WorldWideScience
1

Comparative proteomic analysis of fibrosarcoma and skin fibroblast cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative proteomic analysis of normal and cancer cell lines provides for a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of cancer development and is essential for developing more effective strategies for new biomarker or drug target discovery. The purpose of this study is to compare protein expression levels between fibrosarcoma and fibroblast cell lines. In our study, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques were carried out to compare the protein profile between fibrosarcoma and fibroblast cell lines. We prepared cell lysate samples to analyze intracellular proteins and secretome samples to analyze extracellular proteins in both cell lines. Our results revealed 13 upregulated proteins and 1 downregulated protein of which all of them identified in fibrosarcoma cell line after the comparison with fibroblast cell line cell lysates. When comparing secretome profiles of both cell lines, we found and identified 13 proteins only expressed in fibrosarcoma cell line. These identified proteins have common functions such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, invasion, metastasis, and apoptosis in cancer. The data obtained from this study indicates that these proteins have importance on understanding the molecular mechanism of fibrosarcoma. These proteins may serve as candidate biomarkers and drug targets for future clinical studies. PMID:25270740

Meral, Ogunc; Uysal, Hamdi

2015-02-01

2

Potentially lethal damage repair in cell lines of radioresistant human tumours and normal skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation cell survival data were obtained in vitro for three cell lines isolated from human tumours traditionally considered to be radioresistant-two melanomas and one osteosarcoma-as well as from a diploid skin fibroblast cell line. One melanoma cell line was much more radioresistant than the other, while the osteosarcoma and fibroblast cell lines were more radiosensitive than either. For cells growing exponentially, little potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) could be demonstrated by comparing survival data for cells in which subculture was delayed by 6 h with those sub-cultured immediately after treatment. For the malignant cells in plateau phase, which in these cells might be better termed 'slowed growth phase', since an appreciable fraction of the cells are still cycling, a small amount of PLDR was observed, but not as much as reported by other investigators in the literature. The normal fibroblasts, which achieved a truer plateau phase in terms of noncycling cells, showed a significantly larger amount of PLDR than the tumour cells. (author)

3

Establishment, characterization and immortalization of a fibroblast cell line from the Chinese red belly toad Bombina maxima skin  

OpenAIRE

The skin of the amphibian Bombina maxima is rich in biologically active proteins and peptides, most of which have mammalian analogues. The physiological functions of most of the mammalian analogues are still unknown. Thus, Bombina maxima skin may be a promising model to reveal the physiological role of these proteins and peptides because of their large capacity for secretion. To investigate the physiological role of these proteins and peptides in vitro, a fibroblast cell line was successfully...

Xiang, Yang; Gao, Qian; Su, Weiting; Zeng, Lin; Wang, Jinhuan; Hu, Yi; Nie, Wenhui; Ma, Xutong; Zhang, Yong; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

2011-01-01

4

Radiosensitivity in vitro of human soft tissue sarcoma cell lines and skin fibroblasts derived from the same patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skin fibroblast cell strains and tumour cell lines were established from 12 patients with various types of soft tissue neoplasms, and radiation survival curve parameters were measured in vitro. Soft tissue sarcoma cells were consistently more sensitive to X-irradiation than fibroblasts isolated from the same patient, and were also more sensitive as a group than cell lines derived from 34 other human tumours. There was a general correlation in radiosensitivity between fibroblasts and tumour cells derived from the same patient, indicating that some component of tumour cell sensitivity may relate to genetic factors in the host. Such genetic factors, however, do not explain all of the heterogeneity in tumour cell response. The response of soft tissue sarcoma in vivo may be dependent on complex radiomodifying factors other than inherent radiation sensitivity, thus making it difficult to predict clinical outcome by use of assays which use survival of irradiated tumour cell lines in vitro as an endpoint. (author)

5

Critical role of GSH in Sulfur Mustard-induced Oxidative Stress and Cytotoxicity in Human Skin Fibroblast Cell Line  

OpenAIRE

In this study the role of glutathione (GSH) in sulfur mustard -induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, in human skin fibroblast cell line (HF2FF) was evaluated. Sulfur mustard-induced superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide formation were evaluated by determination of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in cell lysate. The cytotoxicity of sulfur mustard was estimated by lactate dehydrogenase leakage. The intracellular GSH content was modulated by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a GSH precu...

Ali Beman Zaree Mahmoudabad; Mehdy Saberi; Jilla Pirzad

2008-01-01

6

Lymphoblastoid lines and skin fibroblasts from patients with tuberous sclerosis are abnormally sensitive to ionizing radiation and to a radiomimetic chemical  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lymphoblastoid lines, derived by transforming peripheral blood lymphocytes with Epstein-Barr virus, and skin fibroblast lines were established from two patients with tuberous sclerosis. The number of viable lymphoblastoid cells was determined by their ability to exclude the vital dye trypan blue after their irradiation with x-rays or 254 nm ultraviolet light. The growth of fibroblasts was determined by their ability to form colonies after treatment with the radiomimetic, DNA-damaging chemical N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The tuberous sclerosis lymphoblastoid lines were hypersensitive to x-rays but had normal sensitivity to the ultraviolet radiation. The tuberous sclerosis fibroblast lines were hypersensitive to the N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The hypersensitivity of tuberous sclerosis cells to x-rays and to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine is believed to reflect defective repair of DNA damaged by these agents and may provide the basis for in vitro, including prenatal, diagnostic tests for tuberous sclerosis

7

Cytoskeletal proteins from human skin fibroblasts, peripheral blood leukocytes, and a lymphoblastoid cell line compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Differences in proteins between cells grown as suspension cultures and those grown as attached cultures were studied by comparing the proteins of detergent-resistant cytoskeletons prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes and a lymphoblastoid cell line (GM607) (both grown as suspension cultures) and those of human skin fibroblasts (grown as attached cultures) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The major cytoskeletal proteins of the leukocytes were also present in the protein pattern of GM607 cytoskeletons. In contrast, the fibroblast cytoskeletal protein pattern contained four groups of proteins that differed from the patterns of the leukocytes and GM607. In addition, surface labeling of GM607 and human fibroblasts with 125I demonstrated that substantial amounts of vimentin and actin are exposed at the surface of the attached fibroblasts, but there is little evidence of similar exposure at the surface of the suspension-grown GM607. These results demonstrate some differences in cytoskeletal protein composition between different types of cells could be related to their ability or lack of ability to grow as attached cells in tissue culture

8

Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts  

OpenAIRE

Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon re...

Thangapazham, Rajesh L.; Darling, Thomas N.; Jon Meyerle

2014-01-01

9

Alteration of skin properties with autologous dermal fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices. PMID:24828202

Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Darling, Thomas N; Meyerle, Jon

2014-01-01

10

Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices.

Rajesh L. Thangapazham

2014-05-01

11

Herbal formula Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae Radix exerted wound healing effect on human skin fibroblast cell line Hs27 via the activation of transformation growth factor (TGF-?) pathway and promoting extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Astragali Radix (AR) and Rehmanniae Radix (RR) have long been used in traditional Chinese Medicine and as the principal herbs in treating diabetic foot ulcer. In this study, we investigated the effect of NF3, which comprises of AR and RR in the ratio of 2:1(w/w), on skin fibroblast cell migration and the activation of selected genes and proteins related to wound healing. Human skin fibroblast cell line Hs27 was treated with NF3 at 4 mg/ml for 24h, and in vitro scratch wound healing and quantitative cell migration assays were performed, respectively. The expression of transformation growth factor (TGF-?1) and bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) in Hs27 cells with or without NF3 treatment was analyzed by western blot analysis. In addition, the expression of a panel of genes involved in human TGF-? signaling pathway was analyzed in Hs27 cells upon NF3 treatment (4 mg/ml, 24 h) by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, the expression of several genes and proteins associated with ECM synthesis was investigated by qRT-PCR analysis or/and ELISA techniques. The results suggested that NF3 promoted the migration of human skin fibroblast cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that NF3 up-regulated TGF-?1 and BMP-6 synthesis. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 26 genes in Hs27 cells was changed upon NF3 induction, including TGF-? superfamily ligands and down stream effectors genes, and genes involved in TGF/Smad pathway, and Ras/MAPK (non-Smad) pathway. Among the extracellular matrix (ECM)-related molecules, it was found that NF3 up-regulated the expression of type I and III collagens, fibronectin as well as TIMP-1, and down-regulated the MMP-9 expression in skin fibroblast cells. This study demonstrated that herb formula NF3 could enhance skin fibroblast cell migration and activated genes involved in TGF-?1 pathway. NF3 could regulate gene transcription for extracellular matrix synthesis via the Smad pathway, and gene transcription for cell motility via the Ras/MAPK (non-Smad) pathway. PMID:23083814

Zhang, Qi; Fong, Chi Chun; Yu, Wai Kin; Chen, Yao; Wei, Fan; Koon, Chi Man; Lau, Kit Man; Leung, Ping Chung; Lau, Clara Bik San; Fung, Kwok Pui; Yang, Mengsu

2012-12-15

12

Protoporphyrin-induced photodamage: studies using cultured skin fibroblasts  

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An new system is described for the study of protoporphyrin-induced photodamage of cells. This system differs from those previously described in that fibroblasts are induced to synthesize protoporphyrin from its precursor delta-aminolevulinic acids. Fibroblasts were cultured from skin biopsies of 6 normal individuals and 6 patients with protoporphyria. All cell lines in both groups accumulated protoporphyrin when incubated with delta-aminolevulinic acid in the absence of iron. Irradiation for 2 min with long-wave UV light caused death of cells which had accumulated protoporphyrin, but not of cells which had been incubated without delta-aminolevulinic acid. Cell damage could be quantitatively assessed by the release of chromium-51 into the medium. Examination of irradiated protoporphyrin-rich fibroblasts by electron microscopy revealed no significant differences between lines from patients with protoporphyria and normal individuals. The earliest indications of photodamage were rarifaction of the mitochondrial matrix with dilatation of cristae, dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum, and loss of plasma membrane integrity. Condensation of the cells correlated with cell death. These structural alterations suggest a generalized cellular injury.

Latham, P.S. (Maryland Univ., Baltimore (USA). Hospital); Bloomer, J.R. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis (USA))

1983-05-01

13

Protective and restorative effects of a Commiphora mukul gum resin and triheptanoin preparation on the CCL-110 skin fibroblast cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a major ingredient in skin care products because of its anti-wrinkle effects, although it has some side effects especially at higher amounts. In this study, we compare the anti-wrinkle related properties of CoQ10 and a proprietary Commiphora mukul gum resin (guggul) and triheptanoin preparation (GU-TC7). GU-TC7 is prepared with a supercritical CO?-co-solvent extraction with ethanol, standardized to 2% guggulsterones and triheptanoin, a triglyceride composed of three 7-carbon fatty acids. Treatment of CCL-110 skin fibroblasts with GU-TC7 demonstrates a mild proliferative effect compared to CoQ10 and increased type I collagen synthesis. Additionally, GU-TC7 inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in a dose-dependent manner at 20-100??g?mL?¹ and inhibited human elastase expression by more than 50% as compared to no elastase inhibition with CoQ10 treatment. These results suggest that GU-TC7 possesses properties that are applicable to the treatment of wrinkles and may be considered for its further evaluation in skin care products. PMID:22084831

Ramachandran, C; Quirin, K-W; Resek, A; Melnick, S J

2012-04-01

14

Differences in motility pattern between human buccal fibroblasts and periodontal and skin fibroblasts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Migration of fibroblasts from surrounding normal tissue into the wound bed is an important requirement for successful wound healing. This study investigated the motility pattern of buccal, periodontal and skin fibroblasts to determine whether differences in the wound healing efficiency at these sites can be explained by differences in the motile behavior of their respective fibroblast populations. The migratory characteristics were studied in a two-dimensional culture system. The migration of single cells was time-lapse video recorded at intervals of 15 min for a period of 6 h using a computer-assisted microscope work-station. For evaluation of cell morphology, cell contours were recognized semiautomatically and used for determination of cell area, cell spreading and number and length of processes. We found that the cellular displacement of the buccal fibroblasts was only approximately 50% of the cellular displacement of periodontal and skin fibroblasts. The decreased cellular displacement of the buccal fibroblasts was found to be due to both lower cellular speed and less persistence in direction. The buccal fibroblasts also displayed smaller areas and longer processes. The differences in cellular morphology and motility pattern amongst the three fibroblast types could not be explained by differences in secretion of extracellular matrix components and are therefore believed to reflect phenotypic differences amongst fibroblast subpopulations.

Lepekhin, Eugene; GrØn, Birgitte

2002-01-01

15

Induction of growth stimulation in skin fibroblasts from retinoblastoma donors after ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skin fibroblasts from normal children and two children with a 13q14 deletion retinoblastoma (Rb) were submitted to fractionated doses of ? radiations. Irradiation reduced the population doublings in normal fibroblasts and the decline was inversely related to the dose. An increase in population doublings was obtained with one of the Rb cell lines. Foci appeared in the irradiated culture of the other Rb donor. It is suggested that fibroblasts from patients with Rb are able to express some phenotypical properties of transformed cells, perhaps related to factors rendering them more susceptible to carcinogens

16

Induction of growth stimulation in skin fibroblasts from retinoblastoma donors after ionizing radiation  

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Skin fibroblasts from normal children and two children with a 13q14 deletion retinoblastoma (Rb) were submitted to fractionated doses of ..gamma.. radiations. Irradiation reduced the population doublings in normal fibroblasts and the decline was inversely related to the dose. An increase in population doublings was obtained with one of the Rb cell lines. Foci appeared in the irradiated culture of the other Rb donor. It is suggested that fibroblasts from patients with Rb are able to express some phenotypical properties of transformed cells, perhaps related to factors rendering them more susceptible to carcinogens.

Diatloff-Zito, C.; Macieira-Coelho, A. (Institut de Cancerologie et d' Immunogenetique, I.N.S.E.R.M. U. 50, 94 - Villejuif (France)); Turleau, C.; Cabanis, M.O.; Grouchy, J. de (Hopital Necker et des Enfants-Malades, 75 - Paris (France))

1983-11-07

17

Testosterone metabolism of fibroblasts grown from prostatic carcinoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia and skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolism of [1,2,6,7-3H]testosterone was assessed in fibroblast monolayers derived from tissue of 5 prostates with benign hyperplasia (BPH), 4 prostates with carcinoma (PC), and 3 biopsy samples of skin, 2 nongenital skin (NG) and 1 genital skin. The following metabolites could be identified: androstanedione androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, epiandrosterone, androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. Testosterone was metabolized much more rapidly in fibroblasts originating from prostatic tissue than in fibroblasts derived from NG. A significantly higher formation of 5 alpha-androstanes and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids could be observed in fibroblasts from BPH as compared to PC. 17-ketosteroid formation exceeded 5 alpha-androstane formation in BPH, whereas 5 alpha-reduction was the predominant pathway in fibroblasts grown from PC and NG. Since testosterone metabolism in fibroblasts of prostatic origin therefore resembles in many aspects that in whole prostatic tissue, fibroblasts grown from prostatic tissues might be a valuable tool for further investigation of the pathogenesis of human BPH and PC

18

Human Gingival Fibroblasts Display a Non-Fibrotic Phenotype Distinct from Skin Fibroblasts in Three-Dimensional Cultures  

Science.gov (United States)

Scar formation following skin injury can be a major psychosocial and physiological problem. However, the mechanisms of scar formation are still not completely understood. Previous studies have shown that wound healing in oral mucosa is faster, associates with a reduced inflammatory response and results to significantly reduced scar formation compared with skin wounds. In the present study, we hypothesized that oral mucosal fibroblasts from human gingiva are inherently distinct from fibroblasts from breast and abdominal skin, two areas prone to excessive scar formation, which may contribute to the preferential wound healing outcome in gingiva. To this end, we compared the phenotype of human gingival and skin fibroblasts cultured in in vivo-like three-dimensional (3D) cultures that mimic the cells' natural extracellular matrix (ECM) niche. To establish 3D cultures, five parallel fibroblast lines from human gingiva (GFBLs) and breast skin (SFBLs) were seeded in high density, and cultured for up to 21 days in serum and ascorbic acid containing medium to induce expression of wound-healing transcriptome and ECM deposition. Cell proliferation, morphology, phenotype and expression of wound healing and scar related genes were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemical methods. The expression of a set of genes was also studied in three parallel lines of human abdominal SFBLs. Findings showed that GFBLs displayed morphologically distinct organization of the 3D cultures and proliferated faster than SFBLs. GFBLs expressed elevated levels of molecules involved in regulation of inflammation and ECM remodeling (MMPs) while SFBLs showed significantly higher expression of TGF-? signaling, ECM and myofibroblast and cell contractility-related genes. Thus, GFBLs display an inherent phenotype conducive for fast resolution of inflammation and ECM remodeling, characteristic for scar-free wound healing, while SFBLs have a profibrotic, scar-prone phenotype. PMID:24608113

Mah, Wesley; Jiang, Guoqiao; Olver, Dylan; Cheung, Godwin; Kim, Ben; Larjava, Hannu; Häkkinen, Lari

2014-01-01

19

Extracellular depolymerization of hyaluronic acid in cultured human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chain length of [3H]hyaluronic acid synthesized by cultivating human skin fibroblasts in the presence of [3H]glucosamine was investigated. [3H]Hyaluronic acid obtained from the matrix fraction was excluded from a Sepharose CL-2B column irrespective of the incubation period, whereas that from the medium was depolymerized into a constant chain length (Mr = 40,000). The reducing and non-reducing terminals of the depolymerized hyaluronic acid were N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid, respectively. Prolonged incubation produced no oligosaccharides as shown by examination of hyaluronidase digests, suggesting the presence of a novel endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase in cultured human skin fibroblasts

20

Studies of the in vivo radiosensitivity of human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: To examine the radiosensitivity of skin cells obtained directly from the irradiated skin of patients undergoing fractionated radiation treatment prior to surgery for treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and to determine if there was a relationship with the development of wound healing complications associated with the surgery post-radiotherapy. Methods: Micronucleus (MN) formation was measured in cells (primarily dermal fibroblasts) obtained from human skin at their first division after being removed from STS patients during post-radiotherapy surgery (2-9 weeks after the end of the radiotherapy). At the time of radiotherapy (planned tumor dose - 50 Gy in 25 daily fractions) measurements were made of surface skin dose at predetermined marked sites. Skin from these sites was obtained at surgery and cell suspensions were prepared directly for the cytokinesis-blocked MN assay. Cultured strains of the fibroblasts were also established from skin nominally outside the edge of the radiation beam and DNA damage (MN formation) was examined following irradiation in vitro for comparison with the results from the in situ irradiations. Results: Extensive DNA damage (MN) was detectable in fibroblasts from human skin at extended periods after irradiation (2-9 weeks after the end of the 5-week fractionated radiotherapy). Analysis of skin receiving a range of doses demonstrated that the level of damage observed was dose dependent. There was no clear correlatioe dependent. There was no clear correlation between the level of damage observed after irradiation in situ and irradiation of cell strains in culture. Similarly, there was no correlation between the extent of MN formation following in situ irradiation and the propensity for the patient to develop wound healing complications post-surgery. Conclusions: Despite the presence of DNA damage in dermal fibroblasts weeks after the end of the radiation treatment, there was no relationship between this damage and wound healing complications following surgery post-irradiation. These results suggest that factors other than the radiosensitivity of the skin fibroblasts likely also play a role in wound healing in deep wound sites associated with surgery for STS following radiation therapy

21

Oral fibroblasts produce more HGF and KGF than skin fibroblasts in response to co-culture with keratinocytes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) in subepithelial fibroblasts from buccal mucosa, periodontal ligament, and skin was determined after co-culture with keratinocytes. The purpose was to detect differences between the fibroblast subpopulations that could explain regional variation in epithelial growth and wound healing. Normal human fibroblasts were cultured on polystyrene or maintained in collagen matrix and stimulated with keratinocytes cultured on membranes. The amount of HGF and KGF protein in the culture medium was determined every 24 h for 5 days by ELISA. When cultured on polystyrene, the constitutive level of KGF and HGF in periodontal fibroblasts was higher than the level in buccal and skin fibroblasts. In the presence of keratinocytes, all three types of fibroblasts in general increased their HGF and KGF production 2-3 times. When cells were maintained in collagen, the level of HGF and KGF was decreased mainly in skin cultures. However, in oral fibroblasts, induction after stimulation was at a similar level in collagen compared to on polystyrene. Skin fibroblasts maintained in collagen produced almost no HGF whether with or without stimulation. The results demonstrate that the secretion of KGF and HGF in both unstimulated fibroblasts and in fibroblasts co-cultured with keratinocytes is dependent on the type of fibroblasts. In general, the periodontal fibroblasts had the highest level of cytokine production. This high level of growth factor production may influence the proliferation and the migration of junctional epithelium and thereby influence the development of periodontal disease.

GrØn, Birgitte; Stoltze, Kaj

2002-01-01

22

PKC? deficits in Alzheimer's disease brains and skin fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mice, activation of synaptogenic protein kinase C ? (PKC?) was found to prevent synaptotoxic amyloid-? (A?)-oligomer elevation, PKC? deficits, early synaptic loss, cognitive deficits, and amyloid plaque formation. In humans, to study the role of PKC? in the pathophysiology of AD and to evaluate its possible use as an early AD-biomarker, we examined PKC? and A? in the brains of autopsy-confirmed AD patients (n = 20) and age-matched controls (AC, n = 19), and in skin fibroblast samples from AD (n = 14), non-AD dementia patients (n = 14), and AC (n = 22). Intraneuronal A? levels were measured immunohistochemically (using an A?-specific antibody) in hippocampal pyramidal cells of human autopsy brains. PKC? was significantly lower in the hippocampus and temporal pole areas of AD brains, whereas A? levels were significantly higher. The ratio of PKC? to A? in individual CA1 pyramidal cells was markedly lower in the autopsy AD brains versus controls. PKC? was inversely correlated with A? levels in controls, whereas in AD patients, PKC? showed no significant correlation with A?. In autopsy brains, PKC? decreased as the Braak score increased. Skin fibroblast samples from AD patients also demonstrated a deficit in PKC? compared to controls and an AD-specific change in the A?-oligomer effects on PKC?. Together, these data demonstrate that the relationship between A? levels and PKC? is markedly altered in AD patients' brains and skin fibroblasts, reflecting a loss of protective effect of PKC? against toxic A? accumulation. These changes of PKC? levels in human skin fibroblasts may provide an accurate, non-invasive peripheral AD biomarker. PMID:25125477

Khan, Tapan K; Sen, Abhik; Hongpaisan, Jarin; Lim, Chol S; Nelson, Thomas J; Alkon, Daniel L

2015-01-01

23

Effect of hormones and radiation on cultured human skin fibroblasts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to elucidate the effects of hormones and radiation on skin fibroblasts in vitro, thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and hydrocortisone were added either separately or in combination to cultures of human skin fibroblasts. In addition, other human skin fibroblast cultures were irradiated with {sup 60}Co-{gamma} rays. The resulting effects of each treatment on the proliferation and morphology of the cells were investigated. There was a tendency for cell proliferation to be inhibited dose-dependently with an increase in the T{sub 4} concentration in the T{sub 4} group. Some of the cells of the T{sub 4} group were slightly flattened and there was an observable decrease in the number of fine villi and thread-type pseudopodia. Furthermore, morphologic changes in the cells such as a decrease and enlargement of the mitochondria and a decrease in the number of cristae were observed in the T{sub 4} group. A tendency for inhibition of the proliferation rate of the cells was observed in the radiation group. Immediately after irradiation of the cells, there was an increase in the number of heterogeneous residual bodies containing membrane components and amorphous materials and cells containing morphologically altered mitochondria were observed sporadically. (author)

Sodei, Bunji [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

1996-10-01

24

Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid and arsenic trioxide regulate the productions and activities of matrix metalloproteinases in human skin fibroblasts and human leukemia cell line THP-1  

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Full Text Available Objective: In order to reveal the treatment mechanism of Chinese medicine with the effect of activating blood and resolving putridity, we selected acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA and arsenic trioxide (ATO, the main monomeric components of frankincense and arsenolite which are two most commonly used Chinese medicine with effect of activating blood and resolving putridity. We combined AKBA and ATO as a compound, and explored its regulatory role in productions and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human skin fibroblasts (HSFbs and human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 in inflammatory state.Methods: In order to simulate the inflammatory micro-environment of chronic wounds, we established 3 cell models: HSFb model activated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?, THP-1 cell model activated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA and HSFb-THP-1 cell coculture system. AKBA and ATO were cocultured with these cell models. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, gelatin zymography assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were used to test the secretions, activities and mRNA expressions of MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9. In the study of the regulatory mechanism of AKBA and ATO on MMPs, AKBA and ATO were cocultured with the cell models. ELISA was used to test the secretions of TNF-? and interleukin-1beta (IL-? and Western blot was used to test the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated proteinkinase (p38MAPK. Results: Compound of AKBA and ATO inhibited MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expressions, secretions and activities respectively in HSFbs and THP-1 cells in inflammatory state (P?0.05, P?0.01. Also compound of AKBA and ATO inhibited secretions of TNF-? and IL-1? in THP-1 cells and cell coculture system (P?0.01. It also decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in HSFbs and THP-1 cells (P?0.05, P?0.01. Conclusion: The combined use of AKBA and ATO which in line with the rule of activating blood and resolving putridity inhibits fibroblasts and inflammatory cells in producing MMPs in inflammatory state through inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors and MAPK cascade pathway.

Ya-hui Liang

2010-11-01

25

Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptides in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion

26

Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts  

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An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptides in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion.

Sheela, S.; Barrett, J.C.

1985-02-01

27

Low dose rate ionizing radiation induces increased growth capacities of d-deletion retinoblastoma skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skin fibroblasts from normal children and three children with a 13q deletion retinoblastoma (Rb) were exposed to cumulative low doses of gamma rays. The typical response of normal donors was a reduction in the lifespan of irradiated fibroblasts, the precocity of the decline being inversely related to the dose received. In contrast, the lifespan of one Rb cell line (Rb1) was prolonged; irradiated cells with an increased growth potential showed a higher number of cells at confluency and more cells were entering DNA synthesis phase than in non-irradiated cells. Another Rb cell line (Rb2) demonstrated a normal lifespan following irradiation but foci were observed in irradiated cultures. Cytogenetic analysis revealed no selection of abnormal clones in these cell populations. The third Rb line examined (Rb3) responded like a normal cell line. We suggest that irradiated skin fibroblasts derived from some patients with Rb are in certain cases able to express abnormal growth capacities which may be one of the manifestations of the high susceptibility of the individual's stromal cells to carcinogenic agents

28

Low dose rate ionizing radiation induces increased growth capacities of d-deletion retinoblastoma skin fibroblasts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Skin fibroblasts from normal children and three children with a 13q deletion retinoblastoma (Rb) were exposed to cumulative low doses of gamma rays. The typical response of normal donors was a reduction in the lifespan of irradiated fibroblasts, the precocity of the decline being inversely related to the dose received. In contrast, the lifespan of one Rb cell line (Rb1) was prolonged; irradiated cells with an increased growth potential showed a higher number of cells at confluency and more cells were entering DNA synthesis phase than in non-irradiated cells. Another Rb cell line (Rb2) demonstrated a normal lifespan following irradiation but foci were observed in irradiated cultures. Cytogenetic analysis revealed no selection of abnormal clones in these cell populations. The third Rb line examined (Rb3) responded like a normal cell line. We suggest that irradiated skin fibroblasts derived from some patients with Rb are in certain cases able to express abnormal growth capacities which may be one of the manifestations of the high susceptibility of the individual's stromal cells to carcinogenic agents.

Diatloff-Zito, C.; Turleau, C.; Cabanis, M.O.; de Grouchy, J.

1984-10-01

29

Low dose rate ionizing radiation induces increased growth capacities of d-deletion retinoblastoma skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skin fibroblasts from normal children and three children with a 13q deletion retinoblastoma (Rb) were exposed to cumulative low doses of gamma rays. The typical response of normal donors was a reduction in the lifespan of irradiated fibroblasts, the precocity of the decline being inversely related to the dose received. In constrast, the lifespan of one Rb cell line (Rb1) was prolonged; irradiated cells with an increased growth potential showed a higher number of cells at confluency and more cells were entering DNA synthesis phase than in non-irradiated cells. Another Rb cell line (Rb2) demonstrated a normal lifespan following irradiation but foci were observed in irradiated cultures. Cytogenetic analysis revealed no selection of abnormal clones in these cell populations. The third Tb line examined (Rb3) responded like a normal cell line. It is suggested that irradiated skin fibroblasts derived from some patients with Rb are in certain cases able to express abnormal growth capacities which may be one of the manifestations of the high susceptibility of the individual's stromal cells to carcinogenic agents. (author)

30

Selective enrichment and biochemical characterization of seven human skin fibroblasts cell types in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mitotic and postmitotic populations of the human skin fibroblast cell line HH-8 are heterogeneous when studied in vitro. There are reproducible changes in the frequencies of the mitotic fibroblasts (MF), MF I, MF II, MF III, and the postmitotic fibroblasts (PMF), PMF IV, PMF V, PMF VI, and PMF VII. For biochemical characterization, methods for selective enrichment of homogeneous populations of these seven fibroblast cell types have been established. Clonal populations with 95% purity for the mitotic fibroblasts MF I, MF II, and MF III can be raised in uniform clone types of fibroblasts (CTF) CTF I, CTF II, and CTF III. Pure clonal subpopulations of MF I type cells are present in mass populations in the range of 1-20 cumulative population doublings (CPD). Populations of mitotic fibroblasts represent nearly homogeneous populations of MF II (75-85% purity) in the range of 28-34 CPD and MF III (73-86% purity) in the range of 48-53 CPD. These populations can be easily expanded to up to 10(7)-10(8) cells. The spontaneous transition of MF III to PMF VI takes 140-180 days. In order to shorten this period and increase the proportion of distinct postmitotic types, mitotic fibroblast mass populations (CPD 30-32, MF II: 75-85% purity) have been induced by uv-irradiation to differentiate to nearly homogeneous populations of PMF IV, PMF V, PMF VI, and PMF VII within 4 to 36 days of culture. Using this method, 10(7) cells of one differentiation stage can be obtained. Spontaneoustiation stage can be obtained. Spontaneously arising and experimentally selected or induced homogeneous clonal and mass populations of MF I, MF II, MF III, PMF IV, PMF V, PMF VI, and PMF VII express an identical differentiation-dependent and cell-type-specific [35S]methionine-labeled polypeptide pattern

31

Modulation of clonogenicity, growth, and radiosensitivity of three human epidermoid tumor cell lines by a fibroblastic environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To develop a model vitro system to examine the influence of fibroblasts on the growth and survival of human tumor cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The cell system consists of three epidermoid carcinoma cell lines derived from head and neck tumors having differing growth potentials and intrinsic radiosensitivities, as well as a low passage skin fibroblast strain from a normal human donor. The tumor cells were seeded for five days prior to exposure to radiation: (a) in the presence of different numbers of fibroblasts, (b) in conditioned medium from stationary fibroblast cultures, and (c) on an extracted fibroblastic matrix. Results: When grown with fibroblasts, all three tumor cell lines showed increased clonogenicity and increased radioresistance. The radioprotective effect was maximal at a density of approximately 105 fibroblasts/100 mm Petri dish, and was greatest in the intrinsically radiosensitive tumor cell line. On the other hand, the effects of incubation with conditioned medium or on a fibroblastic matrix varied among the tumor cell lines. Thus, the protective effect afforded by coculture with fibroblasts must involve several cellular factors related to the fibroblast itself. Conclusions: These observations emphasize the importance of cultural conditions on the apparent radiosensitivity of human tumor cell lines, and suggest that the fibroblastic connective tissue enveloping the malignant cells should be conveloping the malignant cells should be considered when the aim is to establish a radiopredictive assay from surgical tumors fragments

32

Human Gingival Fibroblasts Display a Non-Fibrotic Phenotype Distinct from Skin Fibroblasts in Three-Dimensional Cultures  

OpenAIRE

Scar formation following skin injury can be a major psychosocial and physiological problem. However, the mechanisms of scar formation are still not completely understood. Previous studies have shown that wound healing in oral mucosa is faster, associates with a reduced inflammatory response and results to significantly reduced scar formation compared with skin wounds. In the present study, we hypothesized that oral mucosal fibroblasts from human gingiva are inherently distinct from fibroblast...

Mah, Wesley; Jiang, Guoqiao; Olver, Dylan; Cheung, Godwin; Kim, Ben; Larjava, Hannu; Ha?kkinen, Lari

2014-01-01

33

Aluminum is More Cytotoxic than Lunar Dust in Human Skin and Lung Fibroblasts  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA plans to build a permanent space station on the moon to explore its surface. The surface of the moon is covered in lunar dust, which consists of fine particles that contain silicon, aluminum and titanium, among others. Because this will be a manned base, the potential toxicity of this dust has to be studied. Also, toxicity standards for potential exposure have to be set. To properly address the potential toxicity of lunar dust we need to understand the toxicity of its individual components, as well as their combined effects. In order to study this we compared NASA simulant JSC-1AVF (volcanic ash particles), that simulates the dust found on the moon, to aluminum, the 3rd most abundant component in lunar dust. We tested the cytotoxicity of both compounds on human lung and skin fibroblasts (WTHBF-6 and BJhTERT cell lines, respectively). Aluminum oxide was more cytotoxic than lunar dust to both cell lines. In human lung fibroblasts 5, 10 and 50 g/sq cm of aluminum oxide induced 85%, 61% and 30% relative survival, respectively. For human skin fibroblasts the same concentrations induced 58%, 41% and 58% relative survival. Lunar dust was also cytotoxic to both cell lines, but its effects were seen at higher concentrations: 50, 100, 200 and 400 g/sq cm of lunar dust induced a 69%, 46%, 35% and 30% relative survival in the skin cells and 53%, 16%, 8% and 2% on the lung cells. Overall, for both compounds, lung cells were more sensitive than skin cells. This work was supported by a NASA EPSCoR grant through the Maine Space Grant Consortium (JPW), the Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health., a Fulbright Grant (JM) and a Delta Kappa Gamma Society International World Fellowship (JM).

Hammond, D.; Shehata, T.; Hammond, D.; Shehata, T.; Wise, J.P.; Martino, J; Wise, J.P.; Wise, J.P.

2009-01-01

34

Toll-like receptor family members in skin fibroblasts are functional and have a higher expression compared to skin keratinocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to recognize not only pathogen-associated molecular patterns but also danger?associated molecular patterns. Recent studies have characterized the expression levels and functions of TLRs in human epidermal cells. However, the characteristics of TLR family members in human dermal fibroblasts have not been thoroughly studied. Therefore, the present study systematically investigated the expression levels of TLRs and their functional responses to each ligand in skin fibroblasts. All 10 TLRs are expressed in skin fibroblasts. Stimulation of skin fibroblasts with each TLR ligand resulted in an increase of the interleukin?6 (IL?6), IL?8 and matrix metalloproteinase?1 proteins, indicating that ?9 TLRs in skin fibroblasts are functionally active. Furthermore, stimulating skin fibroblasts with TLR1/2, 3 and 4 ligands induced the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor ?B? and the active phosphorylation of extracellular?signal regulated kinase 1/2. The expression level of each TLR was much higher in fibroblasts compared to keratinocytes. In particular, the fold?increase in IL?6 and IL?8 mRNA levels upon exposure to a TLR1/2 ligand was much higher in fibroblasts compared to keratinocytes, which appears to reflect the difference in expression levels of TLR1 and 2 between fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Taken together, these results show that all 10 TLRs are constitutively expressed and functional (except TLR10) in skin fibroblasts and suggest that TLRs in skin fibroblasts may play an important role in the detection of and response to different classes of pathogens and danger signals. PMID:25812726

Yao, Cheng; Oh, Jang-Hee; Lee, Dong Hun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Jin, Cheng Long; Park, Chi-Hyun; Chung, Jin Ho

2015-05-01

35

Fibroblast-mediated contraction in actinically exposed and actinically protected aging skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The changes in skin morphology over time are a consequence of both chronologic aging and the accumulation of environmental exposure. Through observation, we know that actinic radiation intensifies the apparent aging of skin. We have investigated the effects of aging and actinic radiation on the ability of fibroblasts to contract collagen-fibroblast lattices. Preauricular and postauricular skin samples were obtained from eight patients aged 49 to 74 undergoing rhytidectomy. The samples were kept separate, and the fibroblasts were grown in culture. Lattices constructed with preauricular fibroblasts consistently contracted more than lattices containing postauricular fibroblasts. The difference in amount of contraction in 7 days between sites was greatest for the younger patients and decreased linearly as donor age increased (r = -0.96). This difference may be due to preauricular fibroblasts losing their ability to contract a lattice as aging skin is exposed to more actinic radiation

36

The Level and Stability of Residual Catalase in Cultured Acatalasemic Skin Fibroblasts  

OpenAIRE

In an attempt to determine the level and heat stability of residual catalase in somatic cells of acatalasemic Japanese, skin fibroblasts from an acatalasemic subject were cultured, and the catalase activity of the cultured fibroblasts was compared with that of cultured normal fibroblasts. Catalase activity was determined using an oxygen electrode. The residual catalase activity in cultured acatalasemic fibroblasts was 10% of the normal. The heat stability at 55 degrees C of residual catalase ...

Ogata, Masana; Fujii, Yasuhito; Meguro, Tadamichi; Kira, Shohei; Matsuda, Akira; Izushi, Fumio; Kimoto, Tetsuo; Takahara, Shigeo

1987-01-01

37

Neprilysin Is Identical to Skin Fibroblast Elastase: ITS ROLE IN SKIN AGING AND UV RESPONSES  

OpenAIRE

Although human skin fibroblast (HSF) elastase has been characterized as a membrane-bound metalloproteinase, little is known about its structure, amino acid sequence, and encoding gene. As there are similarities in the molecular weights and inhibitory profiles of HSF elastase and neprilysin (neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP)), in this study we tested the hypothesis that they are identical using immunoprecipitation and transfection methods. An immunoprecipitation study demonstrated that HSF ela...

Morisaki, Naoko; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Sugiyama-nakagiri, Yoriko; Haketa, Keiichi; Takema, Yoshinori; Imokawa, Genji

2010-01-01

38

Radiobiological studies of human hybrid cells (skin fibroblasts x HeLa) and their tumourigenic segregants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are presented on the survival characteristics following ?-irradiation of a human hybrid cell line (skin fibroblasts x HeLa), and its tumourigenic segregant, which indicate that transition from the non-tumourigenic to the tumourigenic state is associated with a decrease in the ability to accumulate and repair sublethal damage. Previous studies have demonstrated that this transition to the tumourigenic state is also associated with loss of specific chromosomes (one copy each of chromosomes 11 and 14). It is suggested that this loss of chromosomes may account for the change in radiosensitivity. (author)

39

Mutagenic effects of alpha particles in normal human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alpha-irradiation to the bronchial airways from inhaled radon progeny increases the risk of developing lung cancer. The molecular mechanism of radon-induced lung cancer is not clear, but one of the most important genetic effects of ionizing radiation is the induction of gene mutation. Mutations, especially those associated with visible chromosome abnormalities in humans, have been associated with cancer. Therefore, our objective is to use a well-defined model system to determine the mutagenic potential of alpha particles in normal human skin cells and to define this action at the molecular level. Normal human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with alpha particles (3.59 MeV, LET 115 keV ?m-1) emitted from the decay of 238Pu. Mutagenicity was determined at the X-linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus. Results from this study indicate that beta particles were more efficient in mutation induction than gamma rays. Based on the initial slopes of the dose-response curves, the RBE for mutation is about 8 for alpha particles. HPRT-deficient mutants which are resistant to 6-thioguanine have been isolated and analyzed by the Southern blot technique. To date, we have characterized 69 gamma-ray-induced and 195 alpha-particle-induced HPRT-deficient mutants. Our data indicate that more than 50% of all gamma-ray-induced mutants have band patterns identical to that observed for the normal structural HPRT gene, whereas the remaining mutural HPRT gene, whereas the remaining mutants (45%) contain either a rearrangement, partial deletion, or total deletion of the HPRT gene. In contrast, only 30% of alpha-particle-induced human HPRT mutants contain a normal Southern blot pattern, and about 50% indicate total deletion of the HPRT gene. Our results support the notion that high-LET radiation produces more unrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage than do gamma rays

40

Colony size distributions according to in vitro aging in human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells distribution of human skin fibroblast according to in vitro aging, and to evaluate the relationship between percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells and in vivo donor age in human skin fibroblast culture. C1, C2, C3a, and C3b human skin fibroblast samples from three breast cancer patients were used as subjects. The C1, C2, and C3a donor were 44, 54, and 55 years old, respectively. C3a and C3b cells were isolated from the same person. Single cell suspension of skin fibroblasts was prepared with primary explant technique. One hundred cells are plated into 100ml tissue culture flask and cultured for two weeks. The colony size was defined as colonies with 16 or more cells. The cultured cell was stained with crystal violet, and number of cells in each colony was determined with stereo microscope at x 10 magnification. Passage number of C1, C2, C3a and C3b skin fibroblast were 12th, 17th, and 14th, respectively. Percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells of skin fibroblast samples decreased with increasing in vitro passage number. In contrast, cumulative population doublings of skin fibroblast sample increased with increasing in vitro passage number. Percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells also decreased with increasing population doublings in human skin fibroblast culture. There was strong correlation with percentage of colonised with 16 or more cells and population doublings in C3a skin fibroblast pulation doublings in C3a skin fibroblast sample. At the same point of population doublings, the percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells of the young C1 donor was higher level than the old C3a donor. The population doublings increased with increasing in vitro passage number but percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells decreased. The results of this study imply that percentage of colonies with 16 or more cells is useful as a indicator of in vitro human skin fibroblast aging and may estimate the in vivo donor age

41

Injection of genetically engineered fibroblasts corrects regenerated human epidermolysis bullosa skin tissue  

OpenAIRE

Current therapeutic strategies for genetic skin disorders rely on the complex process of grafting genetically engineered tissue to recipient wound beds. Because fibroblasts synthesize and secrete extracellular matrix, we explored their utility in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), a blistering disease due to defective extracellular type VII collagen. Intradermal injection of RDEB fibroblasts overexpressing type VII collagen into intact RDEB skin stably restored correctly local...

Ortiz-urda, Susana; Lin, Qun; Green, Cheryl L.; Keene, Douglas R.; Marinkovich, M. Peter; Khavari, Paul A.

2003-01-01

42

Coxsackievirus B3 infection alters plasma membrane of neonatal skin fibroblasts.  

OpenAIRE

Replication of coxsackievirus B3 occurred for days in cultures of murine neonatal skin fibroblasts in the absence of cytopathology and resulted in alteration of the plasma membrane. Dual immunofluorescence studies showed that the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I bound only to cells producing viral capsid antigens. Cultures of coxsackievirus B3-inoculated murine neonatal skin fibroblasts showed maximum binding of this lectin at 72 h postinoculation. These data show that in a nonlytic infecti...

Lutton, C. W.; Gauntt, C. J.

1986-01-01

43

Effects of Cigarette Smoke Extracts on the Growth and Senescence of Skin Fibroblasts In Vitro  

OpenAIRE

Epidemiological studies have shown that cigarette smoke (CS), a very common environmental factor, plays an important role in skin aging. Although some in vivo studies have suggested that CS affects skin aging, the detailed effects of CS on skin cells in vitro remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the growth, proliferation, and senescene of skin fibroblasts and the possible mechanism underlying these effects. Primary cultured hum...

Yang, Gao-yun; Zhang, Chun-lei; Liu, Xiang-chen; Qian, Ge; Deng, Dan-qi

2013-01-01

44

In vitro culture of skin fibroblast cells for potential cloning by nuclear transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Donor cell lines were developed from skin tissue for the conservation of the endangered Jaiselmeri camel breed of India. Average cell proliferation rates varied from 0.82 to 0.69 in different passages, and population doubling time from 29.3 h to 34.8 h. Around 15 population doublings were accomplished during this culturing. Cell viability was 97 to 99% in different passages. Growth curves of cells from the JC-5 cell line reached a plateau on day 7, while the slower-growing cultures of JC-3 showed elevation even on day 10, possibly due to donor age differences. Cell proliferation rates by both cell count and MTT absorbance showed similar patterns, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79. MTT assay, a colorimetric method, can handle large samples in somatic cell cultures. Diploid chromosomal counts in passages 1, 3 and 5 were normal (2N=74, XY) in 97% of the cells. Occasional metaphase plates showed polyploidy. The present baseline data on standard growth curve, linear relationship in colorimetric assay for estimation of cell proliferation rate, and normal ploidy and karyological levels in camel skin fibroblast cells in multiplication could be useful in developing competent donor somatic cell lines for conservation now and revival of this camel breed by cloning in the future. (author)

45

Collagen fragmentation promotes oxidative stress and elevates matrix metalloproteinase-1 in fibroblasts in aged human skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aged human skin is fragile because of fragmentation and loss of type I collagen fibrils, which confer strength and resiliency. We report here that dermal fibroblasts express increased levels of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) in aged (>80 years old) compared with young (21 to 30 years old) human skin in vivo. Transcription factor AP-1 and alpha2beta1 integrin, which are key regulators of MMP-1 expression, are also elevated in fibroblasts in aged human skin in vivo. MMP-1 treatment of young skin in organ culture causes fragmentation of collagen fibrils and reduces fibroblast stretch, consistent with reduced mechanical tension, as observed in aged human skin. Limited fragmentation of three-dimensional collagen lattices with exogenous MMP-1 also reduces fibroblast stretch and mechanical tension. Furthermore, fibroblasts cultured in fragmented collagen lattices express elevated levels of MMP-1, AP-1, and alpha2beta1 integrin. Importantly, culture in fragmented collagen raises intracellular oxidant levels and treatment with antioxidant MitoQ(10) significantly reduces MMP-1 expression. These data identify positive feedback regulation that couples age-dependent MMP-1-catalyzed collagen fragmentation and oxidative stress. We propose that this self perpetuating cycle promotes human skin aging. These data extend the current understanding of the oxidative theory of aging beyond a cellular-centric view to include extracellular matrix and the critical role that connective tissue microenvironment plays in the biology of aging. PMID:19116368

Fisher, Gary J; Quan, Taihao; Purohit, Trupta; Shao, Yuan; Cho, Moon Kyun; He, Tianyuan; Varani, James; Kang, Sewon; Voorhees, John J

2009-01-01

46

Key Regulatory Role of Dermal Fibroblasts in Pigmentation as Demonstrated Using a Reconstructed Skin Model: Impact of Photo-Aging  

OpenAIRE

To study cutaneous pigmentation in a physiological context, we have previously developed a functional pigmented reconstructed skin model composed of a melanocyte-containing epidermis grown on a dermal equivalent comprising living fibroblasts. The present studies, using the same model, aimed to demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts influence skin pigmentation up to the macroscopic level. The proof of principle was performed with pigmented skins differing only in the fibroblast component. First, ...

Duval, Christine; Cohen, Catherine; Chagnoleau, Corinne; Flouret, Virginie; Bourreau, Emilie; Bernerd, Franc?oise

2014-01-01

47

Human skin fibroblasts in vitro differentiate along a terminal cell lineage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Secondary mitotic human skin fibroblast populations in vitro underwent 53 ± 6 cumulative population doublings (CPD) in 302 ± 27 days. When the growth capacity of mitotic fibroblasts is exhausted, and if appropriate methods are applied, the fibroblasts differentiate spontaneously into postmitotic fibroblast populations, which were kept in stationary culture for up to 305 ± 41 additional days. Mitotic and postmitotic fibroblast populations are heterogeneous populations with reproducible changes in the proportions of mitotic fibroblasts F I, F II, and F III, and postmitotic fibroblasts F IV, F V, F VI, and F VII. This process makes it evident that the fibroblasts differentiate spontaneously along a seven-stage terminal cell lineage F I-F II-F III-F IV-F V-F VI-F VII. Shifts in the frequencies of the mitotic and postmitotic fibroblasts in mass populations are accompanied by alterations in the [35S]methionine polypeptide pattern of the developing mass populations. The [35S]methionine polypeptide patterns of homogeneous subpopulations of F I, F II, F III, F IV, F V, and F VI isolated from heterogeneous mass populations reveal that the six fibroblast morphotypes studied express their cell-type-specific [35S]methionine polypeptide pattern in the heterogeneous mass populations

48

Senescent phenotypes of skin fibroblasts from patients with Tangier disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tangier disease (TD) is characterized by a deficiency of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma and patients with TD have an increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Recently, we reported that fibroblasts from TD exhibited large and flattened morphology, which is often observed in senescent cells. On the other hand, data have accumulated to show the relationship between cellular senescence and development of atherosclerotic CAD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether TD fibroblasts exhibited cellular senescence. The proliferation of TD fibroblasts was gradually decreased at population doubling level (PDL) ?10 compared with control cells. TD cells practically ceased proliferation at PDL ?30. DNA synthesis was markedly decreased in TD fibroblasts. TD cells exhibited a higher positive rate for senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal), which is one of the biomarkers of cellular senescence in vitro. These data showed that TD cells reached cellular senescence at an earlier PDL compared with controls. Although, there was no difference in the telomere length of fibroblasts between TD and controls at the earlier passage (PDL 6), the telomere length of TD cells was shorter than that of controls at the late passage (PDL 25). Taken together, the current study demonstrates that the late-passaged TD fibroblasts showed senescent phenotype in vitro, which might be related to the increased cardiovascular manifestations in TD patientsifestations in TD patients

49

DNA repair in Bloom's syndrome skin fibroblasts after ultraviolet light irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skin fibroblasts from a patient with Bloom's syndrome (86NoKi) were assayed for various DNA repair activities after ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation. Cultured fibroblasts as well as lymphocytes obtained from this patient showed a high frequency of spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). There was no significant difference between 86NoKi fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts from normal donors in the sensitivity to UV as measured by inactivation of colony forming activity, the capacity of host-cell reactivation (HCR) of UV-irradiated virus, and the amount of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) after UV irradiation. However, the yield of UV-induced SCEs in 86NoKi cells was significantly higher than that in normal cells. (author)

50

Enhanced reactivation of ultraviolet-damaged herpes virus in ultraviolet pretreated skin fibroblasts of cancer prone donors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An enhanced reactivation of ultraviolet-damaged (u.v. at 254 nm) unclear replicating double-stranded DNA viruses occurs when corresponding host cells are treated with radiation or carcinogens prior to infection. This phenomenon seems to be due to an induced DNA repair activity the nature of which is yet unknown. The u.v.-induced enhanced reactivation (ER) of u.v.-damaged herpes simplex virus (u.v. - HSV) was compared in dividing skin fibroblasts of 30 donors either normal or afflicted by genetic disorders, some of which confer a high risk for sunlight induced skin cancers. Cultures were exposed to a single dose of 1.0-25 J.m-2 from 0-60 h before infection with u.v.-HSV (at about 10-3 survival) and the rate of viral production was determined. ER was maximal for a 36 h time interval in all lines. The u.v. dose eliciting maximal ER was 15 J.m-2 in fibroblasts from normal donors, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) heterozygotes, Mibelli's porokeratosis, diffused naevomatosis, Down's syndrome, xerodermoids, XP variants and epidermodysplasia verruciformis. However, in the latter 3 cases, ER was almost 10 times more pronounced than in the normal cases. The u.v. dose eliciting maximal ER was 0.1, 0.3 and 2 J.m-2 in excision deficient XP fibroblasts from groups A, D and C, respectively, 2.5 J.m-2 in 11961 fibroblasts and 5 J.m-2 in fibroblast lines from cockayne s syndrome.

Coppey, J.; Menezes, S.

1981-01-01

51

Trisomy 13 mosaicism demonstrated only in skin fibroblasts in a patient presenting psychomotor retardation, pigmentary dysplasia and some dysmorphic features  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A Brazilian female infant presented delayed psychomotor development, skin pigmentary dysplasia and some dysmorphic features. Chromosome analysis from peripheral blood culture was normal, but the karyotype from skin fibroblasts revealed mosaicism for trisomy 13. This case demonstrates the relevance o [...] f performing chromosomal analysis of skin fibroblasts in patients with mental retardation, associated with pigmentary dysplasia of the skin and a normal karyotype in peripheral blood lymphocytes. To our knowledge, it is the first report of trisomy 13 demonstrated only in skin fibroblasts.

A.P.S., Ferreira; L.F., Mazzucatto; E.S., Ramos; J.M., Pina-Neto.

52

Bioenergetic markers in skin fibroblasts of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and progressive lateral sclerosis patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy metabolism could influence amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and progressive lateral sclerosis (PLS) pathogenesis and the response to therapy. We developed a novel assay to simultaneously assess mitochondrial content and membrane potential in patients' skin fibroblasts. In ALS and PLS fibroblasts, membrane potential was increased and mitochondrial content decreased, relative to healthy controls. In ALS higher mitochondrial membrane potential correlated with age at diagnosis, and in PLS it correlated with disease severity. These unprecedented findings in ALS and PLS fibroblasts could shed new light onto disease pathogenesis and help in developing biomarkers to predict disease evolution and the individual response to therapy in motor neuron diseases. PMID:25090982

Kirk, Kathryne; Gennings, Chris; Hupf, Jonathan C; Tadesse, Saba; D'Aurelio, Marilena; Kawamata, Hibiki; Valsecchi, Federica; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Manfredi, Giovanni

2014-10-01

53

Cell surface abnormality in clones of skin fibroblasts from a carrier of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  

OpenAIRE

We have previously reported that skin fibroblasts from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have a lower intercellular adhesiveness than control cells, and that cells from carriers of DMD have normal adhesiveness instead of the expected intermediate value. We have now cloned skin fibroblasts from a carrier of DMD (subject AS) who is also heterozygous for G6PD B/G6PD Mediterranean and determined the intercellular adhesiveness and G6PD phenotypes of the clones. G6PD activity was dete...

Hillier, J.; Jones, G. E.; Statham, H. E.; Witkowski, J. A.; Dubowitz, V.

1985-01-01

54

The effect of keratinocytes on the biomechanical characteristics and pore microstructure of tissue engineered skin using deep dermal fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibrosis affects most organs, it results in replacement of normal parenchymal tissue with collagen-rich extracellular matrix, which compromises tissue architecture and ultimately causes loss of function of the affected organ. Biochemical pathways that contribute to fibrosis have been extensively studied, but the role of biomechanical signaling in fibrosis is not clearly understood. In this study, we assessed the effect keratinocytes have on the biomechanical characteristics and pore microstructure of tissue engineered skin made with superficial or deep dermal fibroblasts in order to determine any biomaterial-mediated anti-fibrotic influences on tissue engineered skin. Tissue engineered skin with deep dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were found to be less stiff and contracted and had reduced number of myofibroblasts and lower expression of matrix crosslinking factors compared to matrices with deep fibroblasts alone. However, there were no such differences between tissue engineered skin with superficial fibroblasts and keratinocytes and matrices with superficial fibroblasts alone. Also, tissue engineered skin with deep fibroblasts and keratinocytes had smaller pores compared to those with superficial fibroblasts and keratinocytes; pore size of tissue engineered skin with deep fibroblasts and keratinocytes were not different from those matrices with deep fibroblasts alone. A better understanding of biomechanical characteristics and pore microstructure of tissue engineered skin may prove beneficial in promoting normal wound healing over pathologic healing. PMID:25176070

Varkey, Mathew; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E

2014-12-01

55

GABA-synthesizing enzyme, GAD67, from dermal fibroblasts: evidence for a new skin function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, from glutamate. An expression of GAD protein has been reported for brain and pancreas, but not for skin. In this study, we present evidence that GAD67 mRNA and protein are expressed in mouse skin and in human dermal fibroblasts. The expression of GAD67 gene is weaker in aged mouse than the young one. To further explore the function of GAD in skin, we have examined a potential role(s) of GABA in human dermal fibroblasts. We have observed that GABA stimulates the synthesis of hyaluronic acid (HA) and enhances the survival rate of the dermal fibroblasts when fibroblasts are exposed to H(2)O(2) an oxidative stress agent. Also observed were lowering the levels of HA and collagen in the embryonic skin from GAD67 deficient mouse as compared to those from the wild-type (WT) mouse. In this study, we have presented the evidences that GAD67 is localized in the dermis and is potentially involved in variety of skin activities. PMID:17113713

Ito, Kenichi; Tanaka, Kiyotaka; Nishibe, Yukinobu; Hasegawa, Junichi; Ueno, Hiroshi

2007-02-01

56

Normal skin and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts differentially regulate collagen and fibronectin expression as well as mitochondrial membrane potential in response to basic fibroblast growth factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF regulates skin wound healing; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be defined. In the present study, we determined the effects of bFGF on the regulation of cell growth as well as collagen and fibronectin expression in fibroblasts from normal human skin and from hypertrophic scars. We then explored the involvement of mitochondria in mediating bFGF-inducedeffects on the fibroblasts. We isolated and cultivated normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts from tissue biopsies of patients who underwent plastic surgery for repairing hypertrophic scars. The fibroblasts were then treated with different concentrations of bFGF (ranging from 0.1 to 1000 ng/mL. The growth of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts became slower with selective inhibition of type I collagen production after exposure to bFGF. However, type III collagen expression was affected in both normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. Moreover, fibronectin expression in the normal fibroblasts was up-regulated after bFGF treatment. bFGF (1000 ng/mL also induced mitochondrial depolarization in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (P < 0.01. The cellular ATP level decreased in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (P < 0.05, while it increased in the normal fibroblasts following treatment with bFGF (P < 0.01. These data suggest that bFGF has differential effects and mechanisms on fibroblasts of the normal skin and hypertrophic scars, indicating that bFGF may play a role in the early phase of skin wound healing and post-burn scar formation.

Rui Song

2011-05-01

57

Influence of caffeine and hyaluronic acid on collagen biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magdalena Donejko,1 Andrzej Przylipiak,1 Edyta Rysiak,2 Katarzyna G?uszuk,2 Arkadiusz Sura?y?ski2 1Department of Esthetic Medicine, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Bia?ystok, Bia?ystok, Poland Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on collagen biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts and the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA on this process. Materials and methods: Collagen, [3H]-thymidine incorporation, and prolidase activity were measured in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that had been treated with 1, 2, and 5 mM caffeine and with caffeine and 500 µg/mL HA. Western immunoblot analysis was performed to evaluate expression of ß1-integrin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor phospho-Akt protein and mitogen-activated protein kinase (phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Results: Caffeine inhibited collagen biosynthesis in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of this process was found at the level of prolidase activity. Caffeine significantly inhibited the enzyme activity. The addition of HA had no effect on collagen biosynthesis or prolidase activity in fibroblasts incubated with caffeine. Caffeine also had an inhibitory effect on DNA biosynthesis. HA, however, did not have any significant effect on this process. The inhibition of the expression of ß1-integrin and insulin-like growth factor receptor in fibroblasts incubated with the caffeine indicates a possible mechanism of inhibition of collagen biosynthesis. Conclusion: Caffeine reduces collagen synthesis in human cultured skin fibroblasts. HA did not have any significant protective effect on this process. This is the first study to our knowledge that reports caffeine-induced inhibition of collagen synthesis in human skin fibroblasts. Keywords: collagen, caffeine, hyaluronic acid, fibroblast

Donejko M

2014-10-01

58

DNA-repair after UV-irradiation in skin fibroblasts from patients with actinic keratosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Autoradiographic counting technique was utilized to measure the ultraviolet-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of skin fibroblasts from 12 patients with chronic actinic keratosis and from 12 healthy donors of about the same age. In order to reveal a possible regional difference of DNA repair between the parts of the body ordinarily exposed and those parts unexposed to sunlight, two cell strains were used for each examined subject; one developed from the forehead skin and the other from the abdominal or axillary skin. Unscheduled DNA synthesis appeared depressed in actinic keratosis patients, as compared with controls. In all examined subjects, however, cell strains from exposed skin showed a DNA repair more active than cell strains from unexposed skin. These findings show that skin cancer may be promoted in actinic keratosis patients by a defect of DNA repair. The exalted DNA repair of chronically sun exposed skin is probably the consequence of a defensive process caused by enzymatic induction. (orig.)

59

Cyclical cell stretching of skin-derived fibroblasts downregulates connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Delayed healing of skin wounds can be caused by wound instability, whereas appropriate massage or exercise prevents sclerosis and scar contracture. However, the mechanism by which wound healing is related to mechanical stress has not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to identify whether mechanical stretching of fibroblasts reduces their production of extracellular matrix. We transferred skin fibroblasts into collagen-coated elastic silicone chambers, cultured them on a stretching apparatus, and used RT-PCR to examine the effects of mechanical stretching on the expression levels of 17 genes related to extracellular matrix production and growth factor secretion. We found that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was downregulated after 24 hr of cell stretching. Specifically, the CTGF mRNA and protein levels were 50% and 48% of the control levels, respectively. These findings suggest that cyclic stretching of fibroblasts contributes to anti-fibrotic processes by reducing CTGF production. PMID:19863391

Kanazawa, Yuichiro; Nomura, Jun; Yoshimoto, Shinya; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Kita, Kazuko; Suzuki, Nobuo; Ichinose, Masaharu

2009-01-01

60

Enhanced biosynthesis of human skin collagenase in fibroblast cultures from recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.  

OpenAIRE

Using a sensitive, specific immunoprecipitation method, the biosynthesis of human skin collagenase was studied in fibroblast cultures from patients with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of solubilized immunoprecipitates showed two 3H-labeled procollagenase species that comigrated with those harvested from control cultures. Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa cultures accumulated increased amounts of collagenase. Both ...

Valle, K. J.; Bauer, E. A.

1980-01-01

61

Toxicity of Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles on Murine Fibroblast Cell Line  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: One of the major contributing factors, which may cause failure of endodontic treatment, is the presence of residual microorganisms in the root canal system. For years, most dentists have been using calcium hydroxide (CH) as the intracanal medicament between treatment sessions to eliminate remnant microorganisms. Reducing the size of CH particles into nanoparticles enhances the penetration of this medicament into dentinal tubules and increases their antimicrobial efficacy. This in vitro study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles and conventional CH on fibroblast cell line using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted on L929 murine fibroblast cell line by cell culture and evaluation of the direct effect of materials on the cultured cells. Materials were evaluated in two groups of 10 samples each at 24, 48 and 72 h. At each time point, 10 samples along with 5 positive and 5 negative controls were evaluated. The samples were transferred into tubes and exposed to fibroblast cells. The viability of cells was then evaluated. The Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Cytotoxicity of both materials decreased over time and for conventional CH was lower than that of nanoparticles. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles was similar to that of conventional CH. PMID:25598810

Dianat, Omid; Azadnia, Sina; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali

2015-01-01

62

Effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor on the proliferation and radiation survival of human fibroblast cell lines in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To explore the effect of recombinant human EGF on the proliferation and survival of human fibroblast cell lines following irradiation. Fibroblast was originated human skin and primary cultured. The trypan blue stain assay and MTT assay were used to study the proliferative effects of EGF on human fibroblast cell lines in vitro. An incubation of fibroblasts with rhEGF for 24 hours immediately after irradiation was counted everyday. Cell cycle distributions were analyzed by FACS analysis. Number of fibroblast was significant more increased rhEGF (1.0 nM, 10 nM, 100 nM, 1,000 nM) treated cell than control after 8 Gy irradiation. Most effective dose of rhEGF was at 160 nM. These survival differences were maintained at 1 week later. Proportion of S phase was significantly increased on rhEGF treated cells. rhEGF cause increased fibroblast proliferation following irradiation. We expect that rhEGF was effective for radiation induced wound healing

63

Normal skin and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts differentially regulate collagen and fibronectin expression as well as mitochondrial membrane potential in response to basic fibroblast growth factor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) regulates skin wound healing; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be defined. In the present study, we determined the effects of bFGF on the regulation of cell growth as well as collagen and fibronectin expression in fibroblasts from normal human skin a [...] nd from hypertrophic scars. We then explored the involvement of mitochondria in mediating bFGF-inducedeffects on the fibroblasts. We isolated and cultivated normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts from tissue biopsies of patients who underwent plastic surgery for repairing hypertrophic scars. The fibroblasts were then treated with different concentrations of bFGF (ranging from 0.1 to 1000 ng/mL). The growth of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts became slower with selective inhibition of type I collagen production after exposure to bFGF. However, type III collagen expression was affected in both normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. Moreover, fibronectin expression in the normal fibroblasts was up-regulated after bFGF treatment. bFGF (1000 ng/mL) also induced mitochondrial depolarization in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (P

Rui, Song; Hui-Ning, Bian; Wen, Lai; Hua-De, Chen; Ke-Seng, Zhao.

2011-05-01

64

Human skin in organ culture and human skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts) in monolayer culture for assessment of chemically induced skin damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human skin cells (epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts) in monolayer culture and human skin in organ culture were exposed to agents that are known to produce irritation (redness, dryness, edema and scaly crusts) when applied topically to skin. Among the agents used were three well accepted contact irritants (i.e., all-trans retinoic acid [RA], sodium lauryl sulfate [SLS] and benzalkonium chloride) as well as the corrosive organic mercury compound, aminophenyl mercuric acetate (APMA), and 5 contact sensitizers (oxazolone, nickel sulfate, eugenol, isoeugenol and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate [EGDM]). As a group, the contact irritants (including the corrosive mercuric compound) were cytotoxic for keratinocytes and fibroblasts and suppressed growth at lower concentrations than the contact sensitizers. The contact irritants also produced histological changes (hyperplasia, incomplete keratinization, loss of the granular layer, acantholysis and necrosis) in organ-cultured skin at dose levels at which the contact sensitizers appeared to be inert. Finally, the profile of secreted molecules from organ-cultured skin was different in the presence of contact irritants versus contact sensitizers. Taken together, these data suggest that the use of organ-cultured skin in conjunction with cells derived from the skin in monolayer culture may provide an initial approach to screening agents for deleterious changes in skin. PMID:17763283

Varani, James; Perone, Patricia; Spahlinger, Diana M; Singer, Lisa M; Diegel, Kelly L; Bobrowski, Walter F; Dunstan, Robert

2007-08-01

65

Phenotypic correction of factor IX deficiency in skin fibroblasts of hemophilic dogs.  

OpenAIRE

Primary skin fibroblasts from hemophilic dogs were transduced by recombinant retrovirus (LNCdF9L) containing a canine factor IX cDNA. High levels of biologically active canine factor IX (1.0 micrograms per 10(6) cells per 24 hr) were secreted in the medium. The level of factor IX produced increased substantially if the cells were stimulated by basic fibroblast growth factor during infection. Additionally, we also report that endothelial cells transduced by this virus can produce high levels o...

Axelrod, J. H.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, K. M.; Verma, I. M.

1990-01-01

66

Lysosomal Storage Causes Cellular Dysfunction in Mucolipidosis II Skin Fibroblasts*  

OpenAIRE

Mucolipidosis II (ML-II) is a fatal inherited metabolic disease caused by deficiency of GlcNAc-phosphotransferase, which plays a role in generating the mannose 6-phosphate recognition marker on lysosomal enzymes. In ML-II, many lysosomal acid hydrolases are mistargeted out of cells, and lysosomes become filled with undigested substrates, which explains inclusion cell disease as an alternative name for this disease. In this study, we revealed various cellular phenotypes in ML-II skin fibroblas...

Otomo, Takanobu; Higaki, Katsumi; Nanba, Eiji; Ozono, Keiichi; Sakai, Norio

2011-01-01

67

Relationship between the in vitro radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts and the expression of subcutaneous fibrosis, telangiectasia, and skin erythema after radiotherapy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To investigate if the occurrence of subcutaneous fibrosis after radiotherapy in an unselected group of breast cancer patients is related to cellular radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts as measured in a clonogenic assay.

Johansen, J; Bentzen, SØren M

1996-01-01

68

A FTIR Imaging Characterization of Fibroblasts Stimulated by Various Breast Cancer Cell Lines  

OpenAIRE

It is well known that the microenvironment plays a major role in breast cancer progression. Yet, the mechanism explaining the transition from normal fibroblasts to cancer-stimulated fibroblasts remains to be elucidated. Here we report a FTIR imaging study of the effects of three different breast cancer cell lines on normal fibroblasts in culture. Fibroblast activation process was monitored by FTIR imaging and spectra compared by multivariate statistical analyses. Principal component analysis ...

Kumar, Saroj; Shabi, Thankaraj Salammal; Goormaghtigh, Erik

2014-01-01

69

Protective effect of maghemite nanoparticles on ultraviolet-induced photo-damage in human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examined the optical properties of an oxidized form of maghemite (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles and their protective effects against the photoaging of human skin fibroblasts irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 8.7 to 12 nm were prepared using a chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were coated with two surfactants to obtain a water-based product. The onset of the absorption of the ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in the UV-visible absorption spectra increased with increasing particle size. The ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles significantly inhibited the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblast HS 68 cells by 60% compared with the UV-irradiated control. These results suggest that ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have photoprotective properties, and have potential use as an agent against photoaging

70

Expansion and delivery of human fibroblasts on micronized acellular dermal matrix for skin regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to obtain an abundant supply of autologous dermal fibroblasts for the manufacture of engineered autologous dermal substitutes, we fabricated the micronized acellular dermal matrix (MADM) microcarriers and expanded human fibroblasts on them. This novel approach eliminated the need for the repeated trypsinizations that may disrupt cell-extracellular matrix interactions and impair cell viability. This cell expansion protocol simultaneously formed an engineered particulate dermal substitute (EPDS) avoiding cell reseeded on the scaffolds process. We further tested its feasibility and effectiveness in athymic murine subcutaneous injection and full-thickness cutaneous wound model. Our results showed that MADM microcarriers retained the ultrastructure of the acellular dermal matrix, had good biocompatibility, and supported human fibroblast expansion either as a direct culture substrate or through culturing cells in conditioned medium prepared from them. In the animal study, EPDS formed a thick layer of tissue below the subcutaneous muscle tissue at 3 weeks following EPDS injection into subcutaneous tissue. In full-thickness cutaneous wound, the degree of wound healing with EPDS implantation was better than that without EPDS although healing rates were not significantly different between wounds implanted with or without EPDS. This demonstrates the potential utility of MADM not only as a cell culture substrate to expand fibroblasts but also as a cell transplantation vehicle for skin regeneration, with several advantages over current expansion-transplantation protocols for skin regeneration. In addition, EPDS may be used for cosmetic or reconstructive soft tissue augmentation in a minimally invasive fashion. PMID:19171377

Zhang, Xiaojun; Deng, Zhihong; Wang, Hailun; Yang, Zhenhua; Guo, Weihua; Li, Yuan; Ma, Dandan; Yu, Chunyan; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Yan

2009-05-01

71

Recovery from UV-induced potentially lethal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The repair of ultraviolet light-induced potentially lethal damage was investigated in density-inhibited skin fibroblast cell strains derived from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The effect of exposure to polychromatic ultraviolet light composed of environmentally relevant wavelengths or to the more commonly studied, short wavelength (254 nm) ultraviolet light was studied. Systemic lupus erythematosus cells, which are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light under growth promoting conditions, were able to repair potentially lethal damage as well as normal cells. (author)

72

Human Skin Collagenase in Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa: PURIFICATION OF A MUTANT ENZYME FROM FIBROBLAST CULTURES  

OpenAIRE

Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, a genodermatosis characterized by dermolytic blister formation in response to minor trauma, is characterized by an incresaed collagenase synthesis by skin fibroblasts in culture. Since preliminary studies of partially purified recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa collagenase suggested that the protein itself was aberrant, efforts were made to purify this enzyme to homogeneity, so that detailed biochemical and immunologic comparisons could be m...

Stricklin, George P.; Welgus, Howard G.; Bauer, Eugene A.

1982-01-01

73

Derivation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Fetal Human Skin Fibroblasts  

OpenAIRE

The isolation and study of autologous human stem cells remain among the most urgent problems in cell biology and biomedicine to date. Induced pluripotent stem cells can be derived from human somatic cells by the overexpression of a number of genes. In this study we reprogrammed fetal human skin fibroblasts by transduction with retroviral vectors carrying murine Oct4 , Sox2 , Klf4 , and c–Myc cDNAs. As a result, cells with the protein expression and gene transcription ...

Medvedev, S. P.; Malakhova, A. A.; Grigor’eva, E. V.; Shevchenko, A. I.; Dementyeva, E. V.; Sobolev, I. A.; Lebedev, I. N.; Shilov, A. G.; Zhimulev, I. F.; Zakian, S. M.

2010-01-01

74

Defective metabolism of hypertriglyceridemic low density lipoprotein in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Normalization with bezafibrate therapy.  

OpenAIRE

The metabolism of hypertriglyceridemic low density lipoprotein (HTG-LDL) was investigated in upregulated cultured human skin fibroblasts. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was isolated by zonal centrifugation from the plasma of seven HTG subjects, before and 2 wk after the initiation of bezafibrate (BZ) therapy. HTG-LDL is a cholesterol-poor, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein of smaller diameter than BZ-LDL or normal LDL (N-LDL). Binding, cell association, and proteolytic degradation of HTG-LDL were ...

Kleinman, Y.; Eisenberg, S.; Oschry, Y.; Gavish, D.; Stein, O.; Stein, Y.

1985-01-01

75

Oxidant stress leads to transcriptional activation of the human heme oxygenase gene in cultured skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with near-UV radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induces accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA and protein. In this study, these treatments led to a dramatic increase in the rate of RNA transcription from the heme oxygenase gene but had no effect on mRNA stability. Transcriptional activation, therefore, appears to be the major mechanism of stimulation of expression of this gene by either oxidative stress or sulfydryl reagents

76

DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA light used in clinical PUVA treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with a clinically used UVA light source. The doses (1.1 and 3 J/cm2) were similar to those reaching the dermis during clinical PUVA treatment of psoriasis. DNA strand breaks, as determined by alkaline elution, were formed in a dose-dependent way and disappeared within 1 hr of postincubation at 37 degrees C. These findings have clinical implications since UVA-induced DNA damage may be accompanied by mutagenic and tumor promoting effects

77

Radioprotective effect of c-ski on rat skin fibroblast in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To examine radioprotective effect of c-ski on rat skin fibroblast in vitro and explore its possible mechanism. Methods: The effect of soft X-ray irradiation at dose varied from 2 to 8 Gy on cell apoptosis in rat skin fibroblast were determined by flow cytometry with Annexin-V-FITC-PI labelling. The effect of c-ski gene transfection on cell apoptosis was evaluated after soft X-ray irradiation of 4 Gy. The protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 after c-ski gene transfection were measured with the Western blot method. Results: Soft X-ray irradiation increases cell apoptosis, and the increase is proportional to the irradiation dose. Apoptosis ratio increases with time since the irradiation, and reaches its peak at 36h after the irradiation, c-ski gene was observed to markedly decrease apoptosis index at 24 h after soft X-ray irradiation of 4 Gy compared to the control group, significant increase of the protein expression of Bcl-2 was observed. C-ski gene was found no significant effect on the protein expression of Bax. Conclusion: c-ski gene can decrease radiation sensitivity of skin fibroblast, promoting Bcl-2 protein expression is one of its possible mechanism for this radioprotective effects. (authors)

78

Effects of baicalin against UVA-induced photoaging in skin fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation contributes to skin photoaging. Baicalin, a plant-derived flavonoid, effectively absorbs UV rays and has been shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that may delay the photoaging process. In the current study, cultured human skin fibroblasts were incubated with 50 ?g/ml baicalin 24 hours prior to 10 J/cm(2) UVA irradiation. In order to examine the efficacy of baicalin treatment in delaying UVA-induced photoaging, we investigated aging-related markers, cell cycle changes, anti-oxidant activity, telomere length, and DNA damage markers. UVA radiation caused an increased proportion of ?-Gal positive cells and reduced telomere length in human skin fibroblasts. In addition, UVA radiation inhibited TGF-?1 secretion, induced G1 phase arrest, reduced SOD and GSH-Px levels, increased MDA levels, enhanced the expression of MMP-1, TIMP-1, p66, p53, and p16 mRNA, reduced c-myc mRNA expression, elevated p53 and p16 protein expression, and reduced c-myc protein expression. Baicalin treatment effectively protected human fibroblasts from these UVA radiation-induced aging responses, suggesting that the underlying mechanism involves the inhibition of oxidative damage and regulation of the expression of senescence-related genes, including those encoding for p53, p66(Shc) and p16. PMID:24871661

Min, Wei; Liu, Xin; Qian, Qihong; Lin, Bingjiang; Wu, Di; Wang, Miaomiao; Ahmad, Israr; Yusuf, Nabiha; Luo, Dan

2014-01-01

79

Radiosensitivity of fibroblasts obtained from a cafe-au-lait spot and normal-appearing skin of a patient with neurofibromatosis (NF-6)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fibroblast cells derived from a cafe-au-lait spot and normal-appearing skin of a neurofibromatosis (NF-6) patient were studied for radiosensitivity in comparison with two normal cell lines used as controls. No difference in radiosensitivity was observed between the patient's cell lines and the controls using acute gamma-irradiation. However, a markedly increased radiosensitivity of the fibroblasts obtained from the patient's skin of normal appearance was demonstrated after chronic gamma-irradiation. The cells from the cafe-au-lait spot showed intermediate sensitivity to chronic irradiation as compared with the control cell lines and the fibroblasts derived from the normal skin of the patient. These results showed the usefulness of chronic irradiation in detecting increased cellular radiosensitivity which may result from a unique DNA repair defect in an NF patient. We suggest that enhanced genetic changes in radiosensitive NF patients may lead to formation of cafe-au-lait lesions and certain tumors. Such a transformation may be associated with production of radiotolerant cells

80

Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the interaction of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)2D [1,25(OH)2D]. We analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer containing 300 mM KCl and 10 mM sodium molybdate. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses om clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)2D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds

81

Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors evaluated the interaction of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)2D [1,25(OH)2D]. They analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. The following four patterns of interaction with [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 were observed with cells cultured from affected patients. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target nes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)2D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds

82

Abnormal phenotype of cultured fibroblasts in human skin with chronic radiotherapy damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The pathophysiological aspects of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) have not been well characterized. We therefore cultured human fibroblasts from samples of skin with RIF to investigate the long-term effects of therapeutic irradiation. Materials and methods: Biopsies of normal and RIF skin were obtained from patients previously irradiated for cancer, without recurrence. Cells were extracted from dermis samples by the outgrowth technique, seeded as monolayers and cultured at confluence. Enzyme activities and proteins were assayed, RNA was isolated and Northern blot analysis was performed on surviving cells between passages 2 and 5. Results: RIF cell cultures displayed heterogeneous fibroblasts populations. The initial outgrowth consisted of one-third small cells that floated rapidly, one-third spindle-shaped cells migrating far from the explant to form islets and one-third large pleiomorphic cells. In subsequent subcultures, surviving cells exhibited either myofibroblastic characteristics with a normal proliferative capacity or senescent morphology with a reduced proliferative capacity. These RIF cells had a brief finite lifespan, with dramatically reduced growth rate during their initial outgrowth and the following passages. Study of the antioxidant metabolism showed that Mn superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly weaker in surviving RIF cells than healthy fibroblasts. These exhausted RIF cells exhibited no overexpression of transformi exhibited no overexpression of transforming growth factor ? or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. Conclusion: Irradiation may lead to apparently contradictory effects such as fibrosis and necrosis in clinical practice. In cell culture, we observed two main cellular phenotypes which may be related to both processes, i.e. myofibroblast-like cells and fibrocyte-like cells. These two phenotypes may represent two steps in the differentiation induced as a long-term effect of therapeutic irradiation of the skin. Cell culture probably accelerates the induction of the terminal differentiation in RIF fibroblasts. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

83

Silver ions induce oxidative stress and intracellular zinc release in human skin fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silver compounds used as topical antimicrobial agents are known to exert toxic effects on skin cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the toxicity of silver ions, in analogy to other transition metal ions, depends on pro-oxidant effects. We treated human skin fibroblasts with concentrations of AgNO(3) not affecting cell proliferation, mitochondrial activity, or cell viability and found that Ag(+) strongly increases the production of reactive oxygen species, including superoxide anion radicals. These effects correspond to a strong decrease in intracellular reduced glutathione and to an increased susceptibility to H(2)O(2)-induced cell death. In addition, AgNO(3) down-regulates the expression of antioxidant genes such as the transcription factor Nrf2 and its target gene glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. Furthermore Ag(+) induces a transient intracellular zinc release and increases the mRNA and protein expression of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein by activating the metal-responsive transcription factor 1, as verified by RNA interference. In conclusion, we show for the first time that Ag(+) induces oxidative stress and affects intracellular zinc homeostasis in human skin fibroblasts. The understanding of the mechanism involved in silver toxicity might contribute to new strategies for managing the therapy of skin infections. PMID:19733233

Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Münchow, Meike; Pirev, Elvis; Hessner, Florian; Bozkurt, Ahmed; Uciechowski, Peter; Pallua, Norbert; Kröncke, Klaus-D; Suschek, Christoph V

2009-12-01

84

Baicalin protects human skin fibroblasts from ultraviolet A radiation-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important factor in the development of skin photodamage after ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. A flavonoid antioxidant, baicalin, can selectively neutralize super-oxide anion (O(2)(-)) while having no significant effect on (•)OH. Fibroblasts are a key component of skin dermis. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of baicalin on human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) under UVA induced oxidative stress. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to assay the intracellular O(2)(-), NO, ROS concentrations and the mitochondrial membrane potential. Cell viability was determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). The concentrations of cellular MDA, SOD, GSH, T-AOC, and 8-oxo-dG were also measured. Cellular apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and caspase-3 detection. The results revealed that UVA radiation could cause oxidative stress and apoptosis in HSFs. Interestingly, the use of baicalin after UVA radiation significantly reduced the level of intracellular O(2)(-), NO, and ROS, stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential, and attenuated production of MDA and 8-oxo-dG. These efficiently enhanced the antioxidative defense system and protected the HSFs from subsequent oxidative stress damage and apoptosis. In other words, baicalin decreased the excessive generation of intracellular ROS and NO, and elevated the cellular antioxidative defense, which eventually mitigate the UVA-induced apoptosis. Based on our results, baicalin may have applications in the treatment of skin photodamage caused by UVA irradiation. PMID:22946442

Zhou, Bing-rong; Yin, Hui-bin; Xu, Yang; Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhao-hui; Yin, Zhi-qiang; Permatasari, Felicia; Luo, Dan

2012-12-01

85

Absence of ?-galactosidase cross-correction in Fabry heterozygote cultured skin fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from deficiency of ?-galactosidase A (GLA). Traditionally, heterozygotes were considered asymptomatic carriers of FD, but it is now apparent that the asymptomatic female carrier is the exception and most heterozygotes suffer significant multisystemic disease. To determine why the process of cross-correction does not occur effectively in FD heterozygotes, we investigated GLA production and secretion in cultured skin fibroblasts as well as GLA levels in plasma. The maturation of GLA was similar in FD heterozygotes and control fibroblasts, confirming that both produce the 46kDa mature form; the same as that present in control plasma. However, the proportion of GLA secreted into the culture media was substantially less than eight other lysosomal proteins. Artificial generation of FD heterozygotes in cellulo, along with another lysosomal storage disorder, mucopolysaccharidosis type II, revealed no cross-correction in the FD system, whereas MPS II fibroblasts were able to cross-correct. In plasma, GLA was present as the 46kDa mature form, which lacks the mannose 6-phosphorylated moiety and is not able to be efficiently endocytosed by affected cells. Our evidence shows that fibroblasts secrete minimal amounts of GLA and consequently normal fibroblasts are unable to cross-correct FD fibroblasts. We suggest that symptomatic FD heterozygotes arise due to the secretion of primarily the mature form, with only small amounts of the mannose 6-phosphorylated form of GLA from unaffected cells. This limits capacity for enzyme cross correction of affected cells, despite uptake of exogenous recombinant GLA. PMID:25468650

Fuller, Maria; Mellett, Natalie; Hein, Leanne K; Brooks, Doug A; Meikle, Peter J

2015-02-01

86

Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts involves peroxisomal retroconversion of tetracosahexaenoic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the formation of docosahexaenoic acid in human cells occurs through a pathway that involves 24-carbon n-3 fatty acid intermediates and retroconversion. Normal human skin fibroblasts synthesized radiolabeled docosahexaenoic acid from [1-(14)C]18:3n-3, [3-(14)C]22:5n-3, [3-(14)C]24:5n-3, and [3-(14)C]24:6n-3. The amount of docosahexaenoate formed was reduced in fibroblasts defective in peroxisomal biogenesis, by 90-100% in Zellweger's syndrome and by 50-75% in infantile Refsum's disease. Fatty acid elongation and desaturation were intact in these mutant cells. No decrease in radiolabeled docosahexaenoic acid production occurred in mutant fibroblasts defective in peroxisomal alpha-oxidation or mitochondrial beta-oxidation, or in normal fibroblasts treated with methyl palmoxirate to inhibit mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Therefore, the retroconversion step in docosahexaenoic acid formation occurs through peroxisomal beta-oxidation in normal human cells. These results demonstrate that the pathway for docosahexaenoic acid synthesis in human cells involves 24-carbon intermediates. The limited ability to synthesize docosahexaenoic acid may underlie some of the pathology that occurs in genetic diseases involving peroxisomal beta-oxidation. PMID:8656081

Moore, S A; Hurt, E; Yoder, E; Sprecher, H; Spector, A A

1995-11-01

87

X ray sensitivity of diploid skin fibroblasts from patients with Fanconi's anemia  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were performed on Fanconi's anemia and normal human fibroblast cell lines growing in culture in an attempt to correlate cell cycle kinetics with genomic damage and determine their bearing on the mechanism of chromosome aberration induction. FA fibroblasts showed a significantly increased susceptibility to chromosomal breakage by x rays in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. No such response was observed in fibroblasts irradiated in the G0 phase. The observed increases in achromatic lesions and in chromatid deletions in FA cells as compared with normal cells appear to indicate that FA cells are deficient in strand break repair and also possibly in base damage excision repair. Experiments are now in progress to further elucidate the mechanisms involved.

Kale, Ranjini

1989-01-01

88

Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1) mediates replicative senescence-associated aberrant collagen homeostasis in human skin fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermal fibroblasts produce a collagen-rich extracellular matrix, which confers mechanical strength and resiliency to human skin. During aging, collagen production is reduced and collagen fragmentation is increased, which is initiated by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). This aberrant collagen homeostasis results in net collagen deficiency, which impairs the structural integrity and function of skin. Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1), a member of the CCN family, negatively regulates collagen homeostasis, in primary human skin dermal fibroblasts. As replicative senescence is a form of cellular aging, we have utilized replicative senescent dermal fibroblasts to further investigate the connection between elevated CCN1 and aberrant collagen homeostasis. CCN1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in replicative senescent dermal fibroblasts. Replicative senescent dermal fibroblasts also expressed significantly reduced levels of type I procollagen and increased levels of MMP-1. Knockdown of elevated CCN1 in senescent dermal fibroblasts partially normalized both type I procollagen and MMP-1 expression. These data further support a key role of CCN1 in regulation of collagen homeostasis. Elevated expression of CCN1 substantially increased collagen lattice contraction and fragmentation caused by replicative senescent dermal fibroblasts. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) further revealed collagen fibril fragmentation and disorganization were largely prevented by knockdown of CCN1 in replicative senescent dermal fibroblasts, suggesting CCN1 mediates MMP-1-induced alterations of collagen fibrils by replicative senescent dermal fibroblasts. Given the ability of CCN1 to regulate both production and degradation of type I collagen, it is likely that elevated-CCN1 functions as an important mediator of collagen loss, which is observed in aged human skin. PMID:22566095

Quan, Taihao; Qin, Zhaoping; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

2012-09-01

89

Relationship between DNA double-strand breaks, cell killing, and fibrosis studied in confluent skin fibroblasts derived from breast cancer patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To investigate the relationship between DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs), cell killing, and fibrosis using skin fibroblasts derived from breast cancer patients who received postmastectomy radiotherapy.

Dikomey, E; Brammer, I

2000-01-01

90

Use of a genetic variant to study the hexose transport properties of human skin fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human skin fibroblasts from 'normal' subjects were found to possess at least two hexose transport systems. One system was responsible for the uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (dGlc), D-glucose and D-galactose, whereas the other was responsible primarily for the uptake of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (MeGlc). The transport of dGlc was the rate-limiting step in the uptake process; over 97% of the internalized dGlc was phosphorylated and the specific activity of hexokinase was several times higher than that for dGlc transport. The dGlc transport system was activated by glucose starvation, and was very sensitive to inhibition by cytochalasin B and energy uncouplers. Fibroblasts isolated from a patient with symptoms of hypoglycaemia were found to differ from their normal counterparts in the dGlc transport system. They exhibited a much higher transport affinity for dGlc, D-glucose and D-galactose, with no change in the respective transport capacity. Transport was not the rate-limiting step in dGlc uptake by these cells. Moreover, the patient's dGlc transport system was no longer sensitive to inhibition by cytochalasin B and energy uncouplers. This suggested that the intrinsic properties of the patient's dGlc transport system were altered. It should be noted that the patient's dGlc transport system could still be activated by glucose starvation. Despite the changes in the dGlc transport system, the MeGlc transport system in the patient's fibroblasts remained unaltered. The observed difference in the properties of the two hexose transport systems in the 'normal' and the patient's fibroblasts strongly suggests that the two transport systems may be coded or regulated by different genes. The present finding provides the first genetic evidence from naturally occurring fibroblasts indicating the presence of two different hexose transport systems. PMID:2306216

Mesmer, O T; Gordon, B A; Rupar, C A; Lo, T C

1990-02-01

91

Characterisation of the kynurenine pathway in skin-derived fibroblasts and keratinocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute UVB exposure triggers inflammation leading to the induction of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO1), one of the first enzymes in the kynurenine pathway (KP) for tryptophan degradation. However, limited studies have been undertaken to determine the catabolism of tryptophan within the skin. The aim of this study was two fold: (1) to establish if the administration of the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and/or UVB radiation elicits differential KP expression patterns in human fibroblast and keratinocytes; and (2) to evaluate the effect of KP metabolites on intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ) levels, and cell viability. Primary cultures of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes were used to examine expression of the KP at the mRNA level using qPCR, and at the protein level using immunocytochemistry. Cellular responses to KP metabolites were assessed by examining extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and intracellular NAD(+) levels. Major downstream KP metabolites were analyzed using GC/MS and HPLC. Our data shows that the KP is fully expressed both in human fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Exposure to UVB radiation and/or IFN-? causes significant changes in the expression pattern of downstream KP metabolites and enzymes. Exposure to various concentrations of KP metabolites showed marked differences in cell viability and intracellular NAD(+) production, providing support for involvement of the KP in the de novo synthesis of NAD(+) in the skin. This new information will have a significant impact on our understanding of the pathogenesis of UV related skin damage and the diagnosis of KP related disease states. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 903-922, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25639585

Sheipouri, Diba; Grant, Ross; Bustamante, Sonia; Lovejoy, David; Guillemin, Gilles J; Braidy, Nady

2015-06-01

92

Fibroblast radiosensitivity versus acute and late normal skin responses in patients treated for breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose/Objective: To determine if the radiosensitivity of normal human skin fibroblasts, measured in early passage cultures, is significantly correlated with the degree of acute or late normal skin damage in patients treated for breast cancer with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: In the 1970s, a series of breast cancer patients was treated at the Department of Oncology in Gothenburg, Sweden with postoperative irradiation to the parasternal region. Patients were treated bilaterally using different fractionation schedules and doses to the right and left fields. Peak acute reactions were scored on a six-point scale, and skin erythema was measured by reflectance spectrophotometry. Telangiectasia was graded over time on a six-point scale. In April 1992, two small skin biopsies were obtained from 22 patients in two treatment groups (i.e., four dose-fractionation schedules) and, using either delayed or immediate plating, fibroblast radiosensitivity was measured in early passage cultures by clonogenic survival, after high and low dose-rate irradiations. Survival at 2.0 Gy (SF2) was calculated from complete survival curves. Results: To test assay reproducibility, SF2 values derived from paired biopsies of the same patient (12 cases) were compared. A reasonably good correlation (p = 0.075) was obtained for SF2s determined by high dose-rate irradiations with immediate plating, but not for delayed plating or low dose-rate treatments. The median coefficient of variation in th The median coefficient of variation in the replicate SF2s after high dose-rate treatment and immediate plating was 13%, suggesting that the poor correlation in paired SF2 values is due to the magnitude of the uncertainty in SF2 relative to the overall spread in SF2 values between patients (CV = 28%). Individual SF2 values and averaged values from patients with data from two biopsies were compared with the acute and late clinical reactions. A significant negative correlation was found between SF2 and relative clinical response, but only when averaged high dose-rate SF2 values and telangiectasia scores were compared. There was no significant correlation between average SF2 values and acute responses or between individual SF2 measurements and either the acute or late clinical response. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the degree of late telangiectasia is at least partially dependent upon the intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity of normal fibroblasts, but the relationship is not clear cut. Multiple replicate assays are necessary to obtain reliable estimates of fibroblast SF2 values using current techniques

93

Membrane damage induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation of cultured human skin fibroblasts with ultraviolet light from 320 to 400 nm (UVA) leads to a decrease in the membrane fluidity exemplified by an enhanced fluorescence anisotropy of the lipophilic fluorescent probe 1-[4-trimethylamino)-phenyl]-6-phenylhexa-1,3,5-triene. This UVA-induced decrease in fluidity is associated with lactate dehydrogenase leakage in the supernatant. Vitamin E, an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, exerts a protective effect on both phenomena. Therefore, this UVA-induced damage in membrane properties may be related to lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, exponentially growing cells are more sensitive to these UVA-induced alterations than confluent cells. (Author)

94

Near-ultraviolet radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane effects in Escherichia coli and human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of this thesis examines the response of an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph, Escherichia coli K1060 to broad-band near-UV radiation. Sensitivity, lipid peroxidation and leakage of rubidium from irradiated cells were found to increase with increasing unsaturation of membrane fatty acids. The involvement of singlet oxygen was implicated by an increase in sensitivity, lipid peroxidation and leakage of rubidium following irradiation in deuterium oxide. Some factors influencing survival following irradiation were investigated, where lower growth rates were shown to enhance survival. In the second part, the study was extended to human fibroblasts where a normal human skin fibroblast strain, GM730 and a strain derived from an actinic reticuloid patient, AR6LO, are compared. Lipid peroxidation was measured in both cell lines following broad-band near-UV irradiation. Membrane activity, as assessed by the pinocytic uptake of 14C-sucrose and its subsequent release from the cell, was measured. Near-UV irradiation was found to increase such activity in both strains. Vitamin E and Trolox-C were found to decrease this response in AR6LO but not GM730 cells. The final part consists of preliminary investigations into the near-UV induced peroxidation of fatty acids and liposomes, and the subsequent increase in the level of hydroperoxides in the hours following irradiation. (author)

95

Mechanisms of Fibroblast Cell Therapy for Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa: High Stability of Collagen VII Favors Long-term Skin Integrity  

OpenAIRE

Here, we report on the first systematic long-term study of fibroblast therapy in a mouse model for recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), a severe skin-blistering disorder caused by loss-of-function of collagen VII. Intradermal injection of wild-type (WT) fibroblasts in >50 mice increased the collagen VII content at the dermal–epidermal junction 3.5- to 4.7-fold. Although the active biosynthesis lasted

Kern, Johannes S.; Loeckermann, Stefan; Fritsch, Anja; Hausser, Ingrid; Roth, Wera; Magin, Thomas M.; Mack, Claudia; Mu?ller, Marcel L.; Paul, Oliver; Ruther, Patrick; Bruckner-tuderman, Leena

2009-01-01

96

Human skin fibroblast stromelysin: structure, glycosylation, substrate specificity, and differential expression in normal and tumorigenic cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have purified and determined the complete primary structure of human stromelysin, a secreted metalloprotease with a wide range of substrate specificities. Human stromelysin is synthesized in a preproenzyme form with a calculated size of 53,977 Da and a 17-amino acid long signal peptide. Prostromelysin is secreted in two forms, with apparent molecular masses on NaDodSO4/PAGE of 60 and 57 kDa. Human stromelysin is capable of degrading proteoglycan, fibronectin, laminin, and type IV collagen but not interstitial type I collagen. The enzyme is not capable of activating purified human fibroblast procollagenase. Analysis of its primary structure shows that stromelysin is in all likelihood the human analog of rat transin, which is an oncogene transformation-induced protease. The pattern of enzyme expression in normal and tumorigenic cells revealed that human skin fibroblasts in vitro secrete stromelysin constitutively. Human fetal lung fibroblasts transformed with simian virus 40, human bronchial epithelial cells transformed with the ras oncogene, fibrosarcoma cells (HT-1080), and a melanoma cell strain (A 2058), do not express this protease nor can the enzyme be induced in these cells by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The data indicate that the expression and the possible involvement of secreted metalloproteases in tumorigenesis result from a specific interaction between the transforming factor and the target cell, which may vary in dr and the target cell, which may vary in different species

97

Silver nanoparticles mediate differential responses in keratinocytes and fibroblasts during skin wound healing.  

Science.gov (United States)

With advances in nanotechnology, pure silver has been recently engineered into nanometer-sized particles (diameter silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can promote wound healing through the modulation of cytokines. Nonetheless, the question as to whether AgNPs can affect various skin cell types--keratinocytes and fibroblasts--during the wound-healing process still remains. Therefore, the aim of this study was to focus on the cellular response and events of dermal contraction and epidermal re-epithelialization during wound healing under the influence of AgNPs; for this we used a full-thickness excisional wound model in mice. The wounds were treated with either AgNPs or control with silver sulfadiazine, and the proliferation and biological events of keratinocytes and fibroblasts during healing were studied. Our results confirm that AgNPs can increase the rate of wound closure. On one hand, this was achieved through the promotion of proliferation and migration of keratinocytes. On the other hand, AgNPs can drive the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, thereby promoting wound contraction. These findings further extend our current knowledge of AgNPs in biological and cellular events and also have significant implications for the treatment of wounds in the clinical setting. PMID:20112331

Liu, Xuelai; Lee, Pui-Yan; Ho, Chi-Ming; Lui, Vincent C H; Chen, Yan; Che, Chi-Ming; Tam, Paul K H; Wong, Kenneth K Y

2010-03-01

98

Protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis in cultures of skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects and patients with rheumatic diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the mechanism of the lasting disturbance of fibroblast function, protein, RNA and DNA synthesis was investigated in skin fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic scleroderma (SS). The labeled precursors used to analyze synthesis of protein, RNA, and DNA were 14C-protein hydrolysate, (14C)uridine, and (14C) thymidine. Stimulation was determined by measuring incorporation of (14C)proline into fibroblast proteins. During analysis of stability of fast-labeled RNA tests were carried out to discover whether all measurable radioactivity belonged to RNA molecules

99

Action spectra for inactivation of normal and xeroderma pigmentosum human skin fibroblasts by ultraviolet radiations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Action spectra for UV-induced lethality as measured by colony forming ability were determined both for a normal human skin fibroblast strain (1BR) and for an excision deficient xeroderma pigmentosum strain (XP4LO) assigned to complementation group A using 7 monochromatic wavelengths in the range 254-365 nm. The relative sensitivity of the XP strain compared to the normal skin fibroblasts shows a marked decrease at wavelengths longer than 313 nm, changing from a ratio of about 20 at the shorter wavelengths to just greater than 1.0 at the longer wavelengths. The action spectra thus indicate that the influence on cell inactivation of the DNA repair defect associated with XP cells is decreased and almost reaches zero at longer UV wavelengths. This would occur, for example, if the importance of pyrimidine dimers as the lethal lesion decreased with increasing wavelength. These results are consistent with pyrimidine dimers induced in DNA being the major lethal lesion in both cell strains over the wavelength range 254-313 nm. However, it is indicated that different mechanisms of inactivation operate at wavelengths longer than 313 nm. (author)

100

Cholesterol stimulation of HDL binding to human endothelial cells EAhy 926 and skin fibroblasts: evidence for a mechanism independent of cellular metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The properties of the HDL binding site on the permanent human cell line EAhy 926 were studied. This cell line presents with highly differentiated functions of vascular endothelium. EAhy 926 cells possess HDL3 saturable binding sites with a Kd of about 20 micrograms/ml, which were up-regulated by cholesterol and were pronase- and EDTA-insensitive. Furthermore, HDL3 promoted cholesterol efflux from EAhy 926 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the HDL-binding site in EAhy 926 cells is similar to that present in fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Up-regulation of HDL binding by cholesterol did not require de novo synthesis of HDL 'receptor' protein, as shown by the lack of effect of cycloheximide and alpha-amanitin and also occurred in fixed, non-living cells. Similar results were obtained using human skin fibroblasts. From these data we conclude that: (a) EAhy 926 cells are a good model for studying the HDL interaction with endothelial cells; (b) a mechanism independent of cellular metabolism is involved in the cholesterol-mediated up-regulation of HDL binding sites in EAhy 926 cells and human skin fibroblasts. PMID:1851638

Bernini, F; Bellosta, S; Corsini, A; Maggi, F M; Fumagalli, R; Catapano, A L

1991-04-24

101

Skin fibroblasts from a D-deletion type retinoblastoma patient are abnormally X-ray sensitive  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Retinoblastoma is a rare malignant eye tumour that appears either spontaneously or in genetically predisposed persons. The latter group is composed of persons who inherit the tumour with a dominant mode of transmission (the familial type) and those who have a deletion in the long arm of chromosome 13 referred to as the D-deletion type. When this deletion is present it is observed in many somatic cells and is often associated with structural defects. Survivors of the genetic forms of retinoblastoma have an increased risk of the development of cancers at other sites. A single genetic locus is unlikely to predispose many somatic cells to tumour formation unless a fundamental molecular defect, possibly related to DNA repair, is present. In order to investigate this hypothesis a study was made of the in vitro X-ray sensitivity of skin fibroblasts derived from three retinoblastoma patients, comprising a pair of twins with the familial type accompanied by no gross chromosome abnormalities, and a patient with the D-deletion type. It was found that fibroblasts derived from the D-deletion patient were significantly more radiosensitive than those from the other two patients. X-ray survival curves are shown. It is concluded that skin fibroblasts derived from a patient with the D-deletion variant of retinoblastoma are abnormally radiosensitive. Future investigations may indicate a specific defect in molecular repair of DNA that will explain the predisposition of these patients to n the predisposition of these patients to the development of other tumours. (U.K.)

102

Fibroblast radiosensitivity versus acute and late normal skin responses in patients treated for breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine if the radiosensitivity of normal human skin fibroblasts, measured in early passage cultures, is significantly correlated with the degree of acute or late normal skin damage in patients treated for breast cancer with radiotherapy. To test assay reproducibility, SF2 values derived from paired biopsies of the same patient (12 cases) were compared. A reasonably good correlation (p = 0.075) was obtained for SF2s determined by high dose-rate irradiations with immediated plating, but not for delayed plating or low dose-rate treatments. The median coefficient of variation in the replicate SF2s after high dose-rate treatment and immediate plating was 13%, suggesting that the poor correlation in paired SF2 values is due to the magnitude of the uncertainty in SF2 relative to the overall spread in SF2 values between patients (CV = 28%). Individual SF2 values and averaged values from patients with data from two biopsies were compared with the acute and late clinical reactions. A significant negative correlation was found between SF2 and relative clinical response, but only when averaged high dose-rate SF2 values and telangiectasia scores were compared. There was no significant correlation between average SF2 values and acute responses or between individual SF2 measurements and either the acute or late clinical response. The results of this study suggest that the degree of late telangiectasia is at least partially dependent upon the intrinsic cellular radiosensitivityon the intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity of normal fibroblasts, but the relationship is not clear cut. Multiple replicate assays are necessary to obtain reliable estimates of fibroblast SF2 values using current techniques. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

103

Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates skin wound healing: An in vitro study of fibroblast and keratinocyte scratch assays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have used in vitro scratch assays to examine the relative contribution of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the wound repair process and to test the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secreted factors on both skin cell types. Scratch assays were established using single cell and co-cultures of L929 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes, with wound closure monitored via time-lapse microscopy. Both in serum supplemented and serum free conditions, wound closure was faster in L929 fibroblast than HaCaT keratinocyte scratch assays, and in co-culture the L929 fibroblasts lead the way in closing the scratches. MSC-CM generated under serum free conditions significantly enhanced the wound closure rate of both skin cell types separately and in co-culture, whereas conditioned medium from L929 or HaCaT cultures had no significant effect. This enhancement of wound closure in the presence of MSC-CM was due to accelerated cell migration rather than increased cell proliferation. A number of wound healing mediators were identified in MSC-CM, including TGF-{beta}1, the chemokines IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES, and collagen type I, fibronectin, SPARC and IGFBP-7. This study suggests that the trophic activity of MSC may play a role in skin wound closure by affecting both dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte migration, along with a contribution to the formation of extracellular matrix.

Walter, M.N.M. [Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); School of Life and Health Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7EJ (United Kingdom); Wright, K.T.; Fuller, H.R. [Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); MacNeil, S. [Kroto Research Institute and Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Sheffield University, Sheffield, S1 2UE (United Kingdom); Johnson, W.E.B., E-mail: w.e.johnson@aston.ac.uk [School of Life and Health Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7EJ (United Kingdom)

2010-04-15

104

Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates skin wound healing: An in vitro study of fibroblast and keratinocyte scratch assays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have used in vitro scratch assays to examine the relative contribution of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the wound repair process and to test the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secreted factors on both skin cell types. Scratch assays were established using single cell and co-cultures of L929 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes, with wound closure monitored via time-lapse microscopy. Both in serum supplemented and serum free conditions, wound closure was faster in L929 fibroblast than HaCaT keratinocyte scratch assays, and in co-culture the L929 fibroblasts lead the way in closing the scratches. MSC-CM generated under serum free conditions significantly enhanced the wound closure rate of both skin cell types separately and in co-culture, whereas conditioned medium from L929 or HaCaT cultures had no significant effect. This enhancement of wound closure in the presence of MSC-CM was due to accelerated cell migration rather than increased cell proliferation. A number of wound healing mediators were identified in MSC-CM, including TGF-?1, the chemokines IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES, and collagen type I, fibronectin, SPARC and IGFBP-7. This study suggests that the trophic activity of MSC may play a role in skin wound closure by affecting both dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte migration, along with a contribution to the formation of extracellular matrix.

105

Regulation and inhibition of collagenase expression by long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation in cultured human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cellular mechanisms responsible for the connective tissue changes produced by chronic exposure to UV light are poorly understood. collagenase, a metalloproteinase, initiates degradation of types I and III collagen and thus plays a key role in the remodeling of dermal collagen. Collagenase synthesis by fibroblasts and keratinocytes involves the protein kinase C (PKC) second messenger system, and corticosteroids have been shown to suppress its synthesis at the level of gene transcription. Long-wavelength UV light (UVA, 320-400 nm) stimulates the synthesis of interstitial collagenase, as well as increasing PKC activity, in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. This study explores the regulation of collagenase expression by UVA in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Specifically, the time course, the effect of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis, as well as the effect of PKC inhibitors and dexamethansone on expression of collagenase following UVA irradiation were examined. (Author)

106

Cytogenetic study of skin fibroblasts in a case of accidental acute irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cytogenetic study of skin fibroblasts from a young boy, heavily irradiated by handling of an iridium-192 source of 25 curies is reported. About half of the cells examined had chromosomal abnormalities. The same clone, with multiple chromosome rearrangement, was observed in cultures from biopsies obtained 25 and 35 months after the accident. Several other clones were detected in vitro. The results obtained from cultures of biopsies from different locations show that no direct relationships were found between the absorbed dose and the frequency of stable chromosomal rearrangements. The comparison of the intrachromosomal rearrangements, mostly inversions, observed in this study with those detected in human pathology, in irradiation experiments in vitro, and in various species of primates indicates that these rearrangements do not occur at random. (orig.)

107

Loss of a putative tumor suppressor locus after gamma-ray-induced neoplastic transformation of HeLa x Skin fibroblast human cell hybrids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nontumorigenic HeLa x skin fibroblast hybrid cell line, CGL1, can be induced to re-express HeLa tumor-associated cell surface antigen, p75-IAP (intestinal alkaline phosphatase), with resulting neoplastic transformation, by exposure to ? radiation. This has allowed the human hybrid system to be developed into a quantitative in vitro model for radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of human cells. Recently, several ?-ray-induced IAP-expression mutants (GIMs) of the nontumorigenic HeLa x skin fibroblast hybrid CGL1 were isolated and all were tumorigenic when injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Control cell lines which were negative for p75-IAP (CONs) were also isolated from irradiated populations, and none were found to be tumorigenic. We have now begun to investigate the molecular basis of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in this system by studying the potential genetic linkage between p75/IAP expression, tumorigenicity and damage to a putative tumor suppressor locus on fibroblast chromosome 11. Previous analysis of rare spontaneous segregants has indicated that this locus is involved in the regulation of tumorigenicity and in the expression of the HeLa tumor-associated cell surface marker intestinal alkaline phosphatase (p75-IAP) in this system. Therefore, analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism and chromosome painting have been performed for chromosome 11, and for chromosome 13 as a control, for the p75/IAP-positive GIM and p75/I, for the p75/IAP-positive GIM and p75/IAP-negative CON cell lines. We report that in five of eight of the GIMs large-scale damage to the fibroblast chromosome 11's is evident (four GIMs have lost one complete copy of a fibroblast chromosome 11 heavily damaged). None of the CONs, however (0/5), have lost a complete copy of either fibroblast chromosome 11. No large-scale damage to the control chromosome 13's was detected in the GIMs or CONs. 49 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

108

Cytotoxic and Oxidative Stress Caused by Cadmium and Lead on Human Skin Fibroblast Cells  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals are important occupational andenvironmental pollutants that cause damage to various organs.Although there is no effective therapy for such a poisoning,metallothionein has been shown to play a key role in thedetoxification of cadmium (Cd. Evidence in the literature suggeststhat superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalaseconstitute important defense mechanisms against oxygen toxicity inthe cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect ofcadmium chloride and Pb-acetate on antioxidant enzymes in thehuman skin fibroblast cells (HF2FF.Material and Methods: The human skin fibroblast (HF2FF cellswere incubated in serum-free medium containing 20 ?M CdCl2 for18 hr three times a week. The same exposure to an equimolar doseof Pb-acetate was performed. After each exposure and after threetimes exposure the cells were collected and cell viability, thecontents of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px, GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA weremeasured.Results: Cd caused cytotoxicity and inhibition of glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px and SOD activity, as well as depletion of thereduced form of glutathione (GSH in the cell. The level of lipidperoxidation (LP was increased, but catalase activity was notsignificantly altered. These defects were increased with repeatedexposures. The same exposure to an equimolar dose of Pb-acetateevoked only inhibition of GSH-Px and SOD. The values of GSH,catalase and LP activity remained unchanged.Conclusion: The inhibition of GSH-Px and SOD may be consideredas an important biomarker of the toxic effect of metals.

Ali Beman Zaree Mahmodabady

2006-01-01

109

Cultured skin keratinocytes from both normal individuals and basal cell naevus syndrome patients are more resistant to ?-rays and UV light compared with cultured skin fibroblasts  

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Measurement of colony-forming ability following exposure to ?-rays was performed on cultured skin keratinocytes and skin fibroblasts from normal individuals, basal cell naevus syndrome patients (BCNS) and ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) patients. The most striking observation was the radiation resistance of 8/8 keratinocyte strains compared with fibroblasts whether from BCNS patients or normals. The single A-T keratinocyte cell strain showed the same radiosensitivity as A-T fibroblast cell strains. The differential survival of keratinocytes and fibroblasts was also observed following exposure to 254 nm UV light. Survival curves of SV40 immortalized keratinocytes and retinoblasts derived from normal individuals or BCNS patients showed large shoulder regions following exposure to ?-rays or 254 nm UV light. An increased D37 rather than an increased Do was therefore the feature of such curves, contrasting with SV40 immortalized A-T keratinocytes or fibroblasts which showed a minimal shoulder effect and an increased Do. No difference in survival was observed between BCNS and normal cells following exposure to either UV or ?-rays. (author)

110

The enzyme Cyp26b1 mediates inhibition of mast cell activation by fibroblasts to maintain skin-barrier homeostasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mast cells (MCs) mature locally, thus possessing tissue-dependent phenotypes for their critical roles in both protective immunity against pathogens and the development of allergy or inflammation. We previously reported that MCs highly express P2X7, a receptor for extracellular ATP, in the colon but not in the skin. The ATP-P2X7 pathway induces MC activation and consequently exacerbates the inflammation. Here, we identified the mechanisms by which P2X7 expression on MCs is reduced by fibroblasts in the skin, but not in the other tissues. The retinoic-acid-degrading enzyme Cyp26b1 is highly expressed in skin fibroblasts, and its inhibition resulted in the upregulation of P2X7 on MCs. We also noted the increased expression of P2X7 on skin MCs and consequent P2X7- and MC-dependent dermatitis (so-called retinoid dermatitis) in the presence of excessive amounts of retinoic acid. These results demonstrate a unique skin-barrier homeostatic network operating through Cyp26b1-mediated inhibition of ATP-dependent MC activation by fibroblasts. PMID:24726878

Kurashima, Yosuke; Amiya, Takeaki; Fujisawa, Kumiko; Shibata, Naoko; Suzuki, Yuji; Kogure, Yuta; Hashimoto, Eri; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kabashima, Kenji; Sato, Shintaro; Sato, Takeshi; Kubo, Masato; Akira, Shizuo; Miyake, Kensuke; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi

2014-04-17

111

Improvement of photoaged skin wrinkles with cultured human fibroblasts and adipose-derived stem cells: A comparative study.  

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We investigated the antiwrinkle effects of cultured human fibroblasts and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and the mechanisms underlying the reduction of wrinkles in photoaged skin. The fibroblasts and ADSCs were isolated from human tissue and cultured. A total of 28 6-week-old female BALB/c nude mice were classified into four groups, including the normal control group and three groups that were irradiated six times a week for 6-weeks using ultraviolet B radiation to induce photoaged wrinkles. ADSCs were injected into the wrinkles in the skin of the second group and fibroblasts were injected into the wrinkles in the skin of the third group. The fourth group was the irradiated negative control group (no therapy). After 4 weeks of injections, the wrinkles were compared by replica analysis, biopsies were performed, and the dermal thickness and collagen densities were measured. We determined the amounts of type 1 collagen and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 2, 3, 9, and 13 using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, and we assessed tropoelastin and fibrillin-1 expression in the dermis by immunohistochemistry. Replica analysis showed significant wrinkle reduction in the fibroblast group and the ADSC group. ADSCs stimulated collagen expression and decreased MMP expression. Although fibroblasts stimulated more collagen expression than ADSCs, they also increased MMP expression. Overall, the ADSC group showed higher collagen density and had better outcomes in the tropoelastin and fibrillin-1 assessments. Both cultured fibroblasts and ADSCs could play an important role in wrinkle reduction despite differences in their mechanisms of action. PMID:25484240

Jeong, Jae Hoon; Fan, Yingfang; You, Ga Young; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sukwha

2015-03-01

112

Relationship between DNA double-strand breaks, cell killing, and fibrosis studied in confluent skin fibroblasts derived from breast cancer patients  

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Purpose: To investigate the relationship between DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs), cell killing, and fibrosis using skin fibroblasts derived from breast cancer patients who received postmastectomy radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed with 12 lines of normal skin fibroblasts derived from recurrence-free breast cancer patients. Cells were irradiated in confluence and cell survival was determined either after immediate or delayed (14 h) plating using a colony-forming assay. Dsbs were measured by constant-field gel electrophoresis. The 'excess risk of fibrosis' was previously scored by Johansen et al. (IJRB 1994;66:407-412). Results: The 12 cell lines showed a typical spectrum of radiosensitivity. The mean value of surviving fraction after 3.5 Gy (SF3.5) was 0.063 for immediate and 0.174 for delayed plating with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 44 and 39%, respectively. There was also a broad variation in the extent of recovery from potentially lethal damage (RPLD), which was not correlated with the immediate sensitivity. The number of initial dsbs as well as the half-times of dsb repair showed little variation, whereas there were considerable differences in the number of residual dsbs (CV = 29%). The number of residual dsbs after 100 Gy was correlated significantly only with SF3.5 after delayed (r2 0.59; p = 0.006) but not after immediate plating (r2 = 0.21, p = 0.16). There was also no significant relationship between relso no significant relationship between residual dsbs and the 'excess risk of fibrosis' determined for the respective patients. Conclusion: It is shown that the number of residual dsbs measured in confluent human fibroblast lines can be used to predict the cellular radiosensitivity after delayed but not after immediate plating and also not to predict the excess risk of fibrosis of the respective breast cancer patients

113

Normal rejoining of DNA strand breaks in ataxia telangiectasia fibroblast lines after low x-ray exposure  

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The alkaline elution method was used to measure the enzymatic repair of x-ray-induced DNA strand breaks in skin fibroblasts derived from human subjects afflicted with ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Monolayer cultures of normal control and AT cell lines were exposed acutely to moderately lethal (250-rad) and highly lethal (1250-rad) doses of 250-kV x rays under aerobic conditions. Upon receiving 250 rad, the control fibroblasts from a clinically normal donor rejoined all detectable single-strand breaks (plus alkali-labile bonds) within 30 to 60 min of incubation. When challenged with 1250 rad the kinetics of strand rejoining by the normal control cells were biphasic. For both exposures, no significant difference in either the rate or the extent of strand rejoining was detected between the normal cell line (GM38) and three mutant cell lines (AT2BE, AT3BI, AT4BI) belonging to the three known genetic complementation groups in AT. It would thus appear that the enhanced radiosensitivity of cultured AT cells does not stem from faulty rejoining of radiogenic DNA strand breaks

114

Relationship between the in vitro radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts and the expression of subcutaneous fibrosis, telangiectasia, and skin erythema after radiotherapy  

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Objective: To investigate if the occurrence of subcutaneous fibrosis after radiotheraphy in an unselected group of breast cancer patients is related to cellular radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts as measured in a clonogenic assay. Materials and methods: An in vitro colony-forming assay of normal fibroblast radiosensitivity was applied to primary skin biopsies from 31 breast cancer patients who received post-mastectomy radiotherapy with large doses per fraction (2.7-3.9 Gy) more than 10 years earlier. Three clinical normal-tissue endpoints were assessed. Two late endpoints, subcutaneous fibrosis and telangiectasia, were evaluated in three treatments fields by a single experienced clinician. In addition, skin erythema had been assessed at the end of treatment by members of the staff and junior staff. >From previous analyses of normal tissue response, individual clinical radiosensitivity could be assessed as 'excess risk' of each of the three reactions. This was defined as the difference between the actual observed response in the patient and the expected response estimated from individual treatment characteristics in a linear quadratic (LQ) mixture model and, for the two late endpoints, with correction for the follow-up time. This clinical radioresponsiveness was compared with the in vitro radiosensitivity of the skin fibroblasts. To this end, the fractions of colony-forming cells after graded single doses were fitted by an LQ survival curve using non-linear and linea survival curve using non-linear and linear regression from which the surviving fraction at 3.5 Gy (SF3.5) was estimated. Assessment at 3.5 Gy was chosen to reflect the fraction size during clinical radiotherapy. Results: A statistically significant variability of in vitro radiosensitivity between patients could be detected for both SF2 (P = 0.0095) and SF3.5 (P = 0.0008). A significant correlation was observed between SF3.5 and excess risk of fibrosis (rs -0.46, P = 0.009) while no association was found between fibroblast radiosensitivity and either the occurrence of severe skin telangiectasia or the acute endpoint skin erythema. Conclusion: These results suggest that variability in the occurrence of subcutaneous fibrosis, but not telangiectasia or erythema, after radiotherapy is partly accounted for by differences in cellular radiosensitivity of normal skin fibroblasts

115

Histamine and serotonin stimulate eotaxin production by a human lung fibroblast cell line.  

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Histamine and serotonin are important inflammatory mediators in the pathophysiology of asthma, and asthmatic patients have higher plasma histamine and serotonin levels than nonasthmatic control subjects. Eotaxin, a potent eosinophil-specific chemotactic factor, is increased in the lower respiratory tract of allergic patients. Recently, lung fibroblasts have been reported to produce eotaxin and are suggested to be the major cellular source of eotaxin. We postulated that lung fibroblasts might release eotaxin in response to histamine or serotonin. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the potential of histamine or serotonin to induce the release of eotaxin by the human fetal lung fibroblast cell line, HFL-1. HFL-1 released eotaxin in response to histamine and serotonin in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p fibroblast-derived eotaxin may in part be responsible for the eosinophil infiltration observed in allergic disease of the airways. PMID:12065904

Sato, Etsuro; Haniuda, Masayuki; Numanami, Hiroki; Ushiyama, Toshiki; Tsukadaira, Akihiro; Takashi, Shuji; Okubo, Yoshio; Koyama, Sekiya

2002-01-01

116

12p microRNA expression in fibroblast cell lines from probands with Pallister-Killian syndrome.  

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Pallister-Killian syndrome is a multisystem sporadic genetic diagnosis characterized by facial dysmorphia, variable developmental delay and intellectual impairment, hypotonia, seizures, diaphragmatic hernia, and other systemic abnormalities. Pallister-Killian syndrome is typically caused by the presence of a supernumerary isochromosome that is always present in a tissue limited mosaic pattern, resulting in tetrasomy 12p due to the two extra copies of 12p. We evaluated the potential contribution of microRNAs located on 12p to the pathogenesis of Pallister-Killian syndrome phenotype. Using skin fibroblast cell lines from 13 probands with Pallister-Killian syndrome and 5 normal matched controls, the expression level of 5 microRNAs located on 12p and their target gene mRNA levels were measured. All measured micro RNAs located on 12p were overexpressed in Pallister-Killian syndrome fibroblasts, although the fold difference of the expression level was lower than copy number differences. Among the five microRNAs, miR-1244 had the highest fold difference. Many of computer-predicted target genes of miR-1244 were downregulated in Pallister-Killian syndrome skin fibroblasts. In particular, expression levels of MEIS2 and UQCRB were significantly decreased in Pallister-Killian syndrome samples, and an inverse linear correlation was seen between the level of miR-1244 and MEIS2 and UQCRB expression levels. Since many of computer-predicted miR-1244 target genes play roles in transcriptional regulation, overexpression of miR-1244 due to tetrasomy 12p may contribute to the pleiotropic phenotype of Pallister-Killian syndrome by modulating its downstream target genes including MEIS2 and UQCRB. PMID:24981202

Izumi, Kosuke; Zhang, Zhe; Kaur, Maninder; Krantz, Ian D

2014-12-01

117

Potentiation by caffeine of x-ray damage to cultured human skin fibroblasts from normal subjects and ataxia telangiectasia patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skin fibroblasts from patients with the recessive genetic disorder ataxia telangiectasia (AT) are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than cells from normal subjects (N). Previously, it had been suggested that AT cells are like caffeine-treated normal cells in that their radiosensitivity is not caused by their inability to repair damage but by their failure to go through those x-ray induced delays that allow normal cells to repair damage before it can be expressed. This paper examines whether or not caffeine could potentiate x-ray induced potentially-lethal damage in AT human fibroblasts to the same extent as in N human fibroblast cells. If AT cells resemble caffeine-treated N cells the addition of caffeine to irradiated AT cells should not further enhance cell killing

118

Thyroid hormone excess stimulates the synthesis of proteoglycan in human skin fibroblasts in culture  

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We previously demonstrated that proteoglycan accumulated in the affected skin of circumscribed pretibial myxedema of Graves' disease. As an underlying mechanism responsible for the accumulation, we sought to determine whether excess thyroid hormone was partially responsible for the increase in proteoglycan synthesis. Human skin fibroblasts were cultured in Ham's F-10 medium containing 1% Nutridoma with graded doses of T3(0.184 x 10-9 to 46 x 10-9 mol/l) and were labelled with [35S]sulphate and [3H]glucosamine. Proteoglycans were purified by Sephadex G-50, Q-Sepharose chromatography with NaCl-gradient and Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. 35S and 3H incorporated into dermatan sulphate proteoglycan and heparan sulphate proteoglycan and 3H incorporated into hyaluronan were measured. 35S and 3H incorporation into dermatan sulphate proteoglycan was minimum at a T3 concentration of 0.184 x 10-9 mol/l, and increased with increasing doses of T3 up to 46 x 10-9 mol/l. 35S and 3H incorporation into heparan sulphate proteoglycan also increased with increasing-doses of T3. 3H incorporation into hyaluranan was not influenced at all by T3. The increased incorporation of 35S into proteoglycan in high-T3 culture reflects the increased synthesis of proteoglycacts the increased synthesis of proteoglycan because 1. the extent of sulphation of disaccharides examined by thin-layer chromatography was not altered by T3; 2. the specific activity of [35S]sulphate was not influenced by T3, and 3. T3 did not decrease the degradation rate of cell-associated proteoglycan. (author)

119

Double trisomy mosaic (47,XXX/48,XXX,+13) confirmed by FISH and skin fibroblast culture  

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A 4 lb 8 oz female was born to a 49-year-old woman (P1200G12) at 40 weeks. The baby had tetralogy of Fallot, polydactyly, microcephaly, low set simple ears, posterior cleft of the soft palate and overlapping flexion deformities of both hands. The eyes were deep set. The clinical impression was trisomy 13. The baby is not doing well and needs a gastrotomy tube for feeding. Sucking is allright but swallowing is impeded. An MRI showed an anomaly of the corpus callosum. The ophthalmological examination showed no abnormalities. A chromosome study on a 2-day peripheral blood sample resulted in poor growth and poor morphology; however, 20 Giemsa-banded cells revealed a 47,XXX karyotype. A second specimen was obtained to search for mosaicism and a blood smear revealed nuclear projections on the neutrophils. FISH analysis using whole chromosome painting probe (Life Technologies) first identified the extra chromosome number 13, the final results showing five of sixty metaphase cells (8.3%) with trisomy 13. Cytogenetic analysis using Giemsa-banding technique revealed four cells in fifty examined (8.0%) with a 48,XXX,+13 karyotype. In order to further evaluate the mosaicism, cytogenetic analysis of a skin fibroblast culture was performed. Twenty one of twenty three cells examined (91.3%) showed the 48,XXX,+13 karyotype. FISH analysis of the skin biopsy revealed eighteen of twenty cells (90.9%) with the trisomy 13. The FISH technique is an important enhancement to routine cytogenetic studies when they do not immediately correlate with clinical impressions.

Lieber, E.; Grady, V.; Dosik, H. [Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

120

Skin Equivalent Tissue-Engineered Construct: Co-Cultured Fibroblasts/ Keratinocytes on 3D Matrices of Sericin Hope Cocoons  

OpenAIRE

The development of effective and alternative tissue-engineered skin replacements to autografts, allografts and xenografts has became a clinical requirement due to the problems related to source of donor tissue and the perceived risk of disease transmission. In the present study 3D tissue engineered construct of sericin is developed using co-culture of keratinocytes on the upper surface of the fabricated matrices and with fibroblasts on lower surface. Sericin is obtained from “Sericin Hope?...

Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Sancharika; Kundu, Subhas C.

2013-01-01

121

Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts from atomic bomb survivors with and without breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fibroblasts were established in vitro from skin biopsies obtained from 55 women and one man with or without breast cancer and with or without exposure to radiation from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima. The radiosensitivity of these cells was evaluated by clonogenic assays after exposure to X rays or to fission neutrons from a 252Cf source. Data were fitted to a multitarget model, S/S0 = A[1-(1-ekD)N], for both X-ray and neutron dose-survival curves. A single-hit model, S/S0 = AekD, fits the neutron dose-survival responses as well. These was no difference in the means or variances of radiosensitivity between exposed and nonexposed groups, or between patients with or without breast cancer. Hence, although the sample is not large, it provides no support for the hypothesis that A-bomb radiation preferentially induces breast cancer in women whose cells in vitro are sensitive to cell killing by radiation. (author)

122

Spontaneous immortalization of cultured skin fibroblasts obtained from a high-dose atomic bomb survivor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two immortal fibroblastic cell strains (substrains) were established by culturing healthy skin cells obtained from a high-dose atomic bomb survivor (female, age 76 years, 5.14 Gy) for more than 4 years. Designated FM-U and FM-M, the two substrains share the same marker chromosome, t(5q-;6p+), but are karyotypically different, possessing hypodiploid chromosome numbers (39-43) in the former and hypertriploid (69-76) in the latter. Thus far, the two strains have passed through 117 and 156 subcultures or more than 230 and 310 cumulative population doublings, respectively, each passage requiring 4-6 days in the former and 3-4 days in the latter. In the process of immortalization, sequential rearrangement among various chromosomes presumably due to telomeric and interstitial telomeric fusions took place following the telomere shortening, particularly in the senescence and postsenescence phase cells. Of particular interest is the fact that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the p53 gene was demonstrated in these immortalized cell populations. In addition, the allelic patterns of the LOH of p53 differed. Further evidence indicative of infinite proliferation was demonstrated in both strains, such as the telomere elongation and the significantly low frequency of cells possessing dicentric chromosomes

123

Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of high let charged particles on human skin fibroblasts  

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Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles were quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts. The span of LETs selected were from 25 keV/?m(330 MeV/u) to 920 keV/?m (600 MeV/u). Mutations were scored at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus using 6-thioguanine (6-TG) for selection. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves whereas mutant induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/?m. The inactivation cross-section (?i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (?m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 ?m2 and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10-3 ?m2 respectively, the maximum values were obtained by 56Fe with an LET of 200 keV/?m. The mutagenicity (?m/?i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10-5 with the maximum value at 150 keV/?m. Furthermore, the results of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of some of the mutants induced by charged particles indicate that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus. (author)

124

Photobiomodulation on the proliferation and collagen synthesis of normal human skin fibroblast cells  

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Background and Objective: Cultured normal human skin fibroblast cells (HSFs) were once used to study the mechanism of the effects of low intensity He-Ne laser irradiation (LHNL) on wound healing. The proliferation and collagen synthesis of HFSs were modulated by LHNL in different papers, respectively, and both of them are studied in this paper. Study Design/Materials and Methods: The dosage was studied for the same radiation time 300s. The proliferation and collagen synthesis were measured by 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the spectrophotometric method for the determination of hydroxyproline, respectively. Results: The dose zones were called dose 1, dose 2 and dose 3 from low dose on so that HSF proliferation was inhibited in dose 1 (16, 24 mJ/cm2), and promoted in dose 2 (298, 503, 597mJ/cm2), and the collagen synthesis was inhibited in dose 2 (401, 526 mJ/cm2), and promoted in dose 3 (714, 926, 1539, 1727mJ/cm2), which supports our biological model of photobiomodulation. It was found there is the linear relationship of the effect with dose with dose in each dose zone. Conclusions: The photobiomodulation on the proliferation and collagen synthesis of HSFs might be linearly dose-dependent in limited dosage with radiation time kept constant, which provides a foundation to discuss photobiomodulation on wound healing.

Cheng, Lei; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Chi, Jin-Quan; Li, Yan; Jin, Hua

2006-01-01

125

Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts from atomic bomb survivors with and without breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fibroblasts were established in vitro from skin biopsies obtained from 55 women and 1 man with or without breast cancer and with or without exposure to radiation from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima. The radiosensitivity of these cells was evaluated by clonogenic assays after exposure to X-rays or to fission neutrons from a 252Cf source. Data were fitted to a multitarget model, S/S0 = A [1 - (1 - ekD)N], for both X-ray and neutron dose-survival curves. A single hit model, S/S0 = AekD, fits the neutron dose-survival responses as well. There were no differences in the means or variances of radiosensitivity between exposed and nonexposed groups or between patients with or without breast cancer. Hence, although the sample is not large, it provides no support for the hypothesis that atomic bomb radiation preferentially induces breast cancer in women whose cells in vitro are sensitive to cell killing by radiation

126

Repair of ?- or X-radiation-induced DNA damage in cultured human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors previously reported the RBE for cell killing and mutagenicity at the hgprt locus in cultured human skin fibroblasts (GM10) was 7 and 13-18, respectively, for high-LET /sup 238/Pu-emitted ?-particles compared to low-LET 250 kVp X-rays. Dose fractionation studies indicated repair of sublethal and mutational damages in X-irradiated cells, whereas, this repair was not observed in cells exposed to ?-radiation. In this report, the agents present data on radiation-induced DNA single-strand and double-strand breaks (ssb and dsb) and their repair in both proliferating and confluent monolayers of GM10 cells. Employing sensitive alkaline and neutral DNA filter elution analyses, rates of ssb induced by X-rays were 6-fold that observed for ?-particles, whereas rates of dsb induced by ?-particles were 2.4-fold greater than those induced by X-rays. Rejoining the ssb induced by either radiation was rapid and >90% were repaired within 60 min post-irradiation incubation at 370. The time necessary for 50% repair (t/sub 1/2/) of X-ray-induced dsb was --40 min, however, for ---irradiated cells (20-110 Gy) the t/sub 1/2/ was 4-8-fold greater. Even after prolonged post-irradiation incubation (48 hr) using confluent GM10, --30% dsb remained unrepaired. This class of unrepaired DNA lesions probably contributes to the elevated RBE for high-LET radiation

127

Recovery from x-ray induced damage in primary cultures of human skin fibroblast cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human skin fibroblast cells from six patients were obtained during surgical operations and grown in culture. Dose response survival curves from single dose exposures of X-rays were developed for the six cell strains. Individual Do values varied in the six strains from 61 to 83 cGy. The shouldered survival curves had extrapolation numbers (n) ranging from 2.2 to 4.8. To assess repair of sublethal damage, cells were exposed to a total dose of 304 cGy split into two equal fractions separated by varying time intervals. Maximal increase in cell survival was observed when the time interval was at least three hours. Dose-response curves were generated for the six cell strains by first irradiating cells with 152 cGy X-rays and then allowing four hours for recovery from sublethal damage before exposing them to second graded doses. The fractionated dose-response survival curves were distinctly different from the single dose exposure curves and confirmed the ability of these cells to recover from X-ray-induced damage. (author)

128

Studies of the UVC-sensitivity of non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic human cell hybrids (HeLa x skin fibroblasts)  

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The UVC-sensitivities of a non-tumorigenic and a tumorigenic human cell hybrid (HeLa x skin fibroblasts) are compared and contrasted. The tumorigenic cells differ from the non-tumorigenic cells in that they have lost one copy each of chromosomes 11 and 14. For exponentially growing cultures, the tumorigenic cells are considerably more resistant than the non-tumorigenic cells. For confluent cultures, the differential in photosensitivity is much less. Flow cytometric studies of cell cycle distributions of both exponentially growing and confluent cultures of these cells indicate that the differences in photosensitivity cannot be explained by differences in cell cycle distribution. Studies of the kinetics of potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) in confluent cultures of both cell lines indicate little or no recovery over the first 6h followed by an increase in survival over the next 12-24h. These data are consistent with previously published observations in human skin fibroblasts where the kinetics of PLDR reflected the kinetics of thymine dimer loss. The data are not consistent with 6-4 photoproducts being a potentially lethal lesion since such damage is rapidly repaired in human cells. (author)

129

Skin equivalent tissue-engineered construct: co-cultured fibroblasts/ keratinocytes on 3D matrices of sericin hope cocoons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of effective and alternative tissue-engineered skin replacements to autografts, allografts and xenografts has became a clinical requirement due to the problems related to source of donor tissue and the perceived risk of disease transmission. In the present study 3D tissue engineered construct of sericin is developed using co-culture of keratinocytes on the upper surface of the fabricated matrices and with fibroblasts on lower surface. Sericin is obtained from "Sericin Hope" silkworm of Bombyx mori mutant and is extracted from cocoons by autoclave. Porous sericin matrices are prepared by freeze dried method using genipin as crosslinker. The matrices are characterized biochemically and biophysically. The cell proliferation and viability of co-cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes on matrices for at least 28 days are observed by live/dead assay, Alamar blue assay, and by dual fluorescent staining. The growth of the fibroblasts and keratinocytes in co-culture is correlated with the expression level of TGF-?, b-FGF and IL-8 in the cultured supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histological analysis further demonstrates a multi-layered stratified epidermal layer of uninhibited keratinocytes in co-cultured constructs. Presence of involucrin, collagen IV and the fibroblast surface protein in immuno-histochemical stained sections of co-cultured matrices indicates the significance of paracrine signaling between keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the expression of extracellular matrix protein for dermal repair. No significant amount of pro inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1? and nitric oxide) production are evidenced when macrophages grown on the sericin matrices. The results all together depict the potentiality of sericin 3D matrices as skin equivalent tissue engineered construct in wound repair. PMID:24058626

Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Sancharika; Kundu, Subhas C

2013-01-01

130

Molecular alterations of tropoelastin and proteoglycans induced by tobacco smoke extracts and ultraviolet A in cultured skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Functional integrity of normal skin is dependent on the balance between the biosynthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, primarily composed of collagen, elastin and proteoglycans. In our previous studies, we found that tobacco smoke extracts decreased expressions of type I and III procollagen and induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in the cultured skin fibroblasts. We here further investigated the effects of tobacco smoke extracts or ultraviolet A (UVA) treatments on the expression of tropoelastin (soluble elastin protein), and versican and decorin (proteoglycans) in cultured skin fibroblasts. The mRNA of tropoelastin increased by tobacco smoke extracts or UVA irradiation. Versican was markedly shown to decrease after these treatments by using western blotting and the mRNA of versican V0 also significantly decreased. UVA treatment did not show remarkable change in decorin protein, but resulted in marked decrease of decorin D1 mRNA. In contrast to UVA irradiation, the treatments of tobacco smoke extracts resulted in significant increase in decorin, while mRNA of decorin D1 decreased as compared to the control. MMP-7 increased after the treatment of tobacco smoke extracts or UVA. These results indicated that common molecular features might underlie the skin premature aging induced by tobacco smoke extracts and UVA, including abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix deposition through elevated MMPs, reduced collagen production, abnormal tropoeduced collagen production, abnormal tropoelastin accumulation, and altered proteoglycans. (author)

131

Molecular alterations of tropoelastin and proteoglycans induced by tobacco smoke extracts and ultraviolet A in cultured skin fibroblasts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Functional integrity of normal skin is dependent on the balance between the biosynthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, primarily composed of collagen, elastin and proteoglycans. In our previous studies, we found that tobacco smoke extracts decreased expressions of type I and III procollagen and induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in the cultured skin fibroblasts. We here further investigated the effects of tobacco smoke extracts or ultraviolet A (UVA) treatments on the expression of tropoelastin (soluble elastin protein), and versican and decorin (proteoglycans) in cultured skin fibroblasts. The mRNA of tropoelastin increased by tobacco smoke extracts or UVA irradiation. Versican was markedly shown to decrease after these treatments by using western blotting and the mRNA of versican V0 also significantly decreased. UVA treatment did not show remarkable change in decorin protein, but resulted in marked decrease of decorin D1 mRNA. In contrast to UVA irradiation, the treatments of tobacco smoke extracts resulted in significant increase in decorin, while mRNA of decorin D1 decreased as compared to the control. MMP-7 increased after the treatment of tobacco smoke extracts or UVA. These results indicated that common molecular features might underlie the skin premature aging induced by tobacco smoke extracts and UVA, including abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix deposition through elevated MMPs, reduced collagen production, abnormal tropoelastin accumulation, and altered proteoglycans. (author)

Yin, Lei; Morita, Akimichi; Tsuji, Takuo [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

2002-02-01

132

Royal jelly protects against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging in human skin fibroblasts via enhancing collagen production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Royal jelly (RJ) is a honeybee product containing proteins, carbohydrates, fats, free amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. As its principal unsaturated fatty acid, RJ contains 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), which may have antitumor and antibacterial activity and a capacity to stimulate collagen production. RJ has attracted interest in various parts of the world for its pharmacological properties. However, the effects of RJ on ultraviolet (UV)-induced photoaging of the skin have not been reported. In this study we measured the 10-HDA content of RJ by high-performance liquid chromatography and tested the effects of RJ on UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts. The effects of RJ and 10-HDA on UVB-induced photoaging were tested by measuring procollagen type I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 after UVB irradiation. The RJ contained about 0.211% 10-HDA. The UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts treated with RJ and 10-HDA had increased procollagen type I and TGF-?1 productions, but the level of MMP-1 was not changed. Thus RJ may potentially protect the skin from UVB-induced photoaging by enhancing collagen production. PMID:21812645

Park, Hye Min; Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Kwang Gill; Han, Sang-Mi; Cho, Yunhi; Kim, Sun Yeou

2011-09-01

133

Fibroblast cell line establishment, cryopreservation and interspecies embryos reconstruction in red panda ( Ailurus fulgens).  

Science.gov (United States)

In evolution, the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher level phylogeny of arctoides carnivore mammals. The red panda inhabits certain Asian countries only and its numbers are decreasing. Therefore, the development of feasible ways to preserve this species is necessary. Genetic resource cryopreservation and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) have been used extensively to rescue this endangered species. The present study describes the establishment, for the first time, of a red panda ear fibroblast cell line, which was then cryopreserved, thawed and cultured. Through micromanipulation, interspecies embryos were reconstructed using the cryopreserved-thawed fibroblasts of the red panda as the donor and rabbit oocytes as recipients. A total of 194 enucleated rabbit oocytes were reconstructed with red panda ear fibroblasts; enucleated oocytes were activated without fusion as the control. The results show that the fibroblast cell line was established successfully by tissue culture and then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Supplementation with 20% fetal bovine serum and 8% dimethyl sulphoxide in basic medium facilitated the cryopreservation. The interspecies embryos were successfully reconstructed. The cleavage, morulae and blastocyst rates after in vitro culture were 71, 47 and 23% (31/194), respectively. This study indicated that a somatic cell line could be established and cryopreserved from red panda and that rabbit cytoplast supports mitotic cleavage of the red panda karyoplasts and is capable of reprogramming the nucleus to achieve blastocysts. PMID:19232145

Tao, Yong; Liu, Jianming; Zhang, Yunhai; Zhang, Meiling; Fang, Junshun; Han, Wei; Zhang, Zhizhong; Liu, Ya; Ding, Jianping; Zhang, Xiaorong

2009-05-01

134

Radiation induced DNA damage and damage repair in human tumor and fibroblast cell lines assessed by histone H2AX phosphorylation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To analyze the radiation-induced levels of ?H2AX and its decay kinetics in 10 human cell lines covering a wide range of cellular radiosensitivity (SF2, 0.06-0.63). Methods and Materials: Five tumor cell lines included Colo-800 melanoma, two glioblastoma (MO59J and MO59K), fibrosarcoma HT 1080, and breast carcinoma MCF7. Five primary skin fibroblasts lines included two normal strains, an ataxia telangiectasia strain, and two fibroblast strains from breast cancer patients with an adverse early skin reaction to radiotherapy. Cellular radiosensitivity was assessed by colony-forming test. Deoxyribonucleic acid damage and repair were analyzed according to nuclear ?H2AX foci intensity, with digital image analysis. Results: The cell lines tested showed a wide degree of variation in the background intensity of immunostained nuclear histone ?H2AX, which was higher for the tumor cell lines compared with the fibroblast strains. It was not possible to predict clonogenic cell survival (SF2) for the 10 cell lines studied from the radiation-induced ?H2AX intensity. In addition, the slopes of the dose-response (0-4 Gy) curves, the rates of ?H2AX disappearance, and its residual expression (?18 h after irradiation) did not correlate with SF2 values. Conclusions: The results from 10 cell lines showed that measurements of immunofluorescence intensity by digital image analysis of phosphorylated histone H2AX as a surrogate marker of DNA double-strand breaks did not allow relble-strand breaks did not allow reliable ranking of cell strains according to their clonogenic survival after irradiation

135

Inflammatory cytokines modulate eotaxin release by human lung fibroblast cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eotaxin, a potent eosinophil-specific chemotactic factor, is increased in the lower respiratory tract of asthma patients. Recently, lung fibroblasts have been reported to produce eotaxin and their activation can be modulated by inflammatory cytokines. To test the hypothesis that inflammatory cytokines modulate the eotaxin release from lung fibroblasts, we investigated the potential of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) to induce the release of eotaxin and eotaxin mRNA by the human fetal lung fibroblast cell line, HFL-1, was evaluated. HFL-1 released eotaxin constitutively without stimulation, but IL-1beta or TNF-alpha stimulated eotaxin release in a dose- and time-dependent manner. IL-1beta or TNF-alpha treatment of HFL-1 also resulted in the augmented expression of eotaxin mRNA. Although IFN-gamma alone had negligible effect on eotaxin release and mRNA expression, IFN-gamma induced a significant, concentration-dependent attenuation of eotaxin release and eotaxin mRNA expression from HFL-1 stimulated with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. These findings are consistent with the concept that lung fibroblast-derived eotaxin may in part be responsible for the eosinophil infiltration observed in the airways of asthmatic patients and that network of cytokines may modulate the eosinophil recruitment to the airways by stimulation of fibroblasts to release eotaxin. PMID:11258804

Sato, E; Nelson, D K; Koyama, S; Hoyt, J C; Robbins, R A

2001-03-01

136

Endogenous glutathione protects human skin fibroblasts against the cytotoxic action of UVB, UVA and near-visible radiations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both the UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-380 nm) regions of sunlight damage human skin cells but, particularly at the longer wavelengths, information is scant concerning the mechanism(s) of damage induction and the roles of cellular defense mechanisms. Following extensive glutathione depletion of cultured human skin fibroblasts, the cells become strongly sensitized to the cytotoxic action of near-visible (405 nm), UVA (334 nm, 365 nm) and UVB (313 nm) but not UVC (254 nm) radiations. In the critical UVB region, the magnitude of the protection afforded by endogenous glutathione approaches that of the protection provided by excision repair. The results suggest that a significant fraction of even UVB damage can be mediated by free radical attack and that a major role of glutathione in human skin cells is to protect them from the cytotoxic action of sunlight. (author)

137

Repair of O/sup 4/-ethyldeoxythymine in human fetal skin fibroblast and kidney epithelial cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

O/sup 4/-alkylthymine induced by direct acting N-nitroso alkylating agents has recently been shown to be a miscoding base modification that may be involved in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Their polyclonal antibodies directed against the modified base, O/sup 4/-ethylthymidine (O/sup 4/-EtThy), show high affinity for this lesion and detect attomoles of O/sup 4/-EtThy directly using nanogram DNA by immunoassay. In the present study, O/sup 4/-EtThy was quantitated in cultured human skin fibroblast and kidney epithelial cells immediately following treatment with ENU and subsequently at intervals up to 72 h. The initial O/sup 4/-EtThy/Thy molar ratio of 5.6 x 10/sup -7/ in the DNA of both cell types decreased approximately 20 to 30% within 8 h post incubation at 37/sup 0/C. During this period no cellular DNA replication was apparent. This initial rapid loss of O/sup 4/-EtThy was followed by a slower rate of removal with about 50% eliminated at 72 h post-treatment. Considering the in vitro stability of O/sup 4/-EtThy in DNA these results indicate that the removal is mediated by an active repair process in human cells. However, since an alkyltransferase activity is undetectable in human organ extracts, it may be that in cultured human cells, O/sup 4/-EtThy in DNA is repaired by very low constitutive levels of an alkyltransferase or by an alternative mechanism of repair.

D' Ambrosio, S.M.; Miller, R.; Wani, A.A.

1987-05-01

138

Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suppresses collagen synthesis and prevents TGF-beta(1)-induced fibrogenesis in skin fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excessive production of collagens by alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA)-positive myofibroblasts leads to fibrotic skin diseases, such as hypertrophic scarring. This process is characterized by an imbalance between extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and degradation, while transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta(1)), known to be a key mediator of fibrogenesis, is up-regulated. In this study we have investigated the possible antifibrogenic effect of Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on rat skin fibroblasts in culture. mRNA steady-state levels and de novo protein synthesis of procollagen types I and III and alpha-SMA were inhibited when skin fibroblasts were treated with 100 nM TSA with or without TGF-beta(1). While the transcription rate of the procollagen alpha1(I) gene was increased following TSA or TGF-beta(1) treatment, TSA abrogated the stimulatory effect of TGF-beta(1) on procollagen alpha1(I) transcription when both compounds were added simultaneously. The reduction of procollagen alpha1(I) and alpha1(III) mRNA steady-state levels by TSA did not require de novo protein synthesis, while the effect of TSA on alpha-SMA mRNA steady-state levels was cycloheximide-sensitive. Interestingly, TSA affected TGF-beta(1) and its downstream mediators, i.e., the Smad family proteins. TSA strongly induced in a biphasic way the expression of 5'TG3' interacting factor (TGIF), a known endogenous corepressor molecule of the TGF-beta(1) signaling pathway. Addition of exogenous TGF-beta(1) did not interfere with the effect of TSA on the TGIF mRNA level. Our study shows that inhibition of histone deacetylases by TSA reduces expression of fibrosis-related genes in skin fibroblasts and this coincides by alterations in the TGF-beta(1) signaling pathway. PMID:12169274

Rombouts, Krista; Niki, Toshiro; Greenwel, Patricia; Vandermonde, Alain; Wielant, Annemie; Hellemans, Karine; De Bleser, Pieter; Yoshida, Minoru; Schuppan, Detlef; Rojkind, Marcos; Geerts, Albert

2002-08-15

139

Methylmalonic and propionic acidemias: lipid profiles of normal and affected human skin fibroblasts incubated with (1-/sup 14/C)propionate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Normal human skin fibroblasts and those from methylmalonic acidemia and propionic acidemia patients were grown in culture. Following incubation with (1-/sup 14/C)propionate, the major lipid classes in the cells were separated by thin layer chromatography and isolated fractions analyzed by radio gas chromatography for the presence of odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids; the pattern of even-numbered long-chain fatty acids was obtained also. Normal fibroblasts incorporated a small percentage of propionate into odd-numbered fatty acids which were present in all lipids studied. The abnormal cells incorporated a larger amount while maintaining the characteristic ratios of odd-numbered fatty acids found in the normal line. Most of the radioactivity was associated with phospholipids which are the predominant constituents of cell membranes. A characteristic C15/C17 ratio was found for different phospholipids and the triglyceride fraction; pentadecanoic acid was the principal odd-numbered fatty acid utilized in the assembly of complex lipids. Compared to even-numbered long-chain fatty acids the absolute amount of odd-numbered fatty acids was low (1-2%), even in affected cells. An unusual polar lipid fraction was isolated in the course of the study. In the normal cell it contained several unlabeled eicosanoids which were missing from the same fraction of both affected cell lines.

Giudici, T.A.; Chen, R.G.; Oizumi, J.; Shaw, K.N.; Ng, W.G.; Donnell, G.N.

1986-06-01

140

Methylmalonic and propionic acidemias: lipid profiles of normal and affected human skin fibroblasts incubated with [1-14C]propionate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Normal human skin fibroblasts and those from methylmalonic acidemia and propionic acidemia patients were grown in culture. Following incubation with [1-14C]propionate, the major lipid classes in the cells were separated by thin layer chromatography and isolated fractions analyzed by radio gas chromatography for the presence of odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids; the pattern of even-numbered long-chain fatty acids was obtained also. Normal fibroblasts incorporated a small percentage of propionate into odd-numbered fatty acids which were present in all lipids studied. The abnormal cells incorporated a larger amount while maintaining the characteristic ratios of odd-numbered fatty acids found in the normal line. Most of the radioactivity was associated with phospholipids which are the predominant constituents of cell membranes. A characteristic C15/C17 ratio was found for different phospholipids and the triglyceride fraction; pentadecanoic acid was the principal odd-numbered fatty acid utilized in the assembly of complex lipids. Compared to even-numbered long-chain fatty acids the absolute amount of odd-numbered fatty acids was low (1-2%), even in affected cells. An unusual polar lipid fraction was isolated in the course of the study. In the normal cell it contained several unlabeled eicosanoids which were missing from the same fraction of both affected cell lines

141

Carnosic acid, a phenolic diterpene from rosemary, prevents UV-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases in human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces photoageing through the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and subsequent breakdown of extracellular matrices. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation play central roles in UV-induced MMP expression through initiating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated AP-1 signalling. We aimed to explore the effects of carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic diterpene from rosemary, on UV-induced MMP expression in human skin cells. Molecular mechanism underlying the effects of CA was also examined in the aspect of MMP expression, ERK/AP-1 pathway, ROS generation and EGFR activation. Human dermal fibroblast cell line (Hs68), primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) were employed, and antiphotoageing effects of CA were assessed by Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme assays. CA significantly inhibited UVA- and UVB-induced expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 in a concentration-dependent manner in Hs68 cells. UVB-induced ERK activation and the formation of transcription factor, AP-1, were significantly suppressed by CA. Among the upstream events of MMP expression, UVB-induced ROS generation was attenuated by CA, while EGFR activation was not affected. Confirming the antiphotoageing effects of CA through the suppression of UV-induced ROS generation, UVB-enhanced GADD45 expression, a marker for oxidative DNA damages was significantly reduced by CA. Inhibitory effects of CA on UVB-induced MMP expression could be also seen in HDFs and HEKs. Collectively, our study demonstrates that CA inhibits the UV-enhanced MMPs in human skin cells through the inhibition of ROS and the suppression of ERK/AP-1 activation. PMID:23614740

Park, Miyoung; Han, Jiwon; Lee, Chang Seok; Soo, Baek Heung; Lim, Kyung-Min; Ha, Hunjoo

2013-05-01

142

Effect of wavelength and fluence on morphology, cellular and genetic integrity of diabetic wounded human skin fibroblasts  

Science.gov (United States)

An alternative treatment modality for diabetic wound healing includes low level laser therapy (LLLT). Biostimulation of such wounds may be of benefit to patients by reducing healing time. Structural, cellular and genetic events in diabetic wounded human skin fibroblasts (WS1) were evaluated after exposing cells in culture to a Helium-Neon (632.8nm), a Diode laser (830nm) and a Nd:YAG (Neodynium:Yttrium-Allumina-Gallium) laser (1064nm) at either 5J/cm2 or 16J/cm2. Cells were exposed twice a week and left 24 hours post-irradiation prior to measuring effects. Structural changes were evaluated by assessing colony formation, haptotaxis and chemotaxis. Cellular changes were evaluated using cell viability, (adenosine-triphosphate, ATP production), and proliferation, (alkaline phosphatase, ALP and basic fibroblast growth factor, bFGF expression), while the Comet assay evaluated DNA damage and cytotoxicity was determined assessing membrane permeability for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Caspase 3/7 activity was used as an estimate of apoptosis as a result of irradiation. The irradiated diabetic wounded cells showed structural, cellular as well as molecular resilience comparable to that of unwounded normal skin fibroblast cells. With regards to fluence, 5J/cm2 elicit positive cellular and structural responses while 16J/cm2 increases cellular and genetic damage and cellular morphology is altered. Different wavelengths of LLLT influences the beneficial outcomes of diabetic wounded cells and although all three wavelengths elicit cellular effects, the penetration depth of 830nm plays a significant role in the healing of diabetic wounded human fibroblast cells. Results from this study validate the contribution of LLLT to wound healing and elucidate the biochemical effects at a cellular level while highlighting the role of different dosages and wavelengths in LLLT.

Abrahamse, H.; Hawkins, D.; Houreld, N.

2006-02-01

143

Fabrication of a nanofibrous scaffold with improved bioactivity for culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin regeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Engineering dermal substitutes with electrospun nanofibres have lately been of prime importance for skin tissue regeneration. Simple electrospinning technology served to produce nanofibrous scaffolds morphologically and structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of native tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds of poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PLACL) and PLACL/gelatin complexes were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These nanofibres were characterized for fibre morphology, membrane porosity, wettability and chemical properties by FTIR analysis to culture human foreskin fibroblasts for skin tissue engineering. The nanofibre diameter was obtained between 282 and 761 nm for PLACL and PLACL/gelatin scaffolds; expressions of amino and carboxyl groups and porosity up to 87% were obtained for these fibres, while they also exhibited improved hydrophilic properties after plasma treatment. The results showed that fibroblasts proliferation, morphology, CMFDA dye expression and secretion of collagen were significantly increased in plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin scaffolds compared to PLACL nanofibrous scaffolds. The obtained results prove that the plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold is a potential biocomposite material for skin tissue regeneration.

Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard; Venugopal, J; Sundarrajan, S; Ramakrishna, S, E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.s [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

2011-02-15

144

Fabrication of a nanofibrous scaffold with improved bioactivity for culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin regeneration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Engineering dermal substitutes with electrospun nanofibres have lately been of prime importance for skin tissue regeneration. Simple electrospinning technology served to produce nanofibrous scaffolds morphologically and structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of native tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds of poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly(?-caprolactone) (PLACL) and PLACL/gelatin complexes were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These nanofibres were characterized for fibre morphology, membrane porosity, wettability and chemical properties by FTIR analysis to culture human foreskin fibroblasts for skin tissue engineering. The nanofibre diameter was obtained between 282 and 761 nm for PLACL and PLACL/gelatin scaffolds; expressions of amino and carboxyl groups and porosity up to 87% were obtained for these fibres, while they also exhibited improved hydrophilic properties after plasma treatment. The results showed that fibroblasts proliferation, morphology, CMFDA dye expression and secretion of collagen were significantly increased in plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin scaffolds compared to PLACL nanofibrous scaffolds. The obtained results prove that the plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold is a potential biocomposite material for skin tissue regeneration.

145

Effect of bradykinin on prostaglandin production by human skin fibroblasts in culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In studying the effect of bradykinin on prostaglandin formation in fibroblasts, two general types of assays have been employed. Radioimmunoassays were utilized to determine specific prostaglandins, PGI2 and 6-keto-PGF, using tritium as radiolabel. A second procedure involved initial incubation of the fibroblasts with [14C]arachidonate and identification and quantification of the metabolites by chromatographic methods. After radiolabelling of fibroblasts with [14C]arachidonate, bradykinin was found to release radiolabel from membrane lipids approximately 2-fold. In the presence of bradykinin, there was a close coupling of phospholipase S2 activity, arachidonate mobilization, and synthesis of a specific prostaglandin, PGI2

146

Altered transcriptome signature of phenotypically normal skin fibroblasts heterozygous for CDKN2A in familial melanoma: relevance to early intervention  

OpenAIRE

Familial melanoma (FM) is a dominantly heritable cancer that is associated with mutations in the tumor suppressor CDKN2A/p16. In FM, a single inherited “hit” occurs in every somatic cell, enabling interrogation of cultured normal skin fibroblasts (SFs) from FM gene carriers as surrogates for the cell of tumor origin, namely the melanocyte. We compared the gene expression profile of SFs from FM individuals with two distinct CDKN2A/p16 mutations (V126D-p16 and R87P-p16) with the gene expres...

Fan, Meiyun; Pfeffer, Susan R.; Lynch, Henry T.; Cassidy, Pamela; Leachman, Sancy; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.; Kopelovich, Levy

2013-01-01

147

Proteomic Analysis of PTCH1+/? Fibroblast Lysate and Conditioned Culture Media Isolated from the Skin of Healthy Subjects and Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Patients  

OpenAIRE

Background. The pathogenesis underlying the increased predisposition to the development of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in the context of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is linked to molecular mechanisms that differ from sporadic BCCs. Patients with Gorlin syndrome tend to develop multiple BCCs at an early age and present with tumors of non-sun-exposed skin. The aim of this study was to compare the proteomic profile of cultured fibroblast and fibroblast conditioned culture media of PTCH1+ and nonmutate...

Giovanni Ponti; Giorgia Bertazzoni; Lorenza Pastorino; Emanuela Monari; Aurora Cuoghi; Stefania Bergamini; Elisa Bellei; Luisa Benassi; Paola Azzoni; Tiziana Petrachi; Cristina Magnoni; Giovanni Pellacani; Pietro Loschi; Annamaria Pollio; Alexander Michael Witkowski

2013-01-01

148

Diagnosis of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy, Krabbe Disease, and Farber Disease after Uptake of Fatty Acid-labeled Cerebroside Sulfate into Cultured Skin Fibroblasts  

OpenAIRE

[14C]Stearic acid-labeled cerebroside sulfate (CS) was presented to cultured skin fibroblasts in the media. After endocytosis into control cells 86% was readily metabolized to galactosylceramide, ceramide, and stearic acid, which was reutilized in the synthesis of the major lipids found in cultured fibroblasts. Uptake and metabolism of the [14C]CS into cells from typical and atypical patients and carriers of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), Krabbe disease, and Farber disease were observed....

Kudoh, Tooru; Wenger, David A.

1982-01-01

149

Establishment and characterization of the transfectable golden hamster embryo fibroblast cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

A diploid, continuous cell line, Golden Hamster Embryo Fibroblast-III (GHEF-III), which had been passaged for one year, was established essentially by a 3T3 protocol from primary culture of 14-day-gestation Golden Hamster embryo fibroblast cells. The cultured fibroblast exhibited monolayer growth and had contact inhibition. In morphological identification by light microscope (LM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and immunofluorescence examination (IF), these multipolar and spindle-shaped cells had a large ovoid nucleus, enriched rER and mitochondria in the cytoplasm. On the other hand, the vimentin presented in the cell with a random network and capped around the nucleus. The results indicated that the cultured GHEF-III cells were fibroblast in origin. The cells were free of bacterial and mycoplasma contamination. The doubling time in GHEF-III was about 15 hours. Chromosomal analysis of GHEF-III presented a diploid stem cell line with a modal number of 44. No evidence of transformation of GHEF-III was shown by properties of contact inhibition, no colony formation in soft agar, and no tumor growth in nude mice. The transformation of GHEF-III after transfection with pT24-C3, an oncogenic plasmid, was shown by the evidence of loss of contact inhibition, growth in low serum medium, colony formation in soft agar and tumor growth in nude mice. In vitro transformation testing of these cells may provide valuable data in studying the role of tumor transforming genes in carcinogenesis. Owing to the genetic stability and less spontaneous transformation, this GHEF-III cell line can be utilized as a source of recipient cells in transfection assay. PMID:8029368

Liu, H S; Biing, J T; Yang, Y F; Chao, C F

1994-01-01

150

Specificity in the synergism between retinoic acid and EGF on the growth of adult human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vitamin A (retinol) and five retinoids were tested for their ability to enhance epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of adult human skin fibroblast growth in vitro. The retinoids utilized in this study were RO-1-5488 (all-trans-retinoic acid), RO-4-3780 (13-cis-retinoic acid), RO-10-9359, RO-10-1670, and RO-21-6583. Retinol and each retinoid were capable of stimulating fibroblast growth alone (0-86%), while 13-cis and all-trans-retinoic acid were the most potent in potentiating the EGF promotion of fibroblast growth. Since retinoic acid might enhance the EGF stimulation of cell growth by increasing either EGF receptor number or binding affinity, the binding of 125I-labeled EGF was carried out in the presence of retinoic acid and the data were subjected to a Scatchard-type analysis. No change in EGF receptor number or affinity was seen in the presence of retinoic acid. The data indicate a specific interaction between retinoid acid and EGF which results in the potentiation of the EGF-stimulated cell growth. Furthermore, the mechanism of this interaction does not seem to involve the initial binding of EGF to its plasma membrane receptor or the available number of EGF receptors located on the cell surface

151

[Retraction] Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells using skin fibroblasts from patients with myocardial infarction under feeder-free conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

After the publication of the article, the authors decided they wished to retract their manuscript for the following reasons. We wish to retract our research article entitled 'Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells using skin fibroblasts from patients with myocardial infarction under feeder-free conditions' published on the Molecular Medicine Reports 9: 837-842, 2014. In this article, we generated human iPSCs from skin fibroblasts from myocardial infarction patients in feeder-independent conditions. However, in subsequent researches, all of the cells generated and believed to be iPSCs showed negative expression of the pluripotent markers, Nanog and Rex1, and the cell surface marker, SSEA-1 and SSEA-4. Therefore we think the established iPS cells might not be real pluripotent stem cells. Based on the above mentioned, we ascertained that there must have some serious disadvantages in our design of experiment fundamentally. As a result, all authors involved unanimously agreed to retract this article and redesign our experiment. We deeply apologize to the readers for any inconvenience caused by this retraction. [the original article was published in the Molecular Medicine Reports 9: 837-842, 2014 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2014.1885]. PMID:24866102

Li, Jun-Quan; Cheng, Ming; Tian, Wei-Chen; Zhang, Jian

2014-08-01

152

Chromosomal radiosensitivity during the G2 cell-cycle period of skin fibroblasts from individuals with familial cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors reported previously that human cells after neoplastic transformation in culture had acquired an increased susceptibility to chromatid damage induced by x-irradiation during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Evidence suggested that this results from deficient DNA repair during G2 phase. Cells derived from human tumors also showed enhanced G2-phase chromosomal radiosensitivity. Furthermore, skin fibroblasts from individuals with genetic diseases predisposing to a high risk of cancer, including ataxia-telangiectasia, Bloom syndrome, Fanconi anemia, and xeroderma pigmentosum exhibited enhanced G2-phase chromosomal radiosensitivity. The present study shows that apparently normal skin fibroblasts from individuals with familial cancer--i.e., from families with a history of neoplastic disease--also exhibit enhanced G2-phase chromosomal radiosensitivity. This radiosensitivity appears, therefore, to be associated with both a genetic predisposition to cancer and a malignant neoplastic state. Furthermore, enhanced G2-phase chromosomal radiosensitivity may provide the basis for an assay to detect genetic susceptibility to cancer

153

Inhibition of Oxidative Stress by Low-Molecular-Weight Polysaccharides with Various Functional Groups in Skin Fibroblasts  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in cellulo inhibition of hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts using different low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (LMPS prepared from agar (LMAG, chitosan (LMCH and starch (LMST, which contain various different functional groups (i.e., sulfate, amine, and hydroxyl groups. The following parameters were evaluated: cell viability, intracellular oxidant production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Trolox was used as a positive control in order to allow comparison of the antioxidant efficacies of the various LMPS. The experimentally determined attenuation of oxidative stress by LMPS in skin fibroblasts was: LMCH > LMAG > LMST. The different protection levels of these LMPS may be due to the physic-chemical properties of the LMPS’ functional groups, including electron transfer ability, metal ion chelating capacities, radical stabilizing capacity, and the hydrophobicity of the constituent sugars. The results suggest that LMCH might constitute a novel and potential dermal therapeutic and sun-protective agent.

Gregor P. C. Drummen

2013-09-01

154

Chromosomal radiosensitivity during the G2 cell-cycle period of skin fibroblasts from individuals with familial cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors reported previously that human cells after neoplastic transformation in culture had acquired an increased susceptibility to chromatid damage induced by x-irradiation during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Evidence suggested that this results from deficient DNA repair during G2 phase. Cells derived from human tumors also showed enhanced G2-phase chromosomal radiosensitivity. Furthermore, skin fibroblasts from individuals with genetic diseases predisposing to a high risk of cancer, including ataxia-telangiectasia, Bloom syndrome, Fanconi anemia, and xeroderma pigmentosum exhibited enhanced G2-phase chromosomal radiosensitivity. The present study shows that apparently normal skin fibroblasts from individuals with familial cancer--i.e., from families with a history of neoplastic disease--also exhibit enhanced G2-phase chromosomal radiosensitivity. This radiosensitivity appears, therefore, to be associated with both a genetic predisposition to cancer and a malignant neoplastic state. Furthermore, enhanced G2-phase chromosomal radiosensitivity may provide the basis for an assay to detect genetic susceptibility to cancer.

Parshad, R.; Sanford, K.K.; Jones, G.M.

1985-08-01

155

Influence of corticosteroids on chemotactic response and collagen metabolism of human skin fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following chronic administration of corticosteroids in vivo, a number of complications occur, which mainly involve the metabolism of connective tissue cells. Therefore, several attempts have been made to develop corticosteroids, which show less pronounced side effects. Fibroblasts were kept in monolayer cultures and were exposed to corticosteroids demonstrating similar anti-inflammatory activity (prednicarbate, desoximetasone). Chemotaxis of fibroblasts was studied over 4 hr, protein and collagen synthesis were estimated using proteinchemical methods and also by dot blot hybridization. Corticosteroids used in a high dosage (10 microM) affected all biosynthetic capacities of the investigated fibroblasts. Protein synthesis and production of collagen types I and III were reduced and a similar decrease of mRNA levels for collagen type I could be found indicating an influence on the pretranslational control. In the same concentrations desoximetasone was much more active than prednicarbate. Fibroblast migration was dosage dependently inhibited from 10(-9) M to 10(-5) M for desoximetasone, while incubation with prednicarbate did not cause a reduction of the chemotactic response at concentrations lower than 10(-7) M. These data suggest that modifications of corticosteroids might result in a dissociation of some of their biological activities and can specifically influence their effects on biosynthetic capacities of fibroblasts. PMID:3395353

Hein, R; Mauch, C; Hatamochi, A; Krieg, T

1988-07-15

156

A kinetic method to determine the cell cycle times of chick skin fibroblast subpopulations.  

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We have inferred, from computer simulations of clonal growth data, mean cell cycle time (Tc) for putative subpopulations of fibroblastic cells having unique replicative potentials. The growth kinetics of chick embryo fibroblast clones can be accounted for if it is assumed that: (1) there is a transient, and rather substantial, decline in mean Tc (from 34 to 12 hr) immediately following the commitment of a 'stem' cell daughter to a limited replicative lifespan; (2) the mean Tc increases progressively (from 12 to 48 hr) as 'committed' cells exhaust their remaining replicative potential; and (3) the daughters of committed cells may occasionally become abruptly post-mitotic. PMID:3203378

Angello, J C

1988-03-01

157

Further investigation of lipid-substituted poly(L-Lysine) polymers for transfection of human skin fibroblasts.  

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Enabling gene expression in skin fibroblasts using safe, nonviral gene delivery has the potential to stimulate wound healing and aid in skin tissue engineering efforts. In this study, several lipid-substituted poly(L-Lysines) (PLL) were investigated for their ability to deliver a plasmid DNA (pEGFP) to human skin fibroblasts. While native and lipid-substituted PLLs showed complete complexation with pEGFP, polymers with higher lipid substitution were more resilient to dissociation after heparin treatment. All polymers showed good protection of pEGFP against DNase I and DNase II digestion in vitro. DNA delivery studies using fluorescently labeled pEGFP showed that native PLL lacked the ability to deliver pEGFP into cells, whereas most of the lipid-substituted PLLs gave efficient pEGFP delivery into the cells. Extent of lipid substitution was an important factor in DNA delivery efficiency. The intracellular pEGFP was intact after delivery with lipid-substituted polymers up to 7 days. An RT-PCR methodology indicated successful transcription of the reporter GFP gene, which was not the case when the cells were transfected with a blank plasmid containing no functional GFP gene. Further studies with flow cytometry showed that successful protein expression was obtained with PLLs substituted with myristic and stearic acid, the latter displaying a relatively lower toxicity. We conclude that substituting lipids on PLL results in effective gene carriers and the extent of substitution, rather than the individual lipid, appeared to be critical for effective plasmid delivery. PMID:18498191

Abbasi, Meysam; Uludag, Hasan; Incani, Vanessa; Hsu, Charlie Yu Ming; Jeffery, Andrea

2008-06-01

158

Immunomodulatory effects of bee venom in human synovial fibroblast cell line.  

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As in Iranian traditional medicine, bee venom (BV) is a promising treatment for the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is considered as a problematic human chronic inflammatory disease in the present time. Smoking is considered to be a major risk factor in RA onset and severity. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effects of BV on cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory response in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and bee venom were determined by the tetrazolium (MTT) method in cultured synovial fibroblastes. The expression of interleukin-1? and sirtuin1 mRNA were analyzed by SYBR green real-time quantitative PCR. Differences between the mean values of treated and untreated groups were assessed by student t-test. Based on MTT assay, CSC and BV did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects up to 40 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL, respectively. Our results showed that interleukin-1? mRNA level was significantly up-regulated by CSC treatments in LPS-stimulated synoviocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, the expressions of IL-1? and Sirt1 were up-regulated even in lower concentrations of BV and attenuated at higher concentrations. Also, BV attenuated the CSC-induced and LPS-induced inflammatory responses in synovial fibroblasts. Our results support the epidemiological studies indicating pro-inflammatory effects of CSC and anti-inflammatory effects of BV on FLS cell line. PMID:25561937

Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Vatanpour, Hossein; H Shirazi, Farshad

2015-01-01

159

Use of decellularized scaffolds combined with hyaluronic acid and basic fibroblast growth factor for skin tissue engineering.  

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Skin damage is one of the common clinical skin diseases, and the main cure is the use of skin graft, especially for large area of skin injury or deep-skin damage. However, skin graft demand is far greater than that currently available. In this study, xenogeneic decellularized scaffold was prepared with pig peritoneum by a series of biochemical treatments to retain normal three-dimensional tissue scaffold and remove cells and antigenic components from the tissue. Scaffold was combined with hyaluronic acid (HA) plus two different concentrations of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and tested for its use for the repair of skin wounds. HA enhanced bFGF to adsorb to the decellularized scaffolds and slowed the release of bFGF from the scaffolds in vitro. A total of 20 rabbits were sacrificed on day 3, 6, 11, or 14 postsurgery. The wound healing rate and the thickness of dermis layer of each wound were determined for analyzing the wound repair. Statistical analysis was performed by the two-tailed Student's t-test. Wounds covered with scaffolds containing 1??g/mL bFGF had higher wound healing rates of 47.24%, 74.69%, and 87.54%, respectively, for days 6, 11, and 14 postsurgery than scaffolds alone with wound healing rates of 28.17%, 50.31%, and 61.36% and vaseline oil gauze with wound healing rates of 24.84%, 42.75%, and 57.62%. Wounds covered with scaffolds containing 1??g/mL bFGF showed more dermis regeneration than the other wounds and had dermis layer of 210.60, 374.40, and 774.20??m, respectively, for days 6, 11, and 14 postsurgery compared with scaffolds alone with dermis layer of 116.60, 200.00, and 455.40??m and vaseline oil gauze with dermis layer of 82.60, 186.20, and 384.40??m. There was no significant difference in wound healing rates and thickness of dermis layer between wounds covered with scaffolds containing 1 and 3??g/mL bFGF on days 3, 6, 11, and 14 postsurgery. The decellularized scaffolds combined with HA and bFGF can be further tested for skin tissue engineering. PMID:25167809

Wu, Zhengzheng; Fan, Lina; Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongliang; Zhang, Peng; Wei, Xing

2015-01-01

160

Inhibition of elastin and collagen networks degradation in human skin by gingival fibroblast. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies.  

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Full Text Available Skin aging shows an imbalance between synthesis and degradation of the extracellular matrix. The overproduction of degradative enzymes (MMPs during the chronology- and photo-induced aging leads to a degradation of the elastic and collagen networks. In a model of collagen and elastin destruction, we showed that the gingival fibroblast was able to preserve these macromolecules by inhibiting the overproduction of metalloproteinases by overproduction of TIMP-1 and modulation of the inflammatory cytokines activity. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the gingival fibroblasts on human skin. The results in vitro and ex vivo show that the gingival fibroblast protects the skin collagen and elastic network by the inhibition of MMPs which leads to an overproduction of the TIMP-1. Moreover, the gingival fibroblast modulates the activity of some enzymes responsible for the inflammation; they inhibit the IL-1? and stimulate the production of TGF-?1. In vivo studies with a duration of six months and 50 women with pronounced wrinkles show that the culture supernatant of gingival fibroblasts diluted to 5% leads to a statistically significant decrease in the number and length of wrinkles.

Adrien Naveau

2011-03-01

161

Proteomic Analysis of PTCH1+/? Fibroblast Lysate and Conditioned Culture Media Isolated from the Skin of Healthy Subjects and Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Patients  

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Background. The pathogenesis underlying the increased predisposition to the development of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in the context of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is linked to molecular mechanisms that differ from sporadic BCCs. Patients with Gorlin syndrome tend to develop multiple BCCs at an early age and present with tumors of non-sun-exposed skin. The aim of this study was to compare the proteomic profile of cultured fibroblast and fibroblast conditioned culture media of PTCH1+ and nonmutated fibroblasts. Results. Proteomic analysis was performed using Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry in PTCH1+ fibroblast conditioned media isolated from not affected sun-protected skin areas of Gorlin patients and from healthy subjects. 12 protein cluster peaks, >5?kDa, had significant differences in their peak intensities between PTCH1+ and PTCH1? subject groups. We detected a strongly MMP1 overexpression in PTCH1+ fibroblasts obtained from NBCCS patients with respect to healthy donors. Conclusion. Protein profiles in the fibroblast conditioned media revealed statistically significant differences between two different types (missense versus nonsense) of PTCH1 mutations. These differences could be useful as signatures to identify PTCH1 gene carriers at high risk for the development of NBCCS-associated malignancies and to develop novel experimental molecular tailored therapies based on these druggable targets. PMID:24369017

Ponti, Giovanni; Bertazzoni, Giorgia; Pastorino, Lorenza; Cuoghi, Aurora; Bergamini, Stefania; Benassi, Luisa; Azzoni, Paola; Petrachi, Tiziana; Magnoni, Cristina; Pellacani, Giovanni; Pollio, Annamaria; Witkowski, Alexander Michael; Tomasi, Aldo

2013-01-01

162

Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1) domain-specific stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression through ?V?3 integrin in human skin fibroblasts.  

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Human skin largely comprises collagenous extracellular matrix. The hallmark of skin aging is fragmentation of collagen fibrils. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are largely responsible for collagen degradation. MMP-1, principally derived from dermal fibroblasts, is the major protease capable of initiating degradation of native fibrillar collagens. Presently, we report that CCN1, a secreted and extracellular matrix-associated protein, is elevated in aged human skin dermal fibroblasts in vivo and stimulates MMP-1 expression through functional interaction with ?V?3 integrin in human dermal fibroblasts. CCN1 contains four conserved structural domains. Our results indicate that the three N-terminal domains (IGFBP, VWC, and TSP1), but not the C-terminal CT domain, are required for CCN1 to stimulate MMP-1 expression. This stimulation is dependent on interaction between the active structural domains and ?V?3 integrin. The interaction of VWC domain with integrin ?V?3 is necessary and requires functional cooperation with adjacent IGFBP and TSP1 domains to stimulate MMP-1 expression. Finally, induction of MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts by CCN1 N-terminal domains resulted in fragmentation of type I collagen fibrils in a three-dimensional collagen lattice model. These data suggest that domain-specific interactions of CCN1 with ?V?3 integrin contribute to human skin aging by stimulating MMP-1-mediated collagen fibril fragmentation. PMID:23504324

Qin, Zhaoping; Fisher, Gary J; Quan, Taihao

2013-04-26

163

ANALYSIS OF DNA DAMAGE AND REPAIR IN SKIN FIBROBLASTS OF INFANT AND OLDER CHILDREN USING THE IN VITRO ALKALINE COMET ASSAY  

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ANALYSIS OF DNA DAMAGE AND REPAIR IN SKIN FIBROBLASTS OF INFANT AND OLDER CHILDREN USING THE IN VITRO ALKALINE COMET ASSAY, Alan H. Tennant1, Geremy W. Knapp1 and Andrew D. Kligerman1, 1Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab...

164

Effects of hyperthermia and ionizing radiation in normal and ataxia telangiectasia human fibroblast lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of 450C hyperthermia and ? radiation have been studied in three normal human fibroblast lines (GM38, GM730, WI38) and compared to the effects in two lines derived from patients with the hereditary disease ataxia telangiectasia (AR3BI, AT5BI). All lines, both normal and ?-sensitive AT, showed a similar resistance to killing by heat alone, suggesting that the defect responsible for the increased radiation sensitivity in AT lines does not confer increased heat sensitivity. Shouldered survival curves were obtained in each case indicating the ability to accumulate sublethal heat damage. All normal and AT cell lines exhibited increased resistance to the lethal effects of heat in response to a thermal stress, indicating that the defect that causes radiosensitivity in AT cell lines does not prevent the induction of thermotolerance. It was hypothesized that in normal cells, this heat treatment inactivates the process which is already defective in AT lines, and that this process may be required for the proper rejoining of double-strand breaks produced during the repair of other radiation-induced lesions

165

Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine photodimer formation and induction of ornithine decarboxylase in human skin fibroblasts after UV irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine photodimers as well as the induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) may serve as biochemical markers of the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet light (UV). For this reason, it is important to compare the formation of pyrimidine dimers with the induction of ODC in human skin fibroblasts after irradiation with UVC (200-290 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm). In our studies we determined cytosine-thymine (C-T) as well as thymine-thymine dimer yields (T-T) by high-pressure liquid chromatography in cultures of neonatal normal human foreskin-derived fibroblasts after irradiation with UVC and UVB light. It was found that the yield of dimerization and the ratio of T-T/C-T decreased from the UVC to the UVB region. Time-course studies of ODC-induction in the same cells indicated that the maximal activity after UVB irradiation was retarded compared to UVC exposure. For the UV-induced ODC-levels, however, no significant difference in maximal induction could be measured after UVC and UVB irradiation at fluences where comparable yields of thymine dimerization are produced. Similar ODC-maxima were obtained with strains from children, while cells from adults showed significantly less pronounced ODC induction, indicating that ODC-response decreases with age and may therefore be used as a marker of aging

166

Wound healing morbidity in STS patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy in relation to in vitro skin fibroblast radiosensitivity, proliferative capacity and TGF-? activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: In a recent study, we demonstrated that the ability of dermal fibroblasts, obtained from soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients, to undergo initial division in vitro following radiation exposure correlated with the development of wound healing morbidity in the patients following their treatment with preoperative radiotherapy. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) is thought to play an important role in fibroblast proliferation and radiosensitivity both of which may impact on wound healing. Thus, in this study we examined the interrelationship between TGF-? activity, radiosensitivity and proliferation of cultured fibroblasts and the wound healing response of STS patients after preoperative radiotherapy to provide a validation cohort for our previous study and to investigate mechanisms. Patients and methods: Skin fibroblasts were established from skin biopsies of 46 STS patients. The treatment group consisted of 28 patients who received preoperative radiotherapy. Eighteen patients constituted a control group who were either irradiated postoperatively or did not receive radiation treatment. Fibroblast cultures were subjected to the colony forming and cytokinesis-blocked binucleation assays (low dose rate: ?0.02 Gy/min) and TGF-? assays (high dose-rate: ?1.06 Gy/min) following ?-irradiation. Fibroblast radiosensitivity and initial proliferative ability were represented by the surviving fraction at 2.4 Gy (SF2.4) and binucleation insub>2.4) and binucleation index (BNI), respectively. Active and total TGF-? levels in fibroblast cultures were determined using a biological assay. Wound healing complication (WHC), defined as the requirement for further surgery or prolonged deep wound packing, was the clinical endpoint examined. Results: Of the 28 patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy, 8 (29%) had wound healing difficulties. Fibroblasts from patients who developed WHC showed a trend to retain a significantly higher initial proliferative ability after irradiation compared with those from individuals in the treatment group with normal wound healing, consistent with the results of our previous study. No link was observed between fibroblast radiosensitivity and WHC. Neither active nor total TGF-? levels in cultures were significantly affected by irradiation. Fibroblast proliferation in unirradiated and irradiated cultures, as well as radiosensitivity, was not influenced by TGF-? content. TGF-? expression in fibroblast cultures did not reflect wound healing morbidity. Conclusions: These data are consistent with our previous study and combined the results suggest that in vitro fibroblast proliferation after irradiation may be a useful predictor of wound healing morbidity in STS patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy. TGF-? levels in culture do not predict WHC, suggesting that the role of TGF-? in wound healing is likely controlled by other in vivo factors

167

Molecular Characterization of the Cytotoxic Mechanism of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Nano-Onions on Human Skin Fibroblast  

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The increasing use of nanotechnology in consumer products and medical applications underlies the importance of understanding its potential toxic effects to people and the environment. Although both fullerene and carbon nanotubes have been demonstrated to accumulate to cytotoxic levels within organs of various animal models and cell types and carbon nanomaterials have been exploited for cancer therapies, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for cytotoxicity of this class of nanomaterial are not yet fully apparent. To address this question, we have performed whole genome expression array analysis and high content image analysis based phenotypic measurements on human skin fibroblast cell populations exposed to multiwall carbon nano-onions (MWCNOs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Here we demonstrate that exposing cells to MWCNOs and MWCNTs at cytotoxic doses induces cell cycle arrest and increases apoptosis/necrosis. Expression array analysis indicates that multiple cellular pathways are perturbed after exposure to these nanomaterials at these doses, with material-specific toxigenomic profiles observed. Moreover, there are also distinct qualitative and quantitative differences in gene expression profiles, with each material at different dosage levels (6 and 0.6 ?g/mL for MWCNO and 0.6 and 0.06 ?g/mL for MWCNT). MWCNO and MWCNT exposure activates genes involved in cellular transport, metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and stress response. MWCNTs induce genes indicative of a strong immune and inflammatory response within skin fibroblasts, while MWCNO changes are concentrated in genes induced in response to external stimuli. Promoter analysis of the microarray results demonstrate that interferon and p38/ERK-MAPK cascades are critical pathway components in the induced signal transduction contributing to the more adverse effects observed upon exposure to MWCNTs as compared to MWCNOs. PMID:16351195

Ding, Lianghao; Stilwell, Jackie; Zhang, Tingting; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Jiang, Huijian; Selegue, John P.; Cooke, Patrick A.; Gray, Joe W.; Chen, Fanqing Frank

2009-01-01

168

Cholesterol Metabolism in Brain and Skin Fibroblasts from Sarda Breed Sheep With Scrapie-resistant and Scrapie-susceptible Genotypes  

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Full Text Available Scrapie is a fatal spongiform encephalopathy of sheep, a transmissible form of prion disease caused by neuronal accumulation of the aberrantly conformed prion protein (PrPsc. Currently, no ante-mortem diagnostic tests are available to detect this untreatable disease in the pre-clinical stage, thus making difficult to control its spread. Recent evidence suggests that the production of PrPsc can be modulated by the levels of membrane cholesterol in neuronal cells. Since cholesterol levels in cell membranes are dependent on cholesterol homeostasis in the whole organism, we studied cholesterol metabolism in brain tissues, plasma and skin fibroblasts of Sarda breed sheep with scrapie-resistant (ARR/ARR and scrapie-susceptible (ARQ/ARQ prion protein genotypes, both not infected (ARQ/ARQ- and infected (ARQ/ARQ+ with scrapie. We found that, the levels of cytoplasmic cholesterol esters (CE in brains and skin fibroblasts from sheep with the ARQ/ARQ genotype were consistently higher than those from sheep with the ARR/ARR genotype. Conversely, the levels of free cholesterol (FC were lower in ARQ/ARQ, as compared to ARR/ARR sheep, thus resulting in a sharp reduction of the FC/CE ratio. Moreover, both uninfected and infected ARQ/ARQ sheep showed abnormally low levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C in their plasma, as compared to ARR/ARR sheep. These data other than adding new strength to the notion that altered levels of intracellular cholesterol may indicate the presence of a lipid metabolic state that predisposes to infection with, and accumulation of, PrPsc in the brain, discriminate for the first time between two distinct but related cellular pools of cholesterol, namely membrane FC on one hand and cytoplasmic CE on the other.

Alessandra Pani

2007-01-01

169

Fibroblasts of skin fragments as a tool for the investigation of genetic diseases: technical recommendations  

OpenAIRE

Skin biopsies are frequently indicated for investigation and/or confirmation of genetic disorders. Although relatively simple and noninvasive, these procedures require care in order to increase probability of success and to avoid patient discomfort and unnecessary repeated analyses and associated laboratory fees. The present report highlights the importance of skin biopsies in genetic disorder diagnosis and presents general rules for collecting, storing, transporting and processing samples. W...

Coelho Janice Carneiro; Giugliani Roberto

2000-01-01

170

In vitro study for laser gene transfer in BHK-21 fibroblast cell line  

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Modifications to our previously introduced system for laser microbeam cell surgery were carried out in the present work to match animal cells. These modifications included: 1- Using other laser system that used before, Excimer laser with 193 and 308 nm wavelengths. The used laser here, is He-Cd with low power and 441.5 nm wavelength in the visible region. 2- Instead of using pulsed laser, we used here CW He-Cd chopped by electrical chopper, which is synchronized with the mechanical motion of the mobile stage with step 40 microns, according to cell dimensions to avoid puncturing the same cell twice. The advantages of the modified here laser setup for gene transfer is: it is less damaging to the sensitive animal cell which has thin cell membrane. The present work aimed to: 1- Design a modified laser microbeam cell surgery, applicable to animal cells, such as fibroblast cells 2- To examine the efficiency of such system. 3- To assure gene transfer and its expression in the used cells. 4- To evaluate the ultra damages produced from using the laser beam as a modality for gene transfer. On the other wards, to introduce: safe, efficient and less damaging modality for gene transfer in animal cells. To achieve these goals, we applied the introduced here home-made laser setup with its synchronized parameters to introduce pBK-CMV phagemid, containing LacZ and neomycin resistance (neor )genes into BHK-21 fibroblast cell line. The results of the present work showed that: 1- Our modified laser microbeam cell surgery setup proved to be useful and efficient tool for gene transfer into fibroblast cells. 2- The presence and expression of LacZ gene was achieved using histochemical LacZ assay. 3- Selection of G418 antibiotic sensitivity assay confirmed the presence and expression towards stability of neor gene with time. 4- Presence of LacZ and neor genes in the genomic DNA of transfected fibroblast cells was indicated using PCR analysis. 5- Transmission electron microscopy indicated that, no ultradamages or changes for cell; membrane, organilles or any component of transfected fibroblast cell as a result of using laser microbeam compared with control cell.

Abdel Aziz, M.; Salem, D. S.; Salama, M. S.; Badr, Y.

2009-02-01

171

On-line detection of human skin vapors.  

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Vapors released by the skin in the hand of one human subject are detected in real time by sampling them directly from the ambient gas surrounding the hand, ionizing them by secondary electrospray ionization (SESI, via contact with the charged cloud from an electrospray source), and analyzing them in a mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure source (API-MS). This gas-phase approach is complementary to alternative on-line surface ionization methods such as DESI and DART. A dominating peak of lactic acid and a complete series of saturated and singly unsaturated fatty acids (C(12) to C(18)) are observed, in accordance with previous off-line studies by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several other metabolites have been identified, including ketomonocarboxylic and hydroxymonocarboxylic acids. PMID:19251441

Martínez-Lozano, Pablo; de la Mora, Juan Fernández

2009-06-01

172

Effects of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel on human dermal fibroblasts in vitro and on skin condition in Japanese women  

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Background Aloe is known for its topical use for treating wounds and burns. Many previous studies reported the healing effects of Aloe vera. However, there are few clinical studies on the effect of orally administered A. vera gel on the skin. Aloe sterols are a type of plant sterols that have the capability to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. In a recent study, we confirmed that ingested Aloe sterols reached the peripheral tissues through the bloodstream. However, their influence on dermal fibroblasts has not been investigated. Methods First, we investigated the capability of Aloe sterols (cycloartenol and lophenol) to stimulate human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Then, we investigated the effect of intake of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) containing 40 ?g Aloe sterols on the skin conditions in Japanese women with dry skin in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Results After cocultivation with Aloe sterols, the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid increased by approximately two-fold and 1.5-fold, and gene expression levels of these enzymes responsible for their synthesis were also observed in human dermal fibroblasts. An increase in arm skin hydration was observed at 8 weeks in the AVGP group, whereas a slight decrease in arm skin hydration was noted in the placebo group. However, there was no statistical difference between AVGP and placebo groups in skin moisture. In subgroup analysis, the change in the mean wrinkle depth was significantly lower in the AVGP group than in the control group. In addition, percent body fat after 8 weeks was significantly lower in the AVGP group. No AVGP intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion The present study confirms that daily oral Aloe sterol-containing AVGP significantly reduced facial wrinkles in women aged ?40 years, and Aloe sterols stimulate collagen and hyaluronic acid production by human dermal fibroblasts.

Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Ishizaki, Chiaki

2015-01-01

173

DNA damage and altered gene expression in cultured human skin fibroblasts exposed to 193-nm excimer laser radiation  

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Tissue ablation using 193nm excimer lasers is being considered for a variety of surgical procedures, yet little is known regarding the potential mutagenic risk to human cells. The effects of sublethal doses of radiation on cellular DNA and gene expression have been examined in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Northern blot analysis of mRNA revealed an increase in the levels of the c-f. proto-oncogene, interstitial collagenase, and metallothionein transcripts after laser radiation at either 193nm or 248nm. Similar changes in gene expression have been previously observed in cells treated with different carcinogens, including classical UV light (254nm) and phorbol esters. In contrast to the conventional UV light or laser radiation at 248nm, the 193nm radiation did not cause significant pyrimidine dimer formation, as determined by measurements of unscheduled DNA synthesis. However, both 193nm and 248nm radiation induced micronuclei formation, indicative of chromosome breakage. These data indicate that exposure of actively replicating human skin cells to sublethal doses of 193nm laser radiation may result in molecular changes associated with carcinogenesis.

Samid, Dvorit; Flessate, Denise M.; Miller, Alexandra C.; Rimoldi, Donata

1990-06-01

174

Development of biomimetic tilapia collagen nanofibers for skin regeneration through inducing keratinocytes differentiation and collagen synthesis of dermal fibroblasts.  

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In this study, tilapia skin collagen sponge and electrospun nanofibers were developed for wound dressing. The collagen sponge was composed of at least two ?-peptides, and its denaturation temperature was 44.99 °C. It did not change the number of spleen-derived lymphocytes in BALB/c mice, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes, and the level of IgG or IgM in Sprague-Dawley rat. The contact angle, tensile strength, and weight loss temperature of collagen nanofibers were 21.2°, 6.72±0.44 MPa, and 300 °C, respectively. The nanofibers could promote the viabilities of human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), inducing epidermal differentiation through the gene expression of involucrin, filaggrin, and type I transglutaminase of HaCaTs, and they could also accelerate migration of HaCaTs with the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). Besides, the nanofibers could upregulate the protien level of Col-I in HDFs both via a direct effect and TGF-?1 secreted from HaCaTs, thus facilitating the formation of collagen fibers. Furthermore, the collagen nanofibers stimulated the skin regeneration rapidly and effectively in vivo. These biological effects could be explained as the contributions from the biomimic extracellular cell matrix structure, hydrophilicity, and the multiple amino acids of the collagen nanofibers. PMID:25598076

Zhou, Tian; Wang, Nanping; Xue, Yang; Ding, Tingting; Liu, Xin; Mo, Xiumei; Sun, Jiao

2015-02-11

175

Fibroblasts of skin fragments as a tool for the investigation of genetic diseases: technical recommendations  

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Full Text Available Skin biopsies are frequently indicated for investigation and/or confirmation of genetic disorders. Although relatively simple and noninvasive, these procedures require care in order to increase probability of success and to avoid patient discomfort and unnecessary repeated analyses and associated laboratory fees. The present report highlights the importance of skin biopsies in genetic disorder diagnosis and presents general rules for collecting, storing, transporting and processing samples. We recommend its reading to professionals intending to use this important and sometimes fundamental diagnostic tool.

Coelho Janice Carneiro

2000-01-01

176

Establishment and characterization of immortalized Gli-null mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hedgehog (Hh signaling is a conserved morphogenetic pathway which plays critical roles in embryonic development, with emerging evidence also supporting a role in healing and repair processes and tumorigenesis. The Gli family of transcription factors (Gli1, 2 and 3 mediate the Hedgehog morphogenetic signal by regulating the expression of downstream target genes. We previously characterized the individual and cooperative roles of the Gli proteins in Hh target gene regulation using a battery of primary embryonic fibroblasts from Gli null mice. Results Here, we describe the establishment of spontaneously immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblast (iMEF cell lines lacking single and multiple Gli genes. These non-clonal cell lines recapitulate the unique ligand mediated transcriptional response of primary MEFs. While loss of Gli1 had no effect on target gene induction, Gli2 null cells demonstrated reduced target gene induction while Gli3 null cells exhibited elevated basal and ligand-induced expression. Target gene response in Gli1-/-2-/- iMEFs was severely reduced while Gli2-/-3-/- iMEFs were incapable of ligand-induced transcriptional response. However, we found that both Gli1-/-2-/- and Gli2-/-3-/- iMEFs exhibited robust leukotriene synthesis-dependent migration responses to Hh ligand, demonstrating that this response is not transcriptionally-dependent. Conclusion This study provides fundamental characterizations of the transcriptional and non-transcriptional Hh responsiveness of a battery of Gli-null iMEFs. Moving forward, these cell lines should prove a valuable tool set to study the unique functional regulation of the Gli proteins in a Hh-responsive cell-type.

Gipp Jerry J

2008-09-01

177

Cationic star-shaped polymer as an siRNA carrier for reducing MMP-9 expression in skin fibroblast cells and promoting wound healing in diabetic rats  

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Full Text Available Na Li,1,* Heng-Cong Luo,1,* Chuan Yang,1 Jun-Jie Deng,2 Meng Ren,1 Xiao-Ying Xie,1 Diao-Zhu Lin,1 Li Yan,1 Li-Ming Zhang2 1Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2DSAPM Lab and PCFM Lab, Institute of Polymer Science, Department of Polymer and Materials Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Excessive expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is deleterious to the cutaneous wound-healing process in the context of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to explore whether a cationic star-shaped polymer consisting of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD core and poly(amidoamine dendron arms (ß-CD-[D3]7 could be used as the gene carrier of small interfering RNA (siRNA to reduce MMP-9 expression for enhanced diabetic wound healing. Methods: The cytotoxicity of ß-CD-(D37 was investigated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (MMT method in the rat CRL1213 skin fibroblast cell line. The transfection efficiency of ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-small interfering RNA (siRNA complexes was determined by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Quantitative real time (RT polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the gene expression of MMP-9 after the transfection by ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes. The ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes were injected on the wounds of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound closure was measured on days 4 and 7 post-wounding. Results: ß-CD-(D37 exhibited low cytotoxicity in fibroblast cells, and easily formed the complexes with MMP-9-siRNA. The ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes were readily taken up by fibroblast cells, resulting in the downregulation of MMP-9 gene expression (P<0.01. Animal experiments revealed that the treatment by ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes enhanced wound closure in diabetic rats on day 7 post-wounding (P<0.05. Conclusion: ß-CD-(D37 may be used as an efficient carrier for the delivery of MMP-9-siRNA to reduce MMP-9 expression in skin fibroblast cells and promote wound healing in diabetic rats. Keywords: gene carrier, small interfering RNAs, matrix metalloproteinase-9, diabetic foot ulceration

Li N

2014-07-01

178

Photochemical damage to skin fibroblasts caused by protoporphyrin and violet light  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Foreskin fibroblasts cultured in a medium containing protoporphyrin and exposed to violet light lose the capacity to proliferate. This phenomenon can be assessed on the basis of the ability of the irradiated cells to form colonies. Potentially lethal injuries can, however, be repaired during post-irradiation incubation under optimal growth conditions. We investigated the photodynamically induced transformations of certain molecular targets in the irradiated cells. Biochemical analysis showed that only traces of unsaturated fatty acids were oxidized, but SH groups of both the membranes and the cytosol appeared to be very sensitive targets. Of the tryptophan content, 20% was damaged during irradiation. Recovery was observed during post-irradiation incubation. The tryptophan content and the SH groups recovered to some extent, and these results showed a good correlation with the regeneration of surviving cells. (orig.)

179

Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts and lymphocytes from atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last 30 years or so, the existence of individual differences in in vivo radiation sensitivity has been well recognized in the response of normal tissues, particularly skin tissue, of cancer patients in the course of radiation therapy. If a large variation in radiosensitivity truly exists, it is very important to compare the radiosensitivity between the A-bomb survivors and a general population. If A-bomb survivors include a disproportionately large number of either radioresistant or radiosensitive persons, the surviving population would provide a biased estimate of the true risk of radiogenic cancer. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

180

Age-associated modifications of Base Excision Repair activities in human skin fibroblast extracts.  

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Base Excision Repair (BER) is the predominant repair pathway responsible for removal of so-called small DNA lesions such as abasic sites (AP site), uracil (U), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8oxoG), thymine glycol (Tg). In this study, we investigated effect of aging on excision efficacy of several endogenous base lesions and AP sites using an in vitro multiplexed fluorescent approach on support (parallelized oligonucleotide cleavage assay). Human fibroblasts nuclear extracts from 29 donors of different ages were characterized in their ability to simultaneously excise the different lesions. Clearly, three different groups of lesions emerged according to the efficiency of their cleavage: one exhibited very high cleavage efficiency (AP sites and U paired with G), one showed intermediate cleavage efficiency (U paired with A and Tg). The third group included 8oxoG, A paired with 8oxoG, T at CpG site and hypoxanthine (Hx) and displayed poor repair. Aging was significantly associated with modification of excision efficiency for AP sites, uracil, Tg and 8oxoG. Repair rate decreased for the first three lesions and the most drastic effects were observed for repair of U:A. Surprisingly, excision of 8oxoG increased with aging suggesting a completely different regulation or adaptation for the initiation step of this related specific repair pathway. PMID:20854835

Pons, Bénédicte; Belmont, Anne-Sophie; Masson-Genteuil, Gwénaëlle; Chapuis, Violaine; Oddos, Thierry; Sauvaigo, Sylvie

2010-01-01

181

Characterization and virus susceptibility of a skin cell line from red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara).  

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A red-spotted grouper Epinephelus akaara skin (RGS) cell line was established and characterized. RGS cells had a normal diploid chromosome number of 2n = 48, the morphology of which was fibroblastic-like in 3 days and epithelial-like over 5 after 16 passages. The cells multiplied well in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% of fetal bovine serum at 25°C. Susceptibilities of RGS and grass carp ovary (GCO) cells to two viruses were tested, and the results showed that the titer of an iridovirus Rana grylio virus (RGV) in RGS cells was 10³·? TCID?? ml?¹, which was much higher than a rhabdovirus spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the cells (10?·? TCID?? ml?¹). The titers of RGV and SVCV in GCO were 10?·? TCID?? ml?¹ and 10?·? TCID?? ml?¹, respectively, which were higher than those in RGS cells. The data may imply that RGS cells could be selectively resistible to some viruses during infection. RT-PCR analysis of RGV-infected RGS cells showed that RGV could replicate in RGS cells. Further study of virus replications in RGS cells was conducted by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy has shown that virus particles scattered in the cytoplasm and virus protein appeared in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The results suggested that RGS cells could be used as a potential in vitro model to study the cutaneous barrier function against virus infection. PMID:22252337

Lei, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Zhong-Yuan; He, Li-Bo; Pei, Chao; Yuan, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Ya

2012-08-01

182

Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite  

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We have shown that UVA (320-380 nm) radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induce a stress protein of approximately 32 kDa in human skin fibroblasts. The synthesis and cloning of cDNA from arsenite-induced mRNA populations have now allowed us to unequivocally identify the 32-kDa protein as heme oxygenase. By mRNA analysis we have shown that the heme oxygenase gene is also induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium chloride, iodoacetamide, and menadione. The known antioxidant properties of heme catabolites taken together with the observation of a high level of induction of the enzyme in cells from an organ not involved in hemoglobin breakdown strongly supports the proposal that the induction of heme oxygenase may be a general response to oxidant stress and constitutes an important cellular defense mechanism against oxidative damage.

Keyse, S.M.; Tyrrell, R.M.

1989-01-01

183

Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have shown that UVA (320-380 nm) radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induce a stress protein of approximately 32 kDa in human skin fibroblasts. The synthesis and cloning of cDNA from arsenite-induced mRNA populations have now allowed us to unequivocally identify the 32-kDa protein as heme oxygenase. By mRNA analysis we have shown that the heme oxygenase gene is also induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium chloride, iodoacetamide, and menadione. The known antioxidant properties of heme catabolites taken together with the observation of a high level of induction of the enzyme in cells from an organ not involved in hemoglobin breakdown strongly supports the proposal that the induction of heme oxygenase may be a general response to oxidant stress and constitutes an important cellular defense mechanism against oxidative damage

184

Fibroblasts of skin fragments as a tool for the investigation of genetic diseases: technical recommendations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Biópsias de pele são freqüentemente indicadas para a investigação e/ou confirmação de um distúrbio genético. Embora relativamente simples e não invasivo, este procedimento deve ser executado com cuidado de modo a aumentar as chances de sucesso, evitando o desconforto para o paciente e os custos para [...] o laboratório gerados por uma eventual necessidade de repetição da análise. Este trabalho destaca a importância da biópsia de pele para o diagnóstico de doenças genéticas e descreve as normas gerais para coleta, acondicionamento, transporte e processamento da amostra. Sua leitura é recomendável para profissionais que pretendem utilizar esta importante, e às vezes fundamental, ferramenta diagnóstica. Abstract in english Skin biopsies are frequently indicated for investigation and/or confirmation of genetic disorders. Although relatively simple and noninvasive, these procedures require care in order to increase probability of success and to avoid patient discomfort and unnecessary repeated analyses and associated la [...] boratory fees. The present report highlights the importance of skin biopsies in genetic disorder diagnosis and presents general rules for collecting, storing, transporting and processing samples. We recommend its reading to professionals intending to use this important and sometimes fundamental diagnostic tool.

Janice Carneiro, Coelho; Roberto, Giugliani.

2000-06-01

185

The role of Bach1 in ultraviolet A-mediated human heme oxygenase 1 regulation in human skin fibroblasts.  

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Up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) by ultraviolet A (UVA; 320-380 nm) irradiation of human skin cells protects them against oxidative stress. The role of Nrf2 in up-regulation of HO-1 and other phase II genes is well established. The mechanism underlying Bach1-mediated HO-1 repression is less well understood although cellular localization seems to be crucial. Because prolonged HO-1 overexpression is likely to be detrimental, it is crucial that activation of the gene is transient. We now show that UVA irradiation of cultured human skin fibroblasts enhances accumulation of Bach1 mRNA and protein severalfold. Endogenous Bach1 protein accumulates in the nucleus after 8h and may occupy MARE sites after HO-1 activation thus providing a compensatory mechanism to control HO-1 overexpression. Overexpression of Bach1, together with MafK, represses basal and UVA-mediated HO-1 protein expression, whereas silencing of the Bach1 gene by Bach1-specific siRNAs causes robust enhancement of constitutive HO-1 levels. UVA treatment of cells in which Bach1 has been silenced leads to higher levels of induction of the HO-1 protein. Although Bach1 protein is exported from the nucleus 12h after UVA irradiation, the release of free cellular heme from microsomal heme-containing proteins is immediate rather than delayed. Although heme does promote the export of Bach1 via the Crm1/exportin 1 pathway and is involved in the delayed UVA-mediated export of the protein, it is not clear how this occurs. PMID:22107958

Raval, Chintan M; Zhong, Julia Li; Mitchell, Stephen A; Tyrrell, Rex M

2012-01-01

186

Application of a novel population of multipotent stem cells derived from skin fibroblasts as donor cells in bovine SCNT.  

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Undifferentiated stem cells are better donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), resulting in more offspring than more differentiated cells. While various stem cell populations have been confirmed to exist in the skin, progress has been restricted due to the lack of a suitable marker for their prospective isolation. To address this fundamental issue, a marker is required that could unambiguously prove the differentiation state of the donor cells. We therefore utilized magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) to separate a homogeneous population of small SSEA-4(+) cells from a heterogeneous population of bovine embryonic skin fibroblasts (BEF). SSEA-4(+) cells were 8-10 ?m in diameter and positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP). The percentage of SSEA-4(+) cells within the cultured BEF population was low (2-3%). Immunocytochemistry and PCR analyses revealed that SSEA-4(+) cells expressed pluripotency-related markers, and could differentiate into cells comprising all three germ layers in vitro. They remained undifferentiated over 20 passages in suspension culture. In addition, cloned embryos derived from SSEA-4 cells showed significant differences in cleavage rate and blastocyst development when compared with those from BEF and SSEA-4(-) cells. Moreover, blastocysts derived from SSEA-4(+) cells showed a higher total cell number and lower apoptotic index as compared to BEF and SSEA-4(-) derived cells. It is well known that nuclei from pluripotent stem cells yield a higher cloning efficiency than those from adult somatic cells, however, pluripotent stem cells are relatively difficult to obtain from bovine. The SSEA-4(+) cells described in the current study provide an attractive candidate for SCNT and a promising platform for the generation of transgenic cattle. PMID:25602959

Pan, Shaohui; Chen, Wuju; Liu, Xu; Xiao, Jiajia; Wang, Yanqin; Liu, Jun; Du, Yue; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Yong

2015-01-01

187

Inhibition of elastin and collagen networks degradation in human skin by gingival fibroblast. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies.  

OpenAIRE

Skin aging shows an imbalance between synthesis and degradation of the extracellular matrix. The overproduction of degradative enzymes (MMPs) during the chronology- and photo-induced aging leads to a degradation of the elastic and collagen networks. In a model of collagen and elastin destruction, we showed that the gingival fibroblast was able to preserve these macromolecules by inhibiting the overproduction of metalloproteinases by overproduction of TIMP-1 and modulation of the inflammatory ...

Adrien Naveau; Hafida Cherifi; Francois Come Ferré; Bruno Gogly; Benjamin Philippe Fournier

2011-01-01

188

Demonstration of elastin gene expression in human skin fibroblast cultures and reduced tropoelastin production by cells from a patient with atrophoderma.  

OpenAIRE

Atrophoderma is a rare dermal disorder characterized by a patchy distribution of areas apparently devoid of elastic fibers. Skin fibroblast cultures were established from the normal and affected dermis of a patient with this disorder. Human tropoelastin was identified in culture medium by use of electroblotting and anti-elastin antisera. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to establish that significantly less elastin accumulated in the media of cultured cells from lesional fibroblas...

Giro, M. G.; Oikarinen, A. I.; Oikarinen, H.; Sephel, G.; Uitto, J.; Davidson, J. M.

1985-01-01

189

Altered binding of 125I-labeled calmodulin to a 46.5-kilodalton protein in skin fibroblasts cultured from patients with cystic fibrosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The levels of calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins have been determined in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and age- and sex-matched controls. Calmodulin ranged from 0.20 to 0.76 microgram/mg protein; there was no difference between calmodulin concentration in fibroblasts from CF patients and controls. Calmodulin-binding proteins of 230, 212, 204, 164, 139, 70, 59, 46.5, and 41 kD were identified. A protein with a mobility identical to the 59-kD calmodulin-binding protein was labeled by antiserum against calmodulin-dependent phosphatase. Although Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase activity was detected, there was no different in activity between control and CF fibroblasts or in the level of phosphatase protein as determined by radioimmunoassay. Lower amounts of 125I-calmodulin were bound to the 46.5-kD calmodulin-binding protein in CF fibroblasts as compared with controls. The 46.5-kD calmodulin-binding protein may be reduced in CF fibroblasts or its structure may be altered resulting in a reduced binding capacity and/or affinity for calmodulin and perhaps reflecting, either directly or indirectly, the genetic defect responsible for cystic fibrosis

190

Sesamol inhibits UVB-induced ROS generation and subsequent oxidative damage in cultured human skin dermal fibroblasts.  

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The exposure of cells to ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) can induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which damage cellular components. Free radical scavengers and antioxidants can interfere with the production of ROS. We studied cytotoxicity, intracellular ROS levels, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status and oxidative DNA damage in cultured human skin dermal fibroblast adult cells (HDFa) exposed to UVB in the presence of sesamol, a natural phenolic compound. The levels of cytotoxicity, intracellular ROS, lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage and apoptotic morphological changes were significantly increased in UVB irradiated HDFa cells. We also observed that the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidant status (GSH) were significantly decreased in UVB irradiated cells. On the other hand, sesamol pretreatment significantly decreased cytotoxicity, intracellular ROS, lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage and apoptotic morphological changes in sesamol-pretreated and UVB-irradiated HDFa cells. We have also observed increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants status in sesamol plus UVB-irradiated cells. Among the different doses tested, 80 ?M of sesamol shows maximum protection for UVB-induced oxidative damage. In conclusion, UVB-induced ROS formation, cell fatality, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant depletion and oxidative DNA damage in HDFa cells is inhibited by sesamol, which, probably through its ROS scavenging activity. PMID:20697726

Ramachandran, S; Rajendra Prasad, N; Karthikeyan, S

2010-12-01

191

The histamine degradative uptake pathway in human vascular endothelial cells and skin fibroblasts is dependent on extracellular Na+ and Cl-  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have previously reported that human vascular endothelial cells and skin fibroblasts carry out degradation of [3H]histamine by a mechanism involving two successive enzymatic steps: imidazole ring tele-methylation by the cells' endogenous methyltransferase and subsequent amine oxidation by an exogenous diamine oxidase. Both histamine and the exogenous second enzyme in the pathway associate with the cells via separate binding sites or receptors. The enzymatic degradation process results in cellular accumulation of the proximal and distal metabolites tele-methylhistamine and 1-methyl-4-imidazoleacetic acid (MIAA). We have now demonstrated that this two-stage histamine degradative pathway is dependent on Na+ and Cl- in the extracellular environment. Accumulation of [3H] histamine-derived products is partially inhibited under conditions of Na+ deprivation and more substantially when Cl- is also withdrawn. The individual tele-methylation and amine oxidation enzymatic reactions themselves are unaffected or actually facilitated under these conditions. This indicates that it is the cellular mechanism for uptake coupled to the degradative pathway which reflects the cation and anion dependency. Restoration of degradative uptake displays a biphasic Na+ concentration curve, suggesting that the uptake process may be driven by multiple components. These findings indicate a role for both inward Na+ and Cl- ion movement in this cellular degradative uptake mechanismadative uptake mechanism

192

Activation of NF-?B in human skin fibroblasts by the oxidative stress generated by UVA radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have examined the role of the nucleus and the membrane in the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kB by oxidant stress generated via the UVA (320-380 nm) component of solar radiation. Nuclear extracts from human skin fibroblasts that had been irradiated with UVA at doses that caused little DNA damage contained activated NF-?B that bound to its recognition sequence in DNA. The UVA radiation-dependent activation of NF-?B in enucleated cells confirmed that the nucleus was not involved. On the other hand, UVA radiation-dependent activation of NF-?B appeared to be correlated with membrane damage, and activation could be prevented by ?-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene, agents that inhibited UVA radiation-dependent peroxidation of cell membrane lipids. The activation of NF-?B by the DNA damaging agents UVC (200-290 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) radiation also only occurred at doses where significant membrane damage was induced, and, overall, activation was not correlated with the relative levels of DNA damage induced by UVC/UVB and UVA radiations. We conclude that the oxidative modification of membrane components may be an important factor to consider in the UV radiation-dependent activation of NF-?B over all wavelength ranges examined. (Author)

193

Gene expression profiling in wild-type and metallothionein mutant fibroblast cell lines  

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Full Text Available The role of metallothioneins (MT in copper homeostasis is of great interest, as it appears to be partially responsible for the regulation of intracellular copper levels during adaptation to extracellular excess of the metal. To further investigate a possible role of MTs in copper metabolism, a genomics approach was utilized to evaluate the role of MT on gene expression. Microarray analysis was used to examine the effects of copper overload in fibroblast cells from normal and MT I and II double knock-out mice (MT-/-. As a first step, we compared genes that were significantly upregulated in wild-type and MT-/- cells exposed to copper. Even though wild-type and mutant cells are undistinguishable in terms of their morphological features and rates of growth, our results show that MT-/- cells do not respond with induction of typical markers of cellular stress under copper excess conditions, as observed in the wild-type cell line, suggesting that the transcription initiation rate or the mRNA stability of stress genes is affected when there is an alteration in the copper store capacity. The functional classification of other up-regulated genes in both cell lines indicates that a large proportion (>80% belong to two major categories: 1 metabolism; and 2 cellular physiological processes, suggesting that at the transcriptional level copper overload induces the expression of genes associated with diverse molecular functions. These results open the possibility to understand how copper homeostasis is being coordinated with other metabolic pathways.

ÁNGELA D ARMENDÁRIZ

2006-01-01

194

Mécano-Stimulation™ of the skin improves sagging score and induces beneficial functional modification of the fibroblasts: clinical, biological, and histological evaluations  

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Full Text Available Philippe Humbert,1,2 Ferial Fanian,1,2 Thomas Lihoreau,1,2 Adeline Jeudy,1,2 Ahmed Elkhyat,1,2 Sophie Robin,3 Carol Courderot-Masuyer,3 Hélène Tauzin,3 Christine Lafforgue,1,2,4 Marek Haftek5 1Research and Studies Center on the Integument (CERT, Department of Dermatology, Clinical Investigation Center (CIC 1431, Besançon University Hospital; 2INSERM UMR1098, FED4234 IBCT, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 3SARL BIOEXIGENCE, Besançon, France; 4Dermopharmacology and Cosmetology Unit, University of Paris Sud, France; 5University of Lyon 1, EA4169, Experimental, clinical and therapeutic aspects of the skin barrier function, INSERM US7 – CNRS UMS3453, Lyon, France Background: Loss of mechanical tension appears to be the major factor underlying decreased collagen synthesis in aged skin. Numerous in vitro studies have shown the impact of mechanical forces on fibroblasts through mechanotransduction, which consists of the conversion of mechanical signals to biochemical responses. Such responses are characterized by the modulation of gene expression coding not only for extracellular matrix components (collagens, elastin, etc. but also for degradation enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases [MMPs] and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases [TIMPs]. A new device providing a mechanical stimulation of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue has been used in a simple, blinded, controlled, and randomized study. Materials and methods: Thirty subjects (aged between 35 years and 50 years, with clinical signs of skin sagging, were randomly assigned to have a treatment on hemiface. After a total of 24 sessions with Mécano-Stimulation™, biopsies were performed on the treated side and control area for in vitro analysis (dosage of hyaluronic acid, elastin, type I collagen, MMP9; equivalent dermis retraction; GlaSbox®; n=10 and electron microscopy (n=10. Furthermore, before and after the treatment, clinical evaluations and self-assessment questionnaire were done.Results: In vitro analysis showed increases in hyaluronic acid, elastin, type I collagen, and MMP9 content along with an improvement of the migratory capacity of the fibroblasts on the treated side. Electron microscopy evaluations showed a clear dermal remodeling in relation with the activation of fibroblast activity. A significant improvement of different clinical signs associated with skin aging and the satisfaction of the subjects were observed, correlated with an improvement of the sagging cheek.Conclusion: Mécano-Stimulation is a noninvasive and safe technique delivered by flaps microbeats at various frequencies, which can significantly improve the skin trophicity. Results observed with objective measurements, ie, in vitro assessments and electron microscopy, confirm the firming and restructuring effect clinically observed. Keywords: skin rejuvenation, skin sagging, mechanical stimulation, fibroblast synthesis

Humbert P

2015-02-01

195

Effects of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel on human dermal fibroblasts in vitro and on skin condition in Japanese women  

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Full Text Available Miyuki Tanaka,1 Eriko Misawa,1 Koji Yamauchi,1 Fumiaki Abe,1 Chiaki Ishizaki2 1Functional Food Research Department, Food Science and Technology Institute, Morinaga Milk Industry Co, Ltd, Zama, Kanagawa, 2Ebisu Skin Research Center, Inforward, Inc., Tokyo, Japan Background: Aloe is known for its topical use for treating wounds and burns. Many previous studies reported the healing effects of Aloe vera. However, there are few clinical studies on the effect of orally administered A. vera gel on the skin. Aloe sterols are a type of plant sterols that have the capability to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. In a recent study, we confirmed that ingested Aloe sterols reached the peripheral tissues through the bloodstream. However, their influence on dermal fibroblasts has not been investigated. Methods: First, we investigated the capability of Aloe sterols (cycloartenol and lophenol to stimulate human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Then, we investigated the effect of intake of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP containing 40 µg Aloe sterols on the skin conditions in Japanese women with dry skin in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Results: After cocultivation with Aloe sterols, the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid increased by approximately two-fold and 1.5-fold, and gene expression levels of these enzymes responsible for their synthesis were also observed in human dermal fibroblasts. An increase in arm skin hydration was observed at 8 weeks in the AVGP group, whereas a slight decrease in arm skin hydration was noted in the placebo group. However, there was no statistical difference between AVGP and placebo groups in skin moisture. In subgroup analysis, the change in the mean wrinkle depth was significantly lower in the AVGP group than in the control group. In addition, percent body fat after 8 weeks was significantly lower in the AVGP group. No AVGP intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion: The present study confirms that daily oral Aloe sterol-containing AVGP significantly reduced facial wrinkles in women aged ?40 years, and Aloe sterols stimulate collagen and hyaluronic acid production by human dermal fibroblasts. Keywords: aloe sterol, collagen, wrinkle

Tanaka M

2015-02-01

196

Host-cell reactivation of uv-irradiated and chemically treated Herpes simplex virus type 1 strain MP in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated herpes simplex virus type 1 strain mp was studied in normal human skin fibroblasts and xeroderma pigmentosum skin fibroblasts from XP genetic complementation groups A-D and in an XP variant. The increasing relative order for the host-cell reactivation of both types of damaged virus in the different complementation groups is A = D < B < C; XP variant = normal controls. XP complementation group D cells, which manifest the most severe inhibition of her ability for both UV-irradiated and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated virus, can reactivate nitrogen mustard treated HSV-1 mp to the same extent as normal cells. Together, these results indicate that (1) Excision repair of UV and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene DNA damaged viruses share a common rate limiting enzymatic step and (2) The repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells plays little or no role in the recovery of nitrogen mustard treated virus. The results of studies on the effect of caffeine on the survival of both UV- and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated virus in normal and XP cells imply that the reactivation of HSV-1 mp is mediated by an excision repair process with little if any recovery contributed by post-replication repair mechanisms. The host-cell reactivation of N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated HSV-1 mp was also correlated with the defective UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in two skin fibroblaseduled DNA synthesis in two skin fibroblast strains established from a skin biopsy obtained from each of two juvenile females who had been clinically diagnosed as xeroderma pigmentosum. These findings are discussed in relation to the further characterization of the xeroderma pigmentosum phenotype and their possible utilization for the selection and isolation of new mammalian cell DNA repair mutants

197

Genetic heterogeneity of inflammatory response and skin tumorigenesis in phenotypically selected mouse lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-inbred AIR (AIRmax, AIRmin) and Car (Car-S, Car-R) mouse lines were generated from the same eight inbred mice through bidirectional selective breeding for acute inflammatory response and for susceptibility to two-stage skin tumorigenesis, respectively. Because AIR lines also showed a differential predisposition to skin tumorigenesis and Car lines differed in the extent of inflammatory response, we carried out genome-wide association studies using SNP arrays to identify the genetic elements affecting skin tumor susceptibility and inflammatory response in AIR and Car lines. We found that the phenotypic outcome reflects a specific genetic profile in each mouse line, suggesting that distinct genetic elements, selected by differential genetic drifts, and exerting pleiotropic effects in each mouse population, control the skin tumor susceptibility and inflammatory response phenotypes. These findings point to the complex link between skin tumor susceptibility and inflammatory response in mice. PMID:20307927

Galvan, Antonella; Vorraro, Francisca; Cabrera, Wafa Hanna Koury; Ribeiro, Orlando Garcia; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Mancuso, Mariateresa; Zolin, Anna; Milani, Silvano; Saran, Anna; Ibañez, Olga M; Dragani, Tommaso A

2010-09-01

198

Irradiation effect on the apoptosis induction in the human cancer cell lines and the gingival fibroblast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation-induced apoptosis was studied for two human cancer cell lines (KB cells, RPMI 2650 cells) and the human gingival fibroblast cell line (HGF-1 cells). The single irradiation of 2, 10, 20 Gy was done with 241.5 cGy/min dose rate using the 137 Cs MK cell irradiator. The cell were stained with propidium iodide and examined under the fluoro-microscope and assayed with the flow cytometry a day after irradiation. Also, the LDH assay was done to determine the amount of necrotic cells. The obtained results were as follows : 1. On the fluoro-microscope, many fragmented nuclei were detected in the KB, RPMI 2650, and HGF-1 cells after irradiation. 2. On the DNA content histogram obtained from the flow cytometry, the percentages of the pre-G1 peak of the control and 2, 10 and 20 Gy irradiation group were 4.5, 55.0, 52.3, and 66.6% on KB cells, 2.7, 3.3, 31.8, and 32.6% on RPMI 2650 cells and 2.8, 21.8, 30.4, and 40.2% on HGF-1 cells respectively. 3. The number of G1-stage cells was abruptly decreased after 2 Gy irradiation on KB cells and 10 Gy irradiation on RPMI 2650 cells, But there was a slight decrease without regard to irradiation dose on HGF-1 cells. 4. There was no significantly different absorbance in extracellular LDH assay along the experimental cell lines

199

Irradiation effect on the apoptosis induction in the human cancer cell lines and the gingival fibroblast  

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The radiation-induced apoptosis was studied for two human cancer cell lines (KB cells, RPMI 2650 cells) and the human gingival fibroblast cell line (HGF-1 cells). The single irradiation of 2, 10, 20 Gy was done with 241.5 cGy/min dose rate using the 137 Cs MK cell irradiator. The cell were stained with propidium iodide and examined under the fluoro-microscope and assayed with the flow cytometry a day after irradiation. Also, the LDH assay was done to determine the amount of necrotic cells. The obtained results were as follows : 1. On the fluoro-microscope, many fragmented nuclei were detected in the KB, RPMI 2650, and HGF-1 cells after irradiation. 2. On the DNA content histogram obtained from the flow cytometry, the percentages of the pre-G1 peak of the control and 2, 10 and 20 Gy irradiation group were 4.5, 55.0, 52.3, and 66.6% on KB cells, 2.7, 3.3, 31.8, and 32.6% on RPMI 2650 cells and 2.8, 21.8, 30.4, and 40.2% on HGF-1 cells respectively. 3. The number of G1-stage cells was abruptly decreased after 2 Gy irradiation on KB cells and 10 Gy irradiation on RPMI 2650 cells, But there was a slight decrease without regard to irradiation dose on HGF-1 cells. 4. There was no significantly different absorbance in extracellular LDH assay along the experimental cell lines

Park, Mu Soon; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1998-02-15

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CopA3 Peptide Prevents Ultraviolet-Induced Inhibition of Type-I Procollagen and Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Human Skin Fibroblasts  

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Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV exposure is well-known to induce premature aging, which is mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 activity. A 9-mer peptide, CopA3 (CopA3 was synthesized from a natural peptide, coprisin, which is isolated from the dung beetle Copris tripartitus. As part of our continuing search for novel bioactive natural products, CopA3 was investigated for its in vitro anti-skin photoaging activity. UV-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of MMP-1 were partially prevented in human skin fibroblasts by CopA3 peptide in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 25 ?M, CopA3 nearly completely inhibited MMP-1 expression. These results suggest that CopA3, an insect peptide, is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of skin aging.

Dong-Hee Kim

2014-05-01

201

Genome-wide differential gene expression in immortalized DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblast cell line  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background When compared to primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF cells, the immortal DF-1 CEF line exhibits enhanced growth rates and susceptibility to oxidative stress. Although genes responsible for cell cycle regulation and antioxidant functions have been identified, the genome-wide transcription profile of immortal DF-1 CEF cells has not been previously reported. Global gene expression in primary CEF and DF-1 cells was performed using a 4X44K chicken oligo microarray. Results A total of 3876 differentially expressed genes were identified with a 2 fold level cutoff that included 1706 up-regulated and 2170 down-regulated genes in DF-1 cells. Network and functional analyses using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA, Ingenuity® Systems, http://www.ingenuity.com revealed that 902 of 3876 differentially expressed genes were classified into a number of functional groups including cellular growth and proliferation, cell cycle, cellular movement, cancer, genetic disorders, and cell death. Also, the top 5 gene networks with intermolecular connections were identified. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that DF-1 cells were characterized by enhanced molecular mechanisms for cell cycle progression and proliferation, suppressing cell death pathways, altered cellular morphogenesis, and accelerated capacity for molecule transport. Key molecules for these functions include E2F1, BRCA1, SRC, CASP3, and the peroxidases. Conclusions The global gene expression profiles provide insight into the cellular mechanisms that regulate the unique characteristics observed in immortal DF-1 CEF cells.

Kong Byung-Whi

2011-11-01

202

Ionising radiation response of mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines lacking cohesin REC8  

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Full text: The cohesin complex is required for the cohesion of sister chromatids. Cohesin is loaded onto chromosomes during DNA replication and maintains sister chromatid association until anaphase. The cohesin complex is also implicated in homologous recombination, the upkeep of chromosome stability, the repair of double stranded DNA breaks (dsbs) and most recently, chromatin remodelling. REC8 is a key component of the meiotic cohesin complex that we showed was conserved from yeast to humans (Parisi, et. al., 1999). We identified a mouse ortholog of the Rec8 gene and generated Rec8 mutant mice by targeted deletion. To determine the role of REC8 in DNA repair, we derived embryonic fibroblast cell lines from Rec8 mutant mice. By clonogenic assay we are evaluating the resistance of Rec8 -/- cells to ionising (IR) radiation, an indirect measure of repair of dsbs. The study may provide insights into the involvement of cohesins in recombination and IR response. Reference: Parisi, S., McKay, M.J., Molnar, M., Thompson, M.A., van der Spek, P.J., van Drunken-Schoenmaker, E., Kanaar, R., Lehmann, E., Hoeijmakers, J.H.J. and Kohli, J., 1999. Rec8p, a meiotic recombination and sister chromatid cohesion phosphoprotein of the Rad21 family conserved from fission yeast to humans. Mol Cell Biol. 19(5):3515-3528

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Differential translocation of heat shock factor-1 after mild and severe stress to human skin fibroblasts undergoing aging in vitro.  

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Repeated exposure to mild heat shock (HS) has been shown to induce a wide range of health promoting hormetic effects in various biological systems, including human cells undergoing aging in vitro. In order to understand how cells distinguish between mild and severe stress, we have investigated the extent of early and immediate HS response by analyzing the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), in serially passaged normal adult human facial skin fibroblasts exposed to mild (41 °C) or severe (43 °C) HS. Cells respond differently when exposed to mild and severe HS at different passage levels in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation. In early passage young cells there was a 5-fold difference between mild and severe HS in the extent of HSF1 translocation. However, in near senescent late passage cells, the difference between mild and severe stress in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation was reduced to less than 2-fold. One of the reasons for this age-related attenuation of heat shock response is due to the fact there was a higher basal level of HSF1 in the nuclei of late passage cells, which is indicative of increased intrinsic stress during cellular aging. These observations are consistent with previously reported data that whereas repeated mild stress given at younger ages can slow down aging and increase the lifespan, the same level of stress given at older ages may not provide the same benefits. Therefore, elucidating the early and immediate steps in the induction of stress response can be useful in deciding whether a particular level of stress is potentially hormetically beneficial or not. PMID:25193128

Demirovic, Dino; de Toda, Irene Martinez; Nizard, Carine; Rattan, Suresh I S

2014-12-01

204

Differential translocation of heat shock factor-1 after mild and severe stress to human skin fibroblasts undergoing aging in vitro  

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Repeated exposure to mild heat shock (HS) has been shown to induce a wide range of health promoting hormetic effects in various biological systems, including human cells undergoing aging in vitro. In order to understand how cells distinguish between mild and severe stress, we have investigated the extent of early and immediate HS response by analyzing the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), in serially passaged normal adult human facial skin fibroblasts exposed to mild (41°C) or severe (43°C) HS. Cells respond differently when exposed to mild and severe HS at different passage levels in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation. In early passage young cells there was a 5-fold difference between mild and severe HS in the extent of HSF1 translocation. However, in near senescent late passage cells, the difference between mild and severe stress in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation was reduced to less than 2-fold. One of the reasons for this age-related attenuationof heat shock response is due to the fact there was a higher basal level of HSF1 in the nuclei of late passage cells, which is indicative of increased intrinsic stress during cellular aging. These observations are consistent with previously reported data that whereas repeated mild stress given at younger ages can slow down aging and increase the lifespan, the same level of stress given at older ages may not provide the same benefits. Therefore, elucidating the early and immediate steps in the induction of stress response can be useful in deciding whether a particular level of stress is potentially hormetically beneficial or not.

Demirovic, Dino; de Toda, Irene Martinez

2014-01-01

205

Mécano-Stimulation™ of the skin improves sagging score and induces beneficial functional modification of the fibroblasts: clinical, biological, and histological evaluations  

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Background Loss of mechanical tension appears to be the major factor underlying decreased collagen synthesis in aged skin. Numerous in vitro studies have shown the impact of mechanical forces on fibroblasts through mechanotransduction, which consists of the conversion of mechanical signals to biochemical responses. Such responses are characterized by the modulation of gene expression coding not only for extracellular matrix components (collagens, elastin, etc.) but also for degradation enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases [MMPs]) and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases [TIMPs]). A new device providing a mechanical stimulation of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue has been used in a simple, blinded, controlled, and randomized study. Materials and methods Thirty subjects (aged between 35 years and 50 years), with clinical signs of skin sagging, were randomly assigned to have a treatment on hemiface. After a total of 24 sessions with Mécano-Stimulation™, biopsies were performed on the treated side and control area for in vitro analysis (dosage of hyaluronic acid, elastin, type I collagen, MMP9; equivalent dermis retraction; GlaSbox®; n=10) and electron microscopy (n=10). Furthermore, before and after the treatment, clinical evaluations and self-assessment questionnaire were done. Results In vitro analysis showed increases in hyaluronic acid, elastin, type I collagen, and MMP9 content along with an improvement of the migratory capacity of the fibroblasts on the treated side. Electron microscopy evaluations showed a clear dermal remodeling in relation with the activation of fibroblast activity. A significant improvement of different clinical signs associated with skin aging and the satisfaction of the subjects were observed, correlated with an improvement of the sagging cheek. Conclusion Mécano-Stimulation is a noninvasive and safe technique delivered by flaps microbeats at various frequencies, which can significantly improve the skin trophicity. Results observed with objective measurements, ie, in vitro assessments and electron microscopy, confirm the firming and restructuring effect clinically observed. PMID:25673979

Humbert, Philippe; Fanian, Ferial; Lihoreau, Thomas; Jeudy, Adeline; Elkhyat, Ahmed; Robin, Sophie; Courderot-Masuyer, Carol; Tauzin, Hélène; Lafforgue, Christine; Haftek, Marek

2015-01-01

206

Gene expression profiling in wild-type and metallothionein mutant fibroblast cell lines  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The role of metallothioneins (MT) in copper homeostasis is of great interest, as it appears to be partially responsible for the regulation of intracellular copper levels during adaptation to extracellular excess of the metal. To further investigate a possible role of MTs in copper metabolism, a geno [...] mics approach was utilized to evaluate the role of MT on gene expression. Microarray analysis was used to examine the effects of copper overload in fibroblast cells from normal and MT I and II double knock-out mice (MT-/-). As a first step, we compared genes that were significantly upregulated in wild-type and MT-/- cells exposed to copper. Even though wild-type and mutant cells are undistinguishable in terms of their morphological features and rates of growth, our results show that MT-/- cells do not respond with induction of typical markers of cellular stress under copper excess conditions, as observed in the wild-type cell line, suggesting that the transcription initiation rate or the mRNA stability of stress genes is affected when there is an alteration in the copper store capacity. The functional classification of other up-regulated genes in both cell lines indicates that a large proportion (>80%) belong to two major categories: 1) metabolism; and 2) cellular physiological processes, suggesting that at the transcriptional level copper overload induces the expression of genes associated with diverse molecular functions. These results open the possibility to understand how copper homeostasis is being coordinated with other metabolic pathways.

ÁNGELA D, ARMENDÁRIZ; FELIPE, OLIVARES; RODRIGO, PULGAR; ALEX, LOGUINOV; VERÓNICA, CAMBIAZO; CHRISTOPHER D, VULPE; MAURICIO, GONZÁLEZ.

207

The treatment effects of cultured epidermis, basic fibroblast growth factor and the combination of these two treatments in a radiation skin ulcer model (rat)  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment effects of cultured epidermis, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and the combination of these two treatments in a radiation skin ulcer model. The subjects were 9-week-old male inbred line rats and divided into two parts. Rats in one part were applied X-ray and rats in the other part were not. The dose of X-ray was 20 Gy. Wounds were full-thickness wounds. The ways of treatment were divided into four groups: control group, cultured epidermis group, b-FGF group, combination group (cultured epidermis+b-FGF). Wounds were observed on 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26 days after treatment. Wound healing rate was calculated and days needed to heal were counted. Relative hardness of scars was measured on the day of epithelization and on 12 and 21 days after epithelization. Wounds applied X-ray: Mean wound healing rate of cultured epidermis group and combination group was significantly higher than that of the two other groups on 8 and 11 days after treatment. Mean relative hardness of scars of cultured epidermis group and combination group was significantly lower than that of the two other groups on all measurement days. Mean days needed to heal of cultured epidermis group were significantly shorter than those of control group and b-FGF group. And those of combination group were significantly shorter than those of b-FGF group. As the shorter the days from making scars became, relative hardness of scars got lower. Woundslative hardness of scars got lower. Wounds without X-ray: Mean wound healing rate of combination group was significantly lower than that of cultured epidermis group and control group on 5 days after treatment. Cultured epidermis graft can be an effective treatment for radiation skin ulcer. b-FGF can weaken the treatment effect of cultured epidermis graft depending on its density. There can be a positive correlation between relative hardness of scars and the days from making scars. (author)

208

Human fibroblast-derived cell lines have characteristics of embryonic stem cells and cells of neuro-ectodermal origin.  

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Fibroblasts are the most ubiquitous cells in complex organisms. They are the main cells of stromal tissue and play an important role in repair and healing of damaged organs. Here we report new data-initially serendipitous findings-that fibroblast-derived cell line (human fetal lung derived cells, MRC-5) have the morphology, growth rate and gene expression pattern characteristic of embryonic stem cells and cells of neuro-ectodermal origin. We have developed a serum-free culture system to maintain these cells in proliferative state. We discovered that, at proliferative state, these cells express transcription factors of pluripotent cells, OCT-3/4 and REX-1, and embryonic cell surface antigens SSEA-1, SSEA-3, and SSEA-4, as well as TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. In addition to embryonic cell markers, the fibroblasts expressed neuroectodermal genes: Musashi-1, nestin, medium neurofilament, and beta-III tubulin. RT-PCR data revealed that mesencephalic transcription factors, Nurr-1 and PTX-3, were also expressed in MRC-5 cells, and that these cells could be induced to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Expression of TH followed down-regulation of genes associated with cell proliferation, OCT-3/4, REX-1, and beta-catenin. These data indicate that the cells commonly known as fibroblasts have some of the characteristics of stem cells, and can be induced to become neuroectodermal cells and perhaps even mature neurons. PMID:16351691

Rieske, Piotr; Krynska, Barbara; Azizi, S Ausim

2005-12-01

209

Effects of licarin E on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and type-1 procollagen in UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts.  

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Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation induces photoaging by upregulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and decreasing collagen synthesis in human skin cells. This study evaluated the effects of licarin E isolated from mace, the aril of Myristica fragrans Houtt., on MMP-1 and type-1 procollagen levels in UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Powdered mace extracted with 95% ethanol was used and licarin E isolated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, western blot analysis, reverse transcription PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assay were used to evaluate the effects of licarin E and its molecular mechanism. It was found that licarin E attenuated UVB-induced MMP-1 expression by inactivating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), thereby inhibiting activator protein 1. Licarin E also increased type-1 procollagen expression by stimulating transforming growth factor ? (TGF?)/Smad signaling. The findings show that licarin E positively regulates the expression of MMP-1 and type-1 procollagen in UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts through MAPK and TGF? signaling, suggesting its potential as a potent antiphotoaging agent. PMID:21544886

Kwon, Yi-Young; Kim, Daeyoung; Kim, Jaekyung; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

2011-12-01

210

Effects of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg) on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and type I procollagen in UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts.  

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Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes premature skin aging that is associated with upregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and decreased collagen synthesis. Macelignan, a natural lignan compound isolated from Myristica fragrans HOUTT. (nutmeg), has been reported to possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. This study assessed the effects of macelignan on photoaging and investigated its mechanisms of action in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts (Hs68) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results show that macelignan attenuated UV-induced MMP-1 expression by suppressing phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) induced by reactive oxygen species. Macelignan also increased type I procollagen expression and secretion through transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?)/Smad signaling. These findings indicate that macelignan regulates the expression of MMP-1 and type I procollagen in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts by modulating MAPK and TGF-?/Smad signaling, suggesting its potential as an efficacious antiphotoaging agent. PMID:23037157

Lee, Kyung-Eun; Mun, Sukyeong; Pyun, Hee-Bong; Kim, Myung-Suk; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

2012-01-01

211

Effects of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and type I procollagen in UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes premature skin aging that is associated with upregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and decreased collagen synthesis. Macelignan, a natural lignan compound isolated from Myristica fragrans HOUTT. (nutmeg), has been reported to possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. This study assessed the effects of macelignan on photoaging and investigated its mechanisms of action in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts (Hs68) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results show that macelignan attenuated UV-induced MMP-1 expression by suppressing phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) induced by reactive oxygen species. Macelignan also increased type I procollagen expression and secretion through transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?)/Smad signaling. These findings indicate that macelignan regulates the expression of MMP-1 and type I procollagen in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts by modulating MAPK and TGF-?/Smad signaling, suggesting its potential as an efficacious antiphotoaging agent. (author)

212

Similarity between the interleukin 1 receptors on a murine T-lymphoma cell line and on a murine fibroblast cell line  

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Interleukin 1? (IL-1?), one of two different polypeptide hormones with interleukin 1 (IL-1) biological activity, produced by activated human monocytes, is a 17.5-kDa protein. IL-1? binds specifically to a variety of cells; the cellular distribution of binding is consistent with reported biological responsiveness. In this report the authors show that two unrelated, but IL-1-responsive, cell lines, LBRM-33-1A5, a T-lymphoma line, and BALB/3T3, a fibroblast line, bind 125I-labeled IL-1? via similar plasma membrane receptor molecules. The T-lymphoma cells possess 238 +/- 16 plasma membrane receptors per cell and bind 125I-labeled IL-1? with an affinity of 3.6 +/- 0.9 x 109 M-1. The IL-1 receptor has a molecular size of ? 79.5 kDa, as estimated by affinity cross-linking. The fibroblasts possess 4.8 +/- 0.5 x 103 IL-1 receptor per cell and bind 125I-labeled IL-1? with an affinity of 2.6 +/- 0.5 x 109 M-1. The molecular size of the receptor molecule on the fibroblasts is ? 78 kDa. Despite the similarity in the characteristics of the ligand-receptor system on the two different cell types, the biological responses of the two cell types to IL-1? occur at IL-1? concentrations that differ by four orders of magnitude

213

Screening of medicinal and edible plants in Okinawa, Japan, for enhanced proliferative and collagen synthesis activities in NB1RGB human skin fibroblast cells.  

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To identify plants with bioactive potential for skin care, methanol extracts of 56 plant parts from 47 medical and edible plants cultivated in Okinawa were tested for their proliferative effects on NB1RGB skin fibroblast cells. Extracts from six plants, Bischofia javanica, Colocasia esculenta, Melaleuca alternifolia, Piper angustifolia, Jasminum sambac, and Curcuma longa, showed higher NB1RGB cell proliferation activity (>10%) than the control, at various concentrations. Among the six extracts, only the C. longa extract caused an increase in collagen synthesis in NB1RGB cells, as compared to treatment with the positive control, ascorbic acid (AsA). Expression of the collagen synthesis marker, transforming growth factor-?1, was higher after treatment with the C. longa extract than with AsA. PMID:23221723

Takahashi, Makoto; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

2012-01-01

214

A role for Nrf2 in UVA-mediated heme oxygenase induction and protection from membrane damage in human skin fibroblasts  

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Our previous study has shown that Ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation induces heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in cultured human primary skin fibroblasts FEK4. In the present study, we demonstrate a coordinated induction of HO-1 and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) following UVA irradiation or hemin treatment. The induction of HO-1 by either UVA irradiation or hemin treatment was largely abolished by down-regulation of Nrf2 with its targeted short interfering RNA (siNrf2). The study further reveals that knockdown of Nrf2 protein increased UVA-induced cell death measured by MTS assay. These findings together indicate that Nrf2-mediated induction of HO-1 expression may provide a cytoprotection for human skin cells from oxidative damage.

Li, Haibin; Li, Linhao; Deng, Linhong; Singh, Gurinder; Tyrrell, Rex M.; Zhong, J. Li

2010-11-01

215

Recombinant growth factor mixtures induce cell cycle progression and the upregulation of type I collagen in human skin fibroblasts, resulting in the acceleration of wound healing processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of growth factor mixtures has been used for wound healing and anti-wrinkles agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant growth factor mixtures (RGFM) on the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, type I collagen, and wound healing processes of acute animal wound models. The results showed that RGFM induced increased rates of cell proliferation and cell migration of human skin fibroblasts (HSF). In addition, expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)4, and Cdk2 proteins was markedly increased with a growth factor mixtures treatment in fibroblasts. Expression of type I collagen was also increased in growth factor mixtures-treated HSF. Moreover, growth factor mixtures-induced the upregulation of type I collagen was associated with the activation of Smad2/3. In the animal model, RGFM-treated mice showed accelerated wound closure, with the closure rate increasing as early as on day 7, as well as re-epithelization and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration than phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated mice. In conclusion, the results indicated that RGFM has the potential to accelerate wound healing through the upregulation of type I collagen, which is partly mediated by activation of Smad2/3-dependent signaling pathway as well as cell cycle progression in HSF. The topical application of growth factor mixtures to acute and chronic skin wound may accelerate the epithelization process through these molecular mechanisms. PMID:24626875

Lee, Do Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Ha; Cho, Jae-We; Kim, So Young; Kwon, Tae Rin; Choi, Sun Young; Choi, Yoo Mi; Lee, Jay; Yoon, Ho Sang; Kim, Beom Joon

2014-05-01

216

Correlation between normal tissue complications and in vitro radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts derived from radiotherapy patients treated for variety of tumors  

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Purpose: To assess the relationship between fibroblast intrinsic radiosensitivity in vitro and late reactions of normal tissues in patients treated by definitive radiotherapy for variety of tumors. Patients and Methods: Ten patients were selected for this study. They were treated by radical radiotherapy for variety of tumors, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, prostate, glottic larynx, anal canal, cervix, bladder, thyroid gland, and tonsil pillar. Five patients did not develop any significant late reactions (normally sensitive group, NS). The other five developed late complications in different normal tissues and organs that proved to be fatal in one patient (clinically hyper-sensitive group, HS). Fibroblast cultures were established from punch skin biopsy and radiosensitivity in vitro was measured. The survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) was calculated and compared between the two groups. Results: SF2 ranged between 0.10 and 0.38 with a mean of 0.24. The mean SF2 for each of the NS and the HS groups were 0.31 and 0.17, respectively. The non-parametric rank test of Mann-Whitney shows that the difference between the two groups is statistically significant (p = 0.01). Conclusion: This study indicates that the in vitro radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts is correlated with late complications in different organs and normal tissues following radiotherapy for variety of tumors. It also lends support to the existence of a common genetic component determining the radiosensitivitycomponent determining the radiosensitivity of cells targeted by the late effects of ionizing radiation. Key words:

217

Intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation and segregation in a rat fibroblast cell line transfected with a human insulin receptor gene  

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The cellular processing of insulin and insulin receptors was studied using a rat fibroblast cell line that had been transfected with a normal human insulin receptor gene, expressing approximately 500 times the normal number of native fibroblasts insulin receptors. These cells bind and internalize insulin normally. Biochemically assays based on the selective precipitation by polyethylene glycol of intact insulin-receptor complexes but not of free intracellular insulin were developed to study the time course of intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation. Fibroblasts were incubated with radiolabeled insulin at 40C, and internalization of insulin-receptor complexes was initiated by warming the cells to 370C. Within 2 min, 90% of the internalized radioactivity was composed of intact insulin-receptor complexes. The dissociation of insulin from internalized insulin-receptor complexes was markedly inhibited by monensin and chloroquine. Furthermore, chloroquine markedly increased the number of cross-linkable intracellular insulin-receptor complexes, as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiography. These findings suggest that acidification of intracellular vesicles is responsible for insulin-receptor dissociation. Physical segregation of dissociated intracellular insulin from its receptor was monitored. The results are consistent with the view that segregation of insulin and receptor occurs 5-10 min after initiatiod receptor occurs 5-10 min after initiation of dissociation. These studies demonstrate the intracellular itinerary of insulin-receptor complexes, including internalization, dissociation of insulin from the internalized receptor within an acidified compartment, segregation of insulin from the receptor, and subsequent ligand degradation

218

Primary cultured fibroblasts derived from patients with chronic wounds: a methodology to produce human cell lines and test putative growth factor therapy such as GMCSF  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple physiologic impairments are responsible for chronic wounds. A cell line grown which retains its phenotype from patient wounds would provide means of testing new therapies. Clinical information on patients from whom cells were grown can provide insights into mechanisms of specific disease such as diabetes or biological processes such as aging. The objective of this study was 1 To culture human cells derived from patients with chronic wounds and to test the effects of putative therapies, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF on these cells. 2 To describe a methodology to create fibroblast cell lines from patients with chronic wounds. Methods Patient biopsies were obtained from 3 distinct locations on venous ulcers. Fibroblasts derived from different wound locations were tested for their migration capacities without stimulators and in response to GM-CSF. Another portion of the patient biopsy was used to develop primary fibroblast cultures after rigorous passage and antimicrobial testing. Results Fibroblasts from the non-healing edge had almost no migration capacity, wound base fibroblasts were intermediate, and fibroblasts derived from the healing edge had a capacity to migrate similar to healthy, normal, primary dermal fibroblasts. Non-healing edge fibroblasts did not respond to GM-CSF. Six fibroblast cell lines are currently available at the National Institute on Aging (NIA Cell Repository. Conclusion We conclude that primary cells from chronic ulcers can be established in culture and that they maintain their in vivo phenotype. These cells can be utilized for evaluating the effects of wound healing stimulators in vitro.

Coppock Donald L

2008-12-01

219

Establishment of immortal normal and ataxia telangiectasia fibroblast cell lines by introduction of the hTERT gene  

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To establish immortal human cells, we introduced the human catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) gene into skin fibroblast cells obtained from normal and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) individuals of Japanese origin. After hTERT introduction, these cells continue to grow beyond a population doubling number of 200 while maintaining their original radiosensitivity. Inductions of p53, phosphorylation of Serl5 in p53, and induction of p21 by X-ray irradiation in immortal cells derived from normal individual were not affected by the hTERT introduction. Both normal and AT immortal cells exhibited an apparent inhibition of growth as original primary cells when they reached confluence. Karyotype analysis has revealed that they are in a diploid range. These results suggest that cells immortalized by hTERT introduction retain their original characteristics except for immortalization, and that they may be useful for analyzing various effects of radiation on human cells. (author)

Nakamura, Hideaki; Fukami, Hiroko; Hayashi, Yuko; Kiyono, Tohru; Ishizaki, Kanji [Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Research Inst.; Nakatsugawa, Shigekazu; Hamaguchi, Michinari [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

2002-06-01

220

Establishment of immortal normal and ataxia telangiectasia fibroblast cell lines by introduction of the hTERT gene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To establish immortal human cells, we introduced the human catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) gene into skin fibroblast cells obtained from normal and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) individuals of Japanese origin. After hTERT introduction, these cells continue to grow beyond a population doubling number of 200 while maintaining their original radiosensitivity. Inductions of p53, phosphorylation of Serl5 in p53, and induction of p21 by X-ray irradiation in immortal cells derived from normal individual were not affected by the hTERT introduction. Both normal and AT immortal cells exhibited an apparent inhibition of growth as original primary cells when they reached confluence. Karyotype analysis has revealed that they are in a diploid range. These results suggest that cells immortalized by hTERT introduction retain their original characteristics except for immortalization, and that they may be useful for analyzing various effects of radiation on human cells. (author)

221

Evidence for a positive correlation between in vitro radiosensitivity of normal human skin fibroblasts and the occurrence of subcutaneous fibrosis after radiotherapy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A colony-forming assay of human skin fibroblast radiosensitivity was established in our laboratory and applied to primary skin biopsies from 12 women belonging to an unselected group of patients who received postmastectomy radiotherapy 10-12 years prior to this study. The aim was to investigate the relationship between in vitro radiosensitivity and the occurrence of subcutaneous fibrosis after radiotherapy. Early generations of normal skin fibroblasts in exponential growth were irradiated at room temperature at a high dose-rate to estimate the surviving fraction of colony-forming cells after single doses ranging from 1 to 8 Gy. A linear-quadratic cell survival curve was fitted to the data and from these fits the surviving fraction at 3.5 Gy (SF3.5) was estimated. Replicate experiments of different cell generations were made to validate the assay, and the between-patients variability was significantly larger than the assay variability for both SF2(p = 0.002) and SF3.5 (p = 0.04). Patients were treated in the period 1978-1982 with a dose per fraction between 2.7 and 3.9 Gy, a total of 12 fractions at two fractions per week. They were evaluated with respect to the occurrence of marked subcutaneous fibrosis in a total of 36 independent treatment fields. In each treatment field the total dose and dose per fraction at the relevant dosimetric reference depth as well as the length of follow-up were recorded. A previously derived LQ mixture model was applied to these data in order to determine the probability of marked fibrosis in that particular field. From this probability and the actually observed fibrosis, the excess risk of fibrosis was calculated, and this was averaged over the three treatment fields to obtain a single measure of clinical radiosensitivity. Increasing values of SF3.5 were statistically significantly correlated with decreasing probabilities of developing subcutaneous fibrosis (p = 0.014, Spearman's rank correlation test). Thus, this pilot study has demonstrated a positive correlation between in vivo radiosensitivity and normal skin fibroblasts and the clinical expression of subcutaneous fibrosis.

Johansen, J; Bentzen, SØren M

1994-01-01

222

Protective Effect of Processed Panax ginseng, Sun Ginseng on UVB-irradiated Human Skin Keratinocyte and Human Dermal Fibroblast  

OpenAIRE

In this study, we investigated the protective effects of processed Panax ginseng, sun ginseng (SG) against the UVB-irradiation on epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Pretreatment of SG in HaCaT keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts reduced UVB-induced cell damage as seen by reduced lactate dehydrogenase release. We also found that SG restored the UVB-induced decrease in anti-apoptotic gene expression (bcl-2 and bcl-xL) in these cells, indicating that SG has an anti-apoptotic ...

Lee, Hyejin; Lee, Joo Yeop; Song, Kyu Choon; Kim, Jinhee; Park, Jeong Hill; Chun, Kwang-hoon; Hwang, Gwi Seo

2012-01-01

223

Repair of chromosome damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase in a line of normal human fibroblasts and its malignant derivative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A line of normal human skin fibroblasts (KD) differed from its malignant derivative (HUT-14) in the extent of cytogenetic damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase. Malignant cells had significantly more chromatid breaks and gaps after exposure to 25, 50, or 100 rad. Results from alkaline elution of cellular DNA immediately after irradiation showed that the normal and malignant cells in asynchronous population were equally sensitive to DNA single-strand breakage by X-irradiation. Caffeine or #betta#-cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), inhibitors of DNA repair, when added directly following G2 phase exposure, significantly increased the incidence of radiation-induced chromatid damage in the normal cells. In contrast, similar treatment of the malignant cells had little influence. Ara-C differed from caffeine in its effects; whereas both agents increased the frequency of chromatid breaks and gaps, only ara-C increased the frequency of gaps to the level observed in the irradiated malignant cells. Addition of catalase, which destroys H2O2, or mannitol, a scavenger of the derivative free hydroxyl radical (.OH), to the cultures of malignant cells before, during, and following irradiation significantly reduced the chromatid damage; and catalase prevented formation of chromatid gaps. The DNA damage induced by X-ray during G2 phase in the normal KD cells was apparently repaired by a caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s) that was deficient or absent in their malignant derivatives

224

Repair of chromosome damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase in a line of normal human fibroblasts and its malignant derivative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A line of normal human skin fibroblasts (KD) differed from its malignant derivative (HUT-14) in the extent of cytogenetic damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase. Malignant cells had significantly more chromatid breaks and gaps after exposure to 25, 50, or 100 rad. The gaps may represent single-strand breaks. Results from alkaline elution of cellular DNA immediately after irradiation showed that the normal and malignant cells in asynchronous population were equally sensitive to DNA single-strand breakage by X-irradiation. Caffeine or beta-cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), inhibitors of DNA repair, when added directly following G2 phase exposure, significantly increased the incidence of radiation-induced chromatid damage in the normal cells. In contrast, similar treatment of the malignant cells had little influence. Ara-C differed from caffeine in its effects; whereas both agents increased the frequency of chromatid breaks and gaps, only ara-C increased the frequency of gaps to the level observed in the irradiated malignant cells. Addition of catalase, a scavenger of the derivative free hydroxyl radical (.OH), to the cultures of malignant cells before, during, and following irradiation significantly reduced the chromatid damage; and catalase prevented formation of chromatid gaps. The DNA damage induced by X-ray during G2 phase in the normal KD cells was apparently repaired by a caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s) that was deficient or absent in their malignat was deficient or absent in their malignant derivatives

225

Immunomodulatory Effects of Bee Venom in Human Synovial Fibroblast Cell Line  

OpenAIRE

As in Iranian traditional medicine, bee venom (BV) is a promising treatment for the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is considered as a problematic human chronic inflammatory disease in the present time. Smoking is considered to be a major risk factor in RA onset and severity. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effects of BV on cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory response in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and bee venom were d...

Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Vatanpour, Hossein; H Shirazi, Farshad

2015-01-01

226

A new shielding effectiveness measurement method based on a skin-effect transmission line coupler  

OpenAIRE

We propose a new convenient material shielding effectiveness measurement method based on a skin-effect transmission line coupler. The method is somewhat similar to the arrangement with two coupled TEM cells known from literature. The transmission line coupler consists of a pair of identical transmission line 2-port devices. Each device contains a coaxial waveguide, with a circular inner conductor and an outer conductor having a square cross section. One side of the outer conductor is left com...

Kleine-ostmann, T.; Mu?nter, K.; Schrader, T.

2007-01-01

227

Antiageing Mechanisms of a Standardized Supercritical CO2 Preparation of Black Jack (Bidens pilosa L.) in Human Fibroblasts and Skin Fragments  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of topical retinoids to treat skin disorders and ageing can induce local reactions, while oral retinoids are potent teratogens and produce several unwanted effects. This way, efforts to explore complementary care resources should be supported. Based on this, we evaluate the antiageing effects of a supercritical CO2 extract from Bidens pilosa L. (BPE-CO2A) containing a standardized multicomponent mixture of phytol, linolenic, palmitic, linoleic, and oleic acids. BPE-CO2A was assessed for its effects on human dermal fibroblasts (TGF-?1 and FGF levels using ELISA; collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by colorimetric assays, and mRNA expression of RXR, RAR, and EGFr by qRT-PCR) and human skin fragments (RAR, RXR, collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by immunohistochemical analysis). Levels of extracellular matrix elements, TGF-?1 and FGF, and EGFr gene expression were significantly increased by BPE-CO2A. The modulation of RXR and RAR was positively demonstrated after the treatment with BPE-CO2A or phytol, a component of BPE-CO2A. The effects produced by BPE-CO2A were similar to or better than those produced by retinol and retinoic acid. The ability to stimulate extracellular matrix elements, increase growth factors, and modulate retinoid and rexinoid receptors provides a basis for the development of preparation containing BPE-CO2A as an antiageing/skin-repair agent. PMID:25883669

Dieamant, Gustavo; Pereda, Maria Del Carmen V.; Nogueira, Cecília; Eberlin, Samara; Facchini, Gustavo; Checon, Juliana Tibério; Cesar, Camila Kappke; Mussi, Lilian; Polezel, Márcio Antonio; Martins-Oliveira, Divino; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

2015-01-01

228

Ex-vivo transduced autologous skin fibroblasts expressing human Lim Mineralization Protein-3 efficiently form new bone in animal models  

OpenAIRE

Local gene transfer of the human LIM Mineralization Protein (LMP), a novel intracellular positive regulator of the osteoblast differentiation program, can induce efficient bone formation in rodents. In order to develop a clinically relevant gene therapy approach to facilitate bone healing, we have used primary dermal fibroblasts transduced ex vivo with Ad.LMP3 and seeded on an hydroxyapatite/collagen matrix prior to autologous implantation. Here we demonstrate that genetically modified autolo...

Lattanzi, Wanda; Parrilla, Claudio; Fetoni, Annarita; Logroscino, Giandomenico; Straface, Giuseppe; Pecorini, Giovanni; Stigliano, Egidio; Tampieri, Anna; Bedini, Rossella; Pecci, Raffaella; Michetti, Fabrizio; Gambotto, Andrea; Robbins, Paul D.; Pola, Enrico

2008-01-01

229

Rhamm?/? fibroblasts are defective in CD44-mediated ERK1,2 motogenic signaling, leading to defective skin wound repair  

OpenAIRE

Rhamm (receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility) is an hyaluronan binding protein with limited expression in normal tissues and high expression in advanced cancers. To understand its physiological functions and identify the molecular mechanisms underlying these functions, we created mice with a genetic deletion of Rhamm. We show that Rhamm?/? fibroblasts fail to resurface scratch wounds >3 mm or invade hyaluronan-supplemented collagen gels in culture. We identify a requirement for Rhamm ...

Tolg, Cornelia; Hamilton, Sara R.; Nakrieko, Kerry-ann; Kooshesh, Fatemeh; Walton, Paul; Mccarthy, James B.; Bissell, Mina J.; Turley, Eva A.

2006-01-01

230

Comparative microscopic and biochemical study of the uptake of fluorescent and 125I-labeled lipoproteins by skin fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and peritoneal macrophages in culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and of acetyl LDL was compared in skin fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and peritoneal macrophages with the use of lipoproteins labeled with either 125I or the fluorescent probe 3,3'-dioctadecylindocarbocyanine (DiI). The uptake of DiI-labeled lipoproteins was assessed by quantitative spectrofluorometry and by fluorescence microscopy. The DiI was quantitatively retained by the cells, while the 125I-LDL was degraded and 125I-labeled degradation products were excreted from the cells. In smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts the uptake of LDL was virtually the same whether measured with the use of the DiI or 125I-label. The labeling of acetyl LDL with DiI enhanced its uptake in peritoneal macrophages by an average of 18%. With the DiI label, lipoprotein uptake could be determined after as little as 10 minutes of incubation at 37 C. The pattern of uptake of the DiI-labeled lipoproteins was consistent with binding to specific receptors, because no DiI could be detected in mutant cells without LDL receptors, and uptake was competitively inhibited by addition of excess unlabeled lipoprotein. When the DiI-labeled lipoproteins were removed from the medium, there was a 5-15% loss of DiI from all cell types studied over the first 24 hours

231

Nanoscale gelatinase A (MMP-2) inhibition on human skin fibroblasts of Longkong (Lansium domesticum Correa) leaf extracts for anti-aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaves of Longkong which collected from Chantaburi in Thailand were extracted by the hot and cold processes using three different solvents including water, chloroform and methanol. The crude extracts were tested for antioxidative activities, tyrosinase inhibition and in vitro cytotoxicity as well as the MMP-2 inhibition activity on human skin fibroblasts for anti-aging evaluation. The hot water crude extract showed the highest antioxidative activities (DPPH radical scavenging, metal ion chelating and lipid peroxidation inhibition) with the SC50, CC50 and IPC50 values of 5.40 +/- 1.23, 32.31 +/- 0.84 and 3.29 +/- 0.30 mg/ml, respectively, and the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity with the IC50 value of 0.49 +/- 0.23 mg/ml. The extract also showed no cytotoxicity on human skin fibroblasts with the cell viability of 80.52 +/- 15.16%. It demonstrated the anti-aging potential by having the pro and active MMP-2 inhibition activity, but lower than ascorbic acid of 1.28 and 1.12 times, respectively. The semi-purified extracts were prepared from this crude extract by solvent-solvent partition. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed higher activities (DPPH radical scavenging, metal ion chelating and tyrosinase inhibition) than the crude extract of 23.48, 71.80 and 2.58 times, respectively. This fraction exhibited similar pro and active MMP-2 inhibitory effect to the crude extract. The results from this study have indicated the possible application of the ethyl acetate fraction of the hot water crude extract from leaves of Longkong to be developed as an anti-aging product. PMID:23035451

Manosroi, Aranya; Kumguan, Kulthida; Chankhampan, Charinya; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

2012-09-01

232

HPV-positive HNSCC cell lines but not primary human fibroblasts are radiosensitized by the inhibition of Chk1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Despite the comparably high cure rates observed for HPV-positive HNSCC, there is still a great need for specific tumor radiosensitization due to the often severe side effects resulting from intense radiochemotherapy. We recently demonstrated that HPV-positive HNSCC cell lines are characterized by a defect in DNA double-strand break repair associated with a pronounced G2-arrest. Here we tested whether abrogation of this radiation-induced G2-arrest by the inhibition of Chk1 results in specific radiosensitization of HPV-positive HNSCC cells. Materials and methods: Experiments were performed with five HPV and p16-positive (93-VU-147T, UM-SCC-47, UT-SCC-45, UD-SCC-2, UPCI-SCC-154) and two HPV and p16-negative HNSCC cell lines, as well as two normal human fibroblast strains. Chk1 was inhibited by the selective inhibitor PF-00477736. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry, Chk1-activity via Western blot and cell survival by colony formation assay. Results: With the exception of UPCI-SCC-154, the inhibition of Chk1 was found to abolish the pronounced radiation-induced G2-arrest in all HPV-positive cells utilized. All tumor cell lines that demonstrated the abrogation of G2-arrest also demonstrated radiosensitization. Notably, in G1-arrest-proficient normal human fibroblasts no radiosensitization was induced. Conclusion: Abrogation of the G2 checkpoint through the inhibition of Chk1 may be used to selectively increase the cellular radiosensitivity of HPV-positive HNSCC without affecting the surrounding normal tissue

233

Overproduction of topoisomerase II in an ataxia telangiectasia fibroblast cell line: comparison with a topoisomerase II-overproducing hamster cell mutant.  

OpenAIRE

Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cell lines are characterised by their hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and bleomycin, and their failure to inhibit DNA synthesis after DNA damage. A recent report [Singh et al. (1988) Nucl. Acids Res. 16, 3919-3929] indicated that a reduction in topoisomerase II (topo II) activity was a feature of AT lymphoblast cell lines. We have studied the possible role of DNA topoisomerases in determining the phenotype of an AT fibroblast cell line. AT5BIVA cells are sens...

Davies, S. M.; Harris, A. L.; Hickson, I. D.

1989-01-01

234

Inactivation of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat in murine fibroblast cell lines is associated with methylation and dependent on its chromosomal position.  

OpenAIRE

The expression of a retroviral vector with the Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter after integration into the genome of murine fibroblast cell lines was monitored with the Escherichia coli-derived beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene as the reporter. Monoclonal cell lines derived after retroviral infection exhibited a marked heterogeneity in their expression of the reporter gene. We studied two monoclonal cell lines with a single unrearranged copy of the ...

Hoeben, R. C.; Migchielsen, A. A.; Jagt, R. C.; Ormondt, H.; Eb, A. J.

1991-01-01

235

Transgene expression of green fluorescent protein and germ line transmission in cloned pigs derived from in vitro transfected adult fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pig represents the xenogeneic donor of choice for future organ transplantation in humans for anatomical and physiological reasons. However, to bypass several immunological barriers, strong and stable human genes expression must occur in the pig's organs. In this study we created transgenic pigs using in vitro transfection of cultured cells combined with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to evaluate the ubiquitous transgene expression driven by pCAGGS vector in presence of different selectors. pCAGGS confirmed to be a very effective vector for ubiquitous transgene expression, irrespective of the selector that was used. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression observed in transfected fibroblasts was also maintained after nuclear transfer, through pre- and postimplantation development, at birth and during adulthood. Germ line transmission without silencing of the transgene was demonstrated. The ubiquitous expression of GFP was clearly confirmed in several tissues including endothelial cells, thus making it a suitable vector for the expression of multiple genes relevant to xenotransplantation where tissue specificity is not required. Finally cotransfection of green and red fluorescence protein transgenes was performed in fibroblasts and after nuclear transfer blastocysts expressing both fluorescent proteins were obtained. PMID:18823265

Brunetti, Dario; Perota, Andrea; Lagutina, Irina; Colleoni, Silvia; Duchi, Roberto; Calabrese, Fiorella; Seveso, Michela; Cozzi, Emanuele; Lazzari, Giovanna; Lucchini, Franco; Galli, Cesare

2008-12-01

236

Neuronal Differentiation of a Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Line (FS-1) Derived from Newborn Foreskin Fibroblasts  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fully differentiated somatic cells has revolutionized existing concepts of cell differentiation and stem cells. Importantly, iPSCs generated from somatic cells of patients can be used to model different types of human diseases. They may also serve as autologous cell sources that can be used in transplantation therapy. In this study, we investigated the neuronal properties of an iPSC line that is derived from human neonatal foreskin fibroblasts (FS-1). We initially examined the morphology and marker expression of FS-1 cells at undifferentiated stage. We then spontaneously differentiated FS-1 cells in suspension culture and examined the expression of markers representing three germ layers. We finally differentiated FS-1 cells into neuronal lineages by co-culturing them with PA6 stromal cells, and found that, under the conditions we used, they have a tendency to differentiate into more forebrain-type neurons, suggesting that FS-1 iPSC-derived neural cells will be useful to be used in cell therapy of stroke or Huntington’s disease, among others. Taken together, FS-1 cells derived from human neonatal fibroblasts exhibit very similar properties with human ES cells, and can provide useful sources for cell therapy and various other applications. PMID:24298367

Kwon, Jihye; Lee, Nayeon; Jeon, Iksoo; Lee, Hey Jin; Do, Jeong Tae; Lee, Dong Ryul; Oh, Seung-Hun; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Aeri; Song, Jihwan

2012-01-01

237

Photoprotective potential of emulsions formulated with Buriti oil (Mauritia flexuosa) against UV irradiation on keratinocytes and fibroblasts cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering the belief that natural lipids are safer for topical applications and that carotenoids are able to protect cells against photooxidative damage, we have investigated whether topical creams and lotions, produced with Buriti oil and commercial surfactants, can exert photoprotective effect against UVA and UVB irradiation on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Cell treatment was divided into two steps, prior and after exposition to 30 min of UVA plus UVB radiation or to 60 min of UVA radiation. Emulsions prepared with ethoxylated fatty alcohols as surfactants and containing alpha-tocopherol caused phototoxic damage to the cells, especially when applied prior to UV exposure. Damage reported was due to prooxidant activity and phototoxic effect of the surfactant. Emulsions prepared with Sorbitan Monooleate and PEG-40 castor oil and containing panthenol as active ingredient, were able to reduce the damages caused by radiation when compared to non-treated cells. When the two cell lines used in the study were compared, keratinocytes showed an increase in cell viability higher than fibroblasts. The Buriti oil emulsions could be considered potential vehicles to transport antioxidants precursors and also be used as adjuvant in sun protection, especially in after sun formulations. PMID:19766688

Zanatta, C F; Mitjans, M; Urgatondo, V; Rocha-Filho, P A; Vinardell, M P

2010-01-01

238

Cytotoxicity of endodontic irrigants containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from mouse L929 cell line  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a citotoxicidade de soluções irrigadoras de canais radiculares contendo hidróxido de cálcio e lauril sulfato de sódio em linhagem de fibroblastos L929. Solução aquosa saturada de hidróxido de cálcio, lauril sulfato de sódio e HCT20 (lauril sulfato de sódio e hid [...] róxido de cálcio) foram diluídos em água destilada em concentrações de 50%, 20%, 10% e 5%. O grupo controle foi representado por meio de cultura de células (MEM - minimum essential medium). A citotoxicidade das soluções sobre os fibroblastos foi avaliada em 4 e 24 h de contato, pelo método do cromo radioativo. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Em todas as análises, o intervalo de confiança referente às médias entre os grupos foi estabelecido em 95%. As soluções saturadas de hidróxido de cálcio e o HCT20 apresentaram toxicidade nas concentrações de 50%. O lauril sulfato de sódio foi tóxico em todas as concentrações. As soluções de hidróxido de cálcio em concentrações menores que 50% apresentaram tolerância celular, assim como combinadas ao lauril sulfato de sódio. Tal comportamento não foi observado na solução pura de lauril sulfato de sódio em todas as concentrações. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigating solutions containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from L929 cell line. Saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and SLS associated with calciu [...] m hydroxide (HCT20) were diluted with sterile distilled water at 50%, 20%, 10% and 5% concentrations. Minimum essential medium (MEM) served as the control group. The cytotoxicity of the solutions was evaluated on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line, at 4 and 24 h of contact time by the 51Cr radiotracer method. Data were compared and statistical inferences were made with the chi-square test. In all analysis, significance level was set at 5%. CH and HCT20 showed toxicity at 50% concentration, while at concentrations lower than 50% these solutions showed cell tolerance. SLS was cytotoxic at all concentrations. In conclusion, the association of calcium hydroxide and SLS (HCT20) combines the beneficial properties of these solutions and was not harmful to the fibroblast cell line, seeming to be a suitable endodontic irrigating solution.

Sérgio Valmor, Barbosa; Cristiane Maria Sodré, Barroso; Patrícia Alvarez, Ruiz.

239

Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based docking vector harbouring a selection gene, an eGFP reporter gene, and an Flp recombinase site for locus-directed gene insertion. PFV cells have insertion of a single docking vector with stable eGFP expression and generated phenotypic normal blastocysts with transgene expression after somatic cell nuclear transfer. PFV cells supported Flp mediated cassette exchange for transgene substitution of eGFP with dsRED, and the dsRED transgenic PFV cells generated blastocysts with transgene expression. Hence, the PFV cell line constitutes a valuable pig equivalent to transformed cell lines from other mammalian species suitable for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and, in addition, for transgene analyses in the very early embryonic stages.

Jakobsen, Jannik E; Li, Juan

2011-01-01

240

Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based docking vector harbouring a selection gene, an eGFP reporter gene, and an Flp recombinase site for locus-directed gene insertion. PFV cells have insertion of a single docking vector with stable eGFP expression and generated phenotypic normal blastocysts with transgene expression after somatic cell nuclear transfer. PFV cells supported Flp mediated cassette exchange for transgene substitution of eGFP with dsRED, and the dsRED transgenic PFV cells generated blastocysts with transgene expression. Hence, the PFV cell line constitutes a valuable pig equivalent to transformed cell lines from other mammalian species suitable for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and, in addition, for transgene analyses in the very early embryonic stages. PMID:20336379

Jakobsen, Jannik E; Li, Juan; Moldt, Brian; Kragh, Peter M; Callesen, Henrik; Hertz, Jens Michael; Bolund, Lars; Jørgensen, Arne Lund; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm; Nielsen, Anders Lade

2011-01-01

241

Development of refractoriness of HO-1 induction to a second treatment with UVA radiation and the involvement of Nrf2 in human skin fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

UVA treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts (FEK4) has been shown previously to reduce transcriptional activation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) following a second dose of UVA radiation, a phenomenon known as refractoriness. This study demonstrates that the levels of HO-1 protein are also reduced after a second dose of UVA radiation as are Nrf2 levels, and there is less accumulation of Nrf2 in the nucleus where as Bach1 does accumulate in the nucleus. Cell viability is further reduced and cell membrane damage increased as compared with a single UVA treatment when an initial UVA treatment was followed by a second dose. Knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA (siNrf2) targeting caused additional refractoriness of HO-1 protein induction to a second UVA or heme treatment and this treatment also further enhanced cell damage by a second dose of UVA radiation. However, transfection with Nrf2 caused less refractoriness of HO-1 to a second dose of UVA and reduced cell damage by a second dose of UVA radiation. These findings are consistent with the proposal that Nrf2 is involved in HO-1 refractoriness and could serve as a cytoprotective factor against cell damage caused by repeated exposure to moderate doses of UVA radiation. We propose that protection by the Nrf2-HO-1 pathway protection may have clinical relevance since human skin is exposed repeatedly to UVA radiation. PMID:25213834

Zhong, Julia Li; Raval, Chintan M; Nisar, Muhammad Farrukh; Bian, ChunXiang; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Li; Tyrrell, Rex M

2014-01-01

242

In Vitro Culture of Fibroblast-Like Cells From Sheep Ear Skin Stored at 25-26°C for 10 Days After Animal Death  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful somatic cell nuclear transfer aka cloning requires good quality undamaged nuclear DNA from desired cell types. In vitro culture of cells is one way of ensuring nuclear integrity. Cellular contents including nucleus gradually decompose postmortem, if not preserved within a reasonable time, leading to cell and ultimately nuclear DNA damage. The goal of this study was to determine time limits within which live and culturable cells can be obtained, after death of an animal, using sheep as a model. How long the somatic cells are alive and have potential to replicate after the animal death is not precisely known. Here we show, for the first time, that the sheep ear skin stored at 25-26°C after animal death can be cultured up to 10 days postmortem. The culture confluence is inversely correlated with increasing postmortem time interval. The cultured fibroblast-like cells have 95±5.2 % post cryopreservation cell-viability; have normal karyotype, and a comparable growth profile to that of fresh tissue derived cells. This study shows that sheep skin has potential for in vitro culture of its cells up to 10 days postmortem. Cultured cells can be successfully used for preservation of biodiversity for possible future cloning of animals.

Mahipal Singh

2014-06-01

243

Tissue concentration of transforming growth factor beta1 and basic fibroblast growth factor in skin wounds created with a CO2 laser and scalpel: a comparative experimental study, using an animal model of skin resurfacing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although a number of ablative-laser techniques based on CO(2) and Er: YAG laser devices have been successfully developed and used in the clinical setting, the bio-molecular processes influencing wound healing after exposure to laser energy are not well elucidated. In this study, we aim to assess the impact of the mechanism of injury on the secretion of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in various stages of wound healing, in wounds created with a CO(2) laser and scalpel. Ten Wistar rats were used to determine the levels of growth factor proteins TGF-beta1 and bFGF after CO(2) laser- and scalpel-induced skin injury. Tissue was excised on day 0 for untreated skin (control sites), and on days 1, 10, 30, and 90 following laser and scalpel surgery. Specimens were processed for histopathological analysis and for determining the concentration of growth factors by a Western blot technique. The concentration of TGF-beta1 increased markedly, at day 1 postinjury, from a baseline of 130+/-16 mm(2) (mean surface area of blotted-protein lanes) to 261+/-23 mm(2) and 394+/-22 mm(2) for laser-inflicted injury and scalpel wounds, respectively; the latter values were found to differ significantly (p<0.001). The concentration of b-FGF on day 10 postinjury differed significantly (p<0.001) between the laser sites (553+/-45 mm(2)) and the corresponding scalpel sites (418+/-41 mm(2)). Laser energy alters local tissue secretion of TGF-beta1 and bFGF of skin injuries created with the CO(2) laser compared with wounds created with a scalpel. These differences might have an impact on various aspects of wound healing of skin injuries created by a laser. PMID:17352758

Manolis, Evangelos N; Kaklamanos, Ioannis G; Spanakis, Nicholas; Filippou, Dimitrios K; Panagiotaropoulos, Theophanis; Tsakris, Athanassios; Siomos, Konstadinos

2007-01-01

244

Ispaghula (Plantago ovata) seed husk polysaccharides promote proliferation of human epithelial cells (skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts) via enhanced growth factor receptors and energy production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endogenous carbohydrates, especially oligo- and polysaccharides, participate in the regulation of a broad range of biological activities, e. g., signal transduction, inflammation, fertilisation, cell-cell-adhesion and act as in vivo markers for the determination of cell types. In the present study, water-soluble (WS) and gel-forming polysaccharides (GF) of ispaghula seed husk (Plantago ovata Forsskal, Plantaginaceae) were characterised as neutral and acidic arabinoxylans and tested under in vitro conditions for regulating activities on cell physiology of human keratinocytes and human primary fibroblasts. Only water-soluble polysaccharides exhibited strong and significant effects on cell physiology of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Proliferation of cells of the spontaneously immortalised keratinocyte cell line HaCaT was significantly up-regulated in a dose-independent manner. Analysis of activated signal pathways by RNA analysis proved an effect of the acidic arabinoxylan on the expression of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) in HaCaT cells. Differentiation behaviour of normal human keratinocytes (NHK) determined by involucrin was slightly influenced, due to the enhanced cell proliferation, leading to a cell-cell-mediated indirect induction of early differentiation. WS did not influence late differentiation, as determined by keratin K1 and K10 titres. PMID:15678371

Deters, A M; Schröder, K R; Smiatek, T; Hensel, Andreas

2005-01-01

245

Quantitative differences in host cell reactivation of ultraviolet-damaged virus in human skin fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes cultured from the same foreskin biopsy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Repair efficiency of cultured cells may be estimated by measuring the ability of a particular cell type to support virus damaged by an appropriate agent. In this study we have compared the inactivation of ultraviolet (254 nm)-damaged herpes simplex virus in human fibroblast and epidermal keratinocyte cell lines derived from the same foreskin biopsy and found the epithelial cells to be a factor of 3 times less efficient in supporting the damaged virus. The two different cell types show comparable ultraviolet inactivation of clone-forming ability, indicating that the difference is specific to viral host cell reactivation. This study required the development of a quantitative infectious centers assay for the measurement of viral titer in human epithelial cells, a system which may be of more general application in studies of potential human carcinogens

246

Molecular analysis of gamma-ray-induced mutations at the hprt locus in primary human skin fibroblasts by multiplex polymerase chain reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 153 hprt mutants (23 spontaneous, 130 ?-ray-induced) of primary human skin fibroblasts were isolated and genetic alterations at the locus were studied by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The analyses showed that 51% (66/130) of ?-ray-induced genetic changes were large deletions, whereas the majority of spontaneous mutants (21/23) exhibited point mutations. The spectrum of large genetic alterations appeared to be dependent on dose in ?-ray-induced (1-4 Gy) mutations; mutants with complete loss of the hprt locus comprised 21 (3/14) or 39% (15/38) of clones isolated after irradiation with 1 or 4 Gy, respectively. The frequency of partial deletions was found to be higher in the mutants isolated from clones irradiated with 2 Gy (38%) than from those irradiated with 4 Gy (8%). Mapping of all intragenic depletion breakpoints exhibited a nonrandom distribution of breakpoints toward the 3' end of the hprt gene. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

247

Formation of DNA single-strand breaks by near-ultraviolet and gamma-rays in normal and Bloom's syndrome skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formation of single-strand breaks by near-ultraviolet light at 313 nm and by aerobic gamma-rays was compared for skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from 4 normal donors (NF) and 8 patients with Bloom's syndrome (BS) by the alkaline elution method. In 6 of 8 BS strains, the number of breaks induced by near-ultraviolet light, 2.25 kJ/sq m, at 0 degrees was comparable to NF, while elevated breakage was observed in BS strains HG 369 and HG 916. Breakage frequencies were increased substantially in 6 of 8 BS strains relative to NF when the near-ultraviolet light exposure was at 37 degrees. BS strain GM 2520 represents an exception since normal breakage frequencies were induced both at 0 degrees and 37 degrees. Aerobic gamma-rays (75 R) induced comparable numbers of single-strand breaks in BS and NF strains at 0 degrees. The breakage frequencies were reduced an average of 17% in NF when the same dose was given at 30 degrees followed by 6 min incubation. Under the same conditions, the breakage frequencies were on the average reduced by 42% relative to 0 degrees in the BS strains, indicating that they possess normal or possibly slightly increased capacities for the rejoining of gamma-ray-induced breaks

248

Low-dose radiation activates Nrf1/2 through reactive species and the Ca2+/ERK1/2 signaling pathway in human skin fibroblast cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the current study, we explored the effect of LDR on theactivation of Nrfs transcription factor involved in cellular redoxevents. Experiments were carried out utilizing 0.05 and 0.5 GyX-ray irradiated normal human skin fibroblast HS27 cells. Theresults showed LDR induced Nrf1 and Nrf2 activation andexpression of antioxidant genes HO-1, Mn-SOD, and NQO1.In particular, 0.05 Gy-irradiation increased only Nrf1 activation,but 0.5 Gy induced both Nrf1 and Nrf2 activation.LDR-mediated Nrf1/2 activation was accompanied by reactivespecies (RS generation and Ca2+ flux. This effect was abolishedin the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine and BAPTA- AM.Furthermore, Nrf1/2 activation by LDR was suppressed byPD98059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2. In conclusion, LDR inducesNrf1 and Nrf2 activation and expression of Nrf-regulatedantioxidant defense genes through RS and Ca2+/ERK1/2pathways, suggesting new insights into the molecularmechanism underlying the beneficial role of LDR in HS27cells. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(5: 258-263

Eun Kyeong Lee

2013-05-01

249

Both near ultraviolet radiation and the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide induce a 32-kDa stress protein in normal human skin fibroblasts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have analyzed the pattern of protein synthesis in solar near ultraviolet (334 nm, 365 nm) and near visible (405 nm) irradiated normal human skin fibroblasts. Two hours after irradiation we find that one major stress protein of approximately 32 kDa is induced in irradiated cells. This protein is not induced by ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths shorter than 334 nm and is not inducible by heat shock treatment of these cells. Although sodium arsenite, diamide, and menadione all induced a 32-kDa protein, they also induced the major heat shock proteins. In contrast, the oxidizing agent, hydrogen peroxide, induced the low molecular weight stress protein without causing induction of the major heat shock proteins. A comparison of the 32-kDa proteins induced by sodium arsenite, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, and solar near ultraviolet radiation using chemical peptide mapping shows that they are closely related. These results imply that the pathways for induction of the heat shock response and the 32-kDa protein are not identical and suggest that, at least in the case of radiation and treatment with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the 32-kDa protein might be induced in response to cellular oxidative stress. This conclusion is supported by the observation that depletion of endogenous cellular glutathione prior to solar near ultraviolet irradiation lowers the fluence threshold for induction of the 32-kDa stress protein.

Keyse, S.M.; Tyrrell, R.M.

1987-10-25

250

Both near ultraviolet radiation and the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide induce a 32-kDa stress protein in normal human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have analyzed the pattern of protein synthesis in solar near ultraviolet (334 nm, 365 nm) and near visible (405 nm) irradiated normal human skin fibroblasts. Two hours after irradiation we find that one major stress protein of approximately 32 kDa is induced in irradiated cells. This protein is not induced by ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths shorter than 334 nm and is not inducible by heat shock treatment of these cells. Although sodium arsenite, diamide, and menadione all induced a 32-kDa protein, they also induced the major heat shock proteins. In contrast, the oxidizing agent, hydrogen peroxide, induced the low molecular weight stress protein without causing induction of the major heat shock proteins. A comparison of the 32-kDa proteins induced by sodium arsenite, H2O2, and solar near ultraviolet radiation using chemical peptide mapping shows that they are closely related. These results imply that the pathways for induction of the heat shock response and the 32-kDa protein are not identical and suggest that, at least in the case of radiation and treatment with H2O2, the 32-kDa protein might be induced in response to cellular oxidative stress. This conclusion is supported by the observation that depletion of endogenous cellular glutathione prior to solar near ultraviolet irradiation lowers the fluence threshold for induction of the 32-kDa stress protein

251

Performance of a novel keratinocyte-based reporter cell line to screen skin sensitizers in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vitro tests are needed to replace animal tests to screen for the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. Skin sensitizers are electrophilic molecules and the Nrf2-electrophile-sensing pathway comprising the repressor protein Keap1, the transcription factor Nrf2 and the antioxidant response element (ARE) is emerging as a toxicity pathway induced by skin sensitizers. Previously, we screened a large set of chemicals in the reporter cell line AREc32, which contains an eight-fold repeat of the rat GSTA2 ARE-sequence upstream of a luciferase reporter gene in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7. This approach was now further developed to bring it closer to the conditions in the human skin and to propose a fully standardized assay. To this end, a luciferase reporter gene under control of a single copy of the ARE-element of the human AKR1C2 gene was stably inserted into HaCaT keratinocytes. A standard operating procedure was developed whereby chemicals are routinely tested at 12 concentrations in triplicate for significant induction of gene activity. We report results from this novel assay on (i) a list of reference chemicals published by ECVAM, (ii) the ICCVAM list of chemicals for validation of alternative endpoints in the LLNA and (iii) on a more general list of 67 chemicals derived from the ICCVAM database. For comparison, peptide reactivity data are presented for the same chemicals. The results indicate a good predictive value of this approach for hazard identifivalue of this approach for hazard identification. Its technical simplicity, the high-throughput format and the good predictivity may make this assay a candidate for rapid validation to meet the tight deadline to replace animal tests for skin sensitization by 2013 set by the European authorities.

252

The radiosensitivity of human fibroblast cell lines correlates with residual levels of DNA double-strand breaks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To study the correlation of residual DNA double-strand breakage after irradiation and cellular radiosensitivity in cells showing marked differences in radiosensitivity. Materials and methods: The levels of DNA double-strand breaks remaining at 4 h after irradiation were measured by graded-voltage gel electrophoresis in fibroblast cell strains derived from seven individuals either with normal radiosensitivity (n=2), or with genetic abnormalities known to show increased (two ataxia telangiectasia, one scid) or possibly decreased (two Li-Fraumeni family members) sensitivity. Results: The slope of the dose-response curve for DNA breaks remaining unrepaired at 4 h showed a highly significant correlation with cellular radiosensitivity characterized by SF2, ?, or D (r?0.91, P<0.001). Hence, this measure of genotoxic damage was predictive of radiation sensitivity for cells affected by a variety of mutations in different damage signalling/repair components. Discussion: This correlation confirms another published study and extends it to cell lines with other genetic defects. The technique may be useful in the development of rapid assays to predict the sensitivity of normal tissues in patients receiving radiotherapy. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

253

Antagonism of phenanthrene cytotoxicity for human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I by green tea polyphenols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. A full factorial design experiment demonstrated that the interaction of phenanthrene and GTP significantly reduced growth inhibition. Using the median effect method showed that phenanthrene and GTP were antagonistic when the inhibitory levels were less than about 50%. Apoptosis and cell cycle detection suggested that only phenanthrene affected cell cycle significantly and caused cell death; GTP lowered the mortality of HFL-I cells exposed to phenanthrene; However, GTP did not affect modulation of the cell cycle by phenanthrene. - Green tea polyphenols antagonised cytotoxicity of a low-ring PAH phenanthrene.

254

Nonviability of cells with oxidative defects in galactose medium: a screening test for affected patient fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of respiratory chain defects in cultured skin fibroblasts is a difficult diagnostic procedure. We investigated the feasibility of using survival of skin fibroblasts in culture medium with galactose as the major carbon source as a method of quickly diagnosing cell lines that were compromised in oxidative metabolism. We found that cells from patients with most forms of cytochrome oxidase deficiency, cells with complex I deficiency, cells with multiple respiratory chain defects and cells with severe pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex deficiency failed to survive when subcultured into galactose (5 mM) medium. Cells from patients with Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), myoclonus-epilepsy-lactic acidosis-stroke (MELAS), the hepatic form of cytochrome oxidase deficiency, and mild PDH complex deficiency survived well in galactose (5 mM)-containing medium. This could be used as a rapid screening test for skin fibroblasts with major oxidative defects. PMID:1329873

Robinson, B H; Petrova-Benedict, R; Buncic, J R; Wallace, D C

1992-10-01

255

Protective effect of enzymatic hydrolysates from highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line  

OpenAIRE

Blueberry was enzymatically hydrolyzed using selected commercial food grade carbohydrases (AMG, Celluclast, Termamyl, Ultraflo and Viscozyme) and proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Kojizyme, Neutrase and Protamex) to obtain water soluble compounds, and their protective effect was investigated against H2O2-induced damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79-4) via various published methods. Both AMG and Alcalase hydrolysates showed higher total phenolic content as well as higher ce...

Senevirathne, Mahinda; Kim, Soo-hyun; Jeon, You-jin

2010-01-01

256

The common properties and the heterogeneity of dermal fibroblast subpopulations.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dermal fibroblasts are a dynamic and diverse population of cells whose functions in skin in many respects remain unknown. Normal adult human skin contains at least three distinct subpopulations of fibroblasts, which occupy unique niches in the dermis. Fibroblasts from each of these niches exhibit distinctive differences when cultured separately. Specific differences in fibroblast histophysiology are evident in papillary dermal fibroblasts, which reside in the superficial dermis, and reticular fibroblasts, which reside in the deep dermis. Both of these subpopulations of fibroblasts differ from the fibroblasts that are associated with hair follicles. Fibroblasts engage in fibroblast-epidermal interactions during hair development and in interfollicular regions of skin. They also play an important role in cutaneous structural transformations.

Makarchuk O.I.

2007-01-01

257

A new shielding effectiveness measurement method based on a skin-effect transmission line coupler  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose a new convenient material shielding effectiveness measurement method based on a skin-effect transmission line coupler. The method is somewhat similar to the arrangement with two coupled TEM cells known from literature. The transmission line coupler consists of a pair of identical transmission line 2-port devices. Each device contains a coaxial waveguide, with a circular inner conductor and an outer conductor having a square cross section. One side of the outer conductor is left completely open as a slot. The slot is surrounded by a large metal housing to contact the two halves. As a measure for the shielding effectiveness the coupling between the two devices is measured in terms of scattering parameters after the test material is brought between the two halves. The devices can be used in a range from low frequencies to a few GHz.

T. Kleine-Ostmann

2007-06-01

258

The Zellweger syndrome: deficient conversion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5(n-3)) and normal delta 4-desaturase activity in cultured skin fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolism of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(n-3)) and adrenic acid (22:4(n-6)) was studied in cultured fibroblasts from patients with the Zellweger syndrome, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) and normal controls. It was shown that [4,5- 3H]22:6(n-3) is retroconverted to labelled eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5(n-3)) in normal and X-ALD fibroblasts, while this conversion is deficient in Zellweger fibroblasts. [U- 14C]Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5(n-3)) is elongated to docosapentaenoic acid (22:5(n-3)) in all three cell lines. With [U- 14C]20:5(n-3) as the substrate, shorter fatty acids were not detected. With [4,5- 3H]22:6(n-3) as the substrate, labelled fatty acids were esterified in the phospholipid- and triacylglycerol-fraction to approximately the same extent in all three cell lines. [2- 14C]Adrenic acid (22:4(n-6)) was desaturated to 22:5(n-6) and elongated to 24:4(n-6) in all three cell lines and to the largest extent in the Zellweger fibroblasts. This agrees with the view that the delta 4-desaturase is not a peroxisomal enzyme. The observation that the retroconversion of 22:6(n-3) to 20:5(n-3) is deficient in Zellweger fibroblasts strongly suggest that the beta-oxidation step in the retroconversion is a peroxisomal function. Peroxisomal very-long-chain (lignoceroyl) CoA ligase is probably not required for the activation of 22:6(n-3), since the retroconversion to 20:5(n-3) is normal in X-ALD fibroblasts. PMID:2140517

Grønn, M; Christensen, E; Hagve, T A; Christophersen, B O

1990-05-22

259

Cultured skin fibroblasts derived from three patients with disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) are hypersensitive to the lethal effects of X-radiation but not to those of ultraviolet (UV) light.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP), skin lesions of which are known to be induced by ultraviolet (UV) light, does not develop into skin cancer as frequently as other types of porokeratosis (PK). To establish the cellular basis of this characteristic of DSAP, we examined the colony-forming ability of UVC light- or X-ray-irradiated cultured fibroblasts derived from DSAP patients' skin. Sensitivity to the lethal effects of UV light was not significantly different between 3 DSAP and 5 control cell strains. In contrast, DSAP cell strains were significantly hypersensitive to the lethal effects of X-radiation, although the sensitivity was less than that of cell strains from other types of PK patients. The results indicate that the actinic character of DSAP is not reflected in the cellular response to the lethal effects of UV light, but suggest that DSAP shares X-ray sensitivity, which is probably associated with the cancer-prone nature of PK. PMID:8162336

Watanabe, R; Otsuka, F

1993-08-01

260

Specific inactivation of prolyl 4-hydroxylase and inhibition of collagen synthesis by oxaproline-containing peptides in cultured human skin fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The crucial role of collagen in fibrotic disorders has prompted attempts to develop drugs that inhibit collagen accumulation. Peptides containing the unphysiological amino acid 5-oxaproline (Opr) have recently been found to act as specific syncatalytic inactivators of pure prolyl 4-hydroxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline in collagens. The present study indicates that oxaproline-containing peptides benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Opr-Gly-benzyl ester (I) and benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Opr-Gly-ethyl ester (II) inactivate prolyl 4-hydroxylase in cultured human skin fibroblasts, peptide I being about twice as potent as peptide II. Inactivation by 50% was observed after culturing with about 20-40 microM concentrations of peptide I for 48 h. The inactivation appears to be specific, as no changes were found in the activities of two other intracellular enzymes of collagen synthesis, lysyl hydroxylase and galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase. Synthesis of 4-hydroxyproline by the cells was markedly decreased, and 4-hydroxyproline-deficient procollagen accumulated intracellularly, whereas no changes were found in the incorporation of [14C]leucine into protein after culturing of the cells with a 30 microM concentration of peptide I for 48 h. No changes were seen in the viability of the cells or the release of lactate dehydrogenase from them into the culture medium. No significant changes were found in the steady-state levels of the mRNAs for the pro-alpha 1 chains of type I and type III procollagens or for the alpha and beta subunits of prolyl 4-hyroxylase or fibronectin after culturing with 75 microM peptide I for 48 h. The data indicate that inactivation of cellular prolyl 4-hydroxylase has marked effects on cellular 4-hydroxyproline formation and collagen secretion but no effects on the steady-state levels of mRNAs for type I and III procollagens or the two types of subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase. PMID:2160457

Karvonen, K; Ala-Kokko, L; Pihlajaniemi, T; Helaakoski, T; Henke, S; Günzler, V; Kivirikko, K I; Savolainen, E R

1990-05-25

261

Molybdenum nanoparticles-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, G2/M arrest, and DNA damage in mouse skin fibroblast cells (L929).  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation was aimed to study the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity induced by molybdenum nanoparticles (Mo-NPs) in mouse skin fibroblast cells (L929). Cells were exposed to different concentrations (1-100 ?g/ml) of Mo-NPs (size 40 nm) for 24 and 48 h. After the exposure, different cytotoxicity assays (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, MTT; neutral red uptake, NRU; and cellular morphology) and oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, LPO; glutathione, GSH; and catalase) were studied. Further, Mo-NPs-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell cycle arrest, and DNA damage were also studied. L929 cells treated with Mo-NPs showed a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability and a loss of the normal cell morphology. The percentage cell viability was recorded as 25%, 42%, and 58% by MTT assay and 24%, 46%, and 56% by NRU assay at 25, 50, and 100 ?g/ml of Mo-NPs, respectively after 48 h exposure. Furthermore, the cells showed a significant induction of oxidative stress. This was confirmed by the increase in LPO and ROS generation, as well as the decrease in the GSH and catalase levels. The decrease in MMP also confirms the impaired mitochondrial membrane. The cell cycle analysis and comet assay data revealed that Mo-NPs induced G2/M arrest and DNA damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, Mo-NPs induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity in L929 cells. Thus, data suggest the potential hazardous nature of Mo-NPs. PMID:25437066

Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Saquib, Quaiser; Ahamed, Maqusood; Farshori, Nida N; Ahmad, Javed; Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Shams T; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Pant, Aditya B

2015-01-01

262

Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on the differentiation, growth, and viability of a new human medulloblastoma cell line (UM-MB1).  

OpenAIRE

We presently report the effects of human recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on a newly established medulloblastoma cell line, UM-MB1. This predominantly adherent cell line has a mean doubling time of 39.3 hours and was found, by karyotypic analysis, to be near triploid. UM-MB1 consists of undifferentiated cells expressing markers of neuronal lineage such as the three neurofilament subunits as well as neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, and microtubule-associated proteins 1 ...

Kenigsberg, R. L.; Hong, Y.; Yao, H.; Lemieux, N.; Michaud, J.; Tautu, C.; The?ore?t, Y.

1997-01-01

263

Interaction between Leptospiral Lipopolysaccharide and Toll-like Receptor 2 in Pig Fibroblast Cell Line, and Inhibitory Effect of Antibody against Leptospiral Lipopolysaccharide on Interaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) has shown potency in activating toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in pig fibroblasts (PEFs_NCC1), and causes the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. However, the stimulation by L-LPS was weak eliciting the function of TLR2 sufficiently in pig innate immunity responses during Leptospira infection. In this study, the immune response of pig embryonic fibroblast cell line (PEFs_SV40) was investigated and was found to be the high immune response, thus TLR2 is the predominate receptor of L-LPS in pig cells. Further, we found a strategy using the antibody against L-LPS, to prevent L-LPS interaction with TLR2 in pig cells which could impact on immune activation. PMID:25557825

Guo, Yijie; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Nakamura, Shuichi; Bai, Lanlan; Xu, Jun; Kuroda, Kengo; Tomioka, Rintaro; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Isogai, Emiko

2015-02-01

264

Human Melanoma Progression in Skin Reconstructs : Biological Significance of bFGF  

OpenAIRE

Human skin reconstructs are three-dimensional in vitro models consisting of epidermal keratinocytes plated onto fibroblast-contracted collagen gels. Cells in skin reconstructs more closely recapitulate the in situ phenotype than do cells in monolayer culture. Normal melanocytes in skin reconstructs remained singly distributed at the basement membrane which separated the epidermis from the dermis. Cell lines derived from biologically early primary melanomas of the radial growth phase prolifera...

Meier, Friedegund; Nesbit, Mark; Hsu, Mei-yu; Martin, Bernard; Belle, Patricia; Elder, David E.; Schaumburg-lever, Gundula; Garbe, Claus; Walz, Tania Marina; Donatien, Philippe; Crombleholme, Timothy M.; Herlyn, Meenhard

2000-01-01

265

The hallmarks of fibroblast ageing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ageing is influenced by the intrinsic disposition delineating what is maximally possible and extrinsic factors determining how that frame is individually exploited. Intrinsic and extrinsic ageing processes act on the dermis, a post-mitotic skin compartment mainly consisting of extracellular matrix and fibroblasts. Dermal fibroblasts are long-lived cells constantly undergoing damage accumulation and (mal-)adaptation, thus constituting a powerful indicator system for human ageing. Here, we use the systematic of ubiquitous hallmarks of ageing (Lopez-Otin et al., 2013, Cell 153) to categorise the available knowledge regarding dermal fibroblast ageing. We discriminate processes inducible in culture from phenomena apparent in skin biopsies or primary cells from old donors, coming to the following conclusions: (i) Fibroblasts aged in culture exhibit most of the established, ubiquitous hallmarks of ageing. (ii) Not all of these hallmarks have been detected or investigated in fibroblasts aged in situ (in the skin). (iii) Dermal fibroblasts aged in vitro and in vivo exhibit additional features currently not considered ubiquitous hallmarks of ageing. (iv) The ageing process of dermal fibroblasts in their physiological tissue environment has only been partially elucidated, although these cells have been a preferred model of cell ageing in vitro for decades. PMID:24686308

Tigges, Julia; Krutmann, Jean; Fritsche, Ellen; Haendeler, Judith; Schaal, Heiner; Fischer, Jens W; Kalfalah, Faiza; Reinke, Hans; Reifenberger, Guido; Stühler, Kai; Ventura, Natascia; Gundermann, Sabrina; Boukamp, Petra; Boege, Fritz

2014-06-01

266

Abnormal ultraviolet mutagenic spectrum in plasmid DNA replicated in cultured fibroblasts from a patient with the skin cancer-prone disease, xeroderma pigmentosum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A shuttle vector plasmid, pZ189, was utilized to assess the types of mutations that cells from a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D, introduce into ultraviolet (UV) damaged, replicating DNA. Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum have clinical and cellular UV hypersensitivity, increased frequency of sun-induced skin cancer, and deficient DNA repair. In comparison to UV-treated pZ189 replicated in DNA repair-proficient cells, there were fewer surviving plasmids, a higher frequency of plasmids with mutations, fewer plasmids with two or more mutations in the marker gene, and a new mutagenic hotspot. The major type of base substitution mutation was the G:C to A:T transition with both cell lines. These results, together with similar findings published earlier with cells from a xeroderma pigmentosum patient in complementation group A, suggest that isolated G:C to A:T somatic mutations may be particularly important in generation of human skin cancer by UV radiation

267

DNA double-strand break induction and repair in irradiated lymphoblastoid, fibroblast cell lines and white blood cells from ATM, NBS and radiosensitive patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and Purpose: DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), fibroblasts and white blood cells from healthy donors, cancer patients with and without late effects of grade 3-4 (RTOG) as well as donors with known radiosensitivity syndromes were examined with the aim to detect dsb repair ability as a marker for radiosensitivity. Material and Methods: LCLs from six healthy donors, seven patients with a heterozygous or homozygous genotype for ataxiatelangiectasia (ATM) and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), two patients with a late toxicity of grade 3-4 (RTOG), and one cell line with a ligase IV-/- status and its parental cell line were examined. Furthermore, fibroblasts from patients with ATM, NBS, two healthy control individuals, and leukocytes from 16 healthy and 22 cancer patients including seven patients with clinical hypersensitivity grade 3 (RTOG) were examined. Cells were irradiated in vitro with 0-150 Gy. Initial damage as well as remaining damage after 8 and 24 h were measured using constant field gel electrophoresis. Results: In contrast to cells derived from patients homozygous for NBS, impaired dsb repair ability could be detected both in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cells from ATM and ligase IV-/- patients. The dsb repair ability of all 38 leukocyte cell lines (patients with grade 3-4 late effects and controls) was similar, whereas the initial damage among healthy donors was less. Con damage among healthy donors was less. Conclusion: Despite showing a clinically elevated radiosensitivity after irradiation, the DNA repair of the patients with clinical hypersensitivity grade 3 (RTOG) appeared to be normal. Other mechanisms such as mutations, altered cell cycle or defective apoptosis could play a critical role toward determining radiosensitivity. (orig.)

268

Cloning of a new fibroblast cell line from an early primary culture from mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) fry for efficient proliferation of megalocytiviruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Megalocytiviruses are important emerging pathogens in both freshwater and marine finfish aquaculture. However, a limited number of piscine cell lines are persistently susceptible to these viruses, which greatly limits the study of megalocytiviruses. In this study, a new fibroblast-like cell line was established from an early primary culture from mandarin fish fry by a single cell cloning and was designated as MFF-8C1. The MFF-8C1 cells grow well in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum and had been subcultured more than 60 passages since the initial recovery culture in October 2009. Chromosomal analysis revealed that 91 % of the MFF-8C1 cells maintained a normal diploid chromosome number (2n = 48) in the 46th passage. Infection experiments showed that both freshwater-borne and marine-borne megalocytiviruses induce severe cytopathic effects in infected MFF-8C1 cells characterized by the rounding and enlargement of cells, which are highly consistent with the previous description of the infection in other susceptible cells with megalocytivirus. Megalocytivirus infections were further confirmed by a transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the MFF-8C1-cultured megalocytiviral suspension was highly virulent to infected mandarin fish. In summary, a new fibroblast cell line from mandarin fish fry that was highly permissive to megalocytiviruses was established. The MFF-8C1 cell line is a promising cellular substrate candidate for cell-cultured vaccine production of megalocytivirus. PMID:24101440

Dong, Chuanfu; Shuang, Fan; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

2014-12-01

269

Down syndrome fibroblasts are hyperresponsive to beta-adrenergic stimulation.  

OpenAIRE

The hormonal response to human skin fibroblasts after exposure to beta-adrenergic agonists, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and cholera toxin was monitored by intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation. Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21) cells had an approximately 10-fold greater response to beta-adrenergic agonists than did either normal diploid skin fibroblasts or other aneusomic fibroblast strains (trisomy 13, 18, and 22). The altered response in DS fibroblasts was specific for beta-adrenergic agonists, b...

Mcswigan, J. D.; Hanson, D. R.; Lubiniecki, A.; Heston, L. L.; Sheppard, J. R.

1981-01-01

270

Nuclear and microtubule remodeling and in vitro development of nuclear transferred cat oocytes with skin fibroblasts of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

The leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis), a member of the felidae family, is a threatened animal in South Korea. In terms of protecting endangered felids, nuclear transfer (NT) is a potentially valuable technique for assuring the continuation of species with dwindling numbers. In the present experiment, nuclear and microtubule remodeling and the in vitro developmental potential of enucleated domestic cat oocytes reconstructed with nuclei of somatic cells from either domestic cat fibroblast (DCF) or leopard cat fibroblast (LCF) were evaluated. Microtubule aster is allocated to de-condensed chromatin following nuclear transfer (3h after activation) of fibroblast cells from both domestic and leopard cats, suggesting the introduction of a somatic cell centrosome. The transferred fibroblast nuclei formed a large, swollen, pronuclear-like structure in most reconstructed oocytes, in the cat or leopard cat. At 18h following nuclear transfer, mitosis occurred, and according to the photo (F) it appears that spindle microtubules and two asters were observed. The percentages of blastocyst formation from nuclear transfer embryos derived from domestic cat fibroblasts (4/46, 8.6%) were not significantly different than those for nuclear transfer embryos constructed with leopard cat fibroblasts (4/52, 7.6%). These results indicate that nuclear and microtubule remodeling processes and in vitro developmental ability are similar in reconstructed cat oocytes following transfer of nuclei from either domestic or leopard cats. PMID:16310987

Yin, X J; Lee, Y H; Jin, J Y; Kim, N H; Kong, I K

2006-10-01

271

PDZ domain-binding motif of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein augments the transforming activity in a rat fibroblast cell line  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-2 has not been reported to be associated with such malignant leukemias. HTLV-1 Tax1 oncoprotein transforms a rat fibroblast cell line (Rat-1) to form multiple large colonies in soft agar, and this activity is much greater than that of HTLV-2 Tax2. We have demonstrated here that the increased number of transformed colonies induced by Tax1 relative to Tax2 was mediated by a PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) in Tax1, which is absent in Tax2. Tax1 PBM mediated the interaction of Tax1 with the discs large (Dlg) tumor suppressor containing PDZ domains, and the interaction correlated well with the transforming activities of Tax1 and the mutants. Through this interaction, Tax1 altered the subcellular localization of Dlg from the detergent-soluble to the detergent-insoluble fraction in a fibroblast cell line as well as in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. These results suggest that the interaction of Tax1 with PDZ domain protein(s) is critically involved in the transforming activity of Tax1, the activity of which may be a crucial factor in malignant transformation of HTLV-1-infected cells in vivo

272

Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 2 (HTLV-2) Tax Protein Transforms a Rat Fibroblast Cell Line but Less Efficiently than HTLV-1 Tax  

OpenAIRE

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are retroviruses with similar biological properties. Whereas HTLV-1 is the causative agent of an aggressive T-cell leukemia, HTLV-2 has been associated with only a few cases of lymphoproliferative disorders. Tax1 and Tax2 are the transcriptional activators of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, respectively. Here we show that Tax2 transformed a Rat-1 fibroblast cell line to form colonies in soft agar, but the size and number of the colonies were lower tha...

Endo, Keiichi; Hirata, Akira; Iwai, Kousuke; Sakurai, Mamoru; Fukushi, Masaya; Oie, Masayasu; Higuchi, Masaya; Hall, William W.; Gejyo, Fumitake; Fujii, Masahiro

2002-01-01

273

Degradation of blood-group A glycolipids in cultures of human skin fibroblasts; an approach to investigation of some lysosomal enzyme defects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation of blood group A glycosphingolipid A-6-2 has been studied by loading experiments in cultured human skin from controls and from patients with inherited lysosomal enzymopathies (?-N-acetylgactosaminidase, ?-fucosidase, ?-glucocerebrosidase, GM1 ?-galactosidase, ceramidase, sap B and sap-precursor deficiencies). In the cell lines from the most unrelated enzymopathies, accumulation of the glycosphingolipids was found corresponding to the inherent enzyme defect. The technique of feeding of radiolabelled glycolipids to cells in culture and analysis of their metabolism was used to examine whether cells from patients with deficiency of ?-N-acetylgactosaminidase (?-NAGA deficiency, Schindler disease). Further we have extended our study with the same probe to other lysosomal enzymophatic cell lines. For this purpose we isolated glycosphingolipid A-6-2 (IV2-?-fucosyl-IV3-?-N-acetylgactosaminylnelactotetraosylceramide) from erythrocyte membrane and labelled it on the ceramide moiety with tritium. The results of this study clearly show that loading experiments in cell culture are a valuable tool to analyze general degradation pathways, assess the physiological significance and the substrate specificity in vivo of the enzymes involved and estimate their residual activities or that of alternative degradation pathways. (authors)

274

Randomized, multicenter, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial using topical recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor for deep partial-thickness burns and skin graft donor site.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wound healing is a dynamic and complex biologic process that could be accelerated by growth factors. To investigate the efficacy of topical recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (rh-aFGF) treatment in deep partial-thickness burn or skin graft donor sites, we designed a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. The healing rate, fully healed rate, and healing time were evaluated to assess the efficacy of rh-aFGF application. Laboratory examinations and abnormal signs were used to assess the side and toxic effects. The results showed that the healing rate of burn wounds and skin graft donor sites treated by rh-aFGF was significantly higher than that by placebo, and the mean healed time of burn wounds and skin graft donor sites in the rh-aFGF group was significantly the shorter than that in the placebo group. In conclusion, topical administration of rh-aFGF can accelerate the wound healing process and shorten the healed time. It is a potential therapeutic application for promoting healing of deep partial-thickness burns or skin graft donor sites. PMID:18028126

Ma, Bing; Cheng, Da-Sheng; Xia, Zhao-Fan; Ben, Dao-Feng; Lu, Wei; Cao, Zhi-Fang; Wang, Qiang; He, Jia; Chai, Jia-Ke; Shen, Chuan-An; Sun, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Guo-An; Hu, Xiao-Hua

2007-01-01

275

Effect of CTGF/CCN2 on osteo/cementoblastic and fibroblastic differentiation of a human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Appropriate mechanical loading during occlusion and mastication play an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a matricellular protein, is known to upregulate extracellular matrix production, including collagen in PDL tissue. However, the underlying mechanisms of CTGF/CCN2 in regulation of PDL tissue integrity remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of CTGF/CCN2 on osteo/cementoblastic and fibroblastic differentiation of human PDL stem cells using the cell line 1-11. CTGF/CCN2 expression in rat PDL tissue and human PDL cells (HPDLCs) was confirmed immunohisto/cytochemically. Mechanical loading was found to increase gene expression and secretion of CTGF/CCN2 in HPDLCs. CTGF/CCN2 upregulated the proliferation and migration of 1-11 cells. Furthermore, increased bone/cementum-related gene expression in this cell line led to mineralization. In addition, combined treatment of 1-11 cells with CTGF/CCN2 and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) significantly promoted type I collagen and fibronectin expression compared with that of TGF-?1 treatment alone. Thus, these data suggest the underlying biphasic effects of CTGF/CCN2 in 1-11 cells, inducible osteo/cementoblastic, and fibroblastic differentiation dependent on the environmental condition. CTGF/CCN2 may contribute to preservation of the structural integrity of PDL tissue, implying its potential use as a therapeutic agent for PDL regeneration. PMID:24905848

Yuda, Asuka; Maeda, Hidefumi; Fujii, Shinsuke; Monnouchi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Naohide; Wada, Naohisa; Koori, Katsuaki; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Hamano, Sayuri; Hasegawa, Daigaku; Akamine, Akifumi

2015-01-01

276

Melanoma invasion in reconstructed human skin is influenced by skin cells--investigation of the role of proteolytic enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma invasion is a complex multi stage process involving changes to the cell/extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell/cell interactions. We have previously shown using an in vitro model of reconstructed human skin (consisting of human dermis with a basement membrane [BM] and populated with human skin cells) that some melanoma cells (HBL cell line) invade more actively in the presence of adjacent normal skin cells. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the relationship between melanoma cells, skin cells and ECM proteins during melanoma cell invasion through reconstructed skin, extending this to a study of three melanoma cell lines. We also examined whether such cell/cell induced invasion is due to increased expression and activation of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, or due to increases in general protease activity for keratinocytes, fibroblasts or melanoma lines. Addition of skin cells dramatically altered the invasive behaviour of the three metastatic melanoma cell lines (HBL, C8161 and A375SM) used; they increased the invasive ability of HBLs which were unable to invade on their own; they potentiated the invasion of C8161 cells which were invasive in their own right, but reduced the invasion of A375-SM cells which were aggressive invaders in the absence of skin cells. Latent forms of MMP-2, and MMP-9, were clearly expressed by the normal skin cells whereas all three melanoma lines weakly expressed these proteases. Fibroblast and keratinocyte MMPs were activated specifically by culture on type I collagen and on dermis which retained an intact basement membrane. These findings demonstrate that while there is an active communication between melanoma cells and adjacent skin cells, the invasive process is dictated by the melanoma cells and not the skin cells. However, activation of skin cell derived MMPs may play an important role in facilitating invasion by particular melanoma phenotypes. PMID:14713103

Eves, Paula; Katerinaki, Efthymia; Simpson, Claire; Layton, Christopher; Dawson, Rebecca; Evans, Gareth; Mac Neil, Sheila

2003-01-01

277

First cloned swamp buffalo produced from adult ear fibroblast cell.  

Science.gov (United States)

The world's first cloned swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) derived from adult ear skin fibroblast has been reported. Donor fibroblast cells were produced from biopsies taken from adult male ear skin and in vitro matured oocytes obtained from a slaughterhouse were used as cytoplasts. A total of 39 blastocysts and 19 morulae fresh embryos were transferred into 12 recipient buffaloes. Progesterone assays indicated establishment of pregnancy in 10 of the 12 buffaloes (83.3%) after 45 days, with six animals still pregnant at 3 months. One recipient maintained pregnancy to term and naturally delivered a 40 kg male calf after 326 days of gestation. DNA analysis showed that the cloned calf was genetically identical to the donor cells. Genotype analyses, using 12 buffalo microsatellite markers, confirmed that the cloned calf was derived from the donor cell lines. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, the establishment of pregnancy and birth of the first cloned Thai swamp buffalo derived from adult ear skin fibroblast cells. PMID:24804579

Tasripoo, K; Suthikrai, W; Sophon, S; Jintana, R; Nualchuen, W; Usawang, S; Bintvihok, A; Techakumphu, M; Srisakwattana, K

2014-05-01

278

Insulin stimulates the biosynthesis of chiro-inositol-containing phospholipids in a rat fibroblast line expressing the human insulin receptor.  

OpenAIRE

HIRc-B cells (rat fibroblasts expressing the human insulin receptor) were incubated with myo-[3H]inositol for 48 hr, and the biosynthesis of chiro-[3H]inositol was investigated in the absence and presence of insulin following a time course up to 60 min. After phase separation, treatment with insulin for 15 min caused a 2.2-fold increase in the specific radioactivity of chiro-[3H]inositol-containing phospholipids in contrast to a 1.2-fold increase in the specific radioactivity of myo-[3H]inosi...

Pak, Y.; Paule, C. R.; Bao, Y. D.; Huang, L. C.; Larner, J.

1993-01-01

279

Increased susceptibility of spinal muscular atrophy fibroblasts to camptothecin is p53-independent  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Deletion or mutation(s of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1 gene causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. The SMN protein is known to play a role in RNA metabolism, neurite outgrowth, and cell survival. Yet, it remains unclear how SMN deficiency causes selective motor neuron death and muscle atrophy seen in SMA. Previously, we have shown that skin fibroblasts from SMA patients are more sensitive to the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, supporting a role for SMN in cell survival. Here, we examine the potential mechanism of camptothecin sensitivity in SMA fibroblasts. Results Camptothecin treatment reduced the DNA relaxation activity of DNA topoisomerase I in human fibroblasts. In contrast, kinase activity of DNA topoisomerase I was not affected by camptothecin, because levels of phosphorylated SR proteins were not decreased. Upon camptothecin treatment, levels of p53 were markedly increased. To determine if p53 plays a role in the increased sensitivity of SMA fibroblasts to camptothecin, we analyzed the sensitivity of SMA fibroblasts to another DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor, ?-lapachone. This compound is known to induce death via a p53-independent pathway in several cancer cell lines. We found that ?-lapachone did not induce p53 activation in human fibroblasts. In addition, SMA and control fibroblasts showed essentially identical sensitivity to this compound. By immunofluorescence staining, SMN and p53 co-localized in gems within the nucleus, and this co-localization was overall reduced in SMA fibroblasts. However, depletion of p53 by siRNA did not lessen the camptothecin sensitivity in SMA fibroblasts. Conclusion Even though p53 and SMN are associated, the increased sensitivity of SMA fibroblasts to camptothecin does not occur through a p53-dependent mechanism.

Funanage Vicky L

2009-05-01

280

Protective effect of enzymatic hydrolysates from highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blueberry was enzymatically hydrolyzed using selected commercial food grade carbohydrases (AMG, Celluclast, Termamyl, Ultraflo and Viscozyme) and proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Kojizyme, Neutrase and Protamex) to obtain water soluble compounds, and their protective effect was investigated against H(2)O(2)-induced damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79-4) via various published methods. Both AMG and Alcalase hydrolysates showed higher total phenolic content as well as higher cell viability and ROS scavenging activities, and hence, selected for further antioxidant assays. Both AMG and Alcalase hydrolysates also showed higher protective effects against lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptotic body formation in a dose-dependent fashion. Thus, the results indicated that water soluble compounds obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of blueberry possess good antioxidant activity against H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage in vitro. PMID:20607062

Senevirathne, Mahinda; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Jeon, You-Jin

2010-06-01

281

AURKA upregulation plays a role in fibroblast-reduced gefitinib sensitivity in the NSCLC cell line HCC827.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have been used to treat non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients that have EGFR-activating mutations. EGFR-TKI monotherapy in most NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations who initially respond to EGFR-TKIs results in the development of acquired resistance. We investigated the role of fibroblasts in stromal cell-mediated resistance to gefitinib-induced apoptosis in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. While gefitinib induced apoptosis in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells, apoptosis induction was diminished under stromal co-culture conditions. Protection appeared to be mediated in part by Aurora-A kinase (AURKA) upregulation. The protective effect of stromal cells was significantly reduced by pre-exposure to AURKA-shRNA. We suggest that combinations of AURKA antagonists and EGFR inhibitors may be effective in clinical trials targeting mutant EGFR NSCLCs. PMID:25634113

Chen, Jia; Lu, Huiqi; Zhou, Wang; Yin, Huabin; Zhu, Lishuang; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Pengfei; Hu, Huimin; Yang, Yili; Han, Huanxing

2015-04-01

282

Differential fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8)-mediated autoregulation of its cognate receptors, Fgfr1 and Fgfr3, in neuronal cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) mediate a vast range of CNS developmental processes including neural induction, proliferation, migration, and cell survival. Despite the critical role of FGF signaling for normal CNS development, few reports describe the mechanisms that regulate FGF receptor gene expression in the brain. We tested whether FGF8 could autoregulate two of its cognate receptors, Fgfr1 and Fgfr3, in three murine cell lines with different lineages: fibroblast-derived cells (3T3 cells), neuronal cells derived from hippocampus (HT-22 cells), and neuroendocrine cells derived from hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons (GT1-7 cells). GnRH is produced by neurons in the hypothalamus and is absolutely required for reproductive competence in vertebrate animals. Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that Fgf8 is critical for normal development of the GnRH system, therefore, the GT1-7 cells provided us with an additional endpoint, Gnrh gene expression and promoter activity, to assess potential downstream consequences of FGF8-induced modulation of FGF receptor levels. Results from this study suggest that the autoregulation of its cognate receptor represents a common downstream effect of FGF8. Further, we show that Fgfr1 and Fgfr3 are differentially regulated within the same cell type, implicating these two receptors in different biological roles. Moreover, Fgfr1 and Fgfr3 are differentially regulated among different cell types, suggesting such autoregulation occurs in a cell type-specific fashion. Lastly, we demonstrate that FGF8b decreases Gnrh promoter activity and gene expression, possibly reflecting a downstream consequence of altered FGF receptor populations. Together, our data bring forth the possibility that, in addition to the FGF synexpression group, autoregulation of FGFR expression by FGF8 represents a mechanism by which FGF8 could fine-tune its regulatory actions. PMID:20405041

Mott, Natasha N; Chung, Wilson C J; Tsai, Pei-San; Pak, Toni R

2010-01-01

283

Cultured human skin fibroblasts modify their plasma membrane lipid composition and fluidity according to growth temperature suggesting homeoviscous adaptation at hypothermic (30 degrees C) but not at hyperthermic (40 degrees C) temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammalian cell metabolism is responding to changes in temperature. Body temperature is regulated around 37 degrees C, but temperatures of exposed skin areas may vary between 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C for extended periods of time without apparent disturbance of adequate cellular functions. Cellular membrane functions are depending from temperatures but also from their lipid environment, which is a major component of membrane fluidity. Temperature-induced changes of membrane fluidity may be counterbalanced by adaptive modification of membrane lipids. Temperature-dependent changes of whole cell- and of purified membrane lipids and possible homeoviscous adaptation of membrane fluidity have been studied in human skin fibroblasts cultured at 30 degrees C, 37 degrees C, and 40 degrees C for ten days. Membrane anisotropy was measured by polarized fluorescence spectroscopy using TMA-DPH for superficial and DPH for deeper membrane layers. Human fibroblasts were able to adapt themselves to hypothermic temperatures (30 degrees C) by modifying the fluidity of the deeper apolar regions of the plasma membranes as reported by changes of fluorescence anisotropy due to appropriate changes of their plasma membrane lipid composition. This could not be shown for the whole cells. At 40 degrees C growth temperature, adaptive changes of the membrane lipid composition, except for some changes in fatty acid compositions, were not seen. Independent from the changes of the membrane lipid composition, the fluorescence anisotropy of the more superficial membrane layers (TMA-DPH) increased in cells growing at 30 degrees C and decreased in cells growing at 40 degrees C. PMID:1550851

Sojcic, Z; Toplak, H; Zuehlke, R; Honegger, U E; Bühlmann, R; Wiesmann, U N

1992-02-17

284

Construção de substituto da pele composto por matriz de colágeno porcino povoada por fibroblastos dérmicos e queratinócitos humanos: avaliação histológica / Construction of a skin substitute composed of porcine collagen matrix populated with human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes: histological evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O uso de enxertos autólogos é limitado pela extensão da área doadora e pelo estado clínico dos pacientes, no caso de lesões extensas. Alotransplantes coletados de cadáveres ou voluntários são rejeitados após uma ou duas semanas, servindo apenas como cobertura temporária para essas lesões [...] . O tratamento de grandes lesões cutâneas com tegumento autólogo reconstruído constitui alternativa atraente, já que, a partir de um pequeno fragmento de pele do paciente, pode-se obter culturas de células que se multiplicam rapidamente e podem ser criopreservadas, permitindo, assim, sua utilização em novos tratamentos por tempo indeterminado. Este estudo pretendeu avaliar o comportamento histológico de queratinócitos e fibroblastos humanos cultivados sobre uma matriz de colágeno porcino derivada da submucosa intestinal. MÉTODO: Células da epiderme e derme humana foram cultivadas separadamente e semeadas sobre matriz de colágeno porcino, onde permaneceram em ambiente controlado por 21 dias, antes de serem submetidas a análise histológica. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que os fibroblastos invadem e colonizam a matriz de colágeno, enquanto os queratinócitos se organizam de forma laminar e estratificada sobre a superfície em que foram semeados. CONCLUSÕES: A utilização da matriz de colágeno porcino como carreador de células da pele humana é possível e a organização dessas células se assemelha à arquitetura da pele humana. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: In the case of extensive lesions, the use of autologous grafts is limited by the extent of the donor area and the clinical condition of patients. Allografts collected from cadavers or volunteers are usually rejected after 1 to 2 weeks, thus serving only as temporary cover for these lesio [...] ns. Treating major cutaneous lesions with reconstructed autologous skin is an attractive alternative, because it is possible to obtain cultures of cells that multiply rapidly and can be cryopreserved from a small fragment of the patient's skin, thereby facilitating its indefinite use in new treatments. This study evaluated the histological behavior of cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts on a collagen matrix derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa. METHODS: Cells from human epidermis and dermis were grown separately and seeded on porcine collagen matrix, which was maintained in a controlled environment for 21 days before being subjected to histological analysis. RESULTS: Fibroblasts invaded and colonized the collagen matrix, whereas keratinocytes were organized in laminated and stratified layers on the surface on which they were seeded. CONCLUSIONS: The use of porcine collagen matrix as a support for human skin cells is feasible, and the organization of these cells resembles the architecture of human skin.

Cesar, Isaac; Francinni M. P., Rego; Pedro Ribeiro Soares de, Ladeir; Silvana C., Altram; Renata C. de, Oliveira; Johnny L. C. B., Aldunate; André O., Paggiaro; Marcus Castro, Ferreira.

2012-12-01

285

Construção de substituto da pele composto por matriz de colágeno porcino povoada por fibroblastos dérmicos e queratinócitos humanos: avaliação histológica Construction of a skin substitute composed of porcine collagen matrix populated with human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes: histological evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O uso de enxertos autólogos é limitado pela extensão da área doadora e pelo estado clínico dos pacientes, no caso de lesões extensas. Alotransplantes coletados de cadáveres ou voluntários são rejeitados após uma ou duas semanas, servindo apenas como cobertura temporária para essas lesões. O tratamento de grandes lesões cutâneas com tegumento autólogo reconstruído constitui alternativa atraente, já que, a partir de um pequeno fragmento de pele do paciente, pode-se obter culturas de células que se multiplicam rapidamente e podem ser criopreservadas, permitindo, assim, sua utilização em novos tratamentos por tempo indeterminado. Este estudo pretendeu avaliar o comportamento histológico de queratinócitos e fibroblastos humanos cultivados sobre uma matriz de colágeno porcino derivada da submucosa intestinal. MÉTODO: Células da epiderme e derme humana foram cultivadas separadamente e semeadas sobre matriz de colágeno porcino, onde permaneceram em ambiente controlado por 21 dias, antes de serem submetidas a análise histológica. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que os fibroblastos invadem e colonizam a matriz de colágeno, enquanto os queratinócitos se organizam de forma laminar e estratificada sobre a superfície em que foram semeados. CONCLUSÕES: A utilização da matriz de colágeno porcino como carreador de células da pele humana é possível e a organização dessas células se assemelha à arquitetura da pele humana.BACKGROUND: In the case of extensive lesions, the use of autologous grafts is limited by the extent of the donor area and the clinical condition of patients. Allografts collected from cadavers or volunteers are usually rejected after 1 to 2 weeks, thus serving only as temporary cover for these lesions. Treating major cutaneous lesions with reconstructed autologous skin is an attractive alternative, because it is possible to obtain cultures of cells that multiply rapidly and can be cryopreserved from a small fragment of the patient's skin, thereby facilitating its indefinite use in new treatments. This study evaluated the histological behavior of cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts on a collagen matrix derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa. METHODS: Cells from human epidermis and dermis were grown separately and seeded on porcine collagen matrix, which was maintained in a controlled environment for 21 days before being subjected to histological analysis. RESULTS: Fibroblasts invaded and colonized the collagen matrix, whereas keratinocytes were organized in laminated and stratified layers on the surface on which they were seeded. CONCLUSIONS: The use of porcine collagen matrix as a support for human skin cells is feasible, and the organization of these cells resembles the architecture of human skin.

Cesar Isaac

2012-12-01

286

Modulation of radio-induced oxidative damage by the combination of pentoxifylline and ?-tocopherol in skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clinical or accidental localized ionizing radiation exposure can induce severe skin damage constituting the cutaneous radiological syndrome which is divided in acute and late phases. The combination of pentoxifylline (PTX), antioxidant phytochemical, and ?-tocopherol, antioxidant nutrient shows effectiveness in reducing the late radio-induced skin damage with a long period. This work aims to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the effects of this combination

287

Organotypic cocultures as skin equivalents: A complex and sophisticated in vitro system  

OpenAIRE

To assess the role of genes required for skin organogenesis, tissue regeneration and homeostasis, we have established in vitro skin equivalents composed of primary cells or cell lines, respectively. In these organotypic cocultures keratinocytes generate a normal epidermis irrespective of the species and tissue origin of fibroblasts. The combination of cells derived from mouse and human tissues facilitates the identification of the origin of compounds involved in epidermal tissue reconstitutio...

Stark Hans-Jürgen; Szabowski Axel; Fusenig Norbert E.; Maas-Szabowski Nicole

2004-01-01

288

Organotypic cocultures as skin equivalents: A complex and sophisticated in vitro system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To assess the role of genes required for skin organogenesis, tissue regeneration and homeostasis, we have established in vitro skin equivalents composed of primary cells or cell lines, respectively. In these organotypic cocultures keratinocytes generate a normal epidermis irrespective of the species and tissue origin of fibroblasts. The combination of cells derived from mouse and human tissues facilitates the identification of the origin of compounds involved in epidermal tissue reconstitution and thus the precise analysis of growth regulatory mechanisms.

Stark Hans-Jürgen

2004-01-01

289

Performance of full-pupil line-scanning reflectance confocal microscopy in human skin and oral mucosa in vivo  

OpenAIRE

Point-scanning reflectance confocal microscopes continue to be successfully translated for detection of skin cancer. Line-scanning, with the use of a single scanner and a linear-array detector, offers a potentially smaller, simpler and lower cost alternative approach, to accelerate widespread dissemination into the clinic. However, translation will require an understanding of imaging performance deep within scattering and aberrating human tissues. We report the results of an investigation of ...

Larson, Bjorg; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

2011-01-01

290

Cytotoxic Evaluation of Elastomeric Dental Impression Materials on a Permanent Mouse Cell Line and on a Primary Human Gingival Fibroblast Culture  

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Full Text Available The need for clinically relevant in vitro tests of dental materials is widely recognized. Nearly all dental impression materials are introduced into the mouth just after mixing and allowed to set in contact with the oral tissues. Under these conditions, the materials may be toxic to cells or may sensitize the tissues. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential cytotoxicity of new preparations of elastomeric dental impression materials: A four vinylpolysiloxanes: Elite H-D Putty and Elite H-D Light Body (Zhermack, Badia Polesine, Rovigo, Italy; Express Putty and Express Light Body (3M ESPE AG Seefeld, Germany and B two polyethers: Impregum Penta and Permadyne Penta L (3M ESPE AG Seefeld, Germany. The cytotoxicity of these impression materials were examined using two different cell lines: Balb/c 3T3 (permanent cell line and human gingival fibroblasts (primary cell line and their effects were studied by indirect and direct tests. The direct tests are performed by placing one sample of the impression materials in the centre of the Petri dishes at the time of the seeding of cells. The cell growth was evaluated at the 12th and 24th hours by cell number. The indirect tests were performed by incubating a square of 1 cm diameter impression material in 5 mL of medium at 37 °C for 24 hours (“eluates”. Subconfluent cultures are incubated with “eluates” for 24 hours. The MTT-formazan production is the method used for measuring the cell viability. The results indicate that: a polyether materials are cytotoxic under both experimental conditions; b among vinylpolysiloxanes, only Express Light Body (3M ESPE AG Seefeld, Germany induces clear inhibition of cellular viability of Balb/c 3T3 evaluated by direct and indirect tests and c the primary cell line is less sensitive to the toxic effect than the permanent cell line.

Roberta Tiozzo

2009-08-01

291

Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of carcinogenic aromatic amides and polycyclic hydrocarbons and ultraviolet irradiation in normally repairing and repair-deficient (xeroderma pigmentosum) diploid human skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cloning ability of fibroblasts taken from a xeroderma pigmentosum patient proved 2.5 to 3.5 times more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of active derivatives of carcinogens or to uv irradiation than that of normal cells. They also exhibited a corresponding 2.5- to 3.5-fold greater increase in the frequency of induced mutations to 8-azaguanine resistance per survivor, which might have been expected since these XP cells exhibit less than 20 percent of the DNA-repairing capacity of the normal cells following exposure to such DNA-damaging agents

292

Use of EPR and FTIR to detect biological effects of ultrasound and microbubbles on a fibroblast cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural and functional effects of exposing murine fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) to therapeutic ultrasound at 1 MHz frequency are described. These bioeffects can be attributed to the formation of free radical species by sonolysis of water. When cavitation occurs, dissociation of water vapor into H atoms and OH radicals is observed; these H atoms and OH radicals combine to form H(2), H(2)O(2), and HO(2). The radicals can chemically modify biomolecules, for example enzymes, DNA, and lipids. Generation of free radicals during exposure to ultrasound with or without encapsulated microbubbles (contrast agents) was studied by use of electron paramagnetic resonance with DMPO spin trapping. Recently the potential for possible use of these microbubbles in gene therapy has been investigated, because of the ability of the stabilized microbubbles to release their content when exposed to ultrasound. Structural changes were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and induction of possible genotoxic damage by exposure of the cells to therapeutic ultrasound at 1 MHz frequency with our experimental device was verified by use of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. PMID:21866359

Pozzi, D; Fattibene, P; Viscomi, D; Di Giambattista, L; Grimaldi, P; Udroiu, I; Bedini, A; Giliberti, C; Palomba, R; Congiu Castellano, A

2011-10-01

293

An integrative framework of the skin receptors activation: mechanoreceptors activity patterns versus "labeled lines".  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents a review of electrophysiological data which indicate the integrative mechanisms of information coded in the human and animal peripheral skin receptors. The activity of the skin sensory receptors was examined by applying various natural stimuli. It was revealed that numerous identical receptors respond to various stimuli (mechanical, temperature, and pain ones), but the spike patterns of these receptors were found to be specific for each stimulus. The description of characteristic structures of spike patterns in the cutaneous nerve fibers in response to five major modalities, namely: "touch", "pain", "vibration/breath", "cold", and "heat", is being presented. The recordings of the cutaneous physical state revealed a correlation between the patterns of spatiotemporal skin deformation and the receptors activity. A rheological state of the skin can be changed either in response to external temperature variation or by the sympathetic pilomotor activation. These results indicate that the skin sensory receptors activity may be considered as an integrative process. It depends not only on the receptors themselves, but also on the changes in the surrounding tissue and on the adaptive influence of the central nervous system. A new framework for the sensory channel system related to the skin is proposed on the basis of experimental results. PMID:23621456

Zeveke, Alexander V; Efes, Ekaterina D; Polevaya, Sofia A

2013-03-01

294

Evaluation of the effect of laser radiation on fibroblast proliferation in repair of skin wounds of rats with iron deficiency anemia  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) on fibroblast proliferation on wound repair of rats with Iron deficiency anemia since there is no reports on literature about this subject. Iron deficiency anemia was induced on 36 newborn rats then an excisional wound was created on the dorsum of the animals which were divided into four groups: (I) - non-anemic, (II) - Anemic, (III) - non-anemic + LLLT, (IV) Anemic+ LLLT. The animals in each group were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 days. Laser irradiation was performed on each group (?660nm,40Mw,CW) by contact mode with a dose of 2,5J/ cm2 in four points on the area of the wound and total of 10J/cm2 per session. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Paired t-test. The results showed LLLT was able to stimulate fibroblastic proliferation in rats with iron deficiency anemia at the 21st day while at control group (III) no statistically significant differences was found.

DeCastro, Isabele C. V.; Oliveira-Sampaio, Susana C. P.; Monteiro, Juliana S. de C.; Ferreira, Maria de Fátima L.; Cangussu, Maria T.; N. dos Santos, Jean; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.

2011-03-01

295

Studies of pigment transfer between Xenopus laevis melanophores and fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frog melanophores rapidly change colour by dispersion or aggregation of melanosomes. A long-term colour change exists where melanosomes are released from melanophores and transferred to surrounding skin cells. No in vitro model for pigment transfer exists for lower vertebrates. Frog melanophores of different morphology exist both in epidermis where keratinocytes are present and in dermis where fibroblasts dominate. We have examined whether release and transfer of melanosomes can be studied in a melanophore-fibroblast co-culture, as no frog keratinocyte cell line exists. Xenopus laevis melanophores are normally cultured in conditioned medium from fibroblasts and fibroblast-derived factors may be important for melanophore morphology. Melanin was exocytosed as membrane-enclosed melanosomes in a process that was upregulated by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), and melanosomes where taken up by fibroblasts. Melanosome membrane-proteins seemed to be of importance, as the cluster-like uptake pattern of pigment granules was distinct from that of latex beads. In vivo results confirmed the ability of dermal fibroblasts to engulf melanosomes. Our results show that cultured frog melanophores can not only be used for studies of rapid colour change, but also as a model system for long-term colour changes and for studies of factors that affect pigmentation. PMID:16524429

Aspengren, Sara; Hedberg, Daniel; Wallin, Margareta

2006-04-01

296

Differential spontaneous transformation in vitro of newly established mouse fibroblast lines carrying or lacking the viable yellow mutation (Avy) of the mouse agouti locus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pleiotropic effects of the viable yellow mutation (Avy), an allele of the mouse agouti coat-color locus, include increased susceptibility to spontaneous and chemically induced tumors that affect a wide variety of tissues. As a first step toward understanding the molecular basis of this phenomenon, we established permanent fibroblast-like cell lines from newborn Avy/a and control congenic a/a mice and compared their growth characteristics in vitro. From the VY/WffC3Hf/Nctr and YS/WffCH3f/Nctr-Avy inbre strains, each of which carries the Avy allele on a congenic background, 38 clonal Avy/a and 16 clonal a/a lines were established. Regardless of inbred strain, all Avy/a cell lines exhibited a significant degree of spontaneous transformation, as assessed by focus formation in monolayer culture, whereas none of the a/a cell lines formed foci in prolonged cultures. To test whether changes in dosage of the Avy- or a-bearing chromosomes were related to these events, we analyzed each cell line with a closely linked molecular probe from the Emv-15 locus, which in the VY strain detects a restriction fragment length variant (RFLV) informative for the Avy- and a-bearing chromosomes. Most of the transformed foci maintained heterozygosity for RFLVs detected by the probe, but two of the transformants lost the a-associated RFLV, and at least one of the transformants exhibited amplification of the Avy-associated RFLV. When the transformants were analyzed with 5' sequences derived from the recently cloned agouti gene, three of eight transformants lost the a-associated RFLV, and two of the transformants showed amplification of the Avy-associated RFLV. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays indicated that agouti RNA was detected in Avy/a, not a/a cell lines. Surprisingly, some of the Avy/a transformants lacked agouti RNA. These results suggest that deregulated expression of the Avy allele is required for the initiation but not for the maintenance of transformation of the Avy/a cell cultures. These cell lines may provide an in vitro culture system for studying the effect of the agouti gene on tumorigenicity as well as to potentially study other pleiotropic phenotypes. PMID:8561869

Hsiao, W L; Wolff, G L; North, B M; Ollmann, M M; Barsh, G S; Fan, H

1996-01-01

297

In Vitro and In Vivo Germ Line Potential of Stem Cells Derived from Newborn Mouse Skin  

OpenAIRE

We previously reported that fetal porcine skin-derived stem cells were capable of differentiation into oocyte-like cells (OLCs). Here we report that newborn mice skin-derived stem cells are also capable of differentiating into early OLCs. Using stem cells from mice that are transgenic for Oct4 germline distal enhancer-GFP, germ cells resulting from their differentiation are expected to be GFP+. After differentiation, some GFP+ OLCs reached 40–45 µM and expressed oocyte markers. Flow cytome...

Dyce, Paul W.; Liu, Jinghe; Tayade, Chandrakant; Kidder, Gerald M.; Betts, Dean H.; Li, Julang

2011-01-01

298

Somatic copy-number mosaicism in human skin revealed by induced pluripotent stem cells  

OpenAIRE

Reprogramming human somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been suspected of causing de novo copy number variations (CNVs)1-4. To explore this issue, we performed a whole-genome and transcriptome analysis of 20 human iPSC lines derived from primary skin fibroblasts of 7 individuals using next-generation sequencing. We find that, on average, an iPSC line manifests two CNVs not apparent in the fibroblasts from which the iPSC was derived. Using qPCR, PCR, and digital dropl...

Abyzov, Alexej; Mariani, Jessica; Palejev, Dean; Zhang, Ying; Haney, Michael Seamus; Tomasini, Livia; Ferrandino, Anthony; Belmaker, Lior A. Rosenberg; Szekely, Anna; Wilson, Michael; Kocabas, Arif; Calixto, Nathaniel E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Huttner, Anita; Chawarska, Katarzyna

2012-01-01

299

Collagen Fragments Inhibit Hyaluronan Synthesis in Skin Fibroblasts in Response to Ultraviolet B (UVB): NEW INSIGHTS INTO MECHANISMS OF MATRIX REMODELING*  

OpenAIRE

UVB irradiation causes characteristic features of skin aging including remodeling of the dermal extracellular matrix. A key feature during this process is the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and cleavage of collagen. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a major component of the dermal matrix, decreases after chronic UVB exposure. However, the factors that govern the decline of HA synthesis during the course of actinic aging are largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore whether ...

Ro?ck, Katharina; Grandoch, Maria; Majora, Marc; Krutmann, Jean; Fischer, Jens W.

2011-01-01

300

Comparison of divided and full pupil configurations for line-scanning confocal microscopy in human skin and oral mucosa  

Science.gov (United States)

Confocal point-scanning microscopy has been showing promise in the detection, diagnosing and mapping of skin lesions in clinical settings. The noninvasive technique allows provides optical sectioning and cellular resolution for in vivo diagnosis of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma and pre-operative and intra-operative mapping of margins. The imaging has also enabled more accurate "guided" biopsies while minimizing the otherwise large number of "blind" biopsies. Despite these translational advances, however, point-scanning technology remains relatively complex and expensive. Line-scanning technology may offer an alternative approach to accelerate translation to the clinic. Line-scanning, using fewer optical components, inexpensive linear-array detectors and custom electronics, may enable smaller, simpler and lower-cost confocal microscopes. A line is formed using a cylindrical lens and scanned through the back focal plane of the objective with a galvanometric scanner. A linear CCD is used for detection. Two pupil configurations were compared for performance in imaging human tissue. In the full-pupil configuration, illumination and detection is made through the full objective pupil. In the divided pupil approach, half the pupil is illuminated and the other half is used for detection. The divided pupil configuration loses spatial and axial resolution due to a diminished NA, but the sectioning capability and rejection of background is improved. Imaging in skin and oral mucosa illustrate the performance of the two configurations.

Larson, Bjorg; Abeytunge, Sanjeewa; Glazowski, Chris; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

2012-02-01

301

Neuronal Differentiation of a Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Line (FS-1) Derived from Newborn Foreskin Fibroblasts  

OpenAIRE

Isolation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fully differentiated somatic cells has revolutionized existing concepts of cell differentiation and stem cells. Importantly, iPSCs generated from somatic cells of patients can be used to model different types of human diseases. They may also serve as autologous cell sources that can be used in transplantation therapy. In this study, we investigated the neuronal properties of an iPSC line that is derived from human neonatal foreskin fibr...

Kwon, Jihye; Lee, Nayeon; Jeon, Iksoo; Lee, Hey Jin; Do, Jeong Tae; Lee, Dong Ryul; Oh, Seung-hun; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Aeri; Song, Jihwan

2012-01-01

302

A fibroblast cell line defective in alkyl-dihydroxyacetone phosphate synthase: A novel defect in plasmalogen?biosynthesis  

OpenAIRE

Using fluorescence-activated cytotoxicity selection, followed by colony autoradiographic screening of the surviving population, we have isolated a unique plasmalogen-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. The mutant, NZel-1, showed a dramatic (90%) reduction in the rate of biosynthesis and levels of plasmalogens, as determined using short- and long-term labeling with 32Pi. Enzymatic assays and lipid supplementation studies showed that NZel-1 was defective in a single step in the bio...

Nagan, Narasimhan; Hajra, Amiya K.; Das, Arun K.; Moser, Hugo W.; Moser, Ann; Lazarow, Paul; Purdue, P. Edward; Zoeller, Raphael A.

1997-01-01

303

Studies of molecular species of the human androgen receptor (AR): comparison of the physicochemical properties of the [3H]methyltrienolone-AR complex formed in cytosol to the complex produced in intact genital skin fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two forms of the human genital skin fibroblast (GSF) androgen receptor (AR) complexed with [3H]17 alpha-methyltrienolone were compared: 1) the intact complex formed in cytosol at 4 C (broken cell or B/C complex); and 2) the complex formed in the whole cell at 37 C (W/C complex). The intact form of the B/C complex was distinguished from partly degraded forms by the gel filtration profile in 0.5 M KCl. The W/C complex was considered to represent the transformed state of the receptor. The W/C complex had a smaller molecular radius than the B/C complex by gel filtration (Kav = 0.26-0.28 vs. 0.11-0.18). By low salt density gradient centrifugation, the B/C complex sedimented at 8.8S and the W/C complex at 6.6S. However, in 0.5 M KCl, each sedimented at 5.1S, and they were homogeneous, indicating that the monomeric forms differed markedly in molecular radius, but by only about 20,000 daltons in calculated mol wt (134,500 vs. 114,300 daltons). The complexes were separated from DNA, desalted, and compared by chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and hydroxylapatite (HAP). The B/C complex bound readily to both column matrices and eluted from each as a sharp homogeneous peak: from DEAE at 172-190 mM KCl and from HAP at 123 mM phosphate. The W/C complex, however, was heterogeneous. One component did not bind to DEAE, and one eluted at 22-40 mM KCl. The W/C complex eluted from HAP as a peak at 42 mM, with a shoulder at 102 mM phosphate. Thus, transformation of the human genital skin fibroblast androgen receptor involves a major decrease in molecular radius and loss of negative charge with a possible loss of a 20,000-dalton macromolecular component

304

Fibroblast cultures in duchenne muscular dystrophy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary skin fibroblast cultures were grown from forearm pinch skin biopsies obtained from 24 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and ten normal controls matched for sex and age. The first subcultures were grown for 7 days and incubated with L-(3H)-proline for 24 hours. Intracellular collagen incoption was significantly decreased (2.2 X) and extracellular collagen incorporation significantly increased (1.8 X) in fibroblast cultures from patients with DMD by both collagenase assay and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The synthesis of noncollagen proteins showed low values from the DMD fibroblast cultures. The alterations in synthesis and secretion of collagen and noncollagen proteins were characteristic only for the log phase of DMD fibroblasts. (author)

305

THE REDOX STATUS OF CYSTINOTIC FIBROBLASTS  

OpenAIRE

A key unresolved question in the pathogenesis of phenotype development in nephropathic cystinosis is whether intralysosomal cystine, the hallmark of this lethal inborn error of metabolism, alters cytoplasmic redox potential. Variable findings on this issue have been reported. This study of fetal and non-fetal skin and lung-derived cystinotic fibroblasts compared to origin and age-matched normal control fibroblasts reveals that cystinotic cells do not exhibit redox perturbations. We find that ...

Vitvitsky, Victor; Witcher, Marc; Banerjee, Ruma; Thoene, Jess

2009-01-01

306

Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in wound healing  

OpenAIRE

Ian A Darby,1 Betty Laverdet,2 Frédéric Bonté3, Alexis Desmoulière2 1School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Physiology and EA 6309, FR 3503, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Limoges, Limoges, France; 3LVMH Recherche, Saint Jean de Braye, France Abstract: (Myo)fibroblasts are key players for maintaining skin homeostasis and for orchestrating physiological tissue repair. (Myo)fibroblasts are embed...

Ia, Darby; Laverdet B; Bonté F; Desmoulière A

2014-01-01

307

Differential susceptibilities of human lung, breast and skin cancer cell lines to killing by five sea anemone venoms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although sea anemones are well known for being rich sources of toxins, including cytolysins and neurotoxins, their venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. In the present study, the venoms from five sea anemones (Heteractis crispa, Heteractis magnifica, Heteractis malu, Cryptodendrum adhaesivum and Entacmaea quadricolor were obtained by the milking technique, and the potential of these venoms to kill cancer cells was tested on three cell lines (A549 lung cancer, T47D breast cancer and A431 skin cancer. The total protein level in the crude extract was determined by the bicinchoninic acid (BCA protein assay. The cytotoxicity on different cell lines was assayed using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay which measures survival based on the detection of mitochondrial activity and by the crystal violet assay, which measures survival based on the ability of cells to remain adherent to microplates. The results indicate that the sea anemone venom is cytotoxic to human cancer cells. The A549 cell line was the most sensitive of the cell lines tested with a significant reduction in viability observed at 40 µg/mL. H. malu, C. adhaesivum and E. quadricolor had a significant inhibitory effect on A431 cells. Furthermore, H. malu and C. adhaesivum had a significant inhibitory effect on T47D cell line at 40 µg/mL. In conclusion, the sea anemone venoms tested have the potential to be developed as anticancer agents.

M Ramezanpour

2012-01-01

308

Calcium role in base-line and ADH-stimulated sodium transport in frog skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment of ventral frog skin with serosal A23187 calcium ionophore caused an initially transient increase in transepithelial sodium transport. After 60 min of treatment with A23187, a steady-state transport value was reached which was significantly lower than the initial one. Furthermore, it was found that ionophore treatment greatly inhibited the natriferic response to ADH and to 8br-cAMP. A further analysis on the possible ionophore action mechanism was carried out through pretreatment of the skin with indomethacin, very powerful prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. In the experimental conditions reported, A23187 seems no longer capable of inducing a transient increase in sodium transport, although it does inhibit the natriferic response to ADH. PMID:2858310

Casavola, V; Svelto, M

1985-01-01

309

An exploratory clinical study on the safety and efficacy of an autologous fibroblast-seeded artificial skin cultured with animal product-free medium in patients with diabetic foot ulcers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultured dermal substitutes have been used for the treatment of chronic skin ulcers; however, the biological risks of animal-derived materials in the culture process such as foetal bovine serum (FBS) have been reported. In this study, we prepared an autologous fibroblast-seeded artificial dermis (AFD) using animal-product-free medium supplemented with 2% patient autologous serum and without any animal-derived materials such as trypsin in the culturing process. We applied the AFD in five patients with diabetic ulcers and investigated its safety and efficacy. As the primary endpoint, we defined 'wound bed improvement' according to the percentage of granulation area to the whole wound area on day 21, and 60% or higher was regarded as improved. The mean age of the patients was 60·6 years and the mean duration of the ulcer was 22·6 months. In the evaluation of the primary endpoint, the 'wound bed' was improved in all patients [proportion of improvement: 100%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 48% to 100%]. Three patients had complete wound healing within 12 weeks after application and two patients had >80% wound healing at 12 weeks. Side effects were not serious. Our AFD may be a safe and effective treatment of diabetic ulcers. PMID:22958543

Morimoto, Naoki; Ito, Tatsuya; Takemoto, Satoru; Katakami, Mikiko; Kanda, Norikazu; Tada, Harue; Tanaka, Shiro; Teramukai, Satoshi; Kawai, Katsuya; Nakamura, Yoko; Kasai, Yasunari; Masayuki, Yokode; Maekawa, Taira; Shimizu, Akira; Suzuki, Shigehiko

2014-04-01

310

Fabrication and surface modification of macroporous poly(L-lactic acid) and poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (70/30) cell scaffolds for human skin fibroblast cell culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fabrication and surface modification of a porous cell scaffold are very important in tissue engineering. Of most concern are high-density cell seeding, nutrient and oxygen supply, and cell affinity. In the present study, poly(L-lactic acid) and poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (70/30) cell scaffolds with different pore structures were fabricated. An improved method based on Archimedes' Principle for measuring the porosity of scaffolds, using a density bottle, was developed. Anhydrous ammonia plasma treatment was used to modify surface properties to improve the cell affinity of the scaffolds. The results show that hydrophilicity and surface energy were improved. The polar N-containing groups and positive charged groups also were incorporated into the sample surface. A low-temperature treatment was used to maintain the plasma-modified surface properties effectively. It would do help to the further application of plasma treatment technique. Cell culture results showed that pores smaller than 160 microm are suitable for human skin fibroblast cell growth. Cell seeding efficiency was maintained at above 99%, which is better than the efficiency achieved with the common method of prewetting by ethanol. The plasma-treatment method also helped to resolve the problem of cell loss during cell seeding, and the negative effects of the ethanol trace on cell culture were avoided. The results suggest that anhydrous ammonia plasma treatment enhances the cell affinity of porous scaffolds. Mass transport issues also have been considered. PMID:12209930

Yang, Jian; Shi, Guixin; Bei, Jianzhong; Wang, Shenguo; Cao, Yilin; Shang, Qingxin; Yang, Guanghui; Wang, Wenjing

2002-12-01

311

Use of metabolic inhibitors to compare the excision repair of pyrimidine dimers and nondimer DNA damages in human skin fibroblasts exposed to 254-nm and sunlamp-produced > 310-nm ultraviolet radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Normal human skin fibroblasts were exposed to either 0-5 J/m2 of 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation or 0-50 kJ/m2 of the Mylar-filtered UV (>310 nm) produced by a fluorescent sunlamp. These cells were then incubated for 0-20 min in medium containing 10 mM hydroxyurea (HU) and 0.1 mM 1-?-D-arabinofuranosyl cytosine (ara C), and the yield of DNA strand breaks was measured by means of the alkaline elution technique. For cells irradiated with 254-nm UV, which results primarily in the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, a rapid increase in DNA strand breaks was detected following incubation with these metabolic inhibitors. In contrast, only a low level of strand breaks formed in cells incubated with HU and ara C after irradiation with approximately equitoxic fluences of sunlamp UV >310 nm, which mainly causes the induction of nondimer DNA lesions. Hence, these results are consistent with the conclusion that the pathways involved in the repair of nondimer DNA damages induced by UV wavelengths >310 nm differ from the repair of pyrimidine dimers

312

Conditioned media from lung cancer cell line A549 and PC9 inactivate pulmonary fibroblasts by regulating protein phosphorylation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating condition resulting from excess extracellular matrix deposition that leads to progressive lung destruction and scarring. In the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases, activation of myofibroblasts by transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) plays a crucial role. Since no effective therapy for pulmonary fibrosis is currently recognized, finding an effective antifibrotic agent is an important objective. One approach might be through identification of agents that inactivate myofibroblasts. In the current study we examined the potential of conditioned medium obtained from several types of cells to exhibit myofibroblast inactivating activity. Conditioned media from lung cancer cell lines A549 and PC9 were found to have this action, as shown by its ability to decrease ?-smooth muscle actin expression in MRC-5 cells. Subsequently the inhibitory factor was purified from the medium and identified as 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), and its mechanism of action elucidated. Activation of protein kinase A and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) were detected. MTA inhibited TGF-?-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Furthermore, the gain-of-function mutant CREB caused inactivation of myofibroblasts. These results show that A549 and PC9 conditioned media have the ability to inactivate myofibroblasts, and that CREB-phosphorylation plays a central role in this process. PMID:22209754

Park, Ah-Mee; Hayakawa, Sumio; Honda, Eiko; Mine, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Koji; Munakata, Hiroshi

2012-02-15

313

Skin aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin aging is a multisystem degenerative process that involves the skin and skin support system. Young faces tend to be convex with full lips, sweeping jaw line with full temples and cheeks. Aged face tends to be concave with flat lips, sunken temples and cheeks, scalloped mandible and more shadows. Aging caused by the genes we inherit and depending on the passage of time per se is called chronological or intrinsic aging. Intrinsic akin aging is characterized by atrophy of the skin with loss of elasticity and slowed metabolic activity. The signs of intrinsic aging are fine wrinkles, thin and transparent skin, loss of underlying fat, facial bone loss, dry skin, inability to sweat sufficiently to cool the skin, hair loss and unwanted hair. The other type of aging is known as extrinsic aging and is caused by environmental factors. Among harmful environmental factors that contribute to extrinsic aging, long-term effects of repeated exposure to ultraviolet light are most significant and are referred to as photoaging. It is a cumulative process and depends primarily on the degree of sun exposure and skin pigment. UV irradiation invokes a complex sequence of specific molecular responses that cause damage to the skin connective tissue. Photoaging affects the sun-exposed areas and is characterized clinically by fine and coarse wrinkling, roughness, dryness, laxity, telangiectasias, loss of tensile strength and pigmentary changes. There is also an increase in development of benign and malignant neoplasms on photoaged skin. PMID:21830465

Sjerobabski-Masnec, Ines; Situm, Mirna

2010-12-01

314

Neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblasts treated with chemical carcinogens and Co-60 ?-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two fibroblast cell strains derived from human embryonic lungs (WI-38 and IMR-90) were transformed into neoplastic cells by treatment with Co-60 ?-rays. Four other fibroblast cell strains (two from human embryonic liver and the other two from human adult skin) were transformed into neoplastic cells by treatment with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). The transformation was obtained by repeated treatments with these carcinogenic agents, but not by a single treatment in a variety of experimental conditions. These results suggest that transformation of normal human cells might be a multistep process. All of the transformed cell lines had the following characteristics: 1) epithelial-like morphology; 2) unlimited growth potential; 3) abnormal karyotype; 4) increased saturation cell density; 5) low serum requirement for growth; 6) elevated colony formation in soft agar; 7) growth capability in theophylline containing medium; 8) increase of the B(H) subunit of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme; and 9) loss of large external transformation sensitive (LETS) protein. The first three characteristics (morphological changes, unlimited growth and abnormal karyotype) are proposed to be sufficient to conclude that neoplastic transformation of normal human fibroblasts has occurred. In order to conduct quantitative transformation experiments with human fibroblasts, criteria of the morphology of transformed colonies were defined. Advantages and disadvantages in the use of normal human disadvantages in the use of normal human fibroblasts for transformation studies are discussed. Finally, future problems in transformation of human cells are described. (J.P.N.)

315

Aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo inhibits STAT1 activation in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and human fibroblasts through SHP2 activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arbutus unedo L. has been for a long time employed in traditional and popular medicine as an astringent, diuretic, urinary anti-septic, and more recently, in the therapy of hypertension and diabetes. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a fascinating and complex protein with multiple yet contrasting transcriptional functions. Although activation of this nuclear factor is finely regulated in order to control the entire inflammatory process, its hyper-activation or time-spatially erroneous activation may lead to exacerbation of inflammation. The modulation of this nuclear factor, therefore, has recently been considered as a new strategy in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we present data showing that the aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo's leaves exerts inhibitory action on interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) elicited activation of STAT1, both in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and in human fibroblasts. This down-regulation of STAT1 is shown to result from a reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 protein. Evidence is also presented indicating that the inhibitory effect of this extract may be mediated through enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase. The modulation of this nuclear factor turns out into the regulation of the expression of a number of genes involved in the inflammatory response such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Taken together, our results suggest that the employment of the Arbutus unedo aqueous extract is promising, at least, as an auxiliary anti-inflammatory treatment of diseases in which STAT1 plays a critical role. PMID:18473914

Mariotto, S; Ciampa, A R; de Prati, A Carcereri; Darra, E; Vincenzi, S; Sega, M; Cavalieri, E; Shoji, K; Suzuki, H

2008-05-01

316

Skin intervention of fullerene-integrated nanoemulsion in structural and collagen regeneration against skin aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the fact that intrinsic oxidative stress is inevitable, the extrinsic factor such as ultraviolet radiation enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulting in premature skin aging. Nanoemulsion was loaded with fullerene, a strong free radical scavenger, and its efficacy to provide protection and regenerative effect against ROS-induced collagen breakdown in human skin was studied. Stable fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated using high shear homogenization and ultrasonic dispersion technique. An open trial was conducted using fullerene nanoemulsion on skin twice a day for 28 days. The mean collagen score significantly increased (Psafety evaluation, fullerene nanoemulsion showed no acute toxicity on 3T3 fibroblast cell line for 48h and no indication of potential dermal irritation. Hence, the fullerene nanoemulsion may assist in protecting collagen from breakdown with cosmeceutical benefit. PMID:25619806

Ngan, Cheng Loong; Basri, Mahiran; Tripathy, Minaketan; Abedi Karjiban, Roghayeh; Abdul-Malek, Emilia

2015-04-01

317

Expression of the familial Mediterranean fever gene and activity of the C5a inhibitor in human primary fibroblast cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited disease whose manifestations are acute but reversible attacks of sterile inflammation affecting synovial and serosal spaces. The FMF gene (MEFV) was recently cloned, and it codes for a protein (pyrin/marenostrin) homologous to known nuclear factors. We previously reported the deficient activity of a C5a/interleukin (IL)-8 inhibitor, a physiologic regulator of inflammatory processes, in FMF serosal and synovial fluids. We now describe the concomitant expression of MEFV and C5a/IL-8-inhibitor activity in primary cultures of human fibroblasts. Fibroblasts grown from synovial and peritoneal tissues displayed C5a/IL-8-inhibitor activity that could be further induced with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and IL-1 beta. Very low levels of chemotactic inhibitor were evident in skin fibroblast cultures or in peritoneal and skin fibroblasts obtained from FMF patients. MEFV was expressed in peritoneal and skin fibroblasts at a lower level than in neutrophils and could be further induced by PMA and IL-1 beta. In the FMF cultures, the MEFV transcript carried the M694V mutation, consistent with the genetic defect found in patients with this disease. MEFV was also expressed in other cell lines that do not produce C5a/IL-8 inhibitor. These findings suggest that human primary fibroblast cultures express MEFV and produce C5a/IL-8-inhibitor activity. The interrelationship between pyrin, the MEFV product, and the C5a/IL-8 inhibitor requires further investigation. (Blood. 2000;96:727-731) PMID:10887141

Matzner, Y; Abedat, S; Shapiro, E; Eisenberg, S; Bar-Gil-Shitrit, A; Stepensky, P; Calco, S; Azar, Y; Urieli-Shoval, S

2000-07-15

318

Mitogenic activity of fetal bovine serum, fish fry extract, insulin-like growth factor-I, and fibroblast growth factor on brown bullhead catfish cells - BB line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biossays were performed to assess the effects of different levels of growth medium supplementation with fetal bovine serum (FBS, fish fry extract (FE, combinations of FBS and FE, and addition of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and fibroblast growth factor (FGF on the proliferation of brown bullhead catfish cells (BB line. Treatments (n = 4 were: 2.5, 5, 10, and 15.0% FBS or FE and 5/2.5, 5/5, 10/2.5, and 10/5 of a FBS/FE combination as supplement to the growth medium, or the addition of 0.1, 1, 2.5, 10, 25, and 75 ng/ml of either IGF-I or FGF to the growth media. Initial cell density was 1.1 x 10(6 cells per well on uncoated 24-well plates. Incubation temperature was 29.5 ± 0.7ºC. Six hours after plating, initial culture medium was removed, plates rinsed with Dulbecco?s phosphate buffered saline, treatment media added, and cells allowed to proliferate for 24 hours. Another bioassay was performed with rat myoblast omega cells (RMo using the same levels of growth medium supplemented with FBS, FE and FBS/FE. Base growth medium was Dulbecco?s MEM. The initial cell density was 7.2 x 10(6 cells per well, and the bioassay was carried out at 36.0 ± 0.5ºC, on a 95% air, 5% CO2 incubator. Increasing levels of FBS had a positive effect (P < 0.05 on the proliferation of both BB and RMo cells. Increasing levels of FE had a negative effect (P < 0.05 on the proliferation of BB cells and totally inhibited the proliferation of RMo cells at any level of supplementation. Higher levels of FE on the FBS/FE combinations presented a negative effect on the proliferation of both BB and RMo cells (P < 0.05. Insulin-like growth factor I had a positive quadratic effect (P < 0.05 on the proliferation of BB cells. Apparently, mammalian growth factors slightly stimulated mitogenic activity in fish cells, while FE contained factors which inhibited the mitogenic activity of RMo and BB cell lines.

CYRINO J. E. P.

1999-01-01

319

The effect of postirradiation holding at 22 degrees C on the repair of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially neoplastic transforming damage in gamma-irradiated HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of postirradiation holding at 22 degrees C on cell growth, progression of cells through the cell cycle, and the repair of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially neoplastic transforming damage in ?-irradiated HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells has been examined. Cell growth and cell cycle progression were essentially stopped at this reduced temperature. Cell survival was dramatically reduced by holding confluent cultures for 6 h at 22 degrees C, as opposed to 37 degrees C, after 7.5 Gy ? radiation delivered at a rate of 2 Gy/min. Return of the cells to 37 degrees C for 6 h after holding at 22 degrees C did not result in increased survival. A similar effect was obtained when the cells were held at 22 degrees C between split-dose irradiation of log-phase cultures where no increase in survival was observed over a split-dose interval of 4 h. In this case a partial increase in survival was observed upon returning the cells to 37 degrees C for 3 h after holding at 22 degrees C for the first 3 h of the split-dose interval. Neoplastic transformation frequency was not enhanced by holding confluent cultures for 6 h at 22 degrees C after 7.5 Gy ? radiation. This is consistent with previous observations that misrepair of potentially neoplastic transforming damage already occurs at 37 degrees C. The overall results are interpreted in terms of the reduced temperature favoring misrepair, rather than inhibition of repair, of sublethal, potentially lethal anir, of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially transforming radiation damage. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

320

Purification of the migration stimulating factor produced by fetal and breast cancer patient fibroblasts.  

OpenAIRE

We have previously shown that (i) human skin fibroblasts of fetal and adult origin display distinctive migratory phenotypes, (ii) this difference in cell behavior results from the production of a soluble "migration stimulating factor" (MSF) by fetal cells, and (iii) skin fibroblasts from breast cancer patients commonly resemble fetal fibroblasts both in migratory phenotype and in production of MSF. Data are now presented indicating that MSF present in the conditioned medium of fetal and cance...

Grey, A. M.; Schor, A. M.; Rushton, G.; Ellis, I.; Schor, S. L.

1989-01-01

321

On-line diffusion profile of a lipophilic model dye in different depths of a hair follicle in human scalp skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

In skin and hair research, drug targeting to the hair follicle is of great interest in the treatment of skin diseases. The aim of this study is to visualize on-line the diffusion processes of a model fluorophore into the hair follicle at different depths using fresh human scalp skin and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Up to a depth of 500 microm in the skin, a fast increase of fluorescence is observed in the gap followed by accumulation of the dye in the hair cuticle. Penetration was also observed via the stratum corneum and the epidermis. Little label reached depths greater than 2000 microm. Fat cells accumulated the label fastest, followed by the cuticular area and the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. Sweat glands revealed very low staining, whereas the bulb at a depth of 4000 microm was visualized only by autofluorescence. From this study, we conclude that on-line visualization is a promising technique to access diffusion processes in deep skin layers even on a cellular level. Furthermore, we conclude that the gap and the cuticle play an important role in the initial diffusion period with the label in the cuticle originating from the gap. PMID:16185278

Grams, Ylva Y; Whitehead, Lynne; Lamers, Gerda; Sturmann, Nico; Bouwstra, Joke A

2005-10-01

322

Induction and rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks and interphase chromosome breaks after exposure to x-rays in one normal and two hypersensitive human fibroblast cell lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to measure simultaneously and in a quantitative manner double-strand breaks (DSBs), interphase chromosome breaks and cell lethality either immediately after irradiation, or at various times thereafter (up to 24 h), in cells of three nontransformed human fibroblast cell lines of widely different intrinsic radiosensitivity. We wished to assess initial damage, repair kinetics and residual damage at the DNA and the chromosome level, and to correlate these parameters with cell killings. We employed HF19 cells, a normal fibroblast cell line, AT2 cells, a radiosensitive cell line from a patient suffering from ataxia telangiectasia (AT), and 180BR cells, a radiosensitive cell line from a patient with no clinical symptoms of AT. AT2 and 180BR cells, in addition to being radiosensitive, also display a reduced ability to repair potentially lethal damage compared to HF19 cells. The yield of DSBs, as measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, is similar in all three cell lines (slopes correspond to 1.6-1.7% Gy-1 of DNA-associated radioactivity released from the gel well into the lane). In contrast, residual DSBs measured 24 h after irradiation are almost zero for HF19 cells (0.1% confidence interval=0-1.4%), but are 12.5% (±2.3%) and 43.8% (±1.2%) of those measured immediately after irradiation in HF19, AT2 and 180BR cells, respectively. Neither the initial yield of DSBs nor that of excess interphase chromosomes breaks can explain the diffechromosomes breaks can explain the differences in radiosensitivity between the three cell lines; however, there is a correlation between residual DSBs, rate of DSB rejoining at 24 h, residual interphase chromosome breaks on the one hand and cell survival on the other hand. 74 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

323

Abnormal proliferation and aging of cultured fibroblasts from pigs with subcutaneous fibrosis induced by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vivo, fibrotic disorders, which may be due either to injury or disease, are characterized by overproliferation of fibroblasts and overproduction of connective tissue. In vitro, however, most of the fibrotic cell lines studied exhibited no differences in growth potential compared with control cell lines derived from normal skin. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro behavior of fibroblasts derived from pigs with subcutaneous fibrosis induced by gamma irradiation. The cells were isolated from the scar tissue six to 20 months after irradiation. In primary cultures, the cells derived from the fibrotic lesions exhibited greater attachment efficiency and faster proliferation than those of the cells derived from the normal skin of the same animal. In long-term cultures, the differences between normal and fibrotic cells were still greater: the normal skin cells underwent 17 population doublings and then died, whereas the fibrotic cells exhibited a prolonged life span, and were still actively proliferating after 80 population doublings. Cell morphology and the number of chromosomes were modified throughout subcultures. These results imply that in the scar tissue active fibrotic cell proliferation continued for years after irradiation and that this activation was expressed in vitro. Therefore, in this pig fibrosis model, the data acquired in the present in vitro studies closely resemble that obtained from earlier in vivo observations observations

324

The ultrastructure and etiology of chronic radiotherapy damage in human skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ulcerated and nonulcerated skin from 5 patients with chronic radiation skin damage was examined using electron microscopy. Noticeable fibroblast disorganization was seen, with swollen and degenerating mitochondria, multiple vacuoles, and dilated irregular rough endoplasmic reticulum. Unusual crystalline inclusions were seen in some fibroblasts. In the ulcerated skin, contractile fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) were seen in 2 of 4 specimens. Stroma showed dense collagen and prominent elastosis. The microvasculature in the radiation-damaged tissue showed occasional lumen occlusion and vacuolization of endothelial cells, without consistent abnormality. These data suggest that permanent damage to fibroblasts or fibroblast stem cells may play an important role in chronic radiation skin ulceration

325

Effects of the basic fibroblast growth factor and its anti-factor in the healing and collagen maturation of infected skin wound Efeitos do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básico e do seu anti-fator na cicatrização e maturação do colágeno de feridas infectadas de pele  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: The infection is one of the main factors that affect the physiological evolution of the surgical wounds. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of fibroblast growth factor (FGFâ) and anti-FGFâ in the healing, synthesis and maturation of collagen when topically used on infected skin wounds of rats. METHODS: An experimental study was perfomed in 60 male Wistar rats. All animals were divided in two groups (A and B). Each group was divided in three subgroups A1, B1; A2, B2 and...

Antonio Medeiros Dantas Filho; José Lamartine de Andrade Aguiar; Luís Reginaldo de Menezes Rocha; Ítalo Medeiros Azevedo; Esdras Ramalho; Aldo Cunha Medeiros

2007-01-01

326

Preparation of Proper Immunogen by Cloning and Stable Expression of cDNA coding for Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Marker CD34 in NIH-3T3 Mouse Fibroblast Cell Line  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Transmembrane CD34 glycoprotein is the most important marker for identification, isolation and enumeration of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We aimed in this study to clone the cDNA coding for human CD34 from KG1a cell line and stably express in mouse fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3. Such artificial cell line could be useful as proper immunogen for production of mouse monoclonal antibodies. Methods: CD34 cDNA was cloned from KG1a cell line after total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Pfu DNA polymerase-amplified specific band was ligated to pGEMT-easy TA-cloning vector and sub-cloned in pCMV6-Neo expression vector. After transfection of NIH-3T3 cells using 3 ?g of recombinant construct and 6 ?l of JetPEI transfection reagent, stable expression was obtained by selection of cells by G418 antibiotic and confirmed by surface flow cytometry. Results: 1158 bp specific band was aligned completely to reference sequence in NCBI database corresponding to long isoform of human CD34. Transient and stable expression of human CD34 on transfected NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was achieved (25% and 95%, respectively) as shown by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Cloning and stable expression of human CD34 cDNA was successfully performed and validated by standard flow cytometric analysis. Due to murine origin of NIH-3T3 cell line, CD34-expressing NIH-3T3 cells could be useful as immunogen in production of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies against human CD34. This approach could bypass the need for purification of recombinant proteins produced in eukaryotic expression systems. PMID:25789221

Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Abbasi-Kenarsari, Hajar; Majidi, Jafar; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Kazemi, Tohid

2015-01-01

327

Stimulation of MMP-11 (stromelysin-3) expression in mouse fibroblasts by cytokines, collagen and co-culture with human breast cancer cell lines  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are central to degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membrane during both normal and carcinogenic tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP (MMP-14) and stromelysin-3 (MMP-11) are two members of the MMP family of proteolytic enzymes that have been specifically implicated in breast cancer progression. Expressed in stromal fibroblasts adjacent to epithelial tumour cells, the mechanism of MT1-MMP and MMP-11 induction remains unknown. Methods T...

Matthaei Klaus I; Thompson Erik W; Haupt Larisa M; Selvey Saxon; Irving Michael G; Griffiths Lyn R

2004-01-01

328

Serum-free growth of normal and transformed fibroblasts in milk: differential requirements for fibronectin  

OpenAIRE

Bovine milk may be used as a supplement for the serum-free growth of certain fibroblastic cells in culture. The growth properties of three representative cell types in milk-supplemented medium were examined; fibroblastic cell strains, fibroblastic cell lines, and transformed fibroblasts. Transformed fibroblasts, which included RNA and DNA tumor virus-transformed cells and carcinogen-transformed cells, grew in milk. Instead of growing attached to the culture dishes, as they normally do in seru...

1981-01-01

329

Action spectra (254-302 nm) for four human photosensitive cell lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inactivation of cellular viral capacity for Herpes simplex type I growth in six separate wavelengths (254-302 nm) was measured in five human cell lines. These consisted of one ''normal''-skin fibroblast line (KD), and four photosensitive lines. Two lines of Xeroderma pigmentosum, one of Bloom's syndrome, and one of Cockayne's syndrome cells were used. Similar relative sensitivity were observed for the Bloom's syndrome. Xeroderma pigmentosum, and normal cell lines. The Cockayne's syndrome-line became relatively more sensitive at 289 nm and longer wavelengths. Absolute sensitivities varied. Some divergence in response was noted at the longest wavelength tested, 302 nm. (author)

330

Fetal Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes with Immunosuppressive Properties for Allogeneic Cell-Based Wound Therapy  

OpenAIRE

Fetal skin heals rapidly without scar formation early in gestation, conferring to fetal skin cells a high and unique potential for tissue regeneration and scar management. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes to stimulate wound repair and regeneration for further allogeneic cell-based therapy development. From a single fetal skin sample, two clinical batches of keratinocytes and fibroblasts were manufactured and characterized. Tolerogenic...

Zuliani, Thomas; Saiagh, Soraya; Knol, Anne-chantal; Esbelin, Julie; Dre?no, Brigitte

2013-01-01

331

Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on expression of kynurenine pathway enzymes in human dermal fibroblasts  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The kynurenine pathway (KP is the main route of tryptophan degradation in the human body and generates several neuroactive and immunomodulatory metabolites. Altered levels of KP-metabolites have been observed in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders as well as in patients with affective disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if skin derived human fibroblasts are useful for studies of expression of enzymes in the KP. Methods Fibroblast cultures were established from cutaneous biopsies taken from the arm of consenting volunteers. Such cultures were subsequently treated with interferon (IFN-? 200 U/ml and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?, 100 U/ml for 48 hours in serum-free medium. Levels of transcripts encoding different enzymes were determined by real-time PCR and levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA were determined by HPLC. Results At base-line all cultures harbored detectable levels of transcripts encoding KP enzymes, albeit with considerable variation across individuals. Following cytokine treatment, considerable changes in many of the transcripts investigated were observed. For example, increases in the abundance of transcripts encoding indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, kynureninase or 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase and decreases in the levels of transcripts encoding tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, kynurenine aminotransferases or quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase were observed following IFN-? and TNF-? treatment. Finally, the fibroblast cultures released detectable levels of KYNA in the cell culture medium at base-line conditions, which were increased after IFN-?, but not TNF-?, treatments. Conclusions All of the investigated genes encoding KP enzymes were expressed in human fibroblasts. Expression of many of these appeared to be regulated in response to cytokine treatment as previously reported for other cell types. Fibroblast cultures, thus, appear to be useful for studies of disease-related abnormalities in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation.

Kegel Magdalena

2011-10-01

332

Radiosensitivity in cultured human fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Caution is urged in the use of freshly isolated cultures of human diploid fibroblasts for quantitative studies of radiosensitivity. The distribution of x ray sensitivities of 'normal' human fibroblast cultures of foetal origin (10 subjects, skin or lung biopsy) and post-foetal origin (34 subjects, skin biopsy) are compared with the distribution in 12 patients with ataxia telangiectasia (probability of including any one of these in a normal post-foetal distribution is 0.01%). Cultures from nominally normal subjects showed a broad distribution of D0 range of 98 +- 160 rad and assuming normal distribution, a mean +- one standard deviation of 122 +- 17 rad. Mean D0 values for foetal origin cultures were 117 +- 12; values for post-foetal cultures D0 were 124 +- 18. No systematic variation in D0 was observed for age of donor, number of cell divisions in culture or for cloning efficiency. For ataxia telangiectasia D0 values were 46 +- 7 rad. (U.K.)

333

Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility

334

Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility.

Tashiro, Kanae [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shishido, Mayumi [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Fujimoto, Keiko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirota, Yuko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshitaka, E-mail: tanakay@bioc.phar.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

2014-01-03

335

Cytotoxicity and Selectivity in Skin Cancer by SapC-DOPS Nanovesicles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and melanoma are malignant human cancers of the skin with an annual mortality that exceeds 10,000 cases every year in the USA alone. In this study, the lysosomal protein saposin C (SapC and the phospholipid dioloylphosphatidylserine (DOPS were assembled into cancer-selective nanovesicles (SapC-DOPS and successfully tested using several in vitro and in vivo skin cancer models. Using MTT assay that measures the percentage of cell death, SapC-DOPS cytotoxic effect on three skin tumor cell lines (squamous cell carcinoma, SK-MEL-28, and MeWo was compared to two normal nontumorigenic skin cells lines, normal immortalized keratinocyte (NIK and human fibroblast cell (HFC. We observed that the nanovesicles selectively killed the skin cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death whereas untransformed skin cancer cells remained unaffected. Using subcutaneous skin tumor xenografts, animals treated with SapC-DOPS by subcutaneous injection showed a 79.4% by volume tumor reduced compared to the control after 4 days of treatment. We observed that the nanovesicles killed skin cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death compared to the control as revealed by TUNEL staining of xenograft tumor sections.

Shadi Abu-Baker

2012-08-01

336

Replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts irradiated in obtaining feeder layer for the culture of human keratinocytes  

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Human autologous epithelia cultivated in vitro, have been used successfully in treating damage to skin integrity. The methodology allowed the cultivation of these epithelia was described by Rheinwald and Green in 1975, this methodology consisted in seeding keratinocytes onto a feeder layer composed of lineage 3T3 murine fibroblasts, the proliferation rate is controlled through the action of ionizing radiation. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and murine viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, in this present work, we replaced the feeder layer originally composed of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts. To obtain this new feeder layer was necessary to standardize the enough irradiation dose to inhibit the replication of human fibroblasts and the verification of effectiveness of the development of keratinocytes culture on a feeder layer thus obtained. According to the obtained results we can verify that the human fibroblasts irradiated at various tested doses (60, 70, 100, 200, 250 and 300 Gy) had their mitotic activity inactivated by irradiation, allowing the use of any of these doses to confection of the feeder layer, since these fibroblasts irradiated still showed viable until fourteen days of cultivation. In the test of colony formation efficiency was observed that keratinocytes seeded on irradiated human fibroblasts were able to develop satisfactorily, preserving their clonogenic potential. Therefore it was possible the replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts in confection of the feeder layer, in order to eliminate this xenobiotic component of the keratinocytes culture. (author)

Yoshito, Daniele; Sufi, Bianca S.; Santin, Stefany P.; Mathor, Monica B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Altran, Silvana C.; Isaac, Cesar [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Lab. de Microcirurgia Plastica; Esteves-Pedro, Natalia M. [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Controle Biologico; Herson, Marisa R. [DonorTissue Bank of Victoria (Australia)

2011-07-01

337

Replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts irradiated in obtaining feeder layer for the culture of human keratinocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human autologous epithelia cultivated in vitro, have been used successfully in treating damage to skin integrity. The methodology allowed the cultivation of these epithelia was described by Rheinwald and Green in 1975, this methodology consisted in seeding keratinocytes onto a feeder layer composed of lineage 3T3 murine fibroblasts, the proliferation rate is controlled through the action of ionizing radiation. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and murine viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, in this present work, we replaced the feeder layer originally composed of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts. To obtain this new feeder layer was necessary to standardize the enough irradiation dose to inhibit the replication of human fibroblasts and the verification of effectiveness of the development of keratinocytes culture on a feeder layer thus obtained. According to the obtained results we can verify that the human fibroblasts irradiated at various tested doses (60, 70, 100, 200, 250 and 300 Gy) had their mitotic activity inactivated by irradiation, allowing the use of any of these doses to confection of the feeder layer, since these fibroblasts irradiated still showed viable until fourteen days of cultivation. In the test of colony formation efficiency was observed that keratinocytes seeded on irradiated human fibroblasts were able to develop satisfactorily, preserving their clonogenic potential. Therefore it was possible the replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts in confection of the feeder layer, in order to eliminate this xenobiotic component of the keratinocytes culture. (author)

338

Origins of Cardiac Fibroblasts  

OpenAIRE

Cardiac fibroblasts play a critical role in maintenance of normal cardiac function. They are indispensable for damage control and tissue remodeling on myocardial injury and principal mediators of pathological cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. Despite their manyfold functions, cardiac fibroblasts remain poorly characterized in molecular terms. Evidence is evolving that cardiac fibroblasts are a heterogeneous population and likely derive from various distinct tissue niches in health and disease....

Zeisberg, Elisabeth M.; Kalluri, Raghu

2010-01-01

339

Hyaluronic Acid and Skin Aging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA, the main and most important constituent of extracellular matrix, is a glycosaminologycan with water-absorbing capacity found in large amount in growing and repairing tissues. One of the main causes of skin problems, particulary in aging skin, is HA deficiency. More than half of the body HA is in the skin and is necessary for the maintenance of internal matrix and several cellular functions. Filler gels containing HA are used to repair skin defects. As these substances are derived from animals and bacteria, not the human, may cause skin reactions and have short half-life. So efforts to maintain and/or increase HA secretion from skin fibroblasts are important in the prevention and treatment of skin aging.

Hossein Abdol Tehrani

2011-09-01

340

Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... cause dermatitis, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. Your ... key facts about some of the most common skin problems: Acne —A disease that affects the skin's oil ...

341

Role of stem cell factor and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the interaction between fibroblasts and mast cells in fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mast cell infiltration and accumulation is known to occur in tissue fibrosis. Increased numbers of mast cells are detected in scleroderma or hypertrophic scar skin, however, neither the role of mast cells nor the interaction of fibroblasts and mast cells in fibrosis are fully understood. A growing body of evidence indicate that mast cells are rich source of cytokines, growth factors or chemokines, which are suggested to play an important role in the induction of fibrosis. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest the involvement of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of the C-C chemokine family, in fibrosis. Here, we examined the effect of stem cell factor (SCF), a mast cell growth factor, on MCP-1 gene expression in a human mast cell line, HMC-1, and as well as the effect of MCP-1 on alpha1(I) collagen gene expression in human skin fibroblasts. HMC-1 cells spontaneously expressed MCP-1 mRNA transcripts, which was detectable by in situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis. Stimulation with SCF further upregulated MCP-1 mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and stimulation with 100 ng/ml SCF for 24 h induced a 3-fold increase of MCP-1 mRNA expression in HMC-1 cells as compared with unstimulated cells. The concentration of MCP-1 protein in the culture supernatants of 50 ng/ml SCF-stimulated HMC-1 cells (3816+/-70 pg/ml) was significantly elevated compared to unstimulated cells (2588+/-130 pg/ml) (P fibroblast-derived SCF upregulates MCP-1 expression and synthesis in mast cells, which acts on fibroblasts to enhance alpha1(I) collagen mRNA expression. Our data may indicate an important interaction of fibroblasts and mast cells, via SCF and MCP-1, in the induction of fibrosis. PMID:11378326

Yamamoto, T; Hartmann, K; Eckes, B; Krieg, T

2001-06-01

342

Histocompatible chicken inbred lines: homogeneities in the major histocompatibility complex antigens of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C inbred lines assessed by hemagglutination, mixed lymphocyte reaction and skin transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken inbred lines of the GSP, GSN/1, PNP/DO and BM-C have been established by selection of a specific allele at the B blood group locus (MHC B-G region) and other polymorphic loci through pedigree mating. To extend the potential of these inbred lines as experimental animals in Aves, we assessed the antigenic homogeneities of the MHC antigens by three immunological methods. Antigenic variations of red blood cells (RBCs) were surveyed in the inbred lines and a random-bred line (NG) derived from the Nagoya breed by using ten kinds of intact antisera produced in the inbred line of chickens against RBCs of a red junglefowl and hybrids. In the hemagglutination test, no individual variations were found within the inbred line at all, while all the ten antisera detected highly heterogeneous reactions in individuals of the NG. The reciprocal one-way mixed lymphocyte reactions gave constantly higher stimulation responses (P<0.01) between individual pairs from the inbred lines having different B alleles compared to pairs within the inbred line, while lower stimulation was observed between pairs of the GSP and GSN/1 inbred lines both having the B(21) allele. In reciprocal skin transplantation, the transplanted skingrafts within the inbred line and between individuals from the GSP and GSN/1 inbred lines survived more than 100 days, while all the skingrafts showed signs of rejection within 7 days among the inbred lines having different B alleles. The results obtained by the three practical methods coincidentally indicated that the individuals in the respective four inbred lines were histocompatible, and further, that the GSP and GSN/1 individuals were histocompatible. PMID:18075192

Valdez, Marcos B; Mizutani, Makoto; Fujiwara, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Yamagata, Takahiro; Shimada, Kiyoshi; Namikawa, Takao

2007-10-01

343

Development, characterization and application of a new fibroblastic-like cell line from kidney of a freshwater air breathing fish Channa striatus (Bloch, 1793).  

Science.gov (United States)

A new cell line, Channa striatus kidney (CSK), derived from the kidney tissue of murrel, was established and characterized. The CSK cell line was maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and has been subcultured more than 140 times. This cell line was able to grow in a range of temperatures from 22 to 32°C with optimal growth at 28°C. The plating efficiency was very high (67.54%) and doubling time was approximately 29h. The kidney cell line was cryopreserved at different passage levels and revived successfully with 90-92% survival. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of mitochondrial 16S rRNA using primer specific to C. striatus confirmed the origin of this cell line from murrel. The cell line was further characterized by chromosome number, transfection and mycoplasma detection. A marine fish nodavirus was tested to determine the susceptibility of this new cell line. The CSK cell line was found to be susceptible to nodavirus and the infection was confirmed by cytopathic effect (CPE), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunodot blot, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus replication efficiency and real time RT-PCR. The present study highlights the development and characterization of a new kidney cell line from an air breathing fish that could be used as an in vitro tools for propagation of fish viruses and gene expression studies. PMID:23558109

Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Sahul Hameed, A S

2013-07-01

344

Modulation of the invasive phenotype of human colon carcinoma cells by organ specific fibroblasts of nude mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined whether fibroblasts from subcutaneous, colon or lung tissues of nude mice influence the invasive potential of highly metastatic human colon carcinoma KM12SM cells. Primary cultures of nude mouse fibroblasts from skin, lung and colon were established. Invasive and metastatic KM12SM cells were cultured alone or with fibroblasts. Growth and invasive properties of the KM12SM cells were evaluated as well as their production of gelatinase activity. KM12SM cells were able to grow on monolayers of all three fibroblast cultures but did not invade through skin fibroblasts. The conditioned media of KM12SM cells cocultured with skin, colon or lung fibroblasts were examined for the presence of type IV collagenase (gelatinase). KM12SM growing on plastic and on colon or lung fibroblasts produced significant levels of latent and active forms of 64 kDa type IV collagenase, whereas KM12SM cells cocultivated with nude mouse skin fibroblasts did not. In contrast, human squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells produced significant levels of collagenase type IV when cocultured with nude mouse skin fibroblasts, a tissue they invaded and completely penetrated. Incubation of KM12SM cells in serum-free medium containing recombinant human interferon-beta (fibroblast interferon) was associated with significant reduction in gelatinase activity. Since the production of type IV collagenase by human colon cancer cells is specifically inhibited by mouse skin fibroblasts but not by colon or lung fibroblasts the data suggest that organ-specific fibroblasts can influence the invasive and metastatic properties of KM12SM cells. PMID:1286773

Fabra, A; Nakajima, M; Bucana, C D; Fidler, I J

1992-12-01

345

Domain structure and the location of tyrosine-O-sulfate in secreted fibronectin from rat embryo fibroblasts, line 3Y1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Domain structure of the secreted fibronectin from 3Y1 rat embryo fibroblasts was studied using limited protoelysis technique. Proteolytic fragments were fractionated by a small scale affinity separation procedure employing gelatin-Sepharose, heparin-Agarose and protein A-Sepharose. The three affinity fractions, gelatin-binding, heparin-binding and antibody-precipitated, were then subjected to SDS-PAGE. Domain structure of the secreted fibronectin deduced from the electrophoretic pattern of different binding fragments seemed to comply with the one generally found for other fibronectins which consists of, from N-terminus, Hep-1, Gel, cell-binding, Hep-2 and a C-terminal piece containing interchain disulfide bond(s). Examination of [35S]sulfate-labeled fibronectin by the same procedure using trypsin as the protease showed that a 17K and a 40K radioactive band containing tyrosine-O-sulfate (TyS) were present when SDS-PAGE was performed under reducing conditions. Under non-reducing conditions, TyS-containing radioactive bands at 57K and 80K positions were observed indicating the two smaller peptides to be linked through a disulfide bridge. These results suggested that tyrosine-O-sulfate in the 3Y1 secreted fibronectin is located near the C- terminal region, being as close as to within 17K from the C-terminus end

346

Loss of mutant mitochondrial DNA harboring the MELAS A3243G mutation in human cybrid cells after cell-cell fusion with normal tissue-derived fibroblast cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutant mitochondrial (mt) DNA variants are related to human disease and have been investigated using cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cells generated from human tumor cells in which mutant mt maintenance depends on the cell line. It is, however, unclear whether human intercellular fusion of non-tumorous cells influences the maintenance of disease-related mutant mt. A preliminary experiment of cell-cell fusion between a human skin fibroblast cell line from a Lesch-Nyhan syndrome patient and an osteosarcoma cybrid cell line harboring the mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR)A3243G mutation showed a decrease of A3243G mutant mtDNA in fused cells during passages. In order to confirm the decrease of mutant mtDNA, we performed cell-cell fusion experiments using another human lung fibroblastic cell line. When the hygromycin-resistant osteosarcoma cybrid cell line was fused with the fibroblasts without any A3243G mtDNA mutations, the proportion of A3243G mutant mtDNA in the hybrid cells gradually decreased during cell culture and almost completely disappeared in all hybrid clones at the end of 15 passages. These results indicated that A3243G mutant specific mtDNA decreases in the hybrid background when normal fibroblast-derived cell contents, including the nucleus and mt, were introduced. Thus, we are hypothesizing that the non-tumorigenic fibroblast cellular components induce a difference in replication efficacy between the mtDNAs with and without the A3243G mutant sequence, which may be related to the decrease of disease-related mutant mtDNA in the hybrid cells. PMID:19956914

Yano, Takamitsu; Tanaka, Masashi; Fukuda, Noboru; Ueda, Takuya; Nagase, Hiroki

2010-01-01

347

Heterogeneity in the radiation survival curves and biochemical properties of human lung cancer cell lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human lung cancers of distinct histology exhibit different responses to radiation therapy in vivo. For examination of the basis of this phenomenon, the radiation survival curves and levels of relevant enzymes were determined in 16 lung cancer cell lines derived from tumors of different histology. These included lines from 5 adenocarcinomas, 7 small cell tumors, 3 variant small cell tumors, and 1 large cell tumor. These findings were compared to those obtained with the use of a normal skin fibroblast cell line. Whether cloned in liquid culture or soft agarose, cell lines had similar radiation survival curves. These curves were consistent with the apparent in vivo radiation responsiveness of the tumors. Although considerable heterogeneity in radiation survival curves was observed among the cell lines, cells from large cell lines and small variant lines had pronounced shoulders and extrapolation numbers (n) from 5.6 to 14. In contrast, cells from small cell lines and adenocarcinoma cell lines were more sensitive (-n values of 1-3.3). In these cell lines, levels of DNA polymerase beta, glutathione (GSH), GSH transferase, GSH reductase (NAD(P)H), gamma-glutamyltransferase did not correlate with radiation parameters of sensitivity. DNA polymerase beta and GSH levels were, however, higher than those in a line of normal skin fibroblasts. These cell lines may be useful in identifying the basis of the variable responsiveness of human lung cancer cells to ionizing radiationng cancer cells to ionizing radiation

348

Heterogeneity in the radiation survival curves and biochemical properties of human lung cancer cell lines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human lung cancers of distinct histology exhibit different responses to radiation therapy in vivo. For examination of the basis of this phenomenon, the radiation survival curves and levels of relevant enzymes were determined in 16 lung cancer cell lines derived from tumors of different histology. These included lines from 5 adenocarcinomas, 7 small cell tumors, 3 variant small cell tumors, and 1 large cell tumor. These findings were compared to those obtained with the use of a normal skin fibroblast cell line. Whether cloned in liquid culture or soft agarose, cell lines had similar radiation survival curves. These curves were consistent with the apparent in vivo radiation responsiveness of the tumors. Although considerable heterogeneity in radiation survival curves was observed among the cell lines, cells from large cell lines and small variant lines had pronounced shoulders and extrapolation numbers (n) from 5.6 to 14. In contrast, cells from small cell lines and adenocarcinoma cell lines were more sensitive (-n values of 1-3.3). In these cell lines, levels of DNA polymerase beta, glutathione (GSH), GSH transferase, GSH reductase (NAD(P)H), gamma-glutamyltransferase did not correlate with radiation parameters of sensitivity. DNA polymerase beta and GSH levels were, however, higher than those in a line of normal skin fibroblasts. These cell lines may be useful in identifying the basis of the variable responsiveness of human lung cancer cells to ionizing radiation.

Morstyn, G.; Russo, A.; Carney, D.N.; Karawya, E.; Wilson, S.H.; Mitchell, J.B.

1984-10-01

349

On-line monitoring of UV-induced lipid peroxidation products from human skin in vivo using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to study ultraviolet (UV) light-induced lipid peroxidation in human skin, in vivo. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the mass range between 20 and 150 amu in the headspace of the skin of 16 healthy volunteers were monitored before, during and after irradiation in an on-line and non-invasive fashion. From these experiments, five volatile substances were found to reflect the damage caused by UV-radiation. The two major compounds (monitored at mass 45 and 59 amu) were identified as acetaldehyde and propanal using a combination of Tenax-based gas chromatographic pre-separation with PTR-MS. The other volatiles (with characteristic ions at, among others, masses 73 and 87 amu) could not be identified. Simultaneous measurement of the established lipid peroxidation biomarker ethene using laser-based photoacoustic trace gas detection revealed a similar pattern and statistically significant correlations between VOC production measured with PTR-MS and ethene. Variations in UV-radiation intensity were reflected by the amount of acetaldehyde and propanal emitted from the skin. Our results show that acetaldehyde and propanal can be used as biomarkers for lipid peroxidation.

Steeghs, Marco M. L.; Moeskops, Bas W. M.; van Swam, Karen; Cristescu, Simona M.; Scheepers, Paul T. J.; Harren, Frans J. M.

2006-06-01

350

Polypeptide structure of a human dermal fibroblast-activating factor (FAF) derived from the U937 cultured line of human monocyte-like cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six liter batches of 1 x 106 U937 cells/ml of serum-free RPMI medium were incubated with 100 ng/ml of phorbol myristate acetate for 48 hr at 370C in 5% CO2 in air to generate FAFs, as quantified by the stimulation of uptake of [3H]thymidine by quiescent human dermal fibroblasts. Filtration of the supernatants on Sephadex G-75 resolved two FAFs of approximately 40,000 and 10-13,000 daltons. The latter principle was purified to homogeneity by sequential Sephadex G-50 filtration, revealing an apparent m.w. of 7-8000, Mono-Q FPLC anion-exchange chromatography with a linear gradient from 20 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.3) to 0.5 M NaCl-20 mM Tris-HCl in 30 min, and two cycles of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a 300 A pore 10 ?m C4 column at 1 ml/min with 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water to 30:70 (v:v) and then to 60:40 (v:v) acetonitrile: 0.05% TFA linearly in 15 min and 30 min, respectively, The FAF activity eluted from HPLC in a sharp peak of O.D. 215 nm at 45% acetonitrile. Analyses of amino acid composition of the highly purified 7-8000 dalton FAF-U937 revealed 37% hydrophobic, 14% basic, and 21% acidic or amide residues, as well as one tryrosine and one methionine. This U937 cell-derived FAF appears to be a unique acidic polypeptide growth factor

351

Polypeptide structure of a human dermal fibroblast-activating factor (FAF) derived from the U937 cultured line of human monocyte-like cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Six liter batches of 1 x 10/sup 6/ U937 cells/ml of serum-free RPMI medium were incubated with 100 ng/ml of phorbol myristate acetate for 48 hr at 37/sup 0/C in 5% CO/sub 2/ in air to generate FAFs, as quantified by the stimulation of uptake of (/sup 3/H)thymidine by quiescent human dermal fibroblasts. Filtration of the supernatants on Sephadex G-75 resolved two FAFs of approximately 40,000 and 10-13,000 daltons. The latter principle was purified to homogeneity by sequential Sephadex G-50 filtration, revealing an apparent m.w. of 7-8000, Mono-Q FPLC anion-exchange chromatography with a linear gradient from 20 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.3) to 0.5 M NaCl-20 mM Tris-HCl in 30 min, and two cycles of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a 300 A pore 10 ..mu..m C4 column at 1 ml/min with 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water to 30:70 (v:v) and then to 60:40 (v:v) acetonitrile: 0.05% TFA linearly in 15 min and 30 min, respectively, The FAF activity eluted from HPLC in a sharp peak of O.D. 215 nm at 45% acetonitrile. Analyses of amino acid composition of the highly purified 7-8000 dalton FAF-U937 revealed 37% hydrophobic, 14% basic, and 21% acidic or amide residues, as well as one tryrosine and one methionine. This U937 cell-derived FAF appears to be a unique acidic polypeptide growth factor.

Cooke, M.P.; Allar, W.J.; Goetzl, E.J.; Dohlman, J.G.

1986-03-05

352

The development of a 3D immunocompetent model of human skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the first line of defence, skin is regularly exposed to a variety of biological, physical and chemical insults. Therefore, determining the skin sensitization potential of new chemicals is of paramount importance from the safety assessment and regulatory point of view. Given the questionable biological relevance of animal models to human as well as ethical and regulatory pressure to limit or stop the use of animal models for safety testing, there is a need for developing simple yet physiologically relevant models of human skin. Herein, we describe the construction of a novel immunocompetent 3D human skin model comprising of dendritic cells co-cultured with keratinocytes and fibroblasts. This model culture system is simple to assemble with readily-available components and importantly, can be separated into its constitutive individual layers to allow further insight into cell–cell interactions and detailed studies of the mechanisms of skin sensitization. In this study, using non-degradable microfibre scaffolds and a cell-laden gel, we have engineered a multilayer 3D immunocompetent model comprised of keratinocytes and fibroblasts that are interspersed with dendritic cells. We have characterized this model using a combination of confocal microscopy, immuno-histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy and have shown differentiation of the epidermal layer and formation of an epidermal barrier. Crucially the immune cells in the model are able to migrate and remain re model are able to migrate and remain responsive to stimulation with skin sensitizers even at low concentrations. We therefore suggest this new biologically relevant skin model will prove valuable in investigating the mechanisms of allergic contact dermatitis and other skin pathologies in human. Once fully optimized, this model can also be used as a platform for testing the allergenic potential of new chemicals and drug leads. (paper)

353

Lumpy skin disease: attempted propagation in tick cell lines and presence of viral DNA in field ticks collected from naturally-infected cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is of substantial economic importance for the cattle industry in Africa and the Near and Middle East. Several insect species are thought to transmit the disease mechanically. Recent transmission studies have demonstrated the first evidence for a role of hard (ixodid) ticks as vectors of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The aim of this study was to attempt in vitro growth of the virus in Rhipicephalus spp. tick cell lines and investigate in vivo the presence of the virus in ticks collected from cattle during LSD outbreaks in Egypt and South Africa. No evidence was obtained for replication of LSDV in tick cell lines although the virus was remarkably stable, remaining viable for 35 days at 28°C in tick cell cultures, in growth medium used for tick cells and in phosphate buffered saline. Viral DNA was detected in two-thirds of the 56 field ticks, making this the first report of the presence of potentially virulent LSDV in ticks collected from naturally infected animals. PMID:25468765

Tuppurainen, E S M; Venter, E H; Coetzer, J A W; Bell-Sakyi, L

2015-03-01

354

Skin Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... leads to early wrinkles, skin cancer and other skin problems. Being in the sun too often for too ... to get early wrinkles, skin cancer and other skin problems. 2. Use sunscreen. Use a sunscreen or sunblock ...

355

Dry skin  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin - dry; Winter itch ... Dry skin is common. It happens more often in the winter when cold air outside and heated air inside cause low humidity. Forced-air furnaces make skin even drier. The skin loses moisture and may ...

356

Sagging Skin  

Science.gov (United States)

... Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles ... Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles ...

357

Differential Regulation of the Dioxin-Induced Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 Genes in Mouse Hepatoma and Fibroblast cell lines  

OpenAIRE

The xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 can be induced by the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-?-dioxin (dioxin) via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). These genes are differentially induced by dioxin in different mouse cell lines. In the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa1c1c7 (Hepa-1), the Cyp1a1 gene is induced to very high levels by dioxin, but the levels of Cyp1b1 mRNA are extremely low and are not inducible by dioxin. The reverse is the case for the mouse...

Beedanagari, Sudheer R.; Taylor, Robert T.; Hankinson, Oliver

2010-01-01

358

Solar aging of the skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aging of the skin is a combination of chronological aging and degenerative influences from the environment. Most important is the influence of ultraviolet radiation upon dermal fibroblasts. As a result of changes in collagen and elastic fibres with deposition of ''solar elastosis'', chronically sun-exposed skin looses elasticity and develops wrinkles. Results of recent investigations show that solar degenerative changes of the skin are spontaneously repaired when the radiation is stopped and/or sun filters are used. This repair process is accelerated by the topical use of retinoic acid

359

Development of a human mitochondrial oligonucleotide microarray (h-MitoArray and gene expression analysis of fibroblast cell lines from 13 patients with isolated F1Fo ATP synthase deficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To strengthen research and differential diagnostics of mitochondrial disorders, we constructed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (h-MitoArray allowing expression analysis of 1632 human genes involved in mitochondrial biology, cell cycle regulation, signal transduction and apoptosis. Using h-MitoArray we analyzed gene expression profiles in 9 control and 13 fibroblast cell lines from patients with F1Fo ATP synthase deficiency consisting of 2 patients with mt9205?TA microdeletion and a genetically heterogeneous group of 11 patients with not yet characterized nuclear defects. Analysing gene expression profiles, we attempted to classify patients into expected defect specific subgroups, and subsequently reveal group specific compensatory changes, identify potential phenotype causing pathways and define candidate disease causing genes. Results Molecular studies, in combination with unsupervised clustering methods, defined three subgroups of patient cell lines – M group with mtDNA mutation and N1 and N2 groups with nuclear defect. Comparison of expression profiles and functional annotation, gene enrichment and pathway analyses of differentially expressed genes revealed in the M group a transcription profile suggestive of synchronized suppression of mitochondrial biogenesis and G1/S arrest. The N1 group showed elevated expression of complex I and reduced expression of complexes III, V, and V-type ATP synthase subunit genes, reduced expression of genes involved in phosphorylation dependent signaling along MAPK, Jak-STAT, JNK, and p38 MAP kinase pathways, signs of activated apoptosis and oxidative stress resembling phenotype of premature senescent fibroblasts. No specific functionally meaningful changes, except of signs of activated apoptosis, were detected in the N2 group. Evaluation of individual gene expression profiles confirmed already known ATP6/ATP8 defect in patients from the M group and indicated several candidate disease causing genes for nuclear defects. Conclusion Our analysis showed that deficiency in the ATP synthase protein complex amount is generally accompanied by only minor changes in expression of ATP synthase related genes. It also suggested that the site (mtDNA vs nuclear DNA and the severity (ATP synthase content of the underlying defect have diverse effects on cellular gene expression phenotypes, which warrants further investigation of cell cycle regulatory and signal transduction pathways in other OXPHOS disorders and related pharmacological models.

Hansíková Hana

2008-01-01

360

Epidermal growth factor improves the migration and contractility of aged fibroblasts cultured on 3D collagen matrices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a critical role in fibroblasts by stimulating the production of collagen and supports cell renewal through the interaction between keratinocytes and fibroblasts. It is well known that the contractile activity of fibroblasts is required for the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which contributes to skin elasticity. However, the role of EGF in the contraction of aged fibroblasts under 3-dimensional (3D) culture conditions is not yet fully understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that young fibroblasts spread and proliferated more rapidly than aged fibroblasts under 2-dimensional (2D) culture conditions. Cell migration assay using a nested collagen matrix revealed that the migration of young fibroblasts was also greater than that of aged fibroblasts under 3D culture conditions. However, the addition of recombinant human EGF (rhEGF) resulted in the enhanced migration of aged fibroblasts; the migration rate was similar to that of the young fibroblasts. The aged fibroblasts showed decreased cluster formation compared with the young fibroblasts on the collagen matrix, which was improved by the addition of rhEGF. Furthermore, cell contraction assay revealed that the basal contractility of the aged fibroblasts was lower than that of the young fibroblasts; however, following treatment with rhEGF, the contractility was restored to levels similar or even higher to those of the young fibroblasts. Taken together, our results suggest that rhEGF is a potential renewal agent that acts to improve the migration and contraction of aged fibroblasts more efficiently than young fibroblasts under 3D culture conditions; thus, EGF may have valuable regenerative effects on aged skin. PMID:25647660

Kim, Daehwan; Kim, So Young; Mun, Seog Kyun; Rhee, Sangmyung; Kim, Beom Joon

2015-04-01

361

Fibroblast differentiation in subcutaneous fibrosis after postmastectomy radiotherapy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to acquire a better understanding of the mechanism of radiation-induced fibrosis, we studied the differentiation of normal skin fibroblasts cultured from breast cancer radiotherapy patients with different risk of fibrosis. The differentiation state of fibroblasts was characterized in clonal cultures using established cytomorphological criteria. Collagen synthesis was determined by 3H-proline incorporation into pepsin-resistant protein. Radiation-induced inactivation of fibroblasts was paralleled by an increase in terminally differentiated fibrocytes, demonstrating that premature terminal differentiation is an important response to irradiation of fibroblasts from radiotherapy patients. Surviving colony-forming fibroblasts showed a change in differentiation with an increase in the ratio L:E of progenitor fibroblasts in late (L) compared to early (E) differentiation states. Furthermore, increased collagen production was observed after irradiation. The results provide evidence supporting a role of terminal fibroblast differentiation in radiation-induced fibrosis and imply that the progenitor population surviving radiotherapy might be more prone to terminal differentiation than before radiotherapy.

Herskind, C; Johansen, J

2000-01-01

362

Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-{beta}, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.

Bruzzone, Santina, E-mail: santina.bruzzone@unige.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Battaglia, Florinda [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Mannino, Elena [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Parodi, Alessia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Fruscione, Floriana [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Basile, Giovanna [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Salis, Annalisa; Sturla, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Negrini, Simone; Kalli, Francesca; Stringara, Silvia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Filaci, Gilberto [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Department of Internal Medicine, Viale Benedetto XV 6, 16132 Genova (Italy); and others

2012-05-25

363

Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. ? ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. ? UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. ? SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-?, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.

364

Fibroblasts induce heparin synthesis in chondroitin sulfate E containing human bone marrow-derived mast cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human bone marrow-derived mast cells (hBMMCs), differentiated in vitro in suspension culture and under the influence of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells conditioned medium (hCM), were tested for their response to recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) and for their behavior in different microenvironments. The hBMMCs were incubated in the presence of rhIL-3 and the changes in their proliferation rate were determined. Recombinant hIL-3 induced a more than sixfold increase in 3H-thymidine uptake into the hBMMC DNA in a dose-dependent manner. Human CM used as a control for proliferation response induced a more than eightfold maximal proliferation rate increase. Rabbit anti-rhIL-3 completely inhibited hBMMC 3H-thymidine uptake induced by rhIL-3 and decreased the hCM-induced proliferation by approximately 50%. These hBMMCs were cocultured with four different mytomicin C-treated cell monolayers and assayed for phenotypic changes. After only 2 days in coculture with either embryonic mouse skin-derived fibroblasts (MESFs) or human skin-derived fibroblasts (HSFs), a marked increase in granule number and density was noted on staining with toluidine blue. Mast cells that initially stained alcian blue+/safranin- at day 0 of coculture became alcian blue+/safranin+ during the coculture period. Human BMMC proteoglycan synthesis shifted from approximately 85% chondroitin sulfate E to approximately 60% heparin within 14 to 19 days of coculture with the MESF monolayer and to approximately 50% heparin within 19 days of coculture with the HSF monolayer. None of the above-mentioned changes were noted in cocultures of hBMMCs with 3T3 cell line fibroblast monolayers or in cocultures with bovine vascular endothelium (BVE) cell monolayers.

Gilead, L.; Bibi, O.; Razin, E. (Hebrew Univ.-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel))

1990-09-15

365

Fibroblasts induce heparin synthesis in chondroitin sulfate E containing human bone marrow-derived mast cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human bone marrow-derived mast cells (hBMMCs), differentiated in vitro in suspension culture and under the influence of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells conditioned medium (hCM), were tested for their response to recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) and for their behavior in different microenvironments. The hBMMCs were incubated in the presence of rhIL-3 and the changes in their proliferation rate were determined. Recombinant hIL-3 induced a more than sixfold increase in 3H-thymidine uptake into the hBMMC DNA in a dose-dependent manner. Human CM used as a control for proliferation response induced a more than eightfold maximal proliferation rate increase. Rabbit anti-rhIL-3 completely inhibited hBMMC 3H-thymidine uptake induced by rhIL-3 and decreased the hCM-induced proliferation by approximately 50%. These hBMMCs were cocultured with four different mytomicin C-treated cell monolayers and assayed for phenotypic changes. After only 2 days in coculture with either embryonic mouse skin-derived fibroblasts (MESFs) or human skin-derived fibroblasts (HSFs), a marked increase in granule number and density was noted on staining with toluidine blue. Mast cells that initially stained alcian blue+/safranin- at day 0 of coculture became alcian blue+/safranin+ during the coculture period. Human BMMC proteoglycan synthesis shifted from approximately 85% chondroitin sulfate E to approximately 60% heparin within 14 to 19 days of coculture with the MESF monolayer and to acoculture with the MESF monolayer and to approximately 50% heparin within 19 days of coculture with the HSF monolayer. None of the above-mentioned changes were noted in cocultures of hBMMCs with 3T3 cell line fibroblast monolayers or in cocultures with bovine vascular endothelium (BVE) cell monolayers

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Application of genomics to breakthroughs in the cosmetic treatment of skin ageing and discoloration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of global gene expression profiling, also known as transcriptomics or genomics, provides a means to identify key pathways affected in ageing skin that can be improved with appropriate cosmetic compounds. Aspects of skin ageing that can be addressed include matrix production, barrier, lipid synthesis, antioxidant capacity and hyperpigmentation. Gene expression profiling together with in vitro human skin cell cultures for compound screening and verification have led to the identification of cosmetic compounds and an understanding of the biological effects of compounds such as niacinamide, Pal-KTTKS, hexamidine, retinyl propionate and sodium dehydroacetate. In addition, understanding of the decreased antioxidant capacity of aged skin has led to the identification of new antiageing ingredients, olive-derived fatty acid ethoxylates, which have been shown to restore antioxidant enzymes in skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Gene expression profiling of age spots has also provided an understanding of the role of undecylenoyl phenylalanine in reducing melanin production by an adrenergic receptor mechanism in melanocytes. The use of these compounds in cosmetic formulations for skin care can aid improvements in the appearance of aged skin, including the improved appearance of fine lines, wrinkles and age spots. PMID:22670614

Osborne, R; Hakozaki, T; Laughlin, T; Finlay, D R

2012-06-01

367

The elemental analysis of normal and Menkes' fibroblast cells with the SPMP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A scanning proton microprobe has been used to study the elemental distributions, including trace elements, in human skin fibroblast cells. Both normal fibroblasts and fibroblasts cultured from patients with Menkes' disease, an X-linked genetic disorder known to be associated with defective copper metabolism, were examined by the probe. Cells grown in a copper-rich medium exhibited higher levels of intracellular copper but were found to be susceptible to the toxic effect of the elevated copper level. In normal maintenance medium the Menkes' cells recorded an average intracellular copper level six times higher than normal fibroblasts. (orig.).