean tolerance score of the examinations was 0.7. On a per-patient basis, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy for detection of MSBT were 96 % [95 % CI, 89-100 %], 96 % [90-100 %], 93 % [83-100 %], 98 % [94-100 %] and 96 % [92-100 %], respectively. On a per-lesion basis, sensitivity and PPV were 70 % [56-85 %] and 93 % [83-100 %], respectively. Gadolinium injection yielded higher sensitivities on both bases (P = 0.008). MR enterography is an accurate and well-tolerated imaging modality for detecting MSBT. Intravenous administration of gadolinium-chelate improves sensitivity for MSBT detection. (orig.)

Amzallag-Bellenger, Elisa; Hoeffel, Christine [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Radiology, Reims Cedex (France); Soyer, Philippe [Hopital Lariboisiere, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Barbe, Coralie [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Statistics, Reims Cedex (France); Diebold, Marie-Daniele [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Pathology, Reims Cedex (France); Cadiot, Guillaume [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Gastroenterology, Reims Cedex (France)

2013-07-15

398

Peristalsis gap sign at cine magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosing strangulated small bowel obstruction. Feasibility study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosing strangulated small bowel obstruction (SBO). This study included 38 patients with clinically confirmed SBO who had undergone cine MRI. Cine MRI scans were evaluated regarding the presence of the 'peristalsis gap sign' (referring to an akinetic or severely hypokinetic closed loop), indicating strangulation. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 34 of 38 patients with (n=25) or without (n=9) contrast enhancement. CT images were evaluated using a combination of criteria (presence of hyperattenuation, poor contrast enhancement, mesenteric edema, wall thickening, massive ascites) indicating strangulation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of cine MRI and CT for the diagnosis of strangulation were calculated and compared using surgical findings and the clinical course as the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of cine MRI were 100%, 92.9%, 83.3%, and 100%, respectively; and those of CT (of which 26.5% was performed without contrast enhancement) were 66.7%, 92.0%, 75.0%, and 88.5%, respectively. There was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between the two methods (P=0.375). Cine MRI is a feasible and promising technique for diagnosing strangulation. (author)

399

Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms: Experience with Rifaximin  

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Full Text Available AIM: To estimate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO in our geographical area (Western Sicily, Italy by means of an observational study, and to gather information on the use of locally active, non-absorbable antibiotics for treatment of SIBO.METHODS: Our survey included 115 patients fulfilling the Rome II criteria for diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; a total of 97 patients accepted to perform a breath test with lactulose (BTLact, and those who had a positive test, received Rifaximin (Normix®, Alfa Wassermann 1200 mg/d for 7 d; 3 wk after the end of treatment, the BTLact was repeated.RESULTS: Based on the BTLact results, SIBO was present in about 56% of IBS patients, and it was responsible for some IBS-related symptoms, such as abdominal bloating and discomfort, and diarrhoea. 1-wk treatment with Rifaximin turned the BTLact to negative in about 50% of patients and significantly reduced the symptoms, especially in those patients with an alternated constipation/diarrhoea-variant IBS.CONCLUSION: SIBO should be always suspected in patients with IBS, and a differential diagnosis is done by means of a “breath test”. Rifaximin may represent a valid approach to the treatment of SIBO.

Sergio Peralta, Claudia Cottone, Tiziana Doveri, Piero Luigi Almasio, Antonio Craxi

2009-06-01

400

Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance enterography for the detection of mesenteric small bowel tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To prospectively evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) enterography for detecting mesenteric small-bowel tumours (MSBTs) and assess the added value of gadolinium-chelate injection. Over a 2-year period MR enterography examinations of 75 patients (33 men, 42 women; mean age, 53.8 years; range, 19-85) with suspected MSBT were blindly analysed by two readers for the presence of MSBT. Sensitivities, specificities, predictive positive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs) and accuracies of MR enterography for the detection of MSBT were calculated on per-patient and per-lesion bases. The McNemar test was used to compare sensitivities and specificities of the unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced sets of MR enterographies. Thirty-seven MSBTs were pathologically confirmed in 26 patients. The mean tolerance score of the examinations was 0.7. On a per-patient basis, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy for detection of MSBT were 96 % [95 % CI, 89-100 %], 96 % [90-100 %], 93 % [83-100 %], 98 % [94-100 %] and 96 % [92-100 %], respectively. On a per-lesion basis, sensitivity and PPV were 70 % [56-85 %] and 93 % [83-100 %], respectively. Gadolinium injection yielded higher sensitivities on both bases (P = 0.008). MR enterography is an accurate and well-tolerated imaging modality for detecting MSBT. Intravenous administration of gadolinium-chelate improves sensitivity for MSBT detection. (orig.)