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Sample records for skin fibroblast lines

  1. Generation of iPSC line MU011.A-hiPS from homozygous ?-thalassemia fetal skin fibroblasts

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    Amornrat Tangprasittipap

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human iPSC line MU011.A-hiPS was generated from homozygous ?-thalassemia (?SEA/?SEA fetal skin fibroblasts using a non-integrative reprogramming method. Reprogramming factors OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, L-MYC, LIN28, and shRNA of TP53 contained in three episomal vectors were delivered using electroporation.

  2. Lymphoblastoid lines and skin fibroblasts from patients with tuberous sclerosis are abnormally sensitive to ionizing radiation and to a radiomimetic chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphoblastoid lines, derived by transforming peripheral blood lymphocytes with Epstein-Barr virus, and skin fibroblast lines were established from two patients with tuberous sclerosis. The number of viable lymphoblastoid cells was determined by their ability to exclude the vital dye trypan blue after their irradiation with x-rays or 254 nm ultraviolet light. The growth of fibroblasts was determined by their ability to form colonies after treatment with the radiomimetic, DNA-damaging chemical N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The tuberous sclerosis lymphoblastoid lines were hypersensitive to x-rays but had normal sensitivity to the ultraviolet radiation. The tuberous sclerosis fibroblast lines were hypersensitive to the N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The hypersensitivity of tuberous sclerosis cells to x-rays and to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine is believed to reflect defective repair of DNA damaged by these agents and may provide the basis for in vitro, including prenatal, diagnostic tests for tuberous sclerosis

  3. Cytoskeletal proteins from human skin fibroblasts, peripheral blood leukocytes, and a lymphoblastoid cell line compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differences in proteins between cells grown as suspension cultures and those grown as attached cultures were studied by comparing the proteins of detergent-resistant cytoskeletons prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes and a lymphoblastoid cell line (GM607) (both grown as suspension cultures) and those of human skin fibroblasts (grown as attached cultures) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The major cytoskeletal proteins of the leukocytes were also present in the protein pattern of GM607 cytoskeletons. In contrast, the fibroblast cytoskeletal protein pattern contained four groups of proteins that differed from the patterns of the leukocytes and GM607. In addition, surface labeling of GM607 and human fibroblasts with 125I demonstrated that substantial amounts of vimentin and actin are exposed at the surface of the attached fibroblasts, but there is little evidence of similar exposure at the surface of the suspension-grown GM607. These results demonstrate some differences in cytoskeletal protein composition between different types of cells could be related to their ability or lack of ability to grow as attached cells in tissue culture

  4. Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts

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    Rajesh L. Thangapazham

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices.

  5. Differences in motility pattern between human buccal fibroblasts and periodontal and skin fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepekhin, Eugene; Grøn, Birgitte; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Migration of fibroblasts from surrounding normal tissue into the wound bed is an important requirement for successful wound healing. This study investigated the motility pattern of buccal, periodontal and skin fibroblasts to determine whether differences in the wound healing efficiency at these sites can be explained by differences in the motile behavior of their respective fibroblast populations. The migratory characteristics were studied in a two-dimensional culture system. The migration of si...

  6. Differences in motility pattern between human buccal fibroblasts and periodontal and skin fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepekhin, Eugene; GrØn, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    Migration of fibroblasts from surrounding normal tissue into the wound bed is an important requirement for successful wound healing. This study investigated the motility pattern of buccal, periodontal and skin fibroblasts to determine whether differences in the wound healing efficiency at these sites can be explained by differences in the motile behavior of their respective fibroblast populations. The migratory characteristics were studied in a two-dimensional culture system. The migration of single cells was time-lapse video recorded at intervals of 15 min for a period of 6 h using a computer-assisted microscope work-station. For evaluation of cell morphology, cell contours were recognized semiautomatically and used for determination of cell area, cell spreading and number and length of processes. We found that the cellular displacement of the buccal fibroblasts was only approximately 50% of the cellular displacement of periodontal and skin fibroblasts. The decreased cellular displacement of the buccal fibroblasts was found to be due to both lower cellular speed and less persistence in direction. The buccal fibroblasts also displayed smaller areas and longer processes. The differences in cellular morphology and motility pattern amongst the three fibroblast types could not be explained by differences in secretion of extracellular matrix components and are therefore believed to reflect phenotypic differences amongst fibroblast subpopulations.

  7. Extracellular depolymerization of hyaluronic acid in cultured human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chain length of [3H]hyaluronic acid synthesized by cultivating human skin fibroblasts in the presence of [3H]glucosamine was investigated. [3H]Hyaluronic acid obtained from the matrix fraction was excluded from a Sepharose CL-2B column irrespective of the incubation period, whereas that from the medium was depolymerized into a constant chain length (Mr = 40,000). The reducing and non-reducing terminals of the depolymerized hyaluronic acid were N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid, respectively. Prolonged incubation produced no oligosaccharides as shown by examination of hyaluronidase digests, suggesting the presence of a novel endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase in cultured human skin fibroblasts

  8. Oral fibroblasts produce more HGF and KGF than skin fibroblasts in response to co-culture with keratinocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GrØn, Birgitte; Stoltze, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    The production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) in subepithelial fibroblasts from buccal mucosa, periodontal ligament, and skin was determined after co-culture with keratinocytes. The purpose was to detect differences between the fibroblast subpopulations that could explain regional variation in epithelial growth and wound healing. Normal human fibroblasts were cultured on polystyrene or maintained in collagen matrix and stimulated with keratinocytes cultured on membranes. The amount of HGF and KGF protein in the culture medium was determined every 24 h for 5 days by ELISA. When cultured on polystyrene, the constitutive level of KGF and HGF in periodontal fibroblasts was higher than the level in buccal and skin fibroblasts. In the presence of keratinocytes, all three types of fibroblasts in general increased their HGF and KGF production 2-3 times. When cells were maintained in collagen, the level of HGF and KGF was decreased mainly in skin cultures. However, in oral fibroblasts, induction after stimulation was at a similar level in collagen compared to on polystyrene. Skin fibroblasts maintained in collagen produced almost no HGF whether with or without stimulation. The results demonstrate that the secretion of KGF and HGF in both unstimulated fibroblasts and in fibroblasts co-cultured with keratinocytes is dependent on the type of fibroblasts. In general, the periodontal fibroblasts had the highest level of cytokine production. This high level of growth factor production may influence the proliferation and the migration of junctional epithelium and thereby influence the development of periodontal disease.

  9. Proliferation index of camel skin fibroblast cells as nuclear donor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiselmeri is an excellent breed of riding camel, found in Jaiselmer and other adjoining districts of Western Rajasthan in India. Jaiselmeri camel like other pack animals are declining in India over the years due to increased mechanization and control of desert agriculture to some extent. The deep freezing technology on camel semen is poorly developed in India. The somatic cell technology has been developed at this Institute as an alternative tool of long-term conservation on endangered livestock breeds. For this study, samples of (0.25 cm2) skin tissue were collected from ear biopsy from elite male germplasm from National Research Centre on Camel, Bikaner. Skin tissues were cultured at 37 deg. C in Medium (DMEM+ Ham's F-12 nutritive mixture) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, L-Glutamine and antibiotics in an incubator under 98% humidified and 5% Co2 atmosphere. The cell explants were visible from 12-16 days of culture. The cells were allowed to confluent in the TC flasks for additional 3-5 days till nearly 80% surface area is covered by the cells. The primary cells were harvested by usual trypsin-EDTA protocol. The cells were counted using Neubar's haemocytometer and cells were passaged subsequently. Since no reference values were available for camel skin fibroblasts, the present experiments were conducted to study the cell proliferation index, population doubling time, standard growth curve and cell viability using standard growth and MTT assays. It is shown that growth curves showed true sigmoid shape but a marked variation between the cell lines was observed. Moreover, cells, which grew faster attained plateau on day 6 while in slow growing cultures, the curve showed elevation even on day 8. This is probably due to non-availability of growing space for cells having faster growth rate. It was concluded that all animals do not produce karyoplast donors at equal rate or efficiency. Therefore, the growing cultures need to be compared with standard growth curve each time the cells are used as nuclear donor cells for cloning. Cell Proliferation Index: Cell multiplication rates vary considerably under different culture condition and slight change in environment or composition of medium may affect the proliferation of cells significantly. For camel skin fibroblast cells, the standard multiplication rate and the population doubling time was not known earlier. In order to study the proliferative indices of the growing cells using objective parameters, MTT assay was conducted. In this assay, the dividing and viable cells take up MTT [3- (4,5- dimethylthiozol- 2yl) 2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide] and a colour is developed. The intensity of colour is measured by ELISA reader at 540-570 nm. For this, 4000 cells per well were seeded in 96 well ELISA plate (flat bottom, Nunc) and cultured at 37 deg. C. First two rows of eight wells each were kept as negative and positive controls respectively. Rest of the 10 rows were kept as treatments. One row was harvested at an interval of 24 hours and adjoining row was treated with MTT solution for 4 hours. The MTT treated cells were fixed in 10% DMSO. Figures 2 and 3 show that the cell proliferation index both in terms of cell count and absorbance values in ELISA reader at appropriate wavelength was similar. From this study it is clear that MTT assay can give fairly accurate figures of cell proliferation rate of skin fibroblasts. Ploidy level: During long-term culture, the cells are likely to develop one or other type of chromosomal abnormalities. It must be ensured that the cells in different passages are checked for normal ploidy so that the viable clones can be developed from them. In order to see the utility of cells from Jaiselmeri camel as nuclear donor, the chromosomal profile was studied following the protocol described elsewhere. The 2N chromosomes up to passage No 4 (15th population doubling) was found to be normal (74XY) in 97% of the cells. From these preliminary studies it appears that camel skin fibroblast cells behave normally in culture and can serve as nuclear donors.

  10. Treatment of Skin Avulsion Injuries with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

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    Hajime Matsumine, MD, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This report describes favorable outcomes in 9 patients with skin avulsion injuries of the extremities who underwent full-thickness skin grafting and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF application. Following removal of contaminated subcutaneous fat tissue on the inside of skin, the avulsed skin was processed into a full-thickness skin graft, with as much of the skin used as possible irrespective of damage. Several drainage holes (5–10?mm in diameter were made on the graft for drainage from the graft bed and to prevent seroma and hematoma formation. Genetically recombinant human bFGF was sprayed at a dose of 1 ?g/cm2 onto the graft bed, which was then covered with the graft and sutured. Pressure immobilization with ointment gauzes and elastic bandages was administered for 1 week postoperatively, and the surface of the skin grafts that did not take was scraped away, preserving the revascularized dermal component on the debrided raw surface as much as possible. bFGF was sprayed again onto the debrided surface to promote epithelialization. Wound closure was achieved in all cases with conservative therapy. The surgical procedure was effective in preventing postoperative ulcer formation and scar contracture and resulted in wound healing with the formation of good-quality, flexible scars.

  11. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid and arsenic trioxide regulate the productions and activities of matrix metalloproteinases in human skin fibroblasts and human leukemia cell line THP-1

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    Ya-hui Liang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In order to reveal the treatment mechanism of Chinese medicine with the effect of activating blood and resolving putridity, we selected acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA and arsenic trioxide (ATO, the main monomeric components of frankincense and arsenolite which are two most commonly used Chinese medicine with effect of activating blood and resolving putridity. We combined AKBA and ATO as a compound, and explored its regulatory role in productions and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human skin fibroblasts (HSFbs and human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 in inflammatory state.Methods: In order to simulate the inflammatory micro-environment of chronic wounds, we established 3 cell models: HSFb model activated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?, THP-1 cell model activated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA and HSFb-THP-1 cell coculture system. AKBA and ATO were cocultured with these cell models. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, gelatin zymography assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were used to test the secretions, activities and mRNA expressions of MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9. In the study of the regulatory mechanism of AKBA and ATO on MMPs, AKBA and ATO were cocultured with the cell models. ELISA was used to test the secretions of TNF-? and interleukin-1beta (IL-? and Western blot was used to test the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated proteinkinase (p38MAPK. Results: Compound of AKBA and ATO inhibited MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expressions, secretions and activities respectively in HSFbs and THP-1 cells in inflammatory state (P?0.05, P?0.01. Also compound of AKBA and ATO inhibited secretions of TNF-? and IL-1? in THP-1 cells and cell coculture system (P?0.01. It also decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in HSFbs and THP-1 cells (P?0.05, P?0.01. Conclusion: The combined use of AKBA and ATO which in line with the rule of activating blood and resolving putridity inhibits fibroblasts and inflammatory cells in producing MMPs in inflammatory state through inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors and MAPK cascade pathway.

  12. Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptides in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion

  13. Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts

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    Sheela, S.; Barrett, J.C.

    1985-02-01

    An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptides in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion.

  14. [The influence of Mycoplasma salivarium in the absence and presence of L-arginine on karyotypic variability in cell line of the Indian muntjak skin fibroblasts under long-term cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polianskaia, G G; Efremova, T N

    2010-01-01

    The influence of Mycoplasma salivarium on the numerical and structural karyotypic variability has been investigated in the "markerless" cell line of the Indian muntjak skin fibroblasts (line M) during long-term cultivation in the absence and presence of L-arginine. Cultivation of the mycoplasmal contaminated cells for 15 and 30 days did not change the character of cell distribution for the chromosome number. In the contaminated cells cultivated for 60 and 75 days, the character of cell distribution for the chromosome number was changed. These changes involved bimodal distribution for the chromosome number due to a significant decrease in the frequency of the cells with the modal number of chromosomes with main structural variant of karyotype (SVK)--2 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 1 and an increase in the frequency of cells with submodal number of chromosomes with main SVK--2 + 2 + 1 + 1. Besides, a significant increase in the frequency of the cells with lower chromosome number was observed in 60 days compared to that in 75 days of cultivation. Cultivation of the contaminated and control cells in the medium with increased concentration of L-arginine during 60 days did not change the numerical parameters relative to the control. Cultivation of the contaminated cells for 60 days followed by addition of L-arginine for 15 days restored the numerical parameters the numerical parameters to the control level. In the contaminated cells the frequency of chromosomal aberrations significantly increased for 30, 60 and 75 days cultivation relative to the control variant. In 30 days, the small but significant increase took place due to increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations of all the types. In 60 and 75 days, a greater increase took place due to a significant increase in the frequency of chromosomal and chromatid breaks. Moreover, in 60 days, the level of dicentrics (telomeric associations) mainly produced by chromosomes 1 and 2 increased significantly. The role of dicentrics as one of the ways for adaptation of the "markerless" cell lines to condition of cultivation and the role of L-arginine in the restoration of normal karyotypic structure of cell population of line M under mycoplasmal contamination are discussed. PMID:21427978

  15. Aluminum is More Cytotoxic than Lunar Dust in Human Skin and Lung Fibroblasts

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    Hammond, D.; Shehata, T.; Hammond, D.; Shehata, T.; Wise, J.P.; Martino, J; Wise, J.P.; Wise, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA plans to build a permanent space station on the moon to explore its surface. The surface of the moon is covered in lunar dust, which consists of fine particles that contain silicon, aluminum and titanium, among others. Because this will be a manned base, the potential toxicity of this dust has to be studied. Also, toxicity standards for potential exposure have to be set. To properly address the potential toxicity of lunar dust we need to understand the toxicity of its individual components, as well as their combined effects. In order to study this we compared NASA simulant JSC-1AVF (volcanic ash particles), that simulates the dust found on the moon, to aluminum, the 3rd most abundant component in lunar dust. We tested the cytotoxicity of both compounds on human lung and skin fibroblasts (WTHBF-6 and BJhTERT cell lines, respectively). Aluminum oxide was more cytotoxic than lunar dust to both cell lines. In human lung fibroblasts 5, 10 and 50 g/sq cm of aluminum oxide induced 85%, 61% and 30% relative survival, respectively. For human skin fibroblasts the same concentrations induced 58%, 41% and 58% relative survival. Lunar dust was also cytotoxic to both cell lines, but its effects were seen at higher concentrations: 50, 100, 200 and 400 g/sq cm of lunar dust induced a 69%, 46%, 35% and 30% relative survival in the skin cells and 53%, 16%, 8% and 2% on the lung cells. Overall, for both compounds, lung cells were more sensitive than skin cells. This work was supported by a NASA EPSCoR grant through the Maine Space Grant Consortium (JPW), the Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health., a Fulbright Grant (JM) and a Delta Kappa Gamma Society International World Fellowship (JM).

  16. The Level and Stability of Residual Catalase in Cultured Acatalasemic Skin Fibroblasts

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    Ogata, Masana; Fujii, Yasuhito; Meguro,Tadamichi; Kira, Shohei; Matsuda,Akira; Izushi,Fumio; Kimoto,Tetsuo; Takahara,Shigeo

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the level and heat stability of residual catalase in somatic cells of acatalasemic Japanese, skin fibroblasts from an acatalasemic subject were cultured, and the catalase activity of the cultured fibroblasts was compared with that of cultured normal fibroblasts. Catalase activity was determined using an oxygen electrode. The residual catalase activity in cultured acatalasemic fibroblasts was 10% of the normal. The heat stability at 55 degrees C of residual catalase ...

  17. Cloning of differentially expressed genes in skin fibroblasts from centenarians.

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    Chondrogianni, Niki; de C M Simoes, Davina; Franceschi, Claudio; Gonos, Efstathios S

    2004-01-01

    Normal human fibroblasts undergoing serial passaging have been extensively used to identify genes linked with aging. Most of the isolated genes relate to growth retardation signals and the failure of homeostasis that accompanies aging and senescence. In contrast, there is still limited knowledge regarding the nature of the genes that influence positively the rate of aging and longevity. Healthy centenarians represent the best example of successful aging and longevity. Studies using samples from these individuals have proved very valuable for identifying a variety of factors that contribute to successful aging. The aim of the current work was to take advantage of skin fibroblast cultures established from healthy donors including centenarians in order to clone differentially expressed genes in centenarians. First, we demonstrate that centenarian derived cultures follow the typical Hayflick curve and they enter senescence after serial passaging. Application of differential screening techniques in minimally passaged cultures of four control donors of different ages (18-80 years old) and four centenarians has resulted in the cloning of six differentially expressed genes in centenarians. Four of the cloned genes, namely adlican, KBL, EST 38 and EST 39, were over-expressed in centenarians, while VDUP1 and OCIF were down-regulated in the same samples. We have also compared the expression levels of two representative cloned genes in cultures of human embryonic and adult fibroblasts to establish potential links with replicative senescence. Interestingly, VDUP1 was found over-expressed in late passage cells, while EST 39 was down-regulated in the same cultures. Thus our work demonstrates that a combination of the use of both biopsies derived cells and classical in vitro cells passaging will facilitate the better understanding of the biology of aging and longevity. PMID:15609104

  18. A Marfan syndrome gene expression phenotype in cultured skin fibroblasts

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    Emond Mary

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marfan syndrome (MFS is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. This syndrome constitutes a significant identifiable subtype of aortic aneurysmal disease, accounting for over 5% of ascending and thoracic aortic aneurysms. Results We used spotted membrane DNA macroarrays to identify genes whose altered expression levels may contribute to the phenotype of the disease. Our analysis of 4132 genes identified a subset with significant expression differences between skin fibroblast cultures from unaffected controls versus cultures from affected individuals with known fibrillin-1 mutations. Subsequently, 10 genes were chosen for validation by quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusion Differential expression of many of the validated genes was associated with MFS samples when an additional group of unaffected and MFS affected subjects were analyzed (p-value -6 under the null hypothesis that expression levels in cultured fibroblasts are unaffected by MFS status. An unexpected observation was the range of individual gene expression. In unaffected control subjects, expression ranges exceeding 10 fold were seen in many of the genes selected for qRT-PCR validation. The variation in expression in the MFS affected subjects was even greater.

  19. Glutamine synthetase is essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, T; Görg, B; Vogl, T; Wolf, M; Varga, G; Toutain, A; Paul, R; Schliess, F; Häussinger, D; Häberle, J

    2008-10-01

    Background. Glutamine synthetase (GS) is ubiquitously expressed in the human and plays a major role for many metabolic pathways. However, little is known about its role during the fetal period. Methods. Cultured skin fibroblasts derived from an aborted fetus deficient in GS activity due to a R324C exchange as well as fetal and mature controls were used to determine the level of GS-expression, apoptosis, and proliferation in presence or absence of exogenous glutamine. Results. Glutamine synthetase can be found at early gestational stages. Loss of GS activity either inherited or induced through l-methionine sulfoximine leads to an upregulation of the GS protein but not of the GS mRNA and results in a significant drop in the proliferation rate but has no effect on apoptosis. Exogenous glutamine does not influence the rate of apoptosis but increases proliferation rates of the fetal but not the mature fibroblasts. Conclusion. GS can be found during early human fetal stages when it displays a significant effect on cell proliferation. PMID:18662667

  20. Radiation effects on the concentration of SOD and cathepsin D activities in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with 60Co ?-ray 10 Gy?40 Gy. After one hour, the concentration of the oxygen free radicals increased significantly, the activity of SOD in cultured fibroblasts decreased markedly, and the activity of cathepsin D increased significantly. These changes related with the dose. when the radiation dose within the range of 0?40 Gy, the the concentration of the oxygen free radicals related with the activity of SOD and cathepsin D in cultured sin fibroblasts

  1. Establishment and biological characteristics of Ujumqin sheep fibroblast line

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Ri Su; Zhao, Qian Jun; Jin, Da Peng; Su, Xiao Hua; Chen, Xian Wei; Guan, Wei Jun; Ma, Yue Hui

    2010-01-01

    A Ujumqin sheep ear marginal tissue (USEM) fibroblast line, frozen in 147 cryovials with 4 × 106 cell each, was successfully established from 33 Ujumqin sheep ear marginal tissues using explant culture and cryopreservation techniques. The cells were morphologically consistent with fibroblasts. The growth curve was typical S-shape and the cell population passed through a lag phase, a logarithmic phase and a plateau phase. The population doubling time (PDT) was approximately 72 h. Tests for bac...

  2. Mutagenic effects of alpha particles in normal human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-irradiation to the bronchial airways from inhaled radon progeny increases the risk of developing lung cancer. The molecular mechanism of radon-induced lung cancer is not clear, but one of the most important genetic effects of ionizing radiation is the induction of gene mutation. Mutations, especially those associated with visible chromosome abnormalities in humans, have been associated with cancer. Therefore, our objective is to use a well-defined model system to determine the mutagenic potential of alpha particles in normal human skin cells and to define this action at the molecular level. Normal human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with alpha particles (3.59 MeV, LET 115 keV ?m-1) emitted from the decay of 238Pu. Mutagenicity was determined at the X-linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus. Results from this study indicate that beta particles were more efficient in mutation induction than gamma rays. Based on the initial slopes of the dose-response curves, the RBE for mutation is about 8 for alpha particles. HPRT-deficient mutants which are resistant to 6-thioguanine have been isolated and analyzed by the Southern blot technique. To date, we have characterized 69 gamma-ray-induced and 195 alpha-particle-induced HPRT-deficient mutants. Our data indicate that more than 50% of all gamma-ray-induced mutants have band patterns identical to that observed for the normal structural HPRT gene, whereas the remaining mutants (45%) contain either a rearrangement, partial deletion, or total deletion of the HPRT gene. In contrast, only 30% of alpha-particle-induced human HPRT mutants contain a normal Southern blot pattern, and about 50% indicate total deletion of the HPRT gene. Our results support the notion that high-LET radiation produces more unrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage than do gamma rays

  3. Study of superoxide dismutase mechanisms of action on fibrosis myo-fibroblasts cultured in a reconstituted skin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibrosis of the skin is frequently observed after therapeutic and accidental irradiations. In order to better understand the mechanisms leading to skin fibrosis, we tried to characterize the differences between normal and fibrotic fibroblasts isolated from pig skin. (authors)

  4. Constituents from the roots of Taraxacum platycarpum and their effect on proliferation of human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Umehara, Kaoru; Miyase, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    A MeOH extract from the roots of Taraxacum platycarpum has shown significant effects on the proliferation of normal human skin fibroblasts. Chemical analysis of the extract resulted in the isolation of 26 compounds, including eight new triterpenes, one new sesquiterpene glycoside, and seventeen known compounds. The structure of each new compound was established using NMR spectroscopy. Some triterpenes had a significant effect on the proliferation of normal human skin fibroblasts. PMID:22293479

  5. Heme oxygenase 1 mediates an adaptive response to oxidative stress in human skin fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Vile, G F; Basu-Modak, S; Waltner, C; Tyrrell, R M

    1994-01-01

    Oxidative stress of human skin fibroblasts by treatment with ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation has been shown to lead to an increase in levels of the heme catabolizing enzyme heme oxygenase 1 [heme, hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (alpha-methene-oxidizing, hydroxylating), EC 1.14.99.3] and the iron storage protein ferritin. Here we show that human skin fibroblasts, preirradiated with UVA, sustain less membrane damage during a subsequent exposure to UVA radiation than cells that had not been ...

  6. In vitro culture of skin fibroblast cells for potential cloning by nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donor cell lines were developed from skin tissue for the conservation of the endangered Jaiselmeri camel breed of India. Average cell proliferation rates varied from 0.82 to 0.69 in different passages, and population doubling time from 29.3 h to 34.8 h. Around 15 population doublings were accomplished during this culturing. Cell viability was 97 to 99% in different passages. Growth curves of cells from the JC-5 cell line reached a plateau on day 7, while the slower-growing cultures of JC-3 showed elevation even on day 10, possibly due to donor age differences. Cell proliferation rates by both cell count and MTT absorbance showed similar patterns, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79. MTT assay, a colorimetric method, can handle large samples in somatic cell cultures. Diploid chromosomal counts in passages 1, 3 and 5 were normal (2N=74, XY) in 97% of the cells. Occasional metaphase plates showed polyploidy. The present baseline data on standard growth curve, linear relationship in colorimetric assay for estimation of cell proliferation rate, and normal ploidy and karyological levels in camel skin fibroblast cells in multiplication could be useful in developing competent donor somatic cell lines for conservation now and revival of this camel breed by cloning in the future. (author)

  7. Collagen Fragmentation Promotes Oxidative Stress and Elevates Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Fibroblasts in Aged Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Gary J.; Quan, Taihao; Purohit, Trupta; SHAO, YUAN; Cho, Moon Kyun; He, TianYuan; Varani, James; Kang, Sewon; John J. Voorhees

    2009-01-01

    Aged human skin is fragile because of fragmentation and loss of type I collagen fibrils, which confer strength and resiliency. We report here that dermal fibroblasts express increased levels of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) in aged (>80 years old) compared with young (21 to 30 years old) human skin in vivo. Transcription factor AP-1 and ?2?1 integrin, which are key regulators of MMP-1 expression, are also elevated in fibroblasts in aged human skin in vivo. MMP-1 treat...

  8. Fibroblast heterogeneity and its implications for engineering organotypic skin models in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Gopu; Bigliardi, Paul Lorenz; Bigliardi-Qi, Mei

    2015-11-01

    Advances in cell culture methods, multidisciplinary research, clinical need to replace lost skin tissues and regulatory need to replace animal models with alternative test methods has led to development of three dimensional models of human skin. In general, these in vitro models of skin consist of keratinocytes cultured over fibroblast-populated dermal matrices. Accumulating evidences indicate that mesenchyme-derived signals are essential for epidermal morphogenesis, homeostasis and differentiation. Various studies show that fibroblasts isolated from different tissues in the body are dynamic in nature and are morphologically and functionally heterogeneous subpopulations. Further, these differences seem to be dictated by the local biological and physical microenvironment the fibroblasts reside resulting in "positional identity or memory". Furthermore, the heterogeneity among the fibroblasts play a critical role in scarless wound healing and complete restoration of native tissue architecture in fetus and oral mucosa; and excessive scar formation in diseased states like keloids and hypertrophic scars. In this review, we summarize current concepts about the heterogeneity among fibroblasts and their role in various wound healing environments. Further, we contemplate how the insights on fibroblast heterogeneity could be applied for the development of next generation organotypic skin models. PMID:26344860

  9. Senescent phenotypes of skin fibroblasts from patients with Tangier disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangier disease (TD) is characterized by a deficiency of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma and patients with TD have an increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Recently, we reported that fibroblasts from TD exhibited large and flattened morphology, which is often observed in senescent cells. On the other hand, data have accumulated to show the relationship between cellular senescence and development of atherosclerotic CAD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether TD fibroblasts exhibited cellular senescence. The proliferation of TD fibroblasts was gradually decreased at population doubling level (PDL) ?10 compared with control cells. TD cells practically ceased proliferation at PDL ?30. DNA synthesis was markedly decreased in TD fibroblasts. TD cells exhibited a higher positive rate for senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal), which is one of the biomarkers of cellular senescence in vitro. These data showed that TD cells reached cellular senescence at an earlier PDL compared with controls. Although, there was no difference in the telomere length of fibroblasts between TD and controls at the earlier passage (PDL 6), the telomere length of TD cells was shorter than that of controls at the late passage (PDL 25). Taken together, the current study demonstrates that the late-passaged TD fibroblasts showed senescent phenotype in vitro, which might be related to the increased cardiovascular manifestations in TD patients

  10. Modification of intracellular glucose metabolism in human skin fibroblast preincubated with p-chlorophenoxyisobutyrate.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishide, T; Shirai, K; Y. Saito; Yoshida, S

    1987-01-01

    1. The effect of p-chlorophenoxyisobutyrate (CPIB) on glucose metabolism human skin fibroblasts was examined. 2. CPIB increased the incorporation of 2-deoxy-D-[U-14C]glucose into skin fibroblasts. 3. CPIB decreased [14C]CO2 production from D-[U-14C]glucose but did not affect pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. 4. CPIB reduced fatty acid oxidation activity and cholesterol synthesis but increased triglyceride synthesis. 5. These effects of CPIB were observed both in the presence and in the absence...

  11. Normal skin and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts differentially regulate collagen and fibronectin expression as well as mitochondrial membrane potential in response to basic fibroblast growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Song

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF regulates skin wound healing; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be defined. In the present study, we determined the effects of bFGF on the regulation of cell growth as well as collagen and fibronectin expression in fibroblasts from normal human skin and from hypertrophic scars. We then explored the involvement of mitochondria in mediating bFGF-inducedeffects on the fibroblasts. We isolated and cultivated normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts from tissue biopsies of patients who underwent plastic surgery for repairing hypertrophic scars. The fibroblasts were then treated with different concentrations of bFGF (ranging from 0.1 to 1000 ng/mL. The growth of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts became slower with selective inhibition of type I collagen production after exposure to bFGF. However, type III collagen expression was affected in both normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. Moreover, fibronectin expression in the normal fibroblasts was up-regulated after bFGF treatment. bFGF (1000 ng/mL also induced mitochondrial depolarization in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (P < 0.01. The cellular ATP level decreased in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (P < 0.05, while it increased in the normal fibroblasts following treatment with bFGF (P < 0.01. These data suggest that bFGF has differential effects and mechanisms on fibroblasts of the normal skin and hypertrophic scars, indicating that bFGF may play a role in the early phase of skin wound healing and post-burn scar formation.

  12. Influence of caffeine and hyaluronic acid on collagen biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donejko M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Magdalena Donejko,1 Andrzej Przylipiak,1 Edyta Rysiak,2 Katarzyna G?uszuk,2 Arkadiusz Sura?y?ski2 1Department of Esthetic Medicine, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Bia?ystok, Bia?ystok, Poland Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on collagen biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts and the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA on this process. Materials and methods: Collagen, [3H]-thymidine incorporation, and prolidase activity were measured in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that had been treated with 1, 2, and 5 mM caffeine and with caffeine and 500 µg/mL HA. Western immunoblot analysis was performed to evaluate expression of ß1-integrin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor phospho-Akt protein and mitogen-activated protein kinase (phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Results: Caffeine inhibited collagen biosynthesis in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of this process was found at the level of prolidase activity. Caffeine significantly inhibited the enzyme activity. The addition of HA had no effect on collagen biosynthesis or prolidase activity in fibroblasts incubated with caffeine. Caffeine also had an inhibitory effect on DNA biosynthesis. HA, however, did not have any significant effect on this process. The inhibition of the expression of ß1-integrin and insulin-like growth factor receptor in fibroblasts incubated with the caffeine indicates a possible mechanism of inhibition of collagen biosynthesis. Conclusion: Caffeine reduces collagen synthesis in human cultured skin fibroblasts. HA did not have any significant protective effect on this process. This is the first study to our knowledge that reports caffeine-induced inhibition of collagen synthesis in human skin fibroblasts. Keywords: collagen, caffeine, hyaluronic acid, fibroblast

  13. Normal skin and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts differentially regulate collagen and fibronectin expression as well as mitochondrial membrane potential in response to basic fibroblast growth factor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rui, Song; Hui-Ning, Bian; Wen, Lai; Hua-De, Chen; Ke-Seng, Zhao.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) regulates skin wound healing; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be defined. In the present study, we determined the effects of bFGF on the regulation of cell growth as well as collagen and fibronectin expression in fibroblasts from normal human skin a [...] nd from hypertrophic scars. We then explored the involvement of mitochondria in mediating bFGF-inducedeffects on the fibroblasts. We isolated and cultivated normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts from tissue biopsies of patients who underwent plastic surgery for repairing hypertrophic scars. The fibroblasts were then treated with different concentrations of bFGF (ranging from 0.1 to 1000 ng/mL). The growth of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts became slower with selective inhibition of type I collagen production after exposure to bFGF. However, type III collagen expression was affected in both normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. Moreover, fibronectin expression in the normal fibroblasts was up-regulated after bFGF treatment. bFGF (1000 ng/mL) also induced mitochondrial depolarization in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (P

  14. Effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor on the proliferation and radiation survival of human fibroblast cell lines in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Sook; Kang, Ki Mun; Na, Jae Boem; Chai, Gyu Young [Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Wook [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To explore the effect of recombinant human EGF on the proliferation and survival of human fibroblast cell lines following irradiation. Fibroblast was originated human skin and primary cultured. The trypan blue stain assay and MTT assay were used to study the proliferative effects of EGF on human fibroblast cell lines in vitro. An incubation of fibroblasts with rhEGF for 24 hours immediately after irradiation was counted everyday. Cell cycle distributions were analyzed by FACS analysis. Number of fibroblast was significant more increased rhEGF (1.0 nM, 10 nM, 100 nM, 1,000 nM) treated cell than control after 8 Gy irradiation. Most effective dose of rhEGF was at 160 nM. These survival differences were maintained at 1 week later. Proportion of S phase was significantly increased on rhEGF treated cells. rhEGF cause increased fibroblast proliferation following irradiation. We expect that rhEGF was effective for radiation induced wound healing.

  15. Multi-layered culture of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes through three-dimensional freeform fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhye; Debasitis, Jason Cushing; Lee, Vivian Kim; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Fischer, Krisztina; Edminster, Karl; Park, Je-Kyun; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2009-03-01

    We present a method to create multi-layered engineered tissue composites consisting of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes which mimic skin layers. Three-dimensional (3D) freeform fabrication (FF) technique, based on direct cell dispensing, was implemented using a robotic platform that prints collagen hydrogel precursor, fibroblasts and keratinocytes. A printed layer of cell-containing collagen was crosslinked by coating the layer with nebulized aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The process was repeated in layer-by-layer fashion on a planar tissue culture dish, resulting in two distinct cell layers of inner fibroblasts and outer keratinocytes. In order to demonstrate the ability to print and culture multi-layered cell-hydrogel composites on a non-planar surface for potential applications including skin wound repair, the technique was tested on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold with 3D surface contours as a target substrate. Highly viable proliferation of each cell layer was observed on both planar and non-planar surfaces. Our results suggest that organotypic skin tissue culture is feasible using on-demand cell printing technique with future potential application in creating skin grafts tailored for wound shape or artificial tissue assay for disease modeling and drug testing. PMID:19108884

  16. Establishment of the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines and their application in chemical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, Michael; Whitworth, Deanne; Schirmer, Kristin; Nash, Susan Bengtson

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the first successful derivation and characterization of humpback whale fibroblast cell lines. Primary fibroblasts were isolated from the dermal connective tissue of skin biopsies, cultured at 37°C and 5% CO2 in the standard mammalian medium DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Of nine initial biopsies, two cell lines were established from two different animals and designated HuWa1 and HuWa2. The cells have a stable karyotype with 2n=44, which has commonly been observed in other baleen whale species. Cells were verified as being fibroblasts based on their spindle-shaped morphology, adherence to plastic and positive immunoreaction to vimentin. Population doubling time was determined to be ?41h and cells were successfully cryopreserved and thawed. To date, HuWa1 cells have been propagated 30 times. Cells proliferate at the tested temperatures, 30, 33.5 and 37°C, but show the highest rate of proliferation at 37°C. Short-term exposure to para,para'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), a priority compound accumulating in southern hemisphere humpback whales, resulted in a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability. The effective concentration which caused a 50% reduction in HuWa1 cell viability (EC50 value) was approximately six times greater than the EC50 value for the same chemical measured with human dermal fibroblasts. HuWa1 exposed to a natural, p,p'-DDE-containing, chemical mixture extracted from whale blubber showed distinctively higher sensitivity than to p,p'-DDE alone. Thus, we provide the first cytotoxicological data for humpback whales and with establishment of the HuWa cell lines, a unique in vitro model for the study of the whales' sensitivity and cellular response to chemicals and other environmental stressors. PMID:26363275

  17. Circadian clocks in rat skin and dermal fibroblasts: differential effects of aging, temperature and melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Cristina; Liu, Taole; Malan, André; Challet, Etienne; Pévet, Paul; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule

    2015-06-01

    As a peripheral tissue localized at the interface between internal and external environments, skin performs functions which are critical for the preservation of body homeostasis, in coordination with environmental changes. Some of these functions undergo daily variations, such as temperature or water loss, suggesting the presence of time-keeping mechanisms. Rhythmic functions are controlled by a network of circadian oscillators present virtually in every cell and coordinated by the central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. At the molecular level, circadian rhythms are generated by conserved transcriptional-translational feedback loops involving several clock genes, among which Per1 and Per2 play a central role. Here we characterize clock activity in skin of the transgenic Per1-luciferase rat during postnatal development and adulthood, by real-time recording of bioluminescence in explants and primary dermal fibroblasts, and report marked transformation in circadian properties, from early life to aging. Using primary dermal fibroblast cultures we provide evidence that melatonin treatment phase dependently increases the amplitude of circadian oscillations and that ambient temperature impacts on their period, with slight overcompensation. Together, these findings demonstrate that skin contains a self-sustained circadian clock undergoing age-dependent changes. Dermal fibroblasts, one of the major skin cell types, also exhibit robust, yet specific, circadian rhythmicity which can be fine-tuned by both internal (melatonin) and external (temperature) factors. PMID:25563487

  18. Relationship between the in vitro radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts and the expression of subcutaneous fibrosis, telangiectasia, and skin erythema after radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J; Bentzen, SØren M

    1996-01-01

    To investigate if the occurrence of subcutaneous fibrosis after radiotherapy in an unselected group of breast cancer patients is related to cellular radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts as measured in a clonogenic assay.

  19. Protective effect of maghemite nanoparticles on ultraviolet-induced photo-damage in human skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwon-Jai; An, Jeung-Hee; Shin, Jae-Soo; Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Changman; Ozaki, Hajime; Koh, Jae-Gui

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the optical properties of an oxidized form of maghemite (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles and their protective effects against the photoaging of human skin fibroblasts irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 8.7 to 12 nm were prepared using a chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were coated with two surfactants to obtain a water-based product. The onset of the absorption of the ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in the UV-visible absorption spectra increased with increasing particle size. The ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles significantly inhibited the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblast HS 68 cells by 60% compared with the UV-irradiated control. These results suggest that ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have photoprotective properties, and have potential use as an agent against photoaging.

  20. Increased collagen production in fibroblasts cultured from irradiated skin and effect of TGF ?1– clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Illsley, M C; Peacock, J. H.; McAnulty, R. J.; Yarnold, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Fibrosis in normal tissues is a common and dose-limiting late complication of radiotherapy at many cancer sites, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. We undertook a controlled study of the effect of irradiation on the collagen production of fibroblasts cultured from skin biopsies taken from patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment. Eight weeks after a single 8 Gy fraction using 300 kV X-rays, five patients treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital underwent biopsy of the irradiated site a...

  1. Oxidant stress leads to transcriptional activation of the human heme oxygenase gene in cultured skin fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Keyse, S M; Applegate, L. A.; Tromvoukis, Y; Tyrrell, R M

    1990-01-01

    Treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with near-UV radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induces accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA and protein. In this study, these treatments led to a dramatic increase in the rate of RNA transcription from the heme oxygenase gene but had no effect on mRNA stability. Transcriptional activation, therefore, appears to be the major mechanism of stimulation of expression of this gene by either oxidative stress or sulfydryl reagents.

  2. Oxidant stress leads to transcriptional activation of the human heme oxygenase gene in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with near-UV radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induces accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA and protein. In this study, these treatments led to a dramatic increase in the rate of RNA transcription from the heme oxygenase gene but had no effect on mRNA stability. Transcriptional activation, therefore, appears to be the major mechanism of stimulation of expression of this gene by either oxidative stress or sulfydryl reagents

  3. Curcumin-induced hormetic effects in human skin fibroblasts : implications toward anti-ageing interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Cristóvão F.; Wilson, Cristina Pereira; Rattan, S. I. S.

    2011-01-01

    Ageing is associated with decreased cellular antioxidant defenses and with reduced ability to induce stress responses. We have tested the curcumin-induced hormetic stimulation of cellular stress responses in normal human skin fibroblasts, and associate those with potential anti-ageing effects. Curcumin incubation for 24h induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein levels, GST activity, GSH levels and GSH/GSSG ratio. These effects were preceded in the first hours of incubation by induction of oxid...

  4. Human Skin Collagenase in Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa: PURIFICATION OF A MUTANT ENZYME FROM FIBROBLAST CULTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Stricklin, George P.; Welgus, Howard G.; Bauer, Eugene A.

    1982-01-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, a genodermatosis characterized by dermolytic blister formation in response to minor trauma, is characterized by an incresaed collagenase synthesis by skin fibroblasts in culture. Since preliminary studies of partially purified recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa collagenase suggested that the protein itself was aberrant, efforts were made to purify this enzyme to homogeneity, so that detailed biochemical and immunologic comparisons could be m...

  5. Recovery from UV-induced potentially lethal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repair of ultraviolet light-induced potentially lethal damage was investigated in density-inhibited skin fibroblast cell strains derived from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The effect of exposure to polychromatic ultraviolet light composed of environmentally relevant wavelengths or to the more commonly studied, short wavelength (254 nm) ultraviolet light was studied. Systemic lupus erythematosus cells, which are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light under growth promoting conditions, were able to repair potentially lethal damage as well as normal cells. (author)

  6. Recovery from UV-induced potentially lethal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamansky, G.B.

    1986-08-01

    The repair of ultraviolet light-induced potentially lethal damage was investigated in density-inhibited skin fibroblast cell strains derived from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The effect of exposure to polychromatic ultraviolet light composed of environmentally relevant wavelengths or to the more commonly studied, short wavelength (254 nm) ultraviolet light was studied. Systemic lupus erythematosus cells, which are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light under growth promoting conditions, were able to repair potentially lethal damage as well as normal cells.

  7. Sustained systemic delivery of monoclonal antibodies by genetically modified skin fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noël, D; Pelegrin, M; Brockly, F; Lund, Anders Henrik; Piechaczyk, M

    2000-01-01

    In vivo production and systemic delivery of therapeutic antibodies by engineered cells might advantageously replace injection of purified antibodies for treating a variety of life-threatening diseases, including cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and autoimmune diseases. We report here that skin fibroblasts retrovirally transduced to express immunoglobulin genes can be used for sustained long-term systemic delivery of cloned antibodies in immunocompetent mice. Importantly, no anti- idio...

  8. The effect of ursolic and oleanolic acids on human skin fibroblast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Donica; Piotr Niedziela; Anna Matysik-Wo?niak; Roman Paduch; Magdalena Wójciak-Kosior

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we look at how ursolic and oleanolic acids can be used for the purpose of quality control of natural products used in dermatocosmetology as well as of various other therapeutic preparations. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are pentacyclic triterpenes and they are constituents of many medicinal herbs. In this study, we analyzed the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity of OA and UA against normal human skin fibroblasts (HSF). Additionally, the scavenging activity...

  9. Bone Marrow Cell Transfer into Fetal Circulation Can Ameliorate Genetic Skin Diseases by Providing Fibroblasts to the Skin and Inducing Immune Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Chino, Takenao; Tamai, Katsuto; Yamazaki, Takehiko; Otsuru, Satoru; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Nimura, Keisuke; Endo, Masayuki; Nagai, Miki; Uitto, Jouni; Kitajima, Yasuo; Kaneda,Yasufumi

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that skin injury recruits bone marrow-derived fibroblasts (BMDFs) to the site of injury to accelerate tissue repair. However, whether uninjured skin can recruit BMDFs to maintain skin homeostasis remains uncertain. Here, we investigated the appearance of BMDFs in normal mouse skin after embryonic bone marrow cell transplantation (E-BMT) with green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cells (GFP-BMCs) via the vitelline vein, which traverses the uterine wall and ...

  10. Respective effects of glucose and glutamine on the glutamine synthetase activity of human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, T; Wolfrom, C; Guerroui, S; Raynaud, N; Poggi, J; Moatti, N; Gautier, M

    1991-04-10

    The activity of Glutamine Synthetase (GS) was measured during the growth of human diploid skin fibroblasts cultured for three weeks in the presence or absence of either glucose or glutamine or both. In medium free of both glucose and glutamine, a single late peak in GS activity was observed concomitantly with delayed small cell protein increment. In all media containing either glucose or glutamine or both. GS activity rose sharply during rapid cell growth, displayed a plateau, and then decreased once the cells had reached confluency. The variations in extracellular amino acid levels were also determined and were found to depend on the composition of the medium but not on the cell culture duration. These results demonstrate, for the first time as far as we know, that strong GS activity is present in rapidly growing skin fibroblasts. In contrast to many other mammalian cell types, GS activity in human skin fibroblasts appears not to be subject to regulation by extracellular glutamine. This difference may well be connected with cell differentiation. PMID:1679192

  11. Radiosensitivity of fibroblasts obtained from a cafe-au-lait spot and normal-appearing skin of a patient with neurofibromatosis (NF-6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblast cells derived from a cafe-au-lait spot and normal-appearing skin of a neurofibromatosis (NF-6) patient were studied for radiosensitivity in comparison with two normal cell lines used as controls. No difference in radiosensitivity was observed between the patient's cell lines and the controls using acute gamma-irradiation. However, a markedly increased radiosensitivity of the fibroblasts obtained from the patient's skin of normal appearance was demonstrated after chronic gamma-irradiation. The cells from the cafe-au-lait spot showed intermediate sensitivity to chronic irradiation as compared with the control cell lines and the fibroblasts derived from the normal skin of the patient. These results showed the usefulness of chronic irradiation in detecting increased cellular radiosensitivity which may result from a unique DNA repair defect in an NF patient. We suggest that enhanced genetic changes in radiosensitive NF patients may lead to formation of cafe-au-lait lesions and certain tumors. Such a transformation may be associated with production of radiotolerant cells

  12. Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated the interaction of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)2D [1,25(OH)2D]. They analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. The following four patterns of interaction with [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 were observed with cells cultured from affected patients. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)2D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds

  13. Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberman, U.A.; Eil, C.; Marx, S.J.

    1983-02-01

    We evaluated the interaction of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)/sub 2/D (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D). We analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer containing 300 mM KCl and 10 mM sodium molybdate. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds.

  14. Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberman, U.A.; Eil, C.; Marx, S.J.

    1983-02-01

    The authors evaluated the interaction of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)/sub 2/D (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D). They analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. The following four patterns of interaction with (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 were observed with cells cultured from affected patients. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)/sup 2/D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds.

  15. Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the interaction of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)2D [1,25(OH)2D]. We analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer containing 300 mM KCl and 10 mM sodium molybdate. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)2D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds

  16. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2014-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 ?g/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 ?g/ml) and ?-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 ?g/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 ?M) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 ?g/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic. PMID:24602819

  17. Human skin keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts contain distinct circadian clock machineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Cristina; Dumas, Marc; Malan, André; Sambakhe, Diariétou; Marteau, Clarisse; Nizard, Carine; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Perrier, Eric; Challet, Etienne; Pévet, Paul; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule

    2012-10-01

    Skin acts as a barrier between the environment and internal organs and performs functions that are critical for the preservation of body homeostasis. In mammals, a complex network of circadian clocks and oscillators adapts physiology and behavior to environmental changes by generating circadian rhythms. These rhythms are induced in the central pacemaker and peripheral tissues by similar transcriptional-translational feedback loops involving clock genes. In this work, we investigated the presence of functional oscillators in the human skin by studying kinetics of clock gene expression in epidermal and dermal cells originating from the same donor and compared their characteristics. Primary cultures of fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and melanocytes were established from an abdominal biopsy and expression of clock genes following dexamethasone synchronization was assessed by qPCR. An original mathematical method was developed to analyze simultaneously up to nine clock genes. By fitting the oscillations to a common period, the phase relationships of the genes could be determined accurately. We thereby show the presence of functional circadian machinery in each cell type. These clockworks display specific periods and phase relationships between clock genes, suggesting regulatory mechanisms that are particular to each cell type. Taken together, our data demonstrate that skin has a complex circadian organization. Oscillators are present not only in fibroblasts but also in epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes and are likely to act in coordination to drive rhythmic functions within the skin. PMID:22627494

  18. Spontaneous in vitro malignant transformation in a xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblast line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, H W; Fischer, E; Dzarlieva, R T; Komitowski, D; Popanda, O; Edler, L

    1983-06-15

    This paper deals with a spontaneous malignant transformation in one of our XP fibroblast lines. This cell line, designated XP29MA, was derived from a 14-year-old boy who did not show skin tumors or precancerous alterations either at the time of clinical examination or when the biopsy was taken. We have compared the following features in both the malignant and the benign cell line from which the malignant line developed: tumor formation in nude mice, repair capacity, cytogenetic status, light and electron microscopic characteristics. The benign cell line XP29MA had a doubling time of 4.3 d, did not form tumors in nude mice, showed a very low repair capacity (as determined by colony-forming ability, unscheduled DNA synthesis and alkaline elution) but exhibited a normal cytogenetic and ultrastructural status. In contrast, the transformed cell line XP29MAmal grew three times faster, formed colonies in methyl cellulose, gave rise to fibrosarcomas in nude mice, showed a drastically higher repair capacity, and was characterized by an extreme genetic imbalance, resulting from numerical and structural chromosome alterations of Nos. 1, 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, 17, 18, 20 and 21. Ultrastructural examination revealed fusiform and polygonal cells, the latter exhibiting large indented nuclei, vesicular dilatations of the endoplasmatic reticulum and numerous lysosomes. The higher repair capacity in XP29MAmal cells is tentatively explained in terms of reversion, enhancement of post-replication repair and/or expression of SOS-type functions. PMID:6862680

  19. Mechanism of choline deficiency and membrane alteration in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome primary skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Laila C; Singh, Ratnesh K; Michel, Vera; Zeisel, Steven H; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Johnson, Amy R; Mudd, Harvey S; Bakovic, Marica

    2015-05-01

    Fibroblasts from a patient with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), who presented with low plasma choline and betaine, were studied to determine the metabolic characteristics of the choline deficiency. Choline is required for the synthesis of the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) and for betaine, an important osmoregulator. Here, choline transport, lipid homeostasis, and mitochondria function were analyzed in skin fibroblasts from POTS and compared with control cells. The choline transporter-like protein 1/solute carrier 44A1 (CTL1/SLC44A1) and mRNA expression were 2-3 times lower in POTS fibroblasts, and choline uptake was reduced 60% (P Choline deficiency also impaired mitochondria function, which was observed by a reduction in oxygen consumption, mitochondrial potential, and glycolytic activity. When POTS cells were treated with choline, transporter was up-regulated, and uptake of choline increased, offering an option for patient treatment. The characteristics of the POTS fibroblasts described here represent a first model of choline and CTL1/SLC44A1 deficiency, in which choline transport, membrane homeostasis, and mitochondrial function are impaired. PMID:25466896

  20. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18-2 evokes chromosomal instability and transforms primary rat skin fibroblasts

    KAUST Repository

    Kashuba, Elena

    2015-05-12

    We have shown earlier that overexpression of the human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPS18-2 (S18-2) led to immortalization of primary rat embryonic fibroblasts. The derived cells expressed the embryonic stem cell markers, and cellular pathways that control cell proliferation, oxidative phosphorylation, cellular respiration, and other redox reactions were activated in the immortalized cells. Here we report that, upon overexpression of S18-2 protein, primary rat skin fibroblasts underwent cell transformation. Cells passed more than 300 population doublings, and two out of three tested clones gave rise to tumors in experimental animals. Transformed cells showed anchorage-independent growth and loss of contact inhibition; they expressed epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and ?-catenin. Transformed cells showed increased telomerase activity, disturbance of the cell cycle, and chromosomal instability. Taken together, our data suggest that S18-2 is a newly identified oncoprotein that may be involved in cancerogenesis.

  1. Differentiation state of skin fibroblast cultures versus risk of subcutaneous fibrosis after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: There is increasing evidence for patient-to-patient variation in the response of normal tissue to radiotherapy. Recently, it has been suggested that accumulation of functional fibrocytes may be a key step in the development of radiation-induced fibrosis. Therefore, we have examined a possible relationship between the differentiation state of untreated fibroblasts and the risk of radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis in individual patients. Materials and methods: We used skin fibroblast cultures isolated from eight postmastectomy radiotherapy patients whose individual clinical radiosensitivity was assessed by the mean excess risk of fibrosis. Different types of potentially mitotic progenitor fibroblasts (MF) and postmitotic functional fibrocytes (PMF) in the terminal differentiation lineage (MFI approaches MFII approaches MFIII approaches PMF) were scored morphologically in clonal culture. Progression of differentiation was quantified by the ratio L/E of colony-forming late (MFIII and late MFII) and early (MFI and early MFII) progenitors. Results: We observed a correlation between the ratio L/E and the mean risk of fibrosis (rS=0.743, P=0.03), indicating an approximately 10-fold increase in L/E with an increasing risk of fibrosis. This was paralleled by a decreasing trend in the absolute numbers of early progenitor types. By contrast, there was no significant correlation between the plating efficiency and the risk of fibrosis. Conclusions: The data suggest that the risk of fibrosis increases with the progression of the differentiation of untreated progenitor fibroblasts, indicating that the progression of fibroblast differentiation may be a co-factor in the development of radiation-induced fibrosis. If this hypothesis is validated, it provides a rationale for a novel predictive test to identify patients with an increased risk of subcutaneous fibrosis. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Near-ultraviolet radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane effects in Escherichia coli and human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this thesis examines the response of an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph, Escherichia coli K1060 to broad-band near-UV radiation. Sensitivity, lipid peroxidation and leakage of rubidium from irradiated cells were found to increase with increasing unsaturation of membrane fatty acids. The involvement of singlet oxygen was implicated by an increase in sensitivity, lipid peroxidation and leakage of rubidium following irradiation in deuterium oxide. Some factors influencing survival following irradiation were investigated, where lower growth rates were shown to enhance survival. In the second part, the study was extended to human fibroblasts where a normal human skin fibroblast strain, GM730 and a strain derived from an actinic reticuloid patient, AR6LO, are compared. Lipid peroxidation was measured in both cell lines following broad-band near-UV irradiation. Membrane activity, as assessed by the pinocytic uptake of 14C-sucrose and its subsequent release from the cell, was measured. Near-UV irradiation was found to increase such activity in both strains. Vitamin E and Trolox-C were found to decrease this response in AR6LO but not GM730 cells. The final part consists of preliminary investigations into the near-UV induced peroxidation of fatty acids and liposomes, and the subsequent increase in the level of hydroperoxides in the hours following irradiation. (author)

  3. Glucose-depleted medium reduces the collagen content of human skin fibroblast cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechowska-Pasko, Marzanna; Pa?ka, Jerzy; Ba?kowski, Edward

    2007-11-01

    Glucose deprivation appeared to be a factor which induces oxygen regulated protein (ORP) 150 expression in the human skin fibroblasts cultures. Whereas glucose deprivation resulted in a slight (statistically insignificant) decrease of protein content in these cultures, a marked decrease of collagen content was observed, resulting in a distinct reduction of hydroxyproline: protein ratio. Furthermore, the appearance of ORP150 in glucose-deprived cultures coexisted with an increase of gelatinolytic activity and slight reduction in the expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor. Since IGF-I is a main stimulator of collagen synthesis, the reduction in the expression of IGF-I receptor may result in a decrease of collagen synthesis. It is suggested that ORP 150 is a chaperon, which protects intracellular proteins against proteolytic effects exerted by hypoxia or glucose shortage. Since the total amount of protein in fibroblast cultures did not change much, it appears that collagen (in contrast to other proteins) was not efficiently protected. The decrease in collagen synthesis and the enhancement of collagen degradation by gelatinases may result in distinct reduction of collagen content in glucose-deprived fibroblast cultures. PMID:17588139

  4. Protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis in cultures of skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects and patients with rheumatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the mechanism of the lasting disturbance of fibroblast function, protein, RNA and DNA synthesis was investigated in skin fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic scleroderma (SS). The labeled precursors used to analyze synthesis of protein, RNA, and DNA were 14C-protein hydrolysate, (14C)uridine, and (14C) thymidine. Stimulation was determined by measuring incorporation of (14C)proline into fibroblast proteins. During analysis of stability of fast-labeled RNA tests were carried out to discover whether all measurable radioactivity belonged to RNA molecules

  5. The fibroblast-derived paracrine factor neuregulin-1 has a novel role in regulating the constitutive color and melanocyte function in human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Wonseon; Wolber, Rainer; Gerwat, Wolfram; Mann, Tobias; Batzer, Jan; Smuda, Christoph; Liu, Hongfang; Kolbe, Ludger; Hearing, Vincent J

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between melanocytes and neighboring cells in the skin are important in regulating skin color in humans. We recently demonstrated that the less pigmented and thicker skin on the palms and soles is regulated by underlying fibroblasts in those areas, specifically via a secreted factor (DKK1) that modulates Wnt signaling. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that dermal fibroblasts regulate the constitutive skin color of individuals ranging from very light to very dark. We used mi...

  6. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates skin wound healing: An in vitro study of fibroblast and keratinocyte scratch assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used in vitro scratch assays to examine the relative contribution of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the wound repair process and to test the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secreted factors on both skin cell types. Scratch assays were established using single cell and co-cultures of L929 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes, with wound closure monitored via time-lapse microscopy. Both in serum supplemented and serum free conditions, wound closure was faster in L929 fibroblast than HaCaT keratinocyte scratch assays, and in co-culture the L929 fibroblasts lead the way in closing the scratches. MSC-CM generated under serum free conditions significantly enhanced the wound closure rate of both skin cell types separately and in co-culture, whereas conditioned medium from L929 or HaCaT cultures had no significant effect. This enhancement of wound closure in the presence of MSC-CM was due to accelerated cell migration rather than increased cell proliferation. A number of wound healing mediators were identified in MSC-CM, including TGF-?1, the chemokines IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES, and collagen type I, fibronectin, SPARC and IGFBP-7. This study suggests that the trophic activity of MSC may play a role in skin wound closure by affecting both dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte migration, along with a contribution to the formation of extracellular matrix.

  7. Mutagenicity of 8-methoxypsoralen and long-wave ultraviolet irradiation in diploid human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell killing and the induction of mutation were studied in dividing and non-dividing human skin fibroblasts as a result of treatment by 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and long-wave UV irradiation (UVA). The cytotoxic effect was highly dependent upon the duration of the UVA exposure. The frequency of mutations increased linearly with the UVA dose at concentrations of 10 and 0.25 ?l 8-MOP/ml, the latter representing the concentration in the skin during PUVA treatment. The number of mutations induced per unit dose (= per ?g 8-MOP/ml per joule UVA/m2) was calculated: for dividing cells this value was 3.3 x 10-8 per cell and for non-dividing cells 0.6 x 10.8-8 per cell. On the basis of these values the expected number of induced mutants in the human skin per session of photochemotherapy is 1.2 x 10-5, and per 30 years of maintenance therapy 1.3 x 10-2 per cell. A comparison was made between this frequency and the frequency to be expected from spontaneous mutation. In addition the significance of absence in patients of SCE induction by photochemotherapy is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Effects of bosentan on collagen type I synthesis on in vitro culture of scleroderma skin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soldano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of a non-selective endothelin (ETA/B receptors antagonist, on collagen type I (COLI synthesis on in vitro culture of scleroderma (SSc skin fibroblasts (Fb. Fb were obtained from skin biopsies of 6 female SSc patients (mean age 64. 1±6 years, after informed consent and Ethical Committee Approval. Cells were treated with endothelin-I [ET-I, 100nM] for 24 and 48 hrs, pre-treated for I hr with ETA/B receptors antagonist [10nM] alone or followed by ET-I for 24 and 48 hrs. Untreated Fb were used as controls. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis were performed to evaluate COLI synthesis. ET-I increased COLI synthesis both at 24 and 48 hrs when compared to controls. ETA/B receptor antagonost blocks the increased COLI synthesis ET-I-mediated both at 24 and 48 hrs vs. ET-I. Results showed that ET-I receptors blockage by ETA/B receptors antagonist might prevent the excessive synthesis of COLI, supporting its positive action in the management of skin fibrosis.

  9. Regulation and inhibition of collagenase expression by long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation in cultured human skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Marta; Hamilton, Tiffani; Haili Li [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Internal Medicine

    1995-09-01

    The cellular mechanisms responsible for the connective tissue changes produced by chronic exposure to UV light are poorly understood. collagenase, a metalloproteinase, initiates degradation of types I and III collagen and thus plays a key role in the remodeling of dermal collagen. Collagenase synthesis by fibroblasts and keratinocytes involves the protein kinase C (PKC) second messenger system, and corticosteroids have been shown to suppress its synthesis at the level of gene transcription. Long-wavelength UV light (UVA, 320-400 nm) stimulates the synthesis of interstitial collagenase, as well as increasing PKC activity, in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. This study explores the regulation of collagenase expression by UVA in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Specifically, the time course, the effect of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis, as well as the effect of PKC inhibitors and dexamethansone on expression of collagenase following UVA irradiation were examined. (Author).

  10. Regulation and inhibition of collagenase expression by long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation in cultured human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cellular mechanisms responsible for the connective tissue changes produced by chronic exposure to UV light are poorly understood. collagenase, a metalloproteinase, initiates degradation of types I and III collagen and thus plays a key role in the remodeling of dermal collagen. Collagenase synthesis by fibroblasts and keratinocytes involves the protein kinase C (PKC) second messenger system, and corticosteroids have been shown to suppress its synthesis at the level of gene transcription. Long-wavelength UV light (UVA, 320-400 nm) stimulates the synthesis of interstitial collagenase, as well as increasing PKC activity, in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. This study explores the regulation of collagenase expression by UVA in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Specifically, the time course, the effect of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis, as well as the effect of PKC inhibitors and dexamethansone on expression of collagenase following UVA irradiation were examined. (Author)

  11. A quantitative assessment of changes in the dermal fibroblast population of pig skin after single doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the density of fibroblast nuclei in reticular dermis of pigs was studied from 6 to 104 weeks after a single dose of 15.4 Gy of X-rays. The largest decrease in fibroblasts occurred between 12 and 26 weeks after irradiation; after this there was only a slight fall in fibroblast number until 104 weeks when observations ceased. At 26 weeks and later times after irradiation reduction in the density of fibroblast nuclei in the reticular dermis was dose-dependent for single doses in the range 8.0-20.7 Gy. The dose-response curve had an initial shoulder, after which the fall in the fibroblast nuclear density was linearly related to dose. Data obtained between 26 weeks and 104 weeks after irradiation, could be fitted by the same dose-response curve. The fall in the counts of fibroblast nuclei was compared with earlier studies. The loss of fibroblasts occurred after an initial reduction in blood flow in the pig skin but was concomitant with general reduction in dermal thickness. (author)

  12. Reporter cell lines for skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsch, Andreas; Emter, Roger

    2015-10-01

    Skin sensitization has been described as an adverse outcome pathway (AOP), comprising a number of molecular events leading to the final adverse effect. In a new paradigm of toxicology, attempts are made to collect information using single mechanistic tests addressing different targets along such an AOP and to then integrate this information to arrive at a final toxicological prediction. This proposal is strongly influenced by the availability of methods for high-throughput screening of cellular events. Reporter cell lines are a particularly useful tool in such screening paradigms, as they can deliver highly reproducible and easily measureable results, and they can be designed to quantify induction or suppression at the transcription level of very specific molecular targets within cells. The first cell-based assay for skin sensitization, which has recently received ECVAM and OECD endorsement, is the reporter cell assay KeratinoSens™, reflecting activation of the Nrf2 pathway, and other assays measuring the Nrf2 pathway are under development or validation. An alternative approach (THP-G8) was recently developed based on activation of the Interleukin-8 gene. Here, we review these assays, their role in the AOP, their mechanistic interrelationships, their use for hazard and risk assessment, and their application in integrated testing strategies. At the same time, this study reviews (1) other cellular markers for sensitizers, and the potential to develop new reporter gene assays providing additional, non-redundant information, and (2) it presents approaches and new experimental data on attempts to further improve the predictivity of the existing assay. PMID:26194644

  13. Cytotoxic and Oxidative Stress Caused by Cadmium and Lead on Human Skin Fibroblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Beman Zaree Mahmodabady

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals are important occupational andenvironmental pollutants that cause damage to various organs.Although there is no effective therapy for such a poisoning,metallothionein has been shown to play a key role in thedetoxification of cadmium (Cd. Evidence in the literature suggeststhat superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalaseconstitute important defense mechanisms against oxygen toxicity inthe cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect ofcadmium chloride and Pb-acetate on antioxidant enzymes in thehuman skin fibroblast cells (HF2FF.Material and Methods: The human skin fibroblast (HF2FF cellswere incubated in serum-free medium containing 20 ?M CdCl2 for18 hr three times a week. The same exposure to an equimolar doseof Pb-acetate was performed. After each exposure and after threetimes exposure the cells were collected and cell viability, thecontents of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px, GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA weremeasured.Results: Cd caused cytotoxicity and inhibition of glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px and SOD activity, as well as depletion of thereduced form of glutathione (GSH in the cell. The level of lipidperoxidation (LP was increased, but catalase activity was notsignificantly altered. These defects were increased with repeatedexposures. The same exposure to an equimolar dose of Pb-acetateevoked only inhibition of GSH-Px and SOD. The values of GSH,catalase and LP activity remained unchanged.Conclusion: The inhibition of GSH-Px and SOD may be consideredas an important biomarker of the toxic effect of metals.

  14. Melatonin reduces X-ray irradiation-induced oxidative damages in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B C; Shon, B S; Ryoo, Y W; Kim, S P; Lee, K S

    2001-07-01

    Melatonin is a hormone with multiple functions in humans, produced by the pineal gland and stimulated by beta-adrenergic receptors. Melatonin has been shown to have radioprotection properties, but there has been little progress toward identifying the specific mechanisms of its action. To clarify the role of melatonin as a radioprotective compound, in response to X-ray irradiation, we investigated the effects of X-ray irradiation and melatonin on cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and alteration of the cell cycle in cultured skin fibroblast. An 8 Gy dose of X radiation resulted in cell death in 63% of irradiated cells, i.e. the cell viability was 37%. The damage was associated with lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane, as shown by the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA). By pre-incubation with melatonin (10(-5) M), a significant preventive effect was noted on the increase in the absolute number of surviving cells (up to 68% of cells were survived), and the levels of MDA were markedly decreased. These findings suggest a close correlation between an increase of lipid peroxidation and a rate of cell death. Morphological changes associated with apoptotic cell death were demonstrated by TEM. DNA flow-cytometry analysis revealed that X radiation increased pre-G1 apoptotic population by 7.6% compared to a very low level (1.3%) of non-irradiated cells. However, in the presence of melatonin, this apoptotic population decreased up to 4.5% at 10(-5) M. The p53 and p21 protein levels of skin fibroblasts increased 4 h after 8 Gy irradiation, but melatonin pretreatment did not change those levels. This study suggests that melatonin pretreatment inhibits radiation-induced apoptosis, and melatonin exerts its radioprotective effect by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and without any involvement of the p53/p21 pathway. PMID:11390204

  15. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Wei; Liu, Fu-Chao; Wang, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system. PMID:26637174

  16. Cytotoxicity in human skin fibroblasts induced by photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strniste, G.F.; Brake, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) require chemical modification in order to exert their mutagenic/carcinogenic activity on biological systems. The mode of activation which has been most extensively studied involves enzyme-catalyzed oxidation reactions but PAH can also be modified into oxidized and radical intermediates upon exposure to various radiations. The resulting products have been shown to be cytotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in a variety of test systems. A number of recent reports have examined the process of sunlight-activation of airborne particles contaminated with PAH. The concern here is the photoactivation of PAH into reactive intermediates which could act directly on target organs such as the skin and lungs. We have been studying the molecular and cellular effects of photoactivated PAH and complex organic mixtures (shale oil byproducts). In this report we present data concerning the cytotoxicity of near ultraviolet light (NUV)-activated PAH in cultured human skin fibroblasts, comparing normal cells with cells obtained from patients with the rare, autosomal recessive disease, xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we have quantitated the products of reactions of light-activated benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) with DNA in vitro, and have attempted to identify the photoproduct(s) of B(a)P that are important in these reactions.

  17. Relationship between DNA double-strand breaks, cell killing, and fibrosis studied in confluent skin fibroblasts derived from breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs), cell killing, and fibrosis using skin fibroblasts derived from breast cancer patients who received postmastectomy radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed with 12 lines of normal skin fibroblasts derived from recurrence-free breast cancer patients. Cells were irradiated in confluence and cell survival was determined either after immediate or delayed (14 h) plating using a colony-forming assay. Dsbs were measured by constant-field gel electrophoresis. The 'excess risk of fibrosis' was previously scored by Johansen et al. (IJRB 1994;66:407-412). Results: The 12 cell lines showed a typical spectrum of radiosensitivity. The mean value of surviving fraction after 3.5 Gy (SF3.5) was 0.063 for immediate and 0.174 for delayed plating with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 44 and 39%, respectively. There was also a broad variation in the extent of recovery from potentially lethal damage (RPLD), which was not correlated with the immediate sensitivity. The number of initial dsbs as well as the half-times of dsb repair showed little variation, whereas there were considerable differences in the number of residual dsbs (CV = 29%). The number of residual dsbs after 100 Gy was correlated significantly only with SF3.5 after delayed (r2 0.59; p = 0.006) but not after immediate plating (r2 = 0.21, p = 0.16). There was also no significant relationship between residual dsbs and the 'excess risk of fibrosis' determined for the respective patients. Conclusion: It is shown that the number of residual dsbs measured in confluent human fibroblast lines can be used to predict the cellular radiosensitivity after delayed but not after immediate plating and also not to predict the excess risk of fibrosis of the respective breast cancer patients

  18. Potentiation by caffeine of x-ray damage to cultured human skin fibroblasts from normal subjects and ataxia telangiectasia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin fibroblasts from patients with the recessive genetic disorder ataxia telangiectasia (AT) are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than cells from normal subjects (N). Previously, it had been suggested that AT cells are like caffeine-treated normal cells in that their radiosensitivity is not caused by their inability to repair damage but by their failure to go through those x-ray induced delays that allow normal cells to repair damage before it can be expressed. This paper examines whether or not caffeine could potentiate x-ray induced potentially-lethal damage in AT human fibroblasts to the same extent as in N human fibroblast cells. If AT cells resemble caffeine-treated N cells the addition of caffeine to irradiated AT cells should not further enhance cell killing

  19. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress by Low-Molecular-Weight Polysaccharides with Various Functional Groups in Skin Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Drummen, Gregor P.C.; Rong-Huei Chen; Min-Lang Tsai; Szu-Kai Chen; Chu-Hsi Hsu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in cellulo inhibition of hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts using different low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (LMPS) prepared from agar (LMAG), chitosan (LMCH) and starch (LMST), which contain various different functional groups (i.e., sulfate, amine, and hydroxyl groups). The following parameters were evaluated: cell viability, intracellular oxidant production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Trolox was used as a po...

  20. Oxidative exposure impairs TGF-? pathway via reduction of type II receptor and SMAD3 in human skin fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    He, TianYuan; Quan, Taihao; SHAO, YUAN; John J. Voorhees; Fisher, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to oxidants results in cellular alterations that are implicated in aging and age-associated diseases. Here, we report that brief, low-level oxidative exposure leads to long-term elevation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and oxidative damage in human skin fibroblasts. Elevated ROS impairs the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) pathway, through reduction of type II TGF-? receptor (T?RII) and SMAD3 protein levels. This impairment results in reduced expression of conne...

  1. Growth and motility of human skin fibroblasts on multilayer strong polyelectrolyte films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytrwal, Magdalena; Koczurkiewicz, Paulina; Zrubek, Karol; Niemiec, Wiktor; Michalik, Marta; Kozik, Bart?omiej; Szneler, Edward; Bernasik, Andrzej; Madeja, Zbigniew; Nowakowska, Maria; Kepczynski, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) have found application in modifying material surfaces to make them adhesive or non-adhesive for animal cells. However, PEMs made of strong polyelectrolytes are not fully recognized in the literature. This study focuses on the interplay between the properties of PEM assembled from strong polyelectrolytes and cell adhesion and motility. Strong polycations (with quaternary ammonium groups) and a polyanion (with sulfonate groups) were obtained by modification of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH). Two types of multilayer films were assembled from these PAH derivatives and used to investigate the behavior of human skin fibroblasts (HSFs). The effect of surface charge, hydrophobicity, and film thickness on adhesion of HSFs in a serum-containing medium was studied with immunofluorescence microscopy. The results showed that adhesion of HSFs was strongly depended on the chemical functions of the terminal layer, whereas the wettability was not important. The surface of PEM can be strongly cytophobic (the quaternary ammonium terminal groups) or strongly cytophilic (the sulfonate terminal groups). Finally, the motile activity of HSFs seeded on glass coated with a varying number of polymer layers was investigated. It was demonstrated using an in vitro model that coating the substrate with only two polymer layers can considerably increase the average speed of HSFs movement and stimulate cell migration into the wound. PMID:26407058

  2. Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts from atomic bomb survivors with and without breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblasts were established in vitro from skin biopsies obtained from 55 women and 1 man with or without breast cancer and with or without exposure to radiation from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima. The radiosensitivity of these cells was evaluated by clonogenic assays after exposure to X-rays or to fission neutrons from a 252Cf source. Data were fitted to a multitarget model, S/S0 = A [1 - (1 - ekD)N], for both X-ray and neutron dose-survival curves. A single hit model, S/S0 = AekD, fits the neutron dose-survival responses as well. There were no differences in the means or variances of radiosensitivity between exposed and nonexposed groups or between patients with or without breast cancer. Hence, although the sample is not large, it provides no support for the hypothesis that atomic bomb radiation preferentially induces breast cancer in women whose cells in vitro are sensitive to cell killing by radiation

  3. Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts from atomic bomb survivors with and without breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, S.; Setlow, R.B.; Bender, M.A.; Ezaki, H.; Hiraoka, T.; Yamane, M.; Nishiki, M.; Dohi, K.; Awa, A.A.; Miller, R.C. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    Fibroblasts were established in vitro from skin biopsies obtained from 55 women and 1 man with or without breast cancer and with or without exposure to radiation from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima. The radiosensitivity of these cells was evaluated by clonogenic assays after exposure to X-rays or to fission neutrons from a {sup 252}Cf source. Data were fitted to a multitarget model, S/S0 = A (1 - (1 - ekD)N), for both X-ray and neutron dose-survival curves. A single hit model, S/S0 = AekD, fits the neutron dose-survival responses as well. There were no differences in the means or variances of radiosensitivity between exposed and nonexposed groups or between patients with or without breast cancer. Hence, although the sample is not large, it provides no support for the hypothesis that atomic bomb radiation preferentially induces breast cancer in women whose cells in vitro are sensitive to cell killing by radiation.

  4. Molecular alterations of tropoelastin and proteoglycans induced by tobacco smoke extracts and ultraviolet A in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional integrity of normal skin is dependent on the balance between the biosynthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, primarily composed of collagen, elastin and proteoglycans. In our previous studies, we found that tobacco smoke extracts decreased expressions of type I and III procollagen and induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in the cultured skin fibroblasts. We here further investigated the effects of tobacco smoke extracts or ultraviolet A (UVA) treatments on the expression of tropoelastin (soluble elastin protein), and versican and decorin (proteoglycans) in cultured skin fibroblasts. The mRNA of tropoelastin increased by tobacco smoke extracts or UVA irradiation. Versican was markedly shown to decrease after these treatments by using western blotting and the mRNA of versican V0 also significantly decreased. UVA treatment did not show remarkable change in decorin protein, but resulted in marked decrease of decorin D1 mRNA. In contrast to UVA irradiation, the treatments of tobacco smoke extracts resulted in significant increase in decorin, while mRNA of decorin D1 decreased as compared to the control. MMP-7 increased after the treatment of tobacco smoke extracts or UVA. These results indicated that common molecular features might underlie the skin premature aging induced by tobacco smoke extracts and UVA, including abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix deposition through elevated MMPs, reduced collagen production, abnormal tropoelastin accumulation, and altered proteoglycans. (author)

  5. Influence of beam shape on in-vitro cellular transformations in human skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthunzi, Patience; Forbes, Andrew; Hawkins, Denise; Abrahamse, Heidi; Karsten, Aletta E.

    2005-08-01

    A variety of strategies have been utilised for prevention and treatment of chronic wounds such as leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers and pressure sores1. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been reported to be an invaluable tool in the enhancement of wound healing through stimulating cell proliferation, accelerating collagen synthesis and increasing ATP synthesis in mitochondria to name but a few2. This study focused on an in-vitro analysis of the cellular responses induced by treatment with three different laser beam profiles namely, the Gaussian (G), Super Gaussian (SG) and Truncated Gaussian (TG), on normal wounded irradiated (WI) and wounded non-irradiated (WNI) human skin fibroblast cells (WS1), to test their influence in wound healing at 632.8 nm using a helium neon (HeNe) laser. For each beam profile, measurements were made using average energy densities over the sample ranging from 0.2 to 1 J, with single exposures on normal wounded cells. The cells were subjected to different post irradiation incubation periods, ranging from 0 to 24 hours to evaluate the duration (time) dependent effects resulting from laser irradiation. The promoted cellular alterations were measured by increase in cell viability, cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. The results obtained showed that treatment with the G compared to the SG and TG beams resulted in a marked increase in cell viability and proliferation. The data also showed that when cells undergo laser irradiation some cellular processes are driven by the peak energy density rather than the energy of the laser beam. We show that there exist threshold values for damage, and suggest optimal operating regimes for laser based wound healing.

  6. Methylmalonic and propionic acidemias: lipid profiles of normal and affected human skin fibroblasts incubated with [1-14C]propionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal human skin fibroblasts and those from methylmalonic acidemia and propionic acidemia patients were grown in culture. Following incubation with [1-14C]propionate, the major lipid classes in the cells were separated by thin layer chromatography and isolated fractions analyzed by radio gas chromatography for the presence of odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids; the pattern of even-numbered long-chain fatty acids was obtained also. Normal fibroblasts incorporated a small percentage of propionate into odd-numbered fatty acids which were present in all lipids studied. The abnormal cells incorporated a larger amount while maintaining the characteristic ratios of odd-numbered fatty acids found in the normal line. Most of the radioactivity was associated with phospholipids which are the predominant constituents of cell membranes. A characteristic C15/C17 ratio was found for different phospholipids and the triglyceride fraction; pentadecanoic acid was the principal odd-numbered fatty acid utilized in the assembly of complex lipids. Compared to even-numbered long-chain fatty acids the absolute amount of odd-numbered fatty acids was low (1-2%), even in affected cells. An unusual polar lipid fraction was isolated in the course of the study. In the normal cell it contained several unlabeled eicosanoids which were missing from the same fraction of both affected cell lines

  7. Deciphering the differential response of two human fibroblast cell lines following Chikungunya virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thon-Hon Vincent G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthritogenic member of the Alphavirus genus (family Togaviridae transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV is now known to target non hematopoietic cells such as epithelial, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and to less extent monocytes/macrophages. The type I interferon (IFN response is an early innate immune mechanism that protects cells against viral infection. Cells express different pattern recognition receptors (including TLR7 and RIG-I to sense viruses and to induce production of type I IFNs which in turn will bind to their receptor. This should result in the phosphorylation and translocation of STAT molecules into the nucleus to promote the transcription of IFN-stimulated antiviral genes (ISGs. We herein tested the capacity of CHIKV clinical isolate to infect two different human fibroblast cell lines HS 633T and HT-1080 and we analyzed the resulting type I IFN innate immune response. Methods Indirect immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR were used to test for the susceptibility of both fibroblast cell lines to CHIKV. Results Interestingly, the two fibroblast cell lines HS 633T and HT-1080 were differently susceptible to CHIKV infection and the former producing at least 30-fold higher viral load at 48 h post-infection (PI. We found that the expression of antiviral genes (RIG-I, IFN-?, ISG54 and ISG56 was more robust in the more susceptible cell line HS 633T at 48 h PI. Moreover, CHIKV was shown to similarly interfere with the nuclear translocation of pSTAT1 in both cell lines. Conclusion Critically, CHIKV can control the IFN response by preventing the nuclear translocation of pSTAT1 in both fibroblast cell lines. Counter-intuitively, the relative resistance of HT-1080 cells to CHIKV infection could not be attributed to more robust innate IFN- and ISG-dependent antiviral responses. These cell lines may prove to be valuable models to screen for novel mechanisms mobilized differentially by fibroblasts to control CHIKV infection, replication and spreading from cell to cell.

  8. PTCH1+/? Dermal Fibroblasts Isolated from Healthy Skin of Gorlin Syndrome Patients Exhibit Features of Carcinoma Associated Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Valin, Alexandre; Barnay-Verdier, Stéphanie; ROBERT, THOMAS; Ripoche, Hugues; Brellier, Florence; Chevallier-Lagente, Odile; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Gorlin's or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) causes predisposition to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the commonest cancer in adult human. Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTCH1 are responsible for this autosomal dominant syndrome. In NBCCS patients, as in the general population, ultraviolet exposure is a major risk factor for BCC development. However these patients also develop BCCs in sun-protected areas of the skin, suggesting the existence of other mechanisms for BCC predisp...

  9. Relationship between in vitro radiosensitivity of normal human skin fibroblasts and the occurrence of late normal tissue reactions after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late complications in normal tissues are limiting for the doses that can be administered during clinical radiotherapy. Awareness of these complications, and comprehension of the underlying biological mechanisms, is extremely important to improve cancer treatment. Fibrosis is one of the most critical injuries to radiotherapy. It varies significantly among patients despite of identical treatments. The large patient-to-patient variability of normal tissue sections to clinical radiation can possibly be accounted for by the considerable individual variation in cellular radiosensitivity of normal human fibroblasts, as shown in vitro. The purpose of the present investigation has been to analyze individual cellular radiosensitivity of normal human skin fibroblasts, as measured in a colony-forming assay, and the relationship to the occurrence of subcutaneous fibrosis after radiotherapy for breast cancer. (au) 97 refs

  10. Effect of wavelength and fluence on morphology, cellular and genetic integrity of diabetic wounded human skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, H.; Hawkins, D.; Houreld, N.

    2006-02-01

    An alternative treatment modality for diabetic wound healing includes low level laser therapy (LLLT). Biostimulation of such wounds may be of benefit to patients by reducing healing time. Structural, cellular and genetic events in diabetic wounded human skin fibroblasts (WS1) were evaluated after exposing cells in culture to a Helium-Neon (632.8nm), a Diode laser (830nm) and a Nd:YAG (Neodynium:Yttrium-Allumina-Gallium) laser (1064nm) at either 5J/cm2 or 16J/cm2. Cells were exposed twice a week and left 24 hours post-irradiation prior to measuring effects. Structural changes were evaluated by assessing colony formation, haptotaxis and chemotaxis. Cellular changes were evaluated using cell viability, (adenosine-triphosphate, ATP production), and proliferation, (alkaline phosphatase, ALP and basic fibroblast growth factor, bFGF expression), while the Comet assay evaluated DNA damage and cytotoxicity was determined assessing membrane permeability for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Caspase 3/7 activity was used as an estimate of apoptosis as a result of irradiation. The irradiated diabetic wounded cells showed structural, cellular as well as molecular resilience comparable to that of unwounded normal skin fibroblast cells. With regards to fluence, 5J/cm2 elicit positive cellular and structural responses while 16J/cm2 increases cellular and genetic damage and cellular morphology is altered. Different wavelengths of LLLT influences the beneficial outcomes of diabetic wounded cells and although all three wavelengths elicit cellular effects, the penetration depth of 830nm plays a significant role in the healing of diabetic wounded human fibroblast cells. Results from this study validate the contribution of LLLT to wound healing and elucidate the biochemical effects at a cellular level while highlighting the role of different dosages and wavelengths in LLLT.

  11. Fabrication of a nanofibrous scaffold with improved bioactivity for culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard; Venugopal, J; Sundarrajan, S; Ramakrishna, S, E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.s [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-02-15

    Engineering dermal substitutes with electrospun nanofibres have lately been of prime importance for skin tissue regeneration. Simple electrospinning technology served to produce nanofibrous scaffolds morphologically and structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of native tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds of poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PLACL) and PLACL/gelatin complexes were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These nanofibres were characterized for fibre morphology, membrane porosity, wettability and chemical properties by FTIR analysis to culture human foreskin fibroblasts for skin tissue engineering. The nanofibre diameter was obtained between 282 and 761 nm for PLACL and PLACL/gelatin scaffolds; expressions of amino and carboxyl groups and porosity up to 87% were obtained for these fibres, while they also exhibited improved hydrophilic properties after plasma treatment. The results showed that fibroblasts proliferation, morphology, CMFDA dye expression and secretion of collagen were significantly increased in plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin scaffolds compared to PLACL nanofibrous scaffolds. The obtained results prove that the plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold is a potential biocomposite material for skin tissue regeneration.

  12. Effects of cigarette smoke residues from textiles on fibroblasts, neurocytes and zebrafish embryos and nicotine permeation through human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Timo R; Fischer, Kirsten; Mueller, Marina; Hoefer, Dirk

    2011-09-01

    Toxic substances from cigarette smoke can attach to carpets, curtains, clothes or other surfaces and thus may pose risks to affected persons. The phenomenon itself and the potential hazards are discussed controversially, but scientific data are rare. The objective of this study was to examine the potential of textile-bound nicotine for permeation through human skin and to assess the effects of cigarette smoke extracts from clothes on fibroblasts, neurocytes and zebrafish embryos. Tritiated nicotine from contaminated cotton textiles penetrated through adult human full-thickness skin as well as through a 3D in vitro skin model in diffusion chambers. We also observed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of textile smoke extracts on fibroblast viability and structure as well as on neurocytes. Early larval tests with zebrafish embryos were used as a valid assay for testing acute vertebrate toxicity. Zebrafish development was delayed and most of the embryos died when exposed to smoke extracts from textiles. Our data show that textiles contaminated with cigarette smoke represent a potential source of nicotine uptake and can provoke adverse health effects. PMID:21664183

  13. Curcumin induces heme oxygenase-1 in normal human skin fibroblasts through redox signaling : relevance for anti-aging intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Cristóvão F.; Wilson, Cristina Pereira; Rattan, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin, a component of the spice turmeric, was tested for its potential hormetic anti-aging effects as an inducer of mild stress. Methods and results: Early passage young human skin fibroblasts treated with low doses of curcumin (below 20 mM) showed a time- and concentration-dependent induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), followed by compensatory increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity, GSH levels and GSH/GSSG ratio. These effects were preceded by induction of oxidative stress (in...

  14. Altered transcriptome signature of phenotypically normal skin fibroblasts heterozygous for CDKN2A in familial melanoma: relevance to early intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Meiyun; Pfeffer, Susan R.; Lynch, Henry T.; Cassidy, Pamela; Leachman, Sancy; Pfeffer., Lawrence M.; KOPELOVICH, LEVY

    2013-01-01

    Familial melanoma (FM) is a dominantly heritable cancer that is associated with mutations in the tumor suppressor CDKN2A/p16. In FM, a single inherited “hit” occurs in every somatic cell, enabling interrogation of cultured normal skin fibroblasts (SFs) from FM gene carriers as surrogates for the cell of tumor origin, namely the melanocyte. We compared the gene expression profile of SFs from FM individuals with two distinct CDKN2A/p16 mutations (V126D-p16 and R87P-p16) with the gene expression...

  15. DNA damage in wounded, hypoxic and acidotic human skin fibroblast cell cultures after low laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins Evans, D.; Mbene, A.; Zungu, I.; Houreld, N.; Abrahamse, H.

    2009-02-01

    Phototherapy has become more popular and widely used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. To ensure sound results as evidence of its effectiveness, well designed experiments must be conducted when determining the effect of phototherapy. Cell culture models such as hypoxic, acidotic and wounded cell cultures simulating different disease conditions including ischemic heart disease, diabetes and wound healing were used to determine the effect of laser irradiation on the genetic integrity of the cell. Even though phototherapy has been found to be beneficial in a wide spectrum of conditions, it has been shown to induce DNA damage. However, this damage appears to be repairable. The risk lies in the fact that phototherapy may help the medical condition initially but damage DNA at the same time leaving undetected damage that may result in late onset, more severe, induced medical conditions including cancer. Human skin fibroblasts were cultured and used to induce a wound (by the central scratch model), hypoxic (by incubation in an anaerobic jar, 95% N2 and 5% O2) and acidotic (reducing the pH of the media to 6.7) conditions. Different models were irradiated using a Helium-Neon (632.8 nm) laser with a power density of 2.07 mW/cm2 and a fluence of 5 J/cm2 or 16 J/cm2. The effect of the irradiation was determined using the Comet assay 1 and 24 h after irradiation. In addition, the Comet assay was performed with the addition of formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) obviating strand brakes in oxidized bases at a high fluence of 16 J/cm2. A significant increase in DNA damage was seen in all three injured models at both 1 and 24 h post-irradiation when compared to the normal un-injured cells. However, when compared to non-irradiated controls the acidotic model showed a significant decrease in DNA damage 24 h after irradiation indicating the possible induction of cellular DNA repair mechanisms. When wounded cells were irradiated with higher fluences of 16 J/cm2, there was a significant increase in DNA damage in irradiated cells with and without the addition of FPG. These results are indicative of the importance of both cell injury model as well as fluence when assessing the effect of phototherapy on DNA integrity.

  16. Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with [3H]glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of [3H]chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics

  17. Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbert, C.K.; Humphries, D.E.; Palmer, M.E.; Silbert, J.E. (Veterans Administration Outpatient Clinic, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-02-15

    Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with (3H)glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of (3H)chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics.

  18. Proteomic Analysis of PTCH1+/? Fibroblast Lysate and Conditioned Culture Media Isolated from the Skin of Healthy Subjects and Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Patients

    OpenAIRE

    PONTI, GIOVANNI; Bertazzoni, Giorgia; Pastorino, Lorenza; Monari, Emanuela; Cuoghi, Aurora; Bergamini, Stefania; Bellei, Elisa; Benassi, Luisa; Azzoni, Paola; Petrachi, Tiziana; Magnoni, Cristina; Pellacani, Giovanni; Loschi, Pietro; POLLIO, ANNAMARIA; Witkowski, Alexander Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background. The pathogenesis underlying the increased predisposition to the development of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in the context of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is linked to molecular mechanisms that differ from sporadic BCCs. Patients with Gorlin syndrome tend to develop multiple BCCs at an early age and present with tumors of non-sun-exposed skin. The aim of this study was to compare the proteomic profile of cultured fibroblast and fibroblast conditioned culture media of PTCH1+ and nonmutate...

  19. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress by Low-Molecular-Weight Polysaccharides with Various Functional Groups in Skin Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor P. C. Drummen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in cellulo inhibition of hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts using different low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (LMPS prepared from agar (LMAG, chitosan (LMCH and starch (LMST, which contain various different functional groups (i.e., sulfate, amine, and hydroxyl groups. The following parameters were evaluated: cell viability, intracellular oxidant production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Trolox was used as a positive control in order to allow comparison of the antioxidant efficacies of the various LMPS. The experimentally determined attenuation of oxidative stress by LMPS in skin fibroblasts was: LMCH > LMAG > LMST. The different protection levels of these LMPS may be due to the physic-chemical properties of the LMPS’ functional groups, including electron transfer ability, metal ion chelating capacities, radical stabilizing capacity, and the hydrophobicity of the constituent sugars. The results suggest that LMCH might constitute a novel and potential dermal therapeutic and sun-protective agent.

  20. Extracellular Matrix Modulates Morphology, Growth, Oxidative Stress Response and Functionality of Human Skin Fibroblasts during Aging In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Peter; Rattan, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The Hayflick system of cellular aging and replicative senescence in vitro has been used widely in both basic and applied research in biogerontology. The state of replicative senescence is generally considered to be irreversible, but is modifiable by genetic and environmental manipulations. Some recent observations indicate that replicative lifespan, senescence and functionality of cells in vitro can be significantly affected by the quality of the extra cellular matrix (ECM). Following up on those reports, here we show that using the ECM prepared from early passage young cells, partial rejuvenation of serially passaged human facial skin fibroblasts was possible in pre-senescent middle-aged cells, but not in fully senescent late passage cells. ECM from young cells improved the appearance, viability, stress tolerance and wound healing ability of skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, young ECM modulated the oxidative stress response transcription factor Nrf-2 and its downstream effector haem-oxygenase (HO-1), possibly through the amelioration of the environmental stress induced by the plastic surface of the culturing flasks. Therefore, it is important to consider the role of ECM in modulating the response of cells both for mechanistic understanding of cellular senescence and while testing for potential aging interventions.

  1. 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnane glycosides from roots of Asclepias tuberosa and their effect on proliferation of human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Umehara, Kaoru; Miyase, Toshio; Noro, Tadataka

    2011-10-01

    A pregnane glycoside fraction from the roots of Asclepias tuberosa L. caused normal human skin fibroblasts to proliferate. This fraction contained 21 pregnane glycosides whose structures were established using NMR spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. The aglycones of most of these compounds were identified as 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnanes, such as tuberogenin or 5,6-didehydrotuberogenin, the same aglycones as constituents of the aerial parts of this plant. Some of these compounds also caused proliferation of skin fibroblasts. PMID:21703653

  2. Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite.

    OpenAIRE

    Keyse, S M; Tyrrell, R M

    1989-01-01

    We have shown that UVA (320-380 nm) radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induce a stress protein of approximately 32 kDa in human skin fibroblasts. The synthesis and cloning of cDNA from arsenite-induced mRNA populations have now allowed us to unequivocally identify the 32-kDa protein as heme oxygenase. By mRNA analysis we have shown that the heme oxygenase gene is also induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium chloride, iodoacetamide...

  3. L-Lactate Protects Skin Fibroblasts against Aging-Associated Mitochondrial Dysfunction via Mitohormesis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvo?ák, Aleš; Alán, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 2015, ?. 2015 (2015), ID351698. ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GPP305/12/P388 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondria * reactive oxygen species * lactate * fibroblasts Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.516, year: 2014

  4. Protective effect of porphyra-334 on UVA-induced photoaging in human skin fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    RYU, JINA; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, In-Hye; CHOI, YOUN HEE; NAM, TAEK-JEONG

    2014-01-01

    The significant increase in life expectancy is closely related to the growing interest in the impact of aging on the function and appearance of the skin. Skin aging is influenced by several factors, and solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is considered one of the most important causes of skin photoaging. The aim of this study was to examine the anti-photoaging role of porphyra-334 from Porphyra (P.) yezoensis, a mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA), using high-performance liquid chromatography (H...

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of bee venom in human synovial fibroblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Vatanpour, Hossein; H Shirazi, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    As in Iranian traditional medicine, bee venom (BV) is a promising treatment for the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is considered as a problematic human chronic inflammatory disease in the present time. Smoking is considered to be a major risk factor in RA onset and severity. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effects of BV on cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory response in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and bee venom were determined by the tetrazolium (MTT) method in cultured synovial fibroblastes. The expression of interleukin-1? and sirtuin1 mRNA were analyzed by SYBR green real-time quantitative PCR. Differences between the mean values of treated and untreated groups were assessed by student t-test. Based on MTT assay, CSC and BV did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects up to 40 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL, respectively. Our results showed that interleukin-1? mRNA level was significantly up-regulated by CSC treatments in LPS-stimulated synoviocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, the expressions of IL-1? and Sirt1 were up-regulated even in lower concentrations of BV and attenuated at higher concentrations. Also, BV attenuated the CSC-induced and LPS-induced inflammatory responses in synovial fibroblasts. Our results support the epidemiological studies indicating pro-inflammatory effects of CSC and anti-inflammatory effects of BV on FLS cell line. PMID:25561937

  6. Establishment and Characterization of Fibroblast Cell Line Derived from Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqing; Guo, Yu; Liu, Dan; Guan, Weijun; Ma, Yuehui

    2010-06-01

    The Siberian tiger ear marginal tissue fibroblast cell line (STF34) from 34 samples was successfully established using primary explants technique and cell cryoconservation technology. STF34 cells were adherent, with a population doubling time of 24?h. Chromosome analysis showed that 90.2%-91.6% of cells were diploid (2n?=?38). Isoenzyme analyses of lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase showed that STF34 cells had no cross-contamination with other species. Tests for cell line contamination with bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mycoplasmas were all negative. Every index of the STF34 cell line meets all the standard quality controls of American Type Culture Collection. Not only has the germline of this important Siberian tiger species been preserved at the cell level, but also valuable material had been provided for genome, postgenome, and somacloning research. PMID:24845938

  7. Hypoxia Enhances the Senescence Effect of Bortezomib—The Proteasome Inhibitor—On Human Skin Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Rafa? Kr?towski; Ma?gorzata Borzym-Kluczyk; Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko

    2014-01-01

    The 26S proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, selectively induces apoptosis in some cancer cells. However, the nature of its selectivity remains unknown. The study presented here provides novel information on cellular effects of bortezomib in normal fibroblasts. We have found that in normoxic conditions the percent of apoptotic cells did not change significantly, independently on incubation time and examined concentration of bortezomib (25?nmol/L or 50?nmol/L). In hypoxic conditions we did not ob...

  8. Pyrophosphohydrolase activity and inorganic pyrophosphate content of cultured human skin fibroblasts. Elevated levels in some patients with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, L. M.; Wortmann, R L; Karas, B; Lynch, M P; McCarty, D J

    1986-01-01

    In calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease, metabolic abnormalities favoring extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) accumulation have been suspected. Elevations of intracellular PPi in cultured skin fibroblasts from a single French kindred with familial CPPD deposition (19) and elevated nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase activity (NTPPPH), which generates PPi in extracts of CPPD crystal-containing cartilages (14) favor this suspicion. To determine whet...

  9. The binding properties of pyrethroids to human skin fibroblast androgen receptors and to sex hormone binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eil, C; Nisula, B C

    1990-03-01

    The pyrethroids are a class of natural and synthetic pesticides which were associated with an epidemic of gynecomastia in Haitian men in 1981. In the present study we tested several pyrethroids for their ability to interact with androgen binding sites in dispersed, intact human genital skin fibroblasts and in human plasma to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). All the pyrethroids tested inhibited fibroblast binding of [3H]methyltrienolone (R1881) at 22 degrees C with the following rank order of potency:pyrethrins greater than bioallethrin greater than fenvalerate greater than fenothrin greater than fluvalinate greater than permethrin greater than resmethrin. 50% displacement of [3H]R1881 binding to fibroblast androgen receptors was achieved by 1.5-44 x 10(-5) M concentrations of the competitors, respectively. Previous studies with cimetidine, a known inhibitor of androgen receptor binding, showed 50% competition at a concentration of 1.4 x 10(-4) M in this system. Scatchard analysis of binding experiments performed with increasing concentrations of [3H]R1881 in the presence of the pyrethroids indicated that the binding inhibition was competitive. On the other hand, of the pyrethroids examined only the pyrethrins (50% inhibition) and bioallethrin (43% inhibition) were able to displace [3H]testosterone from SHBG when tested at a concentration of 10(-4) M. These data indicate that a novel class of non-steroidal compounds, the pyrethroids, can interact competitively with human androgen receptors and SHBG. These findings provide a mechanism by which chronic exposure of humans or animals to pesticides containing these compounds may result in disturbances in endocrine effects relating to androgen action. PMID:2325407

  10. Alterations in oncogene expression and radiosensitivity in the most frequently used SV40-transformed human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In comparison with primary cell cultures, SV40-transformed human skin fibroblasts, either from healthy donors or from patients suffering from ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) or xeroderma pigmentosum, are more resistant to the cytotoxic action of low LET 60cobalt ?-rays as well as to high LET ?-particles. Resistance factors calculated from D10's lie between 1.4 and 2.0. Northern blot analysis reveals spontaneous overexpression of the oncogenes c-myc, Ki-ras and c-raf and of the tumour suppressor gene p53 as a consequence of SV40 transformation. For c-myc, the increased expression is due to gene amplification and gene rearrangement. An even further increase in the expression of c-myc has been found for AT cells (AT5BI-VA) after moderate doses of 60cobalt ?-irradiation. A possible correlation between SV40-induced changes in gene expression and cellular radioresistance is discussed. (Author)

  11. Shikonin reduces TGF-?1-induced collagen production and contraction in hypertrophic scar-derived human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chen; Dong, Ying; Xie, Yan; Su, Yonghua; Zhang, Xufang; Leavesley, David; Upton, Zee

    2015-10-01

    Hypertrophic scarring/hypertrophic scars (HS) is a highly prevalent condition following burns and trauma wounds. Numerous studies have demonstrated that transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF??1) plays an essential role in the wound healing process by regulating cell differentiation, collagen production and extracellular matrix degradation. The increased expression of TGF-?1 is believed to result in the formation of HS. Shikonin (SHI), an active component extracted from the Chinese herb, Radix Arnebiae, has previously been found to downregulate the expression of TGF-?1 in keratinocyte/fibroblast co-culture conditioned medium. In view of this, in this study, we aimed to further investigate the effects of SHI on TGF-?1-stimulated hypertrophic scar-derived human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) and examined the underlying mechanisms. Cell viability and proliferation were measured using alamarBlue and CyQUANT assays. The total amount of collagen and cell contraction were examined using Sirius red staining and the cell contraction assay kit. Gene expression and signalling pathway activation were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Our results revealed that SHI reduced TGF-?1?induced collagen production through the ERK/Smad signalling pathway and attenuated TGF-?1?induced cell contraction by downregulating ?-smooth muscle actin (?SMA) expression in the HSFs. The data from this study provide evidence supporting the potential use of SHI as a novel treatment for HS. PMID:26239419

  12. Effects of hyperthermia and ionizing radiation in normal and ataxia telangiectasia human fibroblast lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 450C hyperthermia and ? radiation have been studied in three normal human fibroblast lines (GM38, GM730, WI38) and compared to the effects in two lines derived from patients with the hereditary disease ataxia telangiectasia (AR3BI, AT5BI). All lines, both normal and ?-sensitive AT, showed a similar resistance to killing by heat alone, suggesting that the defect responsible for the increased radiation sensitivity in AT lines does not confer increased heat sensitivity. Shouldered survival curves were obtained in each case indicating the ability to accumulate sublethal heat damage. All normal and AT cell lines exhibited increased resistance to the lethal effects of heat in response to a thermal stress, indicating that the defect that causes radiosensitivity in AT cell lines does not prevent the induction of thermotolerance. It was hypothesized that in normal cells, this heat treatment inactivates the process which is already defective in AT lines, and that this process may be required for the proper rejoining of double-strand breaks produced during the repair of other radiation-induced lesions

  13. Effects of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel on human dermal fibroblasts in vitro and on skin condition in Japanese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Ishizaki, Chiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Aloe is known for its topical use for treating wounds and burns. Many previous studies reported the healing effects of Aloe vera. However, there are few clinical studies on the effect of orally administered A. vera gel on the skin. Aloe sterols are a type of plant sterols that have the capability to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. In a recent study, we confirmed that ingested Aloe sterols reached the peripheral tissues through the bloodstream. However, their influence on dermal fibroblasts has not been investigated. Methods First, we investigated the capability of Aloe sterols (cycloartenol and lophenol) to stimulate human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Then, we investigated the effect of intake of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) containing 40 ?g Aloe sterols on the skin conditions in Japanese women with dry skin in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Results After cocultivation with Aloe sterols, the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid increased by approximately two-fold and 1.5-fold, and gene expression levels of these enzymes responsible for their synthesis were also observed in human dermal fibroblasts. An increase in arm skin hydration was observed at 8 weeks in the AVGP group, whereas a slight decrease in arm skin hydration was noted in the placebo group. However, there was no statistical difference between AVGP and placebo groups in skin moisture. In subgroup analysis, the change in the mean wrinkle depth was significantly lower in the AVGP group than in the control group. In addition, percent body fat after 8 weeks was significantly lower in the AVGP group. No AVGP intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion The present study confirms that daily oral Aloe sterol-containing AVGP significantly reduced facial wrinkles in women aged ?40 years, and Aloe sterols stimulate collagen and hyaluronic acid production by human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:25759593

  14. Host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated and chemically-treated herpes simplex virus-1 by xeroderma pigmentosum, xp heterozygotes and normal skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated and N-acetoxy-2-acetylamino-fluorene-treated herpes simplex virus type 1 strain MP was studied in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum human skin fibroblasts. Virus treated with either agent demonstrated lower survival in XP cells from complementation groups A, B, C and D than in normal fibroblasts. The relative reactivation ability of XP cells from the different genetic complementation groups was found to be the same for both irradiated and chemically treated virus. In addition, the inactivation kinetics for virus treated with either agent in the XP variant were comparable to that seen in normal skin fibroblasts. The addition of 2 or 4 mmoles caffeine to the post-infection assay medium had no effect on the inactivation kinetics of virus treated by either agent in the XP variant or in XP cells from the different genetic complementation groups. Treatment of the virus with nitrogen mustard resulted in equivalent survival in normal and XP genetic complementation group D cells. No apparent defect was observed in the ability of XP heterozygous skin fibroblasts to repair virus damaged with up to 100 ?g N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene per ml. These findings indicate that the repair of UV-irradiated and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated virus is accomplished by the same pathway or different pathways sharing a common intermediate step and that the excision defect of XP cells plays little if any role in the reactivation of nitrogen mustard treated virus. (Auth.)

  15. Cationic star-shaped polymer as an siRNA carrier for reducing MMP-9 expression in skin fibroblast cells and promoting wound healing in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li N

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Li,1,* Heng-Cong Luo,1,* Chuan Yang,1 Jun-Jie Deng,2 Meng Ren,1 Xiao-Ying Xie,1 Diao-Zhu Lin,1 Li Yan,1 Li-Ming Zhang2 1Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2DSAPM Lab and PCFM Lab, Institute of Polymer Science, Department of Polymer and Materials Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Excessive expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is deleterious to the cutaneous wound-healing process in the context of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to explore whether a cationic star-shaped polymer consisting of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD core and poly(amidoamine dendron arms (ß-CD-[D3]7 could be used as the gene carrier of small interfering RNA (siRNA to reduce MMP-9 expression for enhanced diabetic wound healing. Methods: The cytotoxicity of ß-CD-(D37 was investigated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (MMT method in the rat CRL1213 skin fibroblast cell line. The transfection efficiency of ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-small interfering RNA (siRNA complexes was determined by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Quantitative real time (RT polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the gene expression of MMP-9 after the transfection by ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes. The ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes were injected on the wounds of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound closure was measured on days 4 and 7 post-wounding. Results: ß-CD-(D37 exhibited low cytotoxicity in fibroblast cells, and easily formed the complexes with MMP-9-siRNA. The ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes were readily taken up by fibroblast cells, resulting in the downregulation of MMP-9 gene expression (P<0.01. Animal experiments revealed that the treatment by ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes enhanced wound closure in diabetic rats on day 7 post-wounding (P<0.05. Conclusion: ß-CD-(D37 may be used as an efficient carrier for the delivery of MMP-9-siRNA to reduce MMP-9 expression in skin fibroblast cells and promote wound healing in diabetic rats. Keywords: gene carrier, small interfering RNAs, matrix metalloproteinase-9, diabetic foot ulceration

  16. Effect of Microalgal Extracts of Tetraselmis suecica against UVB-Induced Photoaging in Human Skin Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Wol Soon; Yang, Kwang Mo; Park, Hee Sung; Kim, Gi Yong; Nam, Byung Hyouk; Jeong, Min Ho; CHOI, YOO JIN

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of cells to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation can induce production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which damage cellular components. In addition, these agents can stimulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and decrease collagen synthesis in human skin cells. In this study, we examined the anti-photoaging effects of extracts of Tetraselmis suecica (W-TS). W-TS showed the strongest scavenging activity against 2,2-difenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and pero...

  17. Dandelion Extracts Protect Human Skin Fibroblasts from UVB Damage and Cellular Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yafan; Li, Shuangshuang

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation causes damage in skin by generating excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), leading to skin photoageing. Dandelion extracts have long been used for traditional Chinese medicine and native American medicine to treat cancers, hepatitis, and digestive diseases; however, less is known on the effects of dandelion extracts in skin photoageing. Here we found that dandelion leaf and flower extracts significantly protect UVB irradiation-inhibited cell viability when added before UVB irradiation or promptly after irradiation. Dandelion leaf and flower extracts inhibited UVB irradiation-stimulated MMP activity and ROS generation. Dandelion root extracts showed less action on protecting HDFs from UVB irradiation-induced MMP activity, ROS generation, and cell death. Furthermore, dandelion leaf and flower but not root extracts stimulated glutathione generation and glutathione reductase mRNA expression in the presence or absence of UVB irradiation. We also found that dandelion leaf and flower extracts help absorb UVB irradiation. In addition, dandelion extracts significantly protected HDFs from H2O2-induced cellular senescence. In conclusion, dandelion extracts especially leaf and flower extracts are potent protective agents against UVB damage and H2O2-induced cellular senescence in HDFs by suppressing ROS generation and MMP activities and helping UVB absorption.

  18. Cell cycle analysis and interspecies nuclear transfer of in vitro cultured skin fibroblasts of the Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris Altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Md Abul; Bhandari, Dilip P; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2007-04-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effect of cell culture conditions, antioxidants, protease inhibitors (PI), and different levels of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for the promotion of synchronization of different cell cycles of Siberian tiger skin fibroblasts. We also compared the ability of somatic cell nuclei of the Siberian tiger in pig cytoplasts and to support early development after reconstruction. Cell cycle synchronization between nuclear donor and recipient cells is considered to be one of the most crucial factors for successful cloning. Five experiments were performed each with a one-way completely randomized design involving three replicates of all treatments. Least significant difference (LSD) was used to determine variation among treatment groups. Experiment I focused in the effects of cycling, serum starved and fully confluent stages of Siberian tiger cells on different cell cycles. In Experiment II, the effects of different antioxidants like beta-Mercaptoethanol (beta-ME, 10 microM), cysteine (2 mM), and glutathione (2 mM) were examined after cells were fully confluent without serum starvation for 4 hr. In Experiment III, three PI, namely 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP, 2 mM), cycloheximide (7.5 microg/ml) and cytochalasin B (7.5 microg/ml) were used in the sane manner as in Experiment II. In Experiment IV, different levels of DMSO at 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.5% were tested on different cell cycle stages of Siberian tiger examined by Flowcytometry (FACS). In Experiment I, 67.2% of the Siberian tiger skin fibroblasts reached the G0/G1 stage (2C DNA content) in fully confluent conditions which was more than the cycling (49.8%) and serum starved (SS) medium (65.5%; P < 0.05). Among the chemically treated group, glutathione (72.6%) and cycloheximide (71.3%) had little bit better results for the synchronization of G0 + G1 phases than serum starved and fully confluent. After nuclear transfer we did not see any significant differences on the development of tiger-porcine reconstructed embryos at cycling, SS and fully confluent. Data indicate that prolonged culture of cells in the absence of serum as well as using different chemicals for this experiment does not imply a shift in the percentage of cells that enter G0/G1 and that confluency is sufficient to induce quiescence. This finding can be beneficial in nuclear transfer programs in Siberian tiger, because there are negative effects, such as apoptosis associated with serum starvation. PMID:17075834

  19. Generation of human iPS cell line ihFib3.2 from dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Paccola Mesquita

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The human ihFib3.2 iPS cell line was generated from dermal fibroblasts obtained from a healthy donor. Lentiviral particles were produced with the polycistronic hSTEMCCA vector with Oct4, Sox2, cMyc and Klf4 as reprogramming factors.

  20. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo [Nano-optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (NOR.), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, USM, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin [Integrative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bandar Putra Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Masudi, Sam’an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati [Craniofacial Science Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  1. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line

  2. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-04-01

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  3. Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have shown that UVA (320-380 nm) radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induce a stress protein of approximately 32 kDa in human skin fibroblasts. The synthesis and cloning of cDNA from arsenite-induced mRNA populations have now allowed us to unequivocally identify the 32-kDa protein as heme oxygenase. By mRNA analysis we have shown that the heme oxygenase gene is also induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium chloride, iodoacetamide, and menadione. The known antioxidant properties of heme catabolites taken together with the observation of a high level of induction of the enzyme in cells from an organ not involved in hemoglobin breakdown strongly supports the proposal that the induction of heme oxygenase may be a general response to oxidant stress and constitutes an important cellular defense mechanism against oxidative damage

  4. Redox-dependent induction of antioxidant defenses by phenolic diterpenes confers stress tolerance in normal human skin fibroblasts: Insights on replicative senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana C; Gomes, Andreia C; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina; Lima, Cristovao F

    2015-06-01

    Mild stress-induced hormesis represents a promising strategy for targeting the age-related accumulation of molecular damage and, therefore, for preventing diseases and achieving healthy aging. Fruits, vegetables, and spices contain a wide variety of hormetic phytochemicals, which may explain the beneficial health effects associated with the consumption of these dietary components. In the present study, the induction of cellular antioxidant defenses by the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS) were studied in normal human skin fibroblasts, and insights into the aging process at the cellular level investigated. We observed that CA and CS induced several cytoprotective enzymes and antioxidant defenses in human fibroblasts, whose induction was dependent on the cellular redox state for CS and associated with Nrf2 signaling for both compounds. The stress response elicited by preincubation with CS conferred a cytoprotective action against a following oxidant challenge with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, confirming its hormetic effect. Preincubation of normal fibroblasts with CS also protected against hydrogen peroxide-induced premature senescence. Furthermore, cultivation of middle passage normal human skin fibroblasts in the presence of CS ameliorated the physiological state of cells during replicative senescence. Our results support the view that mild stress-induced antioxidant defenses by CS can confer stress tolerance in normal cells and may have important implications in the promotion of healthy aging. PMID:25744415

  5. Altered binding of 125I-labeled calmodulin to a 46.5-kilodalton protein in skin fibroblasts cultured from patients with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins have been determined in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and age- and sex-matched controls. Calmodulin ranged from 0.20 to 0.76 microgram/mg protein; there was no difference between calmodulin concentration in fibroblasts from CF patients and controls. Calmodulin-binding proteins of 230, 212, 204, 164, 139, 70, 59, 46.5, and 41 kD were identified. A protein with a mobility identical to the 59-kD calmodulin-binding protein was labeled by antiserum against calmodulin-dependent phosphatase. Although Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase activity was detected, there was no different in activity between control and CF fibroblasts or in the level of phosphatase protein as determined by radioimmunoassay. Lower amounts of 125I-calmodulin were bound to the 46.5-kD calmodulin-binding protein in CF fibroblasts as compared with controls. The 46.5-kD calmodulin-binding protein may be reduced in CF fibroblasts or its structure may be altered resulting in a reduced binding capacity and/or affinity for calmodulin and perhaps reflecting, either directly or indirectly, the genetic defect responsible for cystic fibrosis

  6. The histamine degradative uptake pathway in human vascular endothelial cells and skin fibroblasts is dependent on extracellular Na+ and Cl-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously reported that human vascular endothelial cells and skin fibroblasts carry out degradation of [3H]histamine by a mechanism involving two successive enzymatic steps: imidazole ring tele-methylation by the cells' endogenous methyltransferase and subsequent amine oxidation by an exogenous diamine oxidase. Both histamine and the exogenous second enzyme in the pathway associate with the cells via separate binding sites or receptors. The enzymatic degradation process results in cellular accumulation of the proximal and distal metabolites tele-methylhistamine and 1-methyl-4-imidazoleacetic acid (MIAA). We have now demonstrated that this two-stage histamine degradative pathway is dependent on Na+ and Cl- in the extracellular environment. Accumulation of [3H] histamine-derived products is partially inhibited under conditions of Na+ deprivation and more substantially when Cl- is also withdrawn. The individual tele-methylation and amine oxidation enzymatic reactions themselves are unaffected or actually facilitated under these conditions. This indicates that it is the cellular mechanism for uptake coupled to the degradative pathway which reflects the cation and anion dependency. Restoration of degradative uptake displays a biphasic Na+ concentration curve, suggesting that the uptake process may be driven by multiple components. These findings indicate a role for both inward Na+ and Cl- ion movement in this cellular degradative uptake mechanism

  7. Activation of NF-?B in human skin fibroblasts by the oxidative stress generated by UVA radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the role of the nucleus and the membrane in the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kB by oxidant stress generated via the UVA (320-380 nm) component of solar radiation. Nuclear extracts from human skin fibroblasts that had been irradiated with UVA at doses that caused little DNA damage contained activated NF-?B that bound to its recognition sequence in DNA. The UVA radiation-dependent activation of NF-?B in enucleated cells confirmed that the nucleus was not involved. On the other hand, UVA radiation-dependent activation of NF-?B appeared to be correlated with membrane damage, and activation could be prevented by ?-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene, agents that inhibited UVA radiation-dependent peroxidation of cell membrane lipids. The activation of NF-?B by the DNA damaging agents UVC (200-290 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) radiation also only occurred at doses where significant membrane damage was induced, and, overall, activation was not correlated with the relative levels of DNA damage induced by UVC/UVB and UVA radiations. We conclude that the oxidative modification of membrane components may be an important factor to consider in the UV radiation-dependent activation of NF-?B over all wavelength ranges examined. (Author)

  8. Gene expression profiling in wild-type and metallothionein mutant fibroblast cell lines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ÁNGELA D, ARMENDÁRIZ; FELIPE, OLIVARES; RODRIGO, PULGAR; ALEX, LOGUINOV; VERÓNICA, CAMBIAZO; CHRISTOPHER D, VULPE; MAURICIO, GONZÁLEZ.

    Full Text Available The role of metallothioneins (MT) in copper homeostasis is of great interest, as it appears to be partially responsible for the regulation of intracellular copper levels during adaptation to extracellular excess of the metal. To further investigate a possible role of MTs in copper metabolism, a geno [...] mics approach was utilized to evaluate the role of MT on gene expression. Microarray analysis was used to examine the effects of copper overload in fibroblast cells from normal and MT I and II double knock-out mice (MT-/-). As a first step, we compared genes that were significantly upregulated in wild-type and MT-/- cells exposed to copper. Even though wild-type and mutant cells are undistinguishable in terms of their morphological features and rates of growth, our results show that MT-/- cells do not respond with induction of typical markers of cellular stress under copper excess conditions, as observed in the wild-type cell line, suggesting that the transcription initiation rate or the mRNA stability of stress genes is affected when there is an alteration in the copper store capacity. The functional classification of other up-regulated genes in both cell lines indicates that a large proportion (>80%) belong to two major categories: 1) metabolism; and 2) cellular physiological processes, suggesting that at the transcriptional level copper overload induces the expression of genes associated with diverse molecular functions. These results open the possibility to understand how copper homeostasis is being coordinated with other metabolic pathways.

  9. Role of cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts in metastatic colon cancer to the liver and their expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Davuluri, Ramana V; Auer, Herbert; Martin, Edward W; de la Chapelle, Albert; Frankel, Wendy L

    2004-09-23

    The cancer microenvironment and interaction between cancer and stromal cells play critical roles in tumor development and progression. The molecular features of cancer stroma are less well understood than those of cancer cells. Cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts are the predominant component of stroma associated with colon cancer and its functions remain unclear. Fibroblast cell cultures were established from metastatic colon cancer in liver, liver away from the metastatic lesions, and skin from three patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. We generated expression profiles of cancer-associated fibroblasts using oligochip arrays and compared them to those of uninvolved fibroblasts. The conditioned media from the cancer-associated fibroblast cultures enhanced proliferation of colon cancer cell line HCT116 to a greater extent than cultures from uninvolved fibroblasts. In microarray expression analysis, cancer-associated fibroblasts clustered tightly into one group and skin fibroblasts into another. Approximately 170 of 22,000 genes were up-regulated in cancer-associated fibroblasts (fold change > 2, P < 0.05) as compared to skin fibroblasts, including many genes encoding cell adhesion molecules, growth factors, and COX2. By immunohistochemistry in-vivo, we confirmed COX2 and TGFB2 expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts in metastatic colon cancer. The distinct molecular expression profiles of cancer-associated fibroblasts in colon cancer metastasis support the notion that these fibroblasts form a favorable microenvironment for cancer cells. PMID:15326482

  10. Effects of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel on human dermal fibroblasts in vitro and on skin condition in Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Miyuki Tanaka,1 Eriko Misawa,1 Koji Yamauchi,1 Fumiaki Abe,1 Chiaki Ishizaki2 1Functional Food Research Department, Food Science and Technology Institute, Morinaga Milk Industry Co, Ltd, Zama, Kanagawa, 2Ebisu Skin Research Center, Inforward, Inc., Tokyo, Japan Background: Aloe is known for its topical use for treating wounds and burns. Many previous studies reported the healing effects of Aloe vera. However, there are few clinical studies on the effect of orally administered A. vera gel on the skin. Aloe sterols are a type of plant sterols that have the capability to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. In a recent study, we confirmed that ingested Aloe sterols reached the peripheral tissues through the bloodstream. However, their influence on dermal fibroblasts has not been investigated. Methods: First, we investigated the capability of Aloe sterols (cycloartenol and lophenol to stimulate human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Then, we investigated the effect of intake of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP containing 40 µg Aloe sterols on the skin conditions in Japanese women with dry skin in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Results: After cocultivation with Aloe sterols, the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid increased by approximately two-fold and 1.5-fold, and gene expression levels of these enzymes responsible for their synthesis were also observed in human dermal fibroblasts. An increase in arm skin hydration was observed at 8 weeks in the AVGP group, whereas a slight decrease in arm skin hydration was noted in the placebo group. However, there was no statistical difference between AVGP and placebo groups in skin moisture. In subgroup analysis, the change in the mean wrinkle depth was significantly lower in the AVGP group than in the control group. In addition, percent body fat after 8 weeks was significantly lower in the AVGP group. No AVGP intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion: The present study confirms that daily oral Aloe sterol-containing AVGP significantly reduced facial wrinkles in women aged ?40 years, and Aloe sterols stimulate collagen and hyaluronic acid production by human dermal fibroblasts. Keywords: aloe sterol, collagen, wrinkle

  11. Irradiation effect on the apoptosis induction in the human cancer cell lines and the gingival fibroblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-induced apoptosis was studied for two human cancer cell lines (KB cells, RPMI 2650 cells) and the human gingival fibroblast cell line (HGF-1 cells). The single irradiation of 2, 10, 20 Gy was done with 241.5 cGy/min dose rate using the 137 Cs MK cell irradiator. The cell were stained with propidium iodide and examined under the fluoro-microscope and assayed with the flow cytometry a day after irradiation. Also, the LDH assay was done to determine the amount of necrotic cells. The obtained results were as follows : 1. On the fluoro-microscope, many fragmented nuclei were detected in the KB, RPMI 2650, and HGF-1 cells after irradiation. 2. On the DNA content histogram obtained from the flow cytometry, the percentages of the pre-G1 peak of the control and 2, 10 and 20 Gy irradiation group were 4.5, 55.0, 52.3, and 66.6% on KB cells, 2.7, 3.3, 31.8, and 32.6% on RPMI 2650 cells and 2.8, 21.8, 30.4, and 40.2% on HGF-1 cells respectively. 3. The number of G1-stage cells was abruptly decreased after 2 Gy irradiation on KB cells and 10 Gy irradiation on RPMI 2650 cells, But there was a slight decrease without regard to irradiation dose on HGF-1 cells. 4. There was no significantly different absorbance in extracellular LDH assay along the experimental cell lines

  12. CopA3 Peptide Prevents Ultraviolet-Induced Inhibition of Type-I Procollagen and Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Human Skin Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV exposure is well-known to induce premature aging, which is mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 activity. A 9-mer peptide, CopA3 (CopA3 was synthesized from a natural peptide, coprisin, which is isolated from the dung beetle Copris tripartitus. As part of our continuing search for novel bioactive natural products, CopA3 was investigated for its in vitro anti-skin photoaging activity. UV-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of MMP-1 were partially prevented in human skin fibroblasts by CopA3 peptide in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 25 ?M, CopA3 nearly completely inhibited MMP-1 expression. These results suggest that CopA3, an insect peptide, is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of skin aging.

  13. [The study of quantitative karyotypic variability by induction of chromosomal instability in cultured cells of the Indian muntjac skin fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polianskaia, G G; Samokish, V A

    1999-01-01

    The influence of mycoplasmal contamination and somatic cell hybridization on the character of karyotypic variability in cell cultures of Indian muntjac skin fibroblasts has been investigated. Mycoplasma arginini and Acholeplasma laidlawii, used as factors inducing chromosomal instability, do not break the main regulations peculiar to intact control. They regulations are: 1) nonrandom character of cell distribution according to the number of chromosomal deviations from MSVK; 2) specific character of deviations of each chromosome from MSVK; 3) presence of significant connections between separate chromosomes by simultaneous mainly single directed numeral deviations. However, mycoplasmal contamination promotes the increase in the number of deviations in the direction of a decreasing chromosomes number. There is a breach of some connections between chromosomes by simultaneous deviations. They are chromosomes with broken connections according to the number of deviations which form telomeric associations (dicentrics). The number of these associations excel essentially intact control. The formation of new MSVK in subline M2 cells of the Indian muntjac in the process of chromosomal segregation in cell hybrid (M2 x clone of JF1 rat Jensen sarcoma) depends on the presence of significant connections between chromosomes by simultaneous numerical deviations in direction of MSVK formation. They are chromosomes that take part in the formation of new MSVK which form telomeric associations. These associations can be observed till stabilization of new MSVK. Probably, the support of the balance of karyotypic structure by factors inducing chromosomal instability is connected with change of some connections between chromosomes according to the number by simultaneous deviations as well as with the formation of dicentrics. PMID:10591121

  14. Formation and repair of DNA damage induced by indirect action of ultraviolet light in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definitions of direct and indirect DNA damage are as follows: direct action, ''the attack of DNA occurs by a primary agent or a chemical derivative of the primary agent'', and indirect action, ''the attack of DNA occurs by active-O2 species which are formed by the reaction of a primary agent with a non-DNA target''. Comparative studies were performed on the formation and repair of DNA lesions induced by monochromatic light at 254, 265 and 313 nm. Attention was focused on human cells in culture, in particular on the skin fibroblasts from normal individuals and the patients with the autosomal recessive disease, Xerodermal pigmentosum (XP). The DNA lesions induced by the indirect action of active O2 species (superoxide-radicals, OH-radicals, singlet oxygen) become important. The most remarkable observation after the 313 nm irradiation on XP strains at 37 deg is the increased immediate fragmentation of pre-existing, parental DNA in the XP-variant strains. A late step in excision repair such as the ligation of parental DNA fragments may be deficient in the XP variants. The nuclease function involved in the removal of radiation lesions could be more active in the XP variants, or glycosylase function could be more active. The abnormality in de novo DNA synthesis in the XP variants may be the reflection of the primary defects in the repair of parental DNA templates rather than the defects in ''post-replication repair''. The abnormal function in DNA metabolism in the XP variants affects in parallel the repair of parental DNA and de novo DNA synthesis. (Yamashita, S.)

  15. Host-cell reactivation of uv-irradiated and chemically treated Herpes simplex virus type 1 strain MP in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated herpes simplex virus type 1 strain mp was studied in normal human skin fibroblasts and xeroderma pigmentosum skin fibroblasts from XP genetic complementation groups A-D and in an XP variant. The increasing relative order for the host-cell reactivation of both types of damaged virus in the different complementation groups is A = D < B < C; XP variant = normal controls. XP complementation group D cells, which manifest the most severe inhibition of her ability for both UV-irradiated and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated virus, can reactivate nitrogen mustard treated HSV-1 mp to the same extent as normal cells. Together, these results indicate that (1) Excision repair of UV and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene DNA damaged viruses share a common rate limiting enzymatic step and (2) The repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells plays little or no role in the recovery of nitrogen mustard treated virus. The results of studies on the effect of caffeine on the survival of both UV- and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated virus in normal and XP cells imply that the reactivation of HSV-1 mp is mediated by an excision repair process with little if any recovery contributed by post-replication repair mechanisms. The host-cell reactivation of N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated HSV-1 mp was also correlated with the defective UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in two skin fibroblast strains established from a skin biopsy obtained from each of two juvenile females who had been clinically diagnosed as xeroderma pigmentosum. These findings are discussed in relation to the further characterization of the xeroderma pigmentosum phenotype and their possible utilization for the selection and isolation of new mammalian cell DNA repair mutants

  16. Absence of correlations between the radiosensitivity of human T-lymphocytes at G0 and skin fibroblasts at log phase from the same individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matched samples of peripheral T-lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts from a total of 22 patients who underwent various surgical procedures were tested for a dose-survival study using loss of colony-forming ability as the end point. The results showed that the mean D10 (the dose required to kill 90 % of the cells) ±SD was 3.58 ± 0.21 Gy for T-lymphocytes irradiated at G0 and 3.19 ± 0.37 Gy for skin fibroblasts irradiated at log phase. The coefficient of variation was found to be 6 % and 11 %, respectively. Contrary to expectation, regression analysis of the D10 values for the two cell types revealed no significant correlations. The absence of correlation is most probably derived from the fact that the apparent interindividual variability of dose-survival curves is largely caused by random experimental fluctuations, at least for lymphocytes. Possible reasons for the greater variability observed in the fibroblast assay are discussed. (author)

  17. The Apoptotic Effects of the P300 Activator on Breast Cancer and Lung Fibroblast Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salahshoor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: P300 is an enzyme that acetylates histones during stress. It alsoacetylates several non-histone proteins, including P53 which is the most important tumorsuppressor gene. P53 plays an important role in the apoptosis of tumor cells. Hereby,this study describes the potency of cholera toxin B subunit as a P300 activator to induceapoptosis in a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and a lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5as a non-tumorigenic control sample. Methods: MCF-7 and MRC-5 were cultured in RPMI-1640 and treated with orwithout cholera toxin B subunit at the concentration of 85.43 ?mol/L, based on the half-maximal inhibitory concentration index at different times (24, 48 and 72 h. Thepercentage of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry. Real-time quantitativeRT-PCR was performed to estimate the mRNA expression of P300 in MCF-7 and MRC-5 with cholera toxin B subunit at different times. We used the ELISA and Bradford proteintechniques to detect levels of total and acetylated P53 protein generated in MCF-7 andMRC-5. Results: Our findings indicated that the cholera toxin B subunit effectively andsignificantly induced more apoptosis in MCF-7 compared to MRC-5. We showed thatexpression of P300 up-regulated by increasing the time of the cholera toxin B subunittreatment in MCF-7 but not in MRC-5. In addition, the acetylated and total P53protein levels increased more in MCF-7 cells than in MRC-5 cells.Conclusion: Cholera toxin B subunit induced significant cell death in MCF-7, butit could be well tolerated in MRC-5. Therefore, cholera toxin B subunit can besuggested as an anti-cancer agent.

  18. Germline-Competent Mouse-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Generated on Human Fibroblasts without Exogenous Leukemia Inhibitory Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunliang; Yu, Hongyao; MA, YU; Shi, Guilai; Jiang, Jing; Gu, Junjie; Yang, Ying; Jin, Shibo; Wei, Zhe; Jiang, Hua; Li, Jinsong; Jin, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have attracted enormous attention due to their vast potential in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical screening and basic research. Most prior established iPS cell lines were derived and maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells supplemented with exogenous leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Drawbacks of MEF cells impede optimization as well as dissection of reprogramming events and limit the usage of iPS cell derivatives in therapeutic applicati...

  19. Nrf2 deficiency causes lipid oxidation, inflammation, and matrix-protease expression in DHA-supplemented and UVA-irradiated skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Florian; Ornelas, Cayo Mecking; Karner, Susanne; Narzt, Marie-Sophie; Nagelreiter, Ionela Mariana; Gschwandtner, Maria; Bochkov, Valery; Tschachler, Erwin

    2015-11-01

    Fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has beneficial effects on human health. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are precursors of eicosanoids and docosanoids, signaling molecules that control inflammation and immunity, and their dietary uptake improves a range of disorders including cardiovascular diseases, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. The unsaturated nature of these fatty acids, however, makes them prone to oxidation, especially when they are incorporated into (membrane) phospholipids. The skin is an organ strongly exposed to oxidative stress, mainly due to solar ultraviolet radiation. Thus, increased levels of PUFA in combination with oxidative stress could cause increased local generation of oxidized lipids, whose action spectrum reaches from signaling molecules to reactive carbonyl compounds that can crosslink biomolecules. Here, we investigated whether PUFA supplements to fibroblasts are incorporated into membrane phospholipids and whether an increase of PUFA within phospholipids affects the responses of the cells to UV exposure. The redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 is the major regulator of the fibroblast stress response to ultraviolet radiation or exposure to oxidized lipids. Here we addressed how Nrf2 signaling would be affected in PUFA-supplemented human dermal fibroblasts and mouse dermal fibroblasts from Nrf2-deficient and wild type mice. We found, using HPLC-tandem MS, that DHA supplements to culture media of human and murine fibroblasts were readily incorporated into phospholipids and that subsequent irradiation of the supplemented cells with UVA resulted in an increase in 1-palmitoyl-2-(epoxyisoprostane-E2)-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine and Oxo-DHA esterified to phospholipid, both of which are Nrf2 agonists. Also, induction of Nrf2 target genes was enhanced in the DHA-supplemented fibroblasts after UVA irradiation. In Nrf2-deficient murine fibroblasts, the expression of the target genes was, as expected, decreased, but surprisingly, expression of TNF? and MMP13 was strongly induced in DHA-supplemented, UVA-irradiated cells. Also, Nrf2-deficient cells had increased levels of oxidized phospholipids relative to the unoxidized precursors after UVA irradiation. Our data suggest that under ultraviolet stress a functioning Nrf2 system is required to prevent DHA-induced inflammation and matrix degradation in dermal fibroblasts. PMID:25981373

  20. Production of a cloned calf from a fetal fibroblast cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Mello M.R.B.; Caetano H.V.A.; Marques M.G.; Padilha M.S.; Garcia J.F.; Milazzotto M.P.; Assumpção M.E.O.A.; Lima A.S.; Nicácio A.C.; Mendes C.M.; Oliveira V.P.; Visintin J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined the in vitro and in vivo development of bovine nuclear-transferred embryos. A bovine fetal fibroblast culture was established and used as nucleus donor. Slaughterhouse oocytes were matured in vitro for 18 h before enucleation. Enucleated oocytes were fused with fetal fibroblasts with an electric stimulus and treated with cytochalasin D and cycloheximide for 1 h followed by cycloheximide alone for 4 h. Reconstructed embryos were cultured for 7-9 days and those which ...

  1. Elevated expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in an immortalized rabbit smooth muscle cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Winkles, J. A.; Friesel, R.; Alberts, G. F.; Janat, M. F.; Liau, G.

    1993-01-01

    Intimal smooth muscle cell accumulation is regarded as an important component of atherosclerotic plaque formation, angioplasty-induced restenosis, and vascular graft occlusion. Vascular smooth muscle cells can both express and respond to acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF); therefore, under certain conditions these polypeptides may regulate smooth muscle cell growth in an autocrine manner. Previous studies using smooth muscle cells cultured in vitr...

  2. Skin graft rejection in mice repopulated with marrow of the skin donor type: a Skn gene in a congenic line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetically anemic W/Wv mice and lethally irradiated wild-type mice were cured and populated by grafted marrow cells from donor mice of three congenic lines that differed at non-H-2 histocompatibility loci. Tail skin from mice of the same congenic lines was grafted 3-4 weeks later. In two cases, the recipients behaved as expected, no longer rejecting skin syngeneic with the marrow graft that had repopulated them. However, B6-H-24c skin was rejected by WBB6F1-W/Wv mice that were cured with B6-H-24c marrow showing a mean survival time of 9.9 weeks. It was rejected somewhat faster, with a mean survival time of 5.9 weeks, by W/Wv mice cured with marrow from other types of donors. Results were more variable in lethally irradiated WBB6F1-+/+ recipients of B6-H-24c marrow, but they also rejected B6-H-24c skin. Both types of recipients remained chimeras after the skin was rejected, showing more than 90% of the B6-H-24c hemoglobin type. This is the first report of a Skn gene in a congenic line

  3. Characterization of a novel fibroblast-like cell line from rainbow trout and responses to sublethal anoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossum, Carlo Gunnar; Hoffmann, Else Kay; Vijayan, M.M.; Holt, S.E.; Bols, N.C.

    2004-01-01

    A novel fibroblast-like cell line RTHDF was established from hypodermal connective tissue of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and telomerase activity was demonstrated early and late in cell line development. When RTHDF cells were exposed to bioenergetic stress, i.e. anoxia, activation of the stress activated member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family, p38MAPK and induction of heat shock protein (Hsp70) were evident. The time-course of the p38MAPK activation and the induction of Hsp70...

  4. Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E; Li, Juan; Moldt, Brian; Kragh, Peter M; Callesen, Henrik; Hertz, Jens Michael; Bolund, Lars; Jørgensen, Arne Lund; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm; Nielsen, Anders Lade

    2011-01-01

    We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based docking vector harbouring a selection gene, an eGFP reporter gene, and an Flp recombinase site for locus-directed gene insertion. PFV cells have insertion of a single docking vector with stable eGFP expres...

  5. Establishment of a pancreatic stem cell line from fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background For cell therapies to treat diabetes, it is important to produce a sufficient number of pancreatic endocrine cells that function similarly to primary islets. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent a potentially unlimited source of functional pancreatic endocrine cells. However, the use of iPS cells for laboratory studies and cell-based therapies is hampered by their high tumorigenic potential and limited ability to generate pure populations of differentiated cell types in vitro. The purpose of this study was to establish a pancreatic stem cell line from iPS cells derived from mouse fibroblasts. Methods Mouse iPS cells were induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells by a multi-step differentiation protocol, which was conducted as described previously with minor modifications. Selection of the pancreatic stem cell was based on morphology and Pdx1 expression. The pancreatic potential of the pancreatic stem cells was evaluated using a reverse transcription PCR, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, and a glucose challenge test. To assess potential tumorigenicity of the pancreatic stem cells, the cells were injected into the quadriceps femoris muscle of the left hindlimb of nude mice. Results The iPS-derived pancreatic stem cells expressed the transcription factor –Pdx1– a marker of pancreatic development, and continued to divide actively beyond passage 80. Endocrine cells derived from these pancreatic stem cells expressed insulin and pancreatic genes, and they released insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Mice injected with the pancreatic stem cells did not develop tumors, in contrast to mice injected with an equal number of iPS cells. Conclusion This strategy provides a new approach for generation of insulin-producing cells that is more efficient and safer than using iPS cells. We believe that this approach will help to develop a patient-specific cell transplantation therapy for diabetes in the near future. PMID:24886514

  6. Radiation-induced alterations of the proliferation dynamics of human skin fibroblasts after repeated irradiation in the subtherapeutic dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single and multiple irradiations on the differentiation and proliferation pattern of the stem cell system of human fibroblasts. The pattern of differentiation of fibroblast cultures was analyzed by morphological criteria using colony forming assays. Proliferation rates were assessed by cell counting and measuring the incorporation of BrdU. Ionizing radiation both in low and high dose ranges exerts differential effects on the cellular processes of differentiation and proliferation in human fibroblasts. Single irradiations of fibroblasts in the dose range of 1 to 8 Gy induced terminal differentiation into postmitotic fibrocytes at high percentage level. Irradiation of longterm cultures of fibroblasts with repeated doses of 0.2, 0.6 and 1.0 Gy revealed that only in cultures, which were irradiated repeatedly (x10) with 0.6 and 1.0 Gy a marked reduction of the proliferation capacity was apparent. Inhibition of proliferation by repeated irradiations with cumulative doses up to 10 Gy was not more pronounced as compared to single irradiations. 1. These results of radiation-induced changes in the proliferation and differentiation pattern of cells may be a basis for the understanding of the cellular processes leading to radiation-induced fibrosis and tissue aging. 2. Multiple irradiations with single doses up to 1 Gy and cumulative doses up to 10 Gy did not change the radiosensitivity of fibroblast cultures regarding effects on cell proliferation. (orig.)

  7. Screening of medicinal and edible plants in Okinawa, Japan, for enhanced proliferative and collagen synthesis activities in NB1RGB human skin fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To identify plants with bioactive potential for skin care, methanol extracts of 56 plant parts from 47 medical and edible plants cultivated in Okinawa were tested for their proliferative effects on NB1RGB skin fibroblast cells. Extracts from six plants, Bischofia javanica, Colocasia esculenta, Melaleuca alternifolia, Piper angustifolia, Jasminum sambac, and Curcuma longa, showed higher NB1RGB cell proliferation activity (>10%) than the control, at various concentrations. Among the six extracts, only the C. longa extract caused an increase in collagen synthesis in NB1RGB cells, as compared to treatment with the positive control, ascorbic acid (AsA). Expression of the collagen synthesis marker, transforming growth factor-?1, was higher after treatment with the C. longa extract than with AsA. PMID:23221723

  8. A role for Nrf2 in UVA-mediated heme oxygenase induction and protection from membrane damage in human skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; Li, Linhao; Deng, Linhong; Singh, Gurinder; Tyrrell, Rex M.; Zhong, J. Li

    2010-11-01

    Our previous study has shown that Ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation induces heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in cultured human primary skin fibroblasts FEK4. In the present study, we demonstrate a coordinated induction of HO-1 and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) following UVA irradiation or hemin treatment. The induction of HO-1 by either UVA irradiation or hemin treatment was largely abolished by down-regulation of Nrf2 with its targeted short interfering RNA (siNrf2). The study further reveals that knockdown of Nrf2 protein increased UVA-induced cell death measured by MTS assay. These findings together indicate that Nrf2-mediated induction of HO-1 expression may provide a cytoprotection for human skin cells from oxidative damage.

  9. Induction of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A activity in human skin fibroblasts and rat osteoblasts by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thumm, S.; Glock, S.; Haemmerle, H. [Natural and Medical Sciences Institute Reutlingen, University of Tuebingen (NMI), Markwiesenstrasse 55, D-72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Loeschinger, M.; Rodemann, H.P. [Section of Radiobiology and Molecular Environmental Research, University of Tuebingen, Roentgenweg 11, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Sinusoidal extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF; 7-8 mT, 20 Hz) have already been shown to inhibit proliferation and to accelerate terminal differentiation of human skin fibroblasts in vitro. In order to elucidate the underlying processes of signal transduction, we analysed the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). EMF exposure for 60 min resulted in an increased PKA activity in human skin fibroblasts (2-fold) and rat embryonic osteoblasts (1.7-fold). Long-term exposure for up to 7 days with a constant 1 h-on/1 h-off EMF exposure rhythm indicated a transient stimulation of PKA activity during the first two exposure rhythms followed by a decrease to the baseline levels of sham-exposed controls. Based on these results, we postulate that a modulation of proliferation and differentiation processes in cells of mesenchymal origin is triggered by an immediate and transient EMF-induced increase in PKA activity. (orig.)

  10. Nrf2 and NF-?B Signaling Pathways Contribute to Porphyra-334-Mediated Inhibition of UVA-Induced Inflammation in Skin Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jina; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the protective effects of porphyra-334 against UVA-irradiated cellular damage and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Porphyra-334 prevented UVA-induced cell death and exhibited scavenging activities against intracellular oxidative stress induced by UVA irradiation in skin fibroblasts. We found that porphyra-334 significantly reduced the secretion and expression of IL-6 and TNF-?, reduced nuclear expression of Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and sustained NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. Further mechanism research revealed that porphyra-334 promoted the Nrf2 signaling pathway in UVA-irradiated skin fibroblasts. Our results show that the antioxidant effect of porphyra-334 is due to the direct scavenging of oxidative stress and its inhibitory effects on NF-?B-dependent inflammatory genes, such as IL-6 and TNF-?. Therefore, we hypothesize that boosting the Nrf2- NF-?B-dependent response to counteract environmental stress is a promising strategy for the prevention of UVA-related damage. PMID:26264001

  11. Studies of DNA and chromosome damage in skin fibroblasts and blood lymphocytes from psoriasis patients treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of human lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts in vitro to a single, clinically used dose of PUVA, i.e., 0.1 micrograms/ml of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus 0.9-4 J/cm2 of longwave ultraviolet radiation (UVA), lead to the formation of DNA damage as determined by alkaline elution, and to chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). When lymphocyte-enriched plasma was obtained from psoriasis patients 2 h after oral intake of 8-MOP and then UVA irradiated (1.8-3.6 J/cm2) in vitro, an increased frequency of chromosome aberrations and SCE was observed. Normal levels of chromosome aberrations and SCE were found in lymphocytes of psoriasis patients after 3-30 weeks of PUVA treatment in vivo. A small but statistically significant increase in the SCE frequency was observed in the lymphocytes of psoriasis patients treated for 1-6 years with PUVA (mean 18.0 SCE/cell) as compared with before PUVA (mean 15.8, p less than 0.05). Skin fibroblasts of psoriasis patients analyzed 5 years after the start of PUVA treatment showed a normal number of SCE but a high fraction of filter-retained DNA in the alkaline elution assay, suggesting the presence of cross-linked DNA

  12. IN VITRO EFFECTS OF CEFTRIAXONE ON GROWTH OF HUMAN RHABDOMYOSARCOMA (RD AND ON RAT EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS (REF CELL LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada N. Al-Shawi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Many reports demonstrated that antibiotics like cefazoline, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole and others have the ability to inhibit growth of various cell lines. Thus, this study was designed to investigate whether or not ceftriaxone may possess cell growth inhibition using In vitro study and utilizing two cell lines (human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD and rat embryo fibroblasts (REF. Various concentrations of Ceftriaxone (62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mcg/ml were utilized in this study. The drug relatively caused concentration-dependent inhibition on growth of the intended cell lines used in this study, where, the growth inhibition induced by the drug was statistically significant at 125mcg/ml and above. The results obtained from this work encourage further study of the possibility of clinical application of ceftriaxone to prevent the occurrence of different tumors.

  13. Immunomodulatory Effects of Bee Venom in Human Synovial Fibroblast Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Vatanpour, Hossein; H Shirazi, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    As in Iranian traditional medicine, bee venom (BV) is a promising treatment for the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is considered as a problematic human chronic inflammatory disease in the present time. Smoking is considered to be a major risk factor in RA onset and severity. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effects of BV on cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory response in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and bee venom were d...

  14. DEF-1, a Novel Src SH3 Binding Protein That Promotes Adipogenesis in Fibroblastic Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    King, Frederick J.; Hu, Erding; Harris, David F.; Sarraf, Pasha; Spiegelman, Bruce M.; Roberts, Thomas M

    1999-01-01

    The Src homology 3 (SH3) motif is found in numerous signal transduction proteins involved in cellular growth and differentiation. We have purified and cloned a novel protein, DEF-1 (differentiation-enhancing factor), from bovine brain by using a Src SH3 affinity column. Ectopic expression of DEF-1 in fibroblasts resulted in the differentiation of a significant fraction of the culture into adipocytes. This phenotype appears to be related to the induction of the transcription factor peroxisome ...

  15. Excessive formation of hydroxyl radicals and aldehydic lipid peroxidation products in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with complex I deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, X; Pitkänen, S; Kassovska-Bratinova, S.; Robinson, B. H.; Lehotay, D C

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies suggest oxygen free radicals' involvement in the etiology of cardiomyopathy with cataracts. To investigate the role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy with cataracts and complex I deficiency, fibroblasts from patients were assessed for hydroxyl radical formation and aldehydic lipid peroxidation products with and without redox active agents that increase free radicals. The rate of hydroxyl radical formation in patient cells was increased over 2-10-fold ...

  16. Alternative cell lines for the propagation of lumpy skin disease virus

    OpenAIRE

    Binepal, Y.S.; Ongadi, F.A.; Chepkwony, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In our Institute lumpy skin disease virus is grown on primary lamb testis cells for isolation, identification and vaccine production. However, the availability of lambs in Kenya has been seriously reduced over the past few years. This has led to an increase in the cost of using primary lamb testis cells. This study was undertaken to investigate other primary cell lines, which are easily available and provide an equivalent or better yield of lumpy skin disease virus. Foetal bovine muscle (FBM)...

  17. Induction of the heme oxygenase gene in human skin fibroblasts by hydrogen peroxide and UVA (365 nm) radiation: evidence for the involvement of the hydroxyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of heme oxygenase by both hydrogen peroxide and UVA (365 nm) radiation in normal human skin fibroblasts is prevented by prior treatment of cells with the specific iron chelators, o-phenanthroline or desferrioxamine. In addition, both iron chelators protected cells against the lethal effects of H2O2 treatment or UVA irradiation. We propose that the generation of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical by an iron catalyzed Fenton reaction is involved both in the induction of this stress response and, at least in part, in cell killing by the two treatments. These results are also consistent with the idea that the heme oxygenase gene is induced in response to oxidative stress and that its induction may constitute an inducible protective mechanism against oxidative damage induced by both hydrogen peroxide and UVA radiation. (author)

  18. Effects of CO{sub 2} laser irradiation on the wettability and human skin fibroblast cell response of magnesia partially stabilised zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, L.; Lawrence, J

    2003-10-15

    Human skin fibroblast cells in vitro responses on the surface of a bioinert zirconia ceramic partially stabilised with magnesia partially stabilised zirconia (MgO-PSZ) bioinert ceramic before and after CO{sub 2} laser treatment were investigated to find the interrelationship between the cell adhesion, wettability and laser parameters. Contact angle, {theta}, measurements of a set of test liquids were a clear indication that surface treatment of the MgO-PSZ with a CO{sub 2} laser brought about a reduction in {theta}, indicating that the wettability of the MgO-PSZ had been enhanced. A relationship was found between the wettability and the microstructure of the MgO-PSZ surface and laser processing parameters. It was subsequently deduced that the factors active in causing the observed modification in the wettability of the MgO-PSZ were the increases in the surface O{sub 2} content and the polar component of the surface energy, {gamma}{sub sv}{sup p}, the latter resulting from surface melting and resolidification. Moreover, the investigation into the human skin fibroblast cell response revealed that the CO{sub 2} laser treatment of the MgO-PSZ had resulted in a surface favourable for cell adhesion, as the extent of cell attachment and adhesion on the MgO-PSZ surface was enhanced depending on laser parameters. Such an improvement in cell adhesion, which could be greatly beneficial to developing enhanced bonding at the tissue and implant interface, was influenced by the surface properties of the modified MgO-PSZ, particular wettability.

  19. Production of a cloned calf from a fetal fibroblast cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.B. Mello

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the in vitro and in vivo development of bovine nuclear-transferred embryos. A bovine fetal fibroblast culture was established and used as nucleus donor. Slaughterhouse oocytes were matured in vitro for 18 h before enucleation. Enucleated oocytes were fused with fetal fibroblasts with an electric stimulus and treated with cytochalasin D and cycloheximide for 1 h followed by cycloheximide alone for 4 h. Reconstructed embryos were cultured for 7-9 days and those which developed to blastocysts were transferred to recipient cows. Of 191 enucleated oocytes, 83 (43.5% were successfully fused and 24 (28.9% developed to blastocysts. Eighteen freshly cloned blastocysts were transferred to 14 recipients, 5 (27.8% of which were pregnant on day 35 and 3 (16.7% on day 90. Of the three cows that reached the third trimester, one recipient died of hydrallantois 2 months before term, one aborted fetus was recovered at 8 months of gestation, and one delivered by cesarian section a healthy cloned calf. Today, the cloned calf is 15 months old and presents normal body development (378 kg and sexual behavior (libido and semen characteristics.

  20. Cytotoxicity of endodontic irrigants containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from mouse L929 cell line

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sérgio Valmor, Barbosa; Cristiane Maria Sodré, Barroso; Patrícia Alvarez, Ruiz.

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a citotoxicidade de soluções irrigadoras de canais radiculares contendo hidróxido de cálcio e lauril sulfato de sódio em linhagem de fibroblastos L929. Solução aquosa saturada de hidróxido de cálcio, lauril sulfato de sódio e HCT20 (lauril sulfato de sódio e hid [...] róxido de cálcio) foram diluídos em água destilada em concentrações de 50%, 20%, 10% e 5%. O grupo controle foi representado por meio de cultura de células (MEM - minimum essential medium). A citotoxicidade das soluções sobre os fibroblastos foi avaliada em 4 e 24 h de contato, pelo método do cromo radioativo. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Em todas as análises, o intervalo de confiança referente às médias entre os grupos foi estabelecido em 95%. As soluções saturadas de hidróxido de cálcio e o HCT20 apresentaram toxicidade nas concentrações de 50%. O lauril sulfato de sódio foi tóxico em todas as concentrações. As soluções de hidróxido de cálcio em concentrações menores que 50% apresentaram tolerância celular, assim como combinadas ao lauril sulfato de sódio. Tal comportamento não foi observado na solução pura de lauril sulfato de sódio em todas as concentrações. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigating solutions containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from L929 cell line. Saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and SLS associated with calciu [...] m hydroxide (HCT20) were diluted with sterile distilled water at 50%, 20%, 10% and 5% concentrations. Minimum essential medium (MEM) served as the control group. The cytotoxicity of the solutions was evaluated on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line, at 4 and 24 h of contact time by the 51Cr radiotracer method. Data were compared and statistical inferences were made with the chi-square test. In all analysis, significance level was set at 5%. CH and HCT20 showed toxicity at 50% concentration, while at concentrations lower than 50% these solutions showed cell tolerance. SLS was cytotoxic at all concentrations. In conclusion, the association of calcium hydroxide and SLS (HCT20) combines the beneficial properties of these solutions and was not harmful to the fibroblast cell line, seeming to be a suitable endodontic irrigating solution.

  1. Receptor-mediated rapid action of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol: increase of intracellular cGMP in human skin fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Barsony, J.; Marx, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    The intracellular cGMP concentration in normal human cultured fibroblasts was increased 2- to 3-fold by 1 alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3] in a dose-dependent manner between 0.01 nM and 1 microM. The response was detectable within 1 min, reached a maximum (225% +/- 8% of baseline) at 6-8 min, and was no longer detectable at 30 min. The half-maximal effect of 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3 was at 1.8 nM, and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol showed an estimated EC50 100-fold higher. 1 b...

  2. Coexposure to benzo[a]pyrene plus ultraviolet A induces 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine formation in human skin fibroblasts: preventive effects of anti-oxidant agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, Yuko; Warashina, Tsutomu; Noro, Tadataka; Goto, Rensuke

    2002-08-01

    The influence of environmental benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) contamination under ultraviolet A (UVA) on normal human skin fibroblasts was examined. Treatment of human skin fibroblasts with UVA in the presence of BaP induced cytotoxicity in a UVA- and BaP-dose-dependent manner, involving oxidative DNA damage (formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG)). Singlet oxygen quenchers significantly inhibited the formation of 8-oxo-dG, whereas hydroxyl radical and superoixide anion radical scavengers showed no effect. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine prevented the formation of 8-oxo-dG. These findings suggested the possibility of increased carcinogenesis in the skin via singlet oxygen produced by sunlight plus environmental BaP contamination and the efficiency of anti-oxidant agents for its prevention. PMID:21782621

  3. Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Li, Juan

    2011-01-01

    We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based docking vector harbouring a selection gene, an eGFP reporter gene, and an Flp recombinase site for locus-directed gene insertion. PFV cells have insertion of a single docking vector with stable eGFP expression and generated phenotypic normal blastocysts with transgene expression after somatic cell nuclear transfer. PFV cells supported Flp mediated cassette exchange for transgene substitution of eGFP with dsRED, and the dsRED transgenic PFV cells generated blastocysts with transgene expression. Hence, the PFV cell line constitutes a valuable pig equivalent to transformed cell lines from other mammalian species suitable for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and, in addition, for transgene analyses in the very early embryonic stages.

  4. Expression of fibroblast growth factors in ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal tumors and corneal tumor cell lines from Monodelphis domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, C L; Kusewitt, D F; Applegate, L A; Budge, C L; Ley, R D

    1993-01-01

    Chronic exposure of the gray, short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces highly vascularized mesenchymal tumors of the cornea. Cell lines derived from these UVR-induced corneal tumors and the corneal tumors themselves were examined for the presence of mRNA coding for basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors (FGF), transforming growth factors-beta and -alpha (TGF-beta and TGF-alpha), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Basic FGF was expressed in the cell lines derived from corneal tumors and in the corneal tumors. Expression of basic FGF was high in one corneal tumor. Transcripts for acidic FGF were detected only in the corneal tumor cell lines, not in primary tumors. TGF-beta expression was detected in the corneal tumors and tumor-derived cell lines. TGF-alpha, EGF, and TNF-alpha transcripts were not detectable in any opossum material; however, homologous gene sequences for TGF-alpha and EGF were detected on Southern blots of opossum genomic DNA. Southern blot analysis revealed no evidence of amplification or rearrangement of the genes for basic FGF or acidic FGF in the UVR-induced corneal tumor that expressed high levels of basic FGF. Opossum basic FGF, which stimulated the proliferation of fetal bovine heart endothelial cells, was purified by heparin affinity chromatography from a UVR-induced corneal tumor and a corneal tumor cell line. Immunoblotting of opossum basic FGF from a corneal tumor cell line using antiserum to bovine basic FGF showed two prominent immunoreactive bands of 17.5 and 18.5 kDa. Expression of basic FGF and acidic FGF may play a role in the development and progression of UVR-induced corneal tumors in M. domestica. PMID:7683886

  5. Comparison of thermoradiosensitization in two human melanoma cell lines and one fibroblast cell line by concurrent mild hyperthermia and low-dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two human melanoma cell lines, one radioresistant (Sk-MEL-3) and one radiosensitive (HT-144), and a normal human fibroblast line (AG1522) were evaluated for thermoradiosensitization of low-dose-rate irradiation by concurrent mild hyperthermia (39-41 degrees C). None of the cell lines expressed chronic thermotolerance during heating at 39-41 degrees C. The SK-MEL-3 cells were the most heat sensitive, while AG1522 and HT-144 cells had the same sensitivity at 39 and 40 degrees C but HT-144 cells were more sensitive at 41 degrees C. All cell lines expressed thermal enhancement of radiosensitivity with heating during irradiation which increased with heating temperature. The SK-MEL-3 cells, which were the most resistant to radiation and demonstrated the greatest repair of sublethal damage (SLD) during low-dose-rate irradiation, had the greatest thermal enhancement of radiosensitivity, while the HT144 cells, which were the most sensitive and expressed little repair of SLD during low-dose-rate irradiation, had the smallest thermal enhancement of radiosensitivity. These data show that concurrent mild hyperthermia during low-dose-rate irradiation may be most efficacious in radiation-resistant tumor cells which express resistance through an enhanced capacity for repair of SLD. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. Production of a cloned calf from a fetal fibroblast cell line

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.R.B., Mello; H.V.A., Caetano; M.G., Marques; M.S., Padilha; J.F., Garcia; M.P., Milazzotto; M.E.O.A., Assumpção; A.S., Lima; A.C., Nicácio; C.M., Mendes; V.P., Oliveira; J.A., Visintin.

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the in vitro and in vivo development of bovine nuclear-transferred embryos. A bovine fetal fibroblast culture was established and used as nucleus donor. Slaughterhouse oocytes were matured in vitro for 18 h before enucleation. Enucleated oocytes were fused with fetal fibro [...] blasts with an electric stimulus and treated with cytochalasin D and cycloheximide for 1 h followed by cycloheximide alone for 4 h. Reconstructed embryos were cultured for 7-9 days and those which developed to blastocysts were transferred to recipient cows. Of 191 enucleated oocytes, 83 (43.5%) were successfully fused and 24 (28.9%) developed to blastocysts. Eighteen freshly cloned blastocysts were transferred to 14 recipients, 5 (27.8%) of which were pregnant on day 35 and 3 (16.7%) on day 90. Of the three cows that reached the third trimester, one recipient died of hydrallantois 2 months before term, one aborted fetus was recovered at 8 months of gestation, and one delivered by cesarian section a healthy cloned calf. Today, the cloned calf is 15 months old and presents normal body development (378 kg) and sexual behavior (libido and semen characteristics).

  7. Microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women

    OpenAIRE

    Claeys Geert; De Backer Ellen; Saerens Bart; dos Santos Lopes Santiago Guido; Monstrey Stan; Gerris Jan; Verstraelen Hans; Weyers Steven; Vaneechoutte Mario; Verhelst Rita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina in male-to-female transsexuals is a recently created microbial niche which thus far has been characterized only to a very limited extent. Yet the knowledge of this microflora can be considered as essential to the follow-up of transsexual women. The primary objective of this study was to map the neo-vaginal microflora in a group of 50 transsexual women for whom a neovagina was constructed by means of the inverted penile skin...

  8. Alternative cell lines for the propagation of lumpy skin disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binepal, Y S; Ongadi, F A; Chepkwony, J C

    2001-06-01

    In our Institute lumpy skin disease virus is grown on primary lamb testis cells for isolation, identification and vaccine production. However, the availability of lambs in Kenya has been seriously reduced over the past few years. This has led to an increase in the cost of using primary lamb testis cells. This study was undertaken to investigate other primary cell lines, which are easily available and provide an equivalent or better yield of lumpy skin disease virus. Foetal bovine muscle (FBM) cells were found to be an adequate alternative for lamb testis cells. PMID:11585094

  9. The specific binding of transferrin to the murine fibroblast cell lines AKR-2B and its malignant counterpart AKR-MCA may be related to the transformed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific binding of radiolabelled transferrin to AKR-2B and AKR-MCA murine fibroblasts was studied. The binding of radioligand to both cell lines was specific, being displaced by excess of unlabelled transferrin but not myoglobin, or lactoperoxidase. Under equilibrium conditions the transformed line AKR-MCA bound significantly more radioactive transferrin (22.5 ± 3.5 fmol/?g DNA) than the parental line AKR-2B (14.5 ± 1.5 fmol/?g DNA). The differences in the amount of ligand bound was due to altered receptor numbers. Treatment of AKR-MCA and AKR-2B cells with DMF eliminated the difference in transferrin binding capacities. The maximum decrease in specific ligand binding to AKR-MCA cells brought about by polar solvent was observed after 48 h. These data suggest an association between transferrin binding and the transformed state of AKR-2B fibroblasts. (author) 15 refs

  10. Both near ultraviolet radiation and the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide induce a 32-kDa stress protein in normal human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analyzed the pattern of protein synthesis in solar near ultraviolet (334 nm, 365 nm) and near visible (405 nm) irradiated normal human skin fibroblasts. Two hours after irradiation we find that one major stress protein of approximately 32 kDa is induced in irradiated cells. This protein is not induced by ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths shorter than 334 nm and is not inducible by heat shock treatment of these cells. Although sodium arsenite, diamide, and menadione all induced a 32-kDa protein, they also induced the major heat shock proteins. In contrast, the oxidizing agent, hydrogen peroxide, induced the low molecular weight stress protein without causing induction of the major heat shock proteins. A comparison of the 32-kDa proteins induced by sodium arsenite, H2O2, and solar near ultraviolet radiation using chemical peptide mapping shows that they are closely related. These results imply that the pathways for induction of the heat shock response and the 32-kDa protein are not identical and suggest that, at least in the case of radiation and treatment with H2O2, the 32-kDa protein might be induced in response to cellular oxidative stress. This conclusion is supported by the observation that depletion of endogenous cellular glutathione prior to solar near ultraviolet irradiation lowers the fluence threshold for induction of the 32-kDa stress protein

  11. Molecular analysis of gamma-ray-induced mutations at the hprt locus in primary human skin fibroblasts by multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 153 hprt mutants (23 spontaneous, 130 ?-ray-induced) of primary human skin fibroblasts were isolated and genetic alterations at the locus were studied by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The analyses showed that 51% (66/130) of ?-ray-induced genetic changes were large deletions, whereas the majority of spontaneous mutants (21/23) exhibited point mutations. The spectrum of large genetic alterations appeared to be dependent on dose in ?-ray-induced (1-4 Gy) mutations; mutants with complete loss of the hprt locus comprised 21 (3/14) or 39% (15/38) of clones isolated after irradiation with 1 or 4 Gy, respectively. The frequency of partial deletions was found to be higher in the mutants isolated from clones irradiated with 2 Gy (38%) than from those irradiated with 4 Gy (8%). Mapping of all intragenic depletion breakpoints exhibited a nonrandom distribution of breakpoints toward the 3' end of the hprt gene. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated central-line dressings and necrosis in complicated skin disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jennifer B; Divito, Sherrie J; Talbot, Simon G

    2014-12-01

    Although chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) disks have been shown to help reduce the incidence of central line-associated blood stream infections, their use can result in local skin necrosis. The effects of CHG disks on patients with complex skin pathology have not been studied. We report 6 cases of dermal necrosis associated with Biopatch (Ethicon Inc, Somerville, NJ) CHG disks in adults with complex skin pathology including those with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, burns, and anasarca. All patients had a CHG disk placed at a central venous catheter insertion site. Age range was from 21 to 84 years. Discovery of the reaction ranged from 4 to 14 days after disk placement. Resultant skin erosions required 2 to 10 weeks to reepithelialize. Complicated skin disorder patients represent a rare subset of the critically ill who appear prone to CHG disk necrosis. Continuous contact of CHG under occlusive dressings is speculated to predispose Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, and burn patients to local chemical injury secondary to loss of the epithelial tissue barrier, decreased cohesion of the epidermal-dermal junction, and increased tissue permeability. In these patients, the risk of placing the CHG disk may present more risk than using alternative antimicrobial dressings. PMID:25035049

  13. Antagonism of phenanthrene cytotoxicity for human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I by green tea polyphenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei Xin [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth Development and Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wu Yuanyuan; Mao Xiao [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Tu Youying, E-mail: youytu@zju.edu.c [Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. A full factorial design experiment demonstrated that the interaction of phenanthrene and GTP significantly reduced growth inhibition. Using the median effect method showed that phenanthrene and GTP were antagonistic when the inhibitory levels were less than about 50%. Apoptosis and cell cycle detection suggested that only phenanthrene affected cell cycle significantly and caused cell death; GTP lowered the mortality of HFL-I cells exposed to phenanthrene; However, GTP did not affect modulation of the cell cycle by phenanthrene. - Green tea polyphenols antagonised cytotoxicity of a low-ring PAH phenanthrene.

  14. Antagonism of phenanthrene cytotoxicity for human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I by green tea polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. A full factorial design experiment demonstrated that the interaction of phenanthrene and GTP significantly reduced growth inhibition. Using the median effect method showed that phenanthrene and GTP were antagonistic when the inhibitory levels were less than about 50%. Apoptosis and cell cycle detection suggested that only phenanthrene affected cell cycle significantly and caused cell death; GTP lowered the mortality of HFL-I cells exposed to phenanthrene; However, GTP did not affect modulation of the cell cycle by phenanthrene. - Green tea polyphenols antagonised cytotoxicity of a low-ring PAH phenanthrene.

  15. The common properties and the heterogeneity of dermal fibroblast subpopulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarchuk O.I.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermal fibroblasts are a dynamic and diverse population of cells whose functions in skin in many respects remain unknown. Normal adult human skin contains at least three distinct subpopulations of fibroblasts, which occupy unique niches in the dermis. Fibroblasts from each of these niches exhibit distinctive differences when cultured separately. Specific differences in fibroblast histophysiology are evident in papillary dermal fibroblasts, which reside in the superficial dermis, and reticular fibroblasts, which reside in the deep dermis. Both of these subpopulations of fibroblasts differ from the fibroblasts that are associated with hair follicles. Fibroblasts engage in fibroblast-epidermal interactions during hair development and in interfollicular regions of skin. They also play an important role in cutaneous structural transformations.

  16. Performance of a novel keratinocyte-based reporter cell line to screen skin sensitizers in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro tests are needed to replace animal tests to screen for the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. Skin sensitizers are electrophilic molecules and the Nrf2-electrophile-sensing pathway comprising the repressor protein Keap1, the transcription factor Nrf2 and the antioxidant response element (ARE) is emerging as a toxicity pathway induced by skin sensitizers. Previously, we screened a large set of chemicals in the reporter cell line AREc32, which contains an eight-fold repeat of the rat GSTA2 ARE-sequence upstream of a luciferase reporter gene in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7. This approach was now further developed to bring it closer to the conditions in the human skin and to propose a fully standardized assay. To this end, a luciferase reporter gene under control of a single copy of the ARE-element of the human AKR1C2 gene was stably inserted into HaCaT keratinocytes. A standard operating procedure was developed whereby chemicals are routinely tested at 12 concentrations in triplicate for significant induction of gene activity. We report results from this novel assay on (i) a list of reference chemicals published by ECVAM, (ii) the ICCVAM list of chemicals for validation of alternative endpoints in the LLNA and (iii) on a more general list of 67 chemicals derived from the ICCVAM database. For comparison, peptide reactivity data are presented for the same chemicals. The results indicate a good predictive value of this approach for hazard identification. Its technical simplicity, the high-throughput format and the good predictivity may make this assay a candidate for rapid validation to meet the tight deadline to replace animal tests for skin sensitization by 2013 set by the European authorities.

  17. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visibility of changes, accessibility for sampling and measuring and extensive past study, make skin the premier model for the assessment of dose-time fractionation relationships. The primary pathophysiologic basis of radiation-induced reactions in the skin is disruption of the reproductive activity of the basal cells. Radiation reactions in the skin increase in proportion to: (a) increased absorption of energy related to the quality of radiation used; (b) increased area irradiated; (c) increased total dose, and (d) decreased overall period of treatment. Radiation-induced reactions may decrease per unit dose with very low dose rates (i.e. 100 cGy/h) and very high dose rates (i.e. 10 Gy/s). Radiation-induced reactions may decrease per unit dose with prolongation of the individual treatment or overall time of the series of treatments. The proportionality between early and late reactions can be altered by various factors such as dose increment size or the quality of the radiations. The most dangerous changes clinically reduce the intensity of the acute reaction in proportion to the late injury

  18. Transformation and radiosensitivity of human diploid skin fibroblasts transfected with activated RAS oncogene and SV40 T-antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, L.-N.; Little, J.B. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Three normal human diploid cell strains were transfected with an activated Ha-ras oncogene (EJ ras) or SV40 T-antigen. Multiple clones were examined for morphological alterations, growth requirements, ability to grow under anchorage independent conditions, immortality and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Clones expressing SV40 T-antigen alone or in combination with ras protein p21 were significantly radioresistant as compared with their parent cells or clones transfected with the neo gene only. This radioresistant phenotype persisted in post-crisis, immortalized cell lines. These data suggest that expression of the SV40 T-antigen but not activated Ha-ras plays an important role in the radiosensitivity of human diploid cells. The radioresistant phenotype in SV40 T transfected cells was not related to the enhanced level of genetic instability seen in pre-crisis and newly immortalized cells, nor to the process of immortalization itself. (author).

  19. Transformation and radiosensitivity of human diploid skin fibroblasts transfected with activated RAS oncogene and SV40 T-antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three normal human diploid cell strains were transfected with an activated Ha-ras oncogene (EJ ras) or SV40 T-antigen. Multiple clones were examined for morphological alterations, growth requirements, ability to grow under anchorage independent conditions, immortality and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Clones expressing SV40 T-antigen alone or in combination with ras protein p21 were significantly radioresistant as compared with their parent cells or clones transfected with the neo gene only. This radioresistant phenotype persisted in post-crisis, immortalized cell lines. These data suggest that expression of the SV40 T-antigen but not activated Ha-ras plays an important role in the radiosensitivity of human diploid cells. The radioresistant phenotype in SV40 T transfected cells was not related to the enhanced level of genetic instability seen in pre-crisis and newly immortalized cells, nor to the process of immortalization itself. (author)

  20. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  1. A novel cell-stiffness-fingerprinting analysis by scanning atomic force microscopy: comparison of fibroblasts and diverse cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Hans; Paknejad, Navid; Manova, Katia; Moore, Malcolm A S

    2015-12-01

    Differing stimuli affect cell stiffness while cancer metastasis is associated with reduced cell stiffness. Cell stiffness determined by atomic force microscopy has been limited by measurement over nuclei to avoid spurious substratum effects in thin cytoplasmic domains, and we sought to develop a more complete approach including cytoplasmic areas. Ninety ?m square fields were recorded from ten separate sites of cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and three sites each for melanoma (MM39, WM175, and MeIRMu), osteosarcoma (SAOS-2 and U2OS), and ovarian carcinoma (COLO316 and PEO4) cell lines, each site providing 1024 measurements as 32 × 32 square grids. Stiffness recorded below 0.8 ?m height was occasionally influenced by substratum, so only stiffness recorded above 0.8 ?m was analysed, but all sites were included for height and volume analysis. COLO316 had the lowest cell height and volume, followed by HDF (p < 0.0001) and then PEO4, SAOS-2, MeIRMu, WM175, U2OS, and MM39. HDF were more stiff than all other cells (p < 0.0001), while in descending order of stiffness were PEO4, COLO316, WM175, SAOS-2, U2OS, MM39, and MeIRMu (p < 0.02). Stiffness fingerprints comprised scattergrams of stiffness values plotted against the height at which each stiffness value was recorded and appeared unique for each cell type studied, although in most cases the overall form of fingerprints was similar, with maximum stiffness at low height measurements and a second lower peak occurring at high-height levels. We suggest that our stiffness-fingerprint analytical method provides a more nuanced description than previously reported and will facilitate study of the stiffness response to cell stimulation. PMID:26357955

  2. A new shielding effectiveness measurement method based on a skin-effect transmission line coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kleine-Ostmann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new convenient material shielding effectiveness measurement method based on a skin-effect transmission line coupler. The method is somewhat similar to the arrangement with two coupled TEM cells known from literature. The transmission line coupler consists of a pair of identical transmission line 2-port devices. Each device contains a coaxial waveguide, with a circular inner conductor and an outer conductor having a square cross section. One side of the outer conductor is left completely open as a slot. The slot is surrounded by a large metal housing to contact the two halves. As a measure for the shielding effectiveness the coupling between the two devices is measured in terms of scattering parameters after the test material is brought between the two halves. The devices can be used in a range from low frequencies to a few GHz.

  3. Stimulation of MMP-11 (stromelysin-3 expression in mouse fibroblasts by cytokines, collagen and co-culture with human breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthaei Klaus I

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are central to degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membrane during both normal and carcinogenic tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP (MMP-14 and stromelysin-3 (MMP-11 are two members of the MMP family of proteolytic enzymes that have been specifically implicated in breast cancer progression. Expressed in stromal fibroblasts adjacent to epithelial tumour cells, the mechanism of MT1-MMP and MMP-11 induction remains unknown. Methods To investigate possible mechanisms of induction, we examined the effects of a number of plausible regulatory agents and treatments that may physiologically influence MMP expression during tumour progression. Thus NIH3T3 and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs were: a treated with the cytokines IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-? for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours; b grown on collagens I, IV and V; c treated with fibronectin, con-A and matrigel; and d co-cultured with a range of HBC (human breast cancer cell lines of varied invasive and metastatic potential. Results Competitive quantitative RT-PCR indicated that MMP-11 expression was stimulated to a level greater than 100%, by 48 hour treatments of IL-1?, IL-2, TGF-?, fibronectin and collagen V. No other substantial changes in expression of MMP-11 or MT1-MMP in either tested fibroblast culture, under any treatment conditions, were observed. Conclusion We have demonstrated significant MMP-11 stimulation in mouse fibroblasts using cytokines, matrix constituents and HBC cell lines, and also some inhibition of MT1-MMP. Our data suggest that the regulation of these genes in the complex stromal-epithelial interactions that occur in human breast carcinoma, is influenced by several mechanisms.

  4. Stimulation of MMP-11 (stromelysin-3) expression in mouse fibroblasts by cytokines, collagen and co-culture with human breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are central to degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membrane during both normal and carcinogenic tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP (MMP-14) and stromelysin-3 (MMP-11) are two members of the MMP family of proteolytic enzymes that have been specifically implicated in breast cancer progression. Expressed in stromal fibroblasts adjacent to epithelial tumour cells, the mechanism of MT1-MMP and MMP-11 induction remains unknown. To investigate possible mechanisms of induction, we examined the effects of a number of plausible regulatory agents and treatments that may physiologically influence MMP expression during tumour progression. Thus NIH3T3 and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were: a) treated with the cytokines IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-? for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours; b) grown on collagens I, IV and V; c) treated with fibronectin, con-A and matrigel; and d) co-cultured with a range of HBC (human breast cancer) cell lines of varied invasive and metastatic potential. Competitive quantitative RT-PCR indicated that MMP-11 expression was stimulated to a level greater than 100%, by 48 hour treatments of IL-1?, IL-2, TGF-?, fibronectin and collagen V. No other substantial changes in expression of MMP-11 or MT1-MMP in either tested fibroblast culture, under any treatment conditions, were observed. We have demonstrated significant MMP-11 stimulation in mouse fibroblasts using cytokines, matrix constituents and HBC cell lines, and also some inhibition of MT1-MMP. Our data suggest that the regulation of these genes in the complex stromal-epithelial interactions that occur in human breast carcinoma, is influenced by several mechanisms

  5. Effect of Atropa belladonna L. on skin wound healing: biomechanical and histological study in rats and in vitro study in keratinocytes, 3T3 fibroblasts, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Peter; Toporcer, Tomás; Grendel, Tomás; Vidová, Zuzana; Smetana, Karel; Dvoránková, Barbora; Gál, Tomás; Mozes, Stefan; Lenhardt, L'udovít; Longauer, Frantisek; Sabol, Marián; Sabo, Ján; Backor, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Atropa belladonna L. (AB) aqueous extract on skin wound healing was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to two parallel full-thickness skin incisions on the back. Specimens for histological evaluation were collected on days 2 and 5 whereas for biomechanical testing, they were collected on day 5. In the in vitro study, a different concentration of AB extract was used to test the differentiation of keratinocytes using a panel of selected antibodies, proliferation, and cell survival of 3T3 fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells using the MTT-assay. Results of the in vivo experiments showed in AB-treated wounds a shortened process of inflammation and accelerated collagen formation, as well as significantly increased wound stiffness as compared with control tissues. The in vitro examination showed that control keratinocytes were cytokeratin 19 free, while samples exposed to the highest AB extract concentration expressed CK19. Moreover, all concentrations were stimulatory to human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation. In addition, only the AB extract at the lowest tested concentration increased fibroblast growth, but higher concentrations decreased cell survival. In conclusion, our results indicate that the AB water extract positively affects early phases of skin wound healing in rats. However, the in vitro results on the inverse relation between the concentration of the AB extract and its effects on cell proliferation may be important for future research. PMID:19660046

  6. Human Melanoma Progression in Skin Reconstructs : Biological Significance of bFGF

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Friedegund; Nesbit, Mark; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Martin, Bernard; Van Belle, Patricia; Elder, David E.; Schaumburg-Lever, Gundula; Garbe, Claus; Walz, Tania Marina; Donatien, Philippe; Crombleholme, Timothy M; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2000-01-01

    Human skin reconstructs are three-dimensional in vitro models consisting of epidermal keratinocytes plated onto fibroblast-contracted collagen gels. Cells in skin reconstructs more closely recapitulate the in situ phenotype than do cells in monolayer culture. Normal melanocytes in skin reconstructs remained singly distributed at the basement membrane which separated the epidermis from the dermis. Cell lines derived from biologically early primary melanomas of the radial growth phase prolifera...

  7. DNA double-strand break induction and repair in irradiated lymphoblastoid, fibroblast cell lines and white blood cells from ATM, NBS and radiosensitive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and Purpose: DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), fibroblasts and white blood cells from healthy donors, cancer patients with and without late effects of grade 3-4 (RTOG) as well as donors with known radiosensitivity syndromes were examined with the aim to detect dsb repair ability as a marker for radiosensitivity. Material and Methods: LCLs from six healthy donors, seven patients with a heterozygous or homozygous genotype for ataxiatelangiectasia (ATM) and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), two patients with a late toxicity of grade 3-4 (RTOG), and one cell line with a ligase IV-/- status and its parental cell line were examined. Furthermore, fibroblasts from patients with ATM, NBS, two healthy control individuals, and leukocytes from 16 healthy and 22 cancer patients including seven patients with clinical hypersensitivity grade 3 (RTOG) were examined. Cells were irradiated in vitro with 0-150 Gy. Initial damage as well as remaining damage after 8 and 24 h were measured using constant field gel electrophoresis. Results: In contrast to cells derived from patients homozygous for NBS, impaired dsb repair ability could be detected both in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cells from ATM and ligase IV-/- patients. The dsb repair ability of all 38 leukocyte cell lines (patients with grade 3-4 late effects and controls) was similar, whereas the initial damage among healthy donors was less. Conclusion: Despite showing a clinically elevated radiosensitivity after irradiation, the DNA repair of the patients with clinical hypersensitivity grade 3 (RTOG) appeared to be normal. Other mechanisms such as mutations, altered cell cycle or defective apoptosis could play a critical role toward determining radiosensitivity. (orig.)

  8. Monoclonal antibody to the type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) receptor blocks IGF-I receptor-mediated DNA synthesis: clarification of the mitogenic mechanisms of IGF-I and insulin in human skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flier, J.S.; Usher, P.; Moses, A.C.

    1986-02-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) stimulate an overlapping spectrum of biological responses in human skin fibroblasts. Although insulin and IGF-I are known to stimulate the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA in these cells, the identify of the receptor(s) that mediates this effect has not been fully clarified. The mouse anti-human IGF-I receptor antibody ..cap alpha..IR-3 binds with specificity to IGF-I but not to insulin receptors in human placental membranes; it also specifically inhibits the binding of /sup 125/I-labeled IGF-I but not /sup 125/I-labeled insulin to suspensions of human skin fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. ..cap alpha..IR-3 competitively inhibits IGF-I-mediated stimulation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into DNA. This inhibition is dependent on the concentration of ..cap alpha..IR-3 and in the presence of a fixed antibody concentration can be partially overcome by high concentrations of IGF-I. In contrast, at concentrations of < 1 ..mu..g/ml, the effect of insulin to stimulate (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation is not inhibited by ..cap alpha..IR-3. However, the incremental effects of higher concentrations (> 1 ..mu..g/ml) of insulin on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation are inhibited by ..cap alpha..IR-3. ..cap alpha..IR-3 is a highly specific antagonist of IGF-I receptor-mediated mitogenesis in human skin fibroblasts. By using this antibody, it is shown directly that insulin can act through the IGF-I receptor to stimulate DNA synthesis but can also activate this effect through the insulin receptor itself.

  9. Monoclonal antibody to the type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) receptor blocks IGF-I receptor-mediated DNA synthesis: clarification of the mitogenic mechanisms of IGF-I and insulin in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flier, J S; Usher, P; Moses, A C

    1986-01-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) stimulate an overlapping spectrum of biological responses in human skin fibroblasts. Although insulin and IGF-I are known to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA in these cells, the identity of the receptor(s) that mediates this effect has not been fully clarified. The mouse anti-human IGF-I receptor antibody alpha IR-3 binds with specificity to IGF-I but not to insulin receptors in human placental membranes; it also specifically inhibits the binding of 125I-labeled IGF-I but not 125I-labeled insulin to suspensions of human skin fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. alpha IR-3 competitively inhibits IGF-I-mediated stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. This inhibition is dependent on the concentration of alpha IR-3 and in the presence of a fixed antibody concentration can be partially overcome by high concentrations of IGF-I. In contrast, at concentrations of less than 1 microgram/ml, the effect of insulin to stimulate [3H]thymidine incorporation is not inhibited by alpha IR-3. However, the incremental effects of higher concentrations (greater than 1 microgram/ml) of insulin on [3H]thymidine incorporation are inhibited by alpha IR-3. alpha IR-3 is a highly specific antagonist of IGF-I receptor-mediated mitogenesis in human skin fibroblasts. By using this antibody, it is shown directly that insulin can act through the IGF-I receptor to stimulate DNA synthesis but can also activate this effect through the insulin receptor itself. PMID:3003744

  10. Valproic acid increases SMN2 expression and modulates SF2/ASF and hnRNPA1 expression in SMA fibroblast cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, Indra Sari Kusuma; Saito, Toshio; San, Lai Poh; Sasaki, Naoko; Gunadi; Nurputra, Dian Kesuma Pramudya; Yusoff, Surini; Yamamoto, Tomoto; Morikawa, Satoru; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Lee, Myeong Jin; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Nishio, Hisahide

    2012-03-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that is caused by loss of the survival motor neuron gene, SMN1. SMA treatment strategies have focused on production of the SMN protein from the almost identical gene, SMN2. Valproic acid (VPA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that can increase SMN levels in some SMA cells or SMA patients through activation of SMN2 transcription or splicing correction of SMN2 exon 7. It remains to be clarified what concentration of VPA is required and by what mechanisms the SMN production from SMN2 is elicited. We observed that in two fibroblast cell lines from Japanese SMA patients, more than 1mM of VPA increased SMN2 expression at both the transcript and protein levels. VPA increased not only full-length (FL) transcript level but also exon 7-excluding (?7) transcript level in the cell lines and did not change the ratio of FL/?7, suggesting that SMN2 transcription was mainly activated. We also found that VPA modulated splicing factor expression: VPA increased the expression of splicing factor 2/alternative splicing factor (SF2/ASF) and decreased the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1). In conclusion, more than 1mM of VPA activated SMN2 transcription and modulated the expression of splicing factors in our SMA fibroblast cell lines. PMID:21561730

  11. PDZ domain-binding motif of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein augments the transforming activity in a rat fibroblast cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-2 has not been reported to be associated with such malignant leukemias. HTLV-1 Tax1 oncoprotein transforms a rat fibroblast cell line (Rat-1) to form multiple large colonies in soft agar, and this activity is much greater than that of HTLV-2 Tax2. We have demonstrated here that the increased number of transformed colonies induced by Tax1 relative to Tax2 was mediated by a PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) in Tax1, which is absent in Tax2. Tax1 PBM mediated the interaction of Tax1 with the discs large (Dlg) tumor suppressor containing PDZ domains, and the interaction correlated well with the transforming activities of Tax1 and the mutants. Through this interaction, Tax1 altered the subcellular localization of Dlg from the detergent-soluble to the detergent-insoluble fraction in a fibroblast cell line as well as in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. These results suggest that the interaction of Tax1 with PDZ domain protein(s) is critically involved in the transforming activity of Tax1, the activity of which may be a crucial factor in malignant transformation of HTLV-1-infected cells in vivo

  12. Microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claeys Geert

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina in male-to-female transsexuals is a recently created microbial niche which thus far has been characterized only to a very limited extent. Yet the knowledge of this microflora can be considered as essential to the follow-up of transsexual women. The primary objective of this study was to map the neo-vaginal microflora in a group of 50 transsexual women for whom a neovagina was constructed by means of the inverted penile skin flap technique. Secondary objectives were to describe possible correlations of this microflora with multiple patients' characteristics, such as sexual orientation, the incidence of vaginal irritation and malodorous vaginal discharge. Results Based on Gram stain the majority of smears revealed a mixed microflora that had some similarity with bacterial vaginosis (BV microflora and that contained various amounts of cocci, polymorphous Gram-negative and Gram-positive rods, often with fusiform and comma-shaped rods, and sometimes even with spirochetes. Candida cells were not seen in any of the smears. On average 8.6 species were cultured per woman. The species most often found were: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus anginosus group spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium sp., Mobiluncus curtisii and Bacteroides ureolyticus. Lactobacilli were found in only one of 30 women There was no correlation between dilatation habits, having coitus, rinsing habits and malodorous vaginal discharge on the one hand and the presence of a particular species on the other. There was however a highly significant correlation between the presence of E. faecalis on the one hand and sexual orientation and coitus on the other (p = 0.003 and p = 0.027 respectively. Respectively 82%, 58% and 30% of the samples showed an amplicon after amplification with M. curtisii, Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis primer sets. Conclusion Our study is the first to describe the microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women. It reveals a mixed microflora of aerobe and anaerobe species usually found either on the skin, in the intestinal microflora or in a BV microflora.

  13. Cytotoxicity and Proliferation Studies with Arsenic in Established Human Cell Lines: Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Dendritic Cells, Dermal Fibroblasts, Microvascular Endothelial Cells, Monocytes and T-Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari H. P. Cohly

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Based on the hypothesis that arsenic exposure results in toxicity and mitogenecity, this study examined the dose-response of arsenic in established human cell lines of keratinocytes (HaCaT, melanocytes (1675, dendritic cells (THP-1/A23187, dermal fibroblasts (CRL1904, microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC, monocytes (THP-1, and T cells (Jurkat. Cytotoxicity was determined by incubating THP-1, THP-1+ A23187 and JKT cells in RPMI 1640, 1675 in Vitacell, HMEC in EBM, and dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT in DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% streptomycin and penicillin for 72 hrs in 96-well microtiter plates, at 37oC in a 5% CO2 incubator with different concentrations of arsenic using fluorescein diacetate (FDA. Cell proliferation in 96-well plates was determined in cultured cells starved by prior incubation for 24 hrs in 1% FBS and exposed for 72 hours, using the 96 cell titer proliferation solution (Promega assay. Cytotoxicity assays yielded LD50s of 9 μg/mL for HaCaT, 1.5 μg/mL for CRL 1675, 1.5 μg/mL for dendritic cells, 37 μg/mL for dermal fibroblasts, 0.48 μg/mL for HMEC, 50 μg/mL for THP-1 cells and 50 μg/mL for JKT-T cells. The peak proliferation was observed at 6 μg/mL for HaCaT and THP-1 cells, 0.19 μg/mL for CRL 1675, dendritic cells, and HMEC, and 1.5 μg/mL for dermal fibroblasts and Jurkat T cells. These results show that arsenic is toxic at high doses to keratinocytes, fibroblasts, monocytes and T cells, and toxic at lower doses to melanocytes, microvascular endothelial cells and dendritic cells. Proliferation studies showed sub-lethal doses of arsenic to be mitogenic.

  14. Increased susceptibility of spinal muscular atrophy fibroblasts to camptothecin is p53-independent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funanage Vicky L

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deletion or mutation(s of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1 gene causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. The SMN protein is known to play a role in RNA metabolism, neurite outgrowth, and cell survival. Yet, it remains unclear how SMN deficiency causes selective motor neuron death and muscle atrophy seen in SMA. Previously, we have shown that skin fibroblasts from SMA patients are more sensitive to the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, supporting a role for SMN in cell survival. Here, we examine the potential mechanism of camptothecin sensitivity in SMA fibroblasts. Results Camptothecin treatment reduced the DNA relaxation activity of DNA topoisomerase I in human fibroblasts. In contrast, kinase activity of DNA topoisomerase I was not affected by camptothecin, because levels of phosphorylated SR proteins were not decreased. Upon camptothecin treatment, levels of p53 were markedly increased. To determine if p53 plays a role in the increased sensitivity of SMA fibroblasts to camptothecin, we analyzed the sensitivity of SMA fibroblasts to another DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor, ?-lapachone. This compound is known to induce death via a p53-independent pathway in several cancer cell lines. We found that ?-lapachone did not induce p53 activation in human fibroblasts. In addition, SMA and control fibroblasts showed essentially identical sensitivity to this compound. By immunofluorescence staining, SMN and p53 co-localized in gems within the nucleus, and this co-localization was overall reduced in SMA fibroblasts. However, depletion of p53 by siRNA did not lessen the camptothecin sensitivity in SMA fibroblasts. Conclusion Even though p53 and SMN are associated, the increased sensitivity of SMA fibroblasts to camptothecin does not occur through a p53-dependent mechanism.

  15. Laser Doppler line scanner for monitoring skin perfusion changes of port wine stains during vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Defu; Ren, Jie; Wang, Ying; Gu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT) is known to be an effective therapeutic modality for the treatment of port wine stains (PWS). Monitoring the PWS microvascular response to the V-PDT is crucial for improving the effectiveness of PWS treatment. The objective of this study was to use laser Doppler technique to directly assess the skin perfusion in PWS before and during V-PDT. In this study, 30 patients with PWS were treated with V-PDT. A commercially laser Doppler line scanner (LDLS) was used to record the skin perfusion of PWS immediately before; and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 minutes during V-PDT treatment. Our results showed that there was substantial inter- and intra-patient perfusion heterogeneity in PWS lesion. Before V-PDT, the comparison of skin perfusion in PWS and contralateral healthy control normal skin indicated that PWS skin perfusion could be larger than, or occasionally equivalent to, that of control normal skin. During V-PDT, the skin perfusion in PWS significantly increased after the initiation of V-PDT treatment, then reached a peak within 10 minutes, followed by a slowly decrease to a relatively lower level. Furthermore, the time for reaching peak and the subsequent magnitude of decrease in skin perfusion varied with different patients, as well as different PWS lesion locations. In conclusion, the LDLS system is capable of assessing skin perfusion changes in PWS during V-PDT, and has potential for elucidating the mechanisms of PWS microvascular response to V-PDT.

  16. PAMPs and DAMPs stimulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro in a fibroblast cell-line from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Ossum, C.G.

    The recognition of PAMPs by immune cells relies on conserved PRRs such as TLRs, NLRs and RLRs leading to activation of NF?B signalling pathways. These receptors are activated upon stimulation by different ligands such as bacterial or viral components. The binding of ligands to the receptors activates downstream signalling pathways, which subsequently leads to expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. DAMPs released from necrotic cells may also bind to and activate similar downstream signalling events. In telosts was found that mechanical damage of the muscle tissue using sterile needles induced a very rapid expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-8 and IL-10 as measured by real-time PCR. The results imply that cells located in the muscular tissue in addition to recruited cells are involved in the observed increased cytokine / chemokine expression. It is believed that this expression to a large extend is mediated by fibroblasts in the musculature. To investigate this, a fibroblastcell-line (RTHDF1) from the rainbow trout was stimulated with either LPS from E. coli, cell debris or supernatant from sonicated fibroblasts. Whereas LPS stimulation resulted in a significant up-regulation of the expression of IL-1?, IL-8 and IL-10 and stimulation with supernatant from sonicated cells led to a significant up-regulation of IL-1? and IL-10, while debris only stimulated the expression of IL-1?. TLR-2 and -4 are not described from salmonid fishes, however TLR-3, -5 and -9 are described in this evolutionary lineage of the bony fishes. The expression of TLR-3 and -9 receptors were significantly up-regulated following physical damage of muscle tissue as well as in stimulated fibroblasts, where LPS induced both TLR-3 and -9, supernatant from sonicated cells only TLR-9 while debris caused no induction. The present study reinforce the idea that fibroblasts are able to react to PAMPs and DAMPs and that non-immune cell-types play an important role in the inflammatory reaction per se. From an evolutionary perspective the facilitation of an inflammatory response through recognition of PAMPs and DAMPs by non immune cells seems plausible.

  17. SOME CORRELATION BETWEEN ONSET OF SPECIFIC DISEASES AND INDICATION SYSTEM IN SKIN AND LINES OF HUMAN PALM

    OpenAIRE

    Karnick, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    There are various lacuna and voids in clinical studies of glandular disorders and its warning or indication system in the study of palms of human beings. This paper presents for the first time, a datum and several observations made on the conditions of skin, colour mounts, lines etc. of human palms. Studies reveal that palms of both hands play a diagnostic role in medical emergency. The colour, temperature of the skin of hands at times yield more information of impending shock than either pul...

  18. Acute Activation of Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway as First-Line Response to Oxidative Stress in Human Skin Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Andreas; Emmert, Hila; Soehle, Joern; Winnefeld, Marc; Fischer, Frank; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan; Terstegen, Lara; Lucius, Ralph; Hildebrand, Janosch; Zamboni, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Integrity of human skin is endangered by exposure to UV irradiation and chemical stressors, which can provoke a toxic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage. Since oxidation of proteins and metabolites occurs virtually instantaneously, immediate cellular countermeasures are pivotal to mitigate the negative implications of acute oxidative stress. We investigated the short-term metabolic response in human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes to H2O2 and UV exposure. In time-resolved metabolomics experiments, we observed that within seconds after stress induction, glucose catabolism is routed to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and nucleotide synthesis independent of previously postulated blocks in glycolysis (i.e., of GAPDH or PKM2). Through ultra-short (13)C labeling experiments, we provide evidence for multiple cycling of carbon backbones in the oxidative PPP, potentially maximizing NADPH reduction. The identified metabolic rerouting in oxidative and non-oxidative PPP has important physiological roles in stabilization of the redox balance and ROS clearance. PMID:26190262

  19. Construção de substituto da pele composto por matriz de colágeno porcino povoada por fibroblastos dérmicos e queratinócitos humanos: avaliação histológica / Construction of a skin substitute composed of porcine collagen matrix populated with human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes: histological evaluation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cesar, Isaac; Francinni M. P., Rego; Pedro Ribeiro Soares de, Ladeir; Silvana C., Altram; Renata C. de, Oliveira; Johnny L. C. B., Aldunate; André O., Paggiaro; Marcus Castro, Ferreira.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O uso de enxertos autólogos é limitado pela extensão da área doadora e pelo estado clínico dos pacientes, no caso de lesões extensas. Alotransplantes coletados de cadáveres ou voluntários são rejeitados após uma ou duas semanas, servindo apenas como cobertura temporária para essas lesões [...] . O tratamento de grandes lesões cutâneas com tegumento autólogo reconstruído constitui alternativa atraente, já que, a partir de um pequeno fragmento de pele do paciente, pode-se obter culturas de células que se multiplicam rapidamente e podem ser criopreservadas, permitindo, assim, sua utilização em novos tratamentos por tempo indeterminado. Este estudo pretendeu avaliar o comportamento histológico de queratinócitos e fibroblastos humanos cultivados sobre uma matriz de colágeno porcino derivada da submucosa intestinal. MÉTODO: Células da epiderme e derme humana foram cultivadas separadamente e semeadas sobre matriz de colágeno porcino, onde permaneceram em ambiente controlado por 21 dias, antes de serem submetidas a análise histológica. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que os fibroblastos invadem e colonizam a matriz de colágeno, enquanto os queratinócitos se organizam de forma laminar e estratificada sobre a superfície em que foram semeados. CONCLUSÕES: A utilização da matriz de colágeno porcino como carreador de células da pele humana é possível e a organização dessas células se assemelha à arquitetura da pele humana. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: In the case of extensive lesions, the use of autologous grafts is limited by the extent of the donor area and the clinical condition of patients. Allografts collected from cadavers or volunteers are usually rejected after 1 to 2 weeks, thus serving only as temporary cover for these lesio [...] ns. Treating major cutaneous lesions with reconstructed autologous skin is an attractive alternative, because it is possible to obtain cultures of cells that multiply rapidly and can be cryopreserved from a small fragment of the patient's skin, thereby facilitating its indefinite use in new treatments. This study evaluated the histological behavior of cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts on a collagen matrix derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa. METHODS: Cells from human epidermis and dermis were grown separately and seeded on porcine collagen matrix, which was maintained in a controlled environment for 21 days before being subjected to histological analysis. RESULTS: Fibroblasts invaded and colonized the collagen matrix, whereas keratinocytes were organized in laminated and stratified layers on the surface on which they were seeded. CONCLUSIONS: The use of porcine collagen matrix as a support for human skin cells is feasible, and the organization of these cells resembles the architecture of human skin.

  20. Modulation of radio-induced oxidative damage by the combination of pentoxifylline and ?-tocopherol in skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical or accidental localized ionizing radiation exposure can induce severe skin damage constituting the cutaneous radiological syndrome which is divided in acute and late phases. The combination of pentoxifylline (PTX), antioxidant phytochemical, and ?-tocopherol, antioxidant nutrient shows effectiveness in reducing the late radio-induced skin damage with a long period. This work aims to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the effects of this combination

  1. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF biological actions on human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Montagnani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are involved in all pathologies characterized by increased ExtraCellularMatrix synthesis, from wound healing to fibrosis. Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF is a cytokine isolated as an hemopoietic growth factor but recently indicated as a differentiative agent on endothelial cells. In this work we demonstrated the expression of the receptor for GM-CSF (GMCSFR on human normal skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects (NFPC and on a human normal fibroblast cell line (NHDF and we try to investigate the biological effects of this cytokine. Human normal fibroblasts were cultured with different doses of GM-CSF to study the effects of this factor on GMCSFR expression, on cell proliferation and adhesion structures. In addition we studied the production of some Extra-Cellular Matrix (ECM components such as Fibronectin, Tenascin and Collagen I. The growth rate of fibroblasts from healthy donors (NFPC is not augmented by GM-CSF stimulation in spite of increased expression of the GM-CSFR. On the contrary, the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF cell line seems more influenced by high concentration of GM-CSF in the culture medium. The adhesion structures and the ECM components appear variously influenced by GM-CSF treatment as compared to fibroblasts cultured in basal condition, but newly only NHDF cells are really induced to increase their synthesis activity. We suggest that the in vitro treatment with GM-CSF can shift human normal fibroblasts towards a more differentiated state, due or accompanied by an increased expression of GM-CSFR and that such “differentiation” is an important event induced by such cytokine.

  2. Use of EPR and FTIR to detect biological effects of ultrasound and microbubbles on a fibroblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, D; Fattibene, P; Viscomi, D; Di Giambattista, L; Grimaldi, P; Udroiu, I; Bedini, A; Giliberti, C; Palomba, R; Congiu Castellano, A

    2011-10-01

    Structural and functional effects of exposing murine fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) to therapeutic ultrasound at 1 MHz frequency are described. These bioeffects can be attributed to the formation of free radical species by sonolysis of water. When cavitation occurs, dissociation of water vapor into H atoms and OH radicals is observed; these H atoms and OH radicals combine to form H(2), H(2)O(2), and HO(2). The radicals can chemically modify biomolecules, for example enzymes, DNA, and lipids. Generation of free radicals during exposure to ultrasound with or without encapsulated microbubbles (contrast agents) was studied by use of electron paramagnetic resonance with DMPO spin trapping. Recently the potential for possible use of these microbubbles in gene therapy has been investigated, because of the ability of the stabilized microbubbles to release their content when exposed to ultrasound. Structural changes were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and induction of possible genotoxic damage by exposure of the cells to therapeutic ultrasound at 1 MHz frequency with our experimental device was verified by use of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. PMID:21866359

  3. Microprobe analysis of human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Melbourne Proton Microprobe has been used to study the copper content in human skin fibroblast cells derived from patients with the genetic disease Menkes Syndrome. Both normal and diseased cells have been studied to investigate any elemental differences occurring between the two cell types. This paper details the preparatory techniques necessary for individual cell analysis and presents the elemental information with a new three dimensional contour mapping technique. These maps are used to highlight elemental differences between normal and mutant fibroblasts. The work also confirms the expected copper excess found in the Menkes cell and indicates that the microprobe can be used for rapid identification of a Menkes carrier

  4. Evaluation of the effect of laser radiation on fibroblast proliferation in repair of skin wounds of rats with iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Isabele C. V.; Oliveira-Sampaio, Susana C. P.; Monteiro, Juliana S. de C.; Ferreira, Maria de Fátima L.; Cangussu, Maria T.; N. dos Santos, Jean; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) on fibroblast proliferation on wound repair of rats with Iron deficiency anemia since there is no reports on literature about this subject. Iron deficiency anemia was induced on 36 newborn rats then an excisional wound was created on the dorsum of the animals which were divided into four groups: (I) - non-anemic, (II) - Anemic, (III) - non-anemic + LLLT, (IV) Anemic+ LLLT. The animals in each group were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 days. Laser irradiation was performed on each group (?660nm,40Mw,CW) by contact mode with a dose of 2,5J/ cm2 in four points on the area of the wound and total of 10J/cm2 per session. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Paired t-test. The results showed LLLT was able to stimulate fibroblastic proliferation in rats with iron deficiency anemia at the 21st day while at control group (III) no statistically significant differences was found.

  5. Deterministic late effects of skin irradiation: in vitro studies of experimental radiation fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After radiotherapy or radiation accidents, large doses of gamma irradiation can induce necrosis and fibrosis, and secondary cancers are occasionally observed. The identity of the target cells in such irradiated tissues is still controversial. As the role of the fibroblast in wound repair after acute irradiation is not well documented, this role was investigated in an experimental model. Pigs were gamma irradiated with an 192Ir source on the thigh, which resulted in necrosis and then fibrosis of the skin and muscular tissues. In primary cultures, fibroblasts isolated from the fibrotic tissue exhibited an activated phenotype for up to two years after irradiation. They had a myofibroblastic morphology and their proliferation was activated. The fibroblasts synthesised an extracellular matrix similar to that of immature scars or developing tissues. Most fibroblasts carried numerous chromosome anomalies. In long-term cultures, fibrotic fibroblasts gave rise to established cell lines, in which the morphology of the cells resembled that of transformed cells. Such highly modified cells observed in vitro might be related to the appearance of secondary sarcoma in vivo. We conclude from these results that the fibroblast is clearly an important target cell in irradiated skin. The difficult healing of late radiation damage could be related to chronic inflammation and to the long-term activation of abnormal fibroblasts in irradiated tissues. (author)

  6. Potentiation by caffeine of x-ray damage to cultured human skin fibroblasts from normal subjects and ataxia-telangiectasia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffeine was found to potentiate x-ray-induced killing of human diploid fibroblasts from a normal subject and an ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) patient when it was present at 2 mM concentration for 30 to 66 h postirradiation. The dose-modifying factor for caffeine-treated normal cells had an average value of 1.26 +- 0.13 which did not vary significantly with treatment time or x-ray dose. The dose-modifying factor for caffeine-treated AT cells was 1.12 +- 0.12 at 30 h, rose to 1.66 +- 0.17 at 41 h, and decreased to 1.31 +- 0.13 at 66 h. Thus no clear difference was observed between these two cell strains' susceptibility to postirradiation caffeine treatment

  7. The potentiation by caffeine of X-ray damage to cultured human skin fibroblasts from normal subjects and ataxia-telangiectasia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffeine was found to potentiate X-ray-induced killing of human diploid fibroblasts from a normal subject and an ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) patient when it was present at 2 mM concentration for 30 to 66 hr postirradiation. The dose-modifying factor for caffeine-treated normal cells had an average value of 1.26 +/- 0.13 which did not vary significantly with treatment time or X-ray dose. The dose-modifying factor for caffeine-treated AT cells was 1.12 +/- 0.12 at 30 hr, rose to 1.66 +/- 0.17 at 41 hr, and decreased to 1.31 +/- 0.13 at 66 hr. Thus no clear difference was observed between these two cell strains' susceptibility to postirradiation caffeine treatment

  8. Mouse fibroblast L929 cells are less permissive to infection by Nelson Bay orthoreovirus compared to other mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Lawrence; Wynne, James W; Grimley, Samantha; Shiell, Brian; Green, Diane; Monaghan, Paul; Pallister, Jackie; Bacic, Antony; Michalski, Wojtek P

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, bats have been identified as a natural reservoir for a diverse range of viruses. Nelson Bay orthoreovirus (NBV) was first isolated from the heart blood of a fruit bat (Pteropus poliocephalus) in 1968. While the pathogenesis of NBV remains unknown, other related members of this group have caused acute respiratory disease in humans. Thus the potential for NBV to impact human health appears plausible. Here, to increase our knowledge of NBV, we examined the replication and infectivity of NBV using different mammalian cell lines derived from bat, human, mouse and monkey. All cell lines supported the replication of NBV; however, L929 cells showed a greater than 2 log reduction in virus titre compared with the other cell lines. Furthermore, NBV did not induce major cytopathic effects in the L929 cells, as was observed in other cell lines. Interestingly, the related Pteropine orthoreoviruses, Pulau virus (PulV) and Melaka virus (MelV) were able to replicate to high titres in L929 cells but infection resulted in reduced cytopathic effect. Our study demonstrates a unique virus-host interaction between NBV and L929 cells, where cells effectively control viral infection/replication and limit the formation of syncytia. By elucidating the molecular mechanisms that control this unique relationship, important insights will be made into the biology of this fusogenic virus. PMID:25748429

  9. Fibroblast cultures in duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary skin fibroblast cultures were grown from forearm pinch skin biopsies obtained from 24 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and ten normal controls matched for sex and age. The first subcultures were grown for 7 days and incubated with L-(3H)-proline for 24 hours. Intracellular collagen incoption was significantly decreased (2.2 X) and extracellular collagen incorporation significantly increased (1.8 X) in fibroblast cultures from patients with DMD by both collagenase assay and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The synthesis of noncollagen proteins showed low values from the DMD fibroblast cultures. The alterations in synthesis and secretion of collagen and noncollagen proteins were characteristic only for the log phase of DMD fibroblasts. (author)

  10. Keratinocyte growth factor mRNA expression in periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, S; Wandall, H H; Grøn, B; Dabelsteen, E

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a fibroblast growth factor which mediates epithelial growth and differentiation. KGF is expressed in subepithelial fibroblasts, but generally not in fibroblasts of deep connective tissue, such as fascia and ligaments. Here we demonstrate that KGF mRNA is expressed in periodontal ligament fibroblasts, and that the expression is increased upon serum stimulation. Fibroblasts from human periodontal ligament, from buccal mucosa, from gingiva, and from skin were est...

  11. A fibroblast cell line defective in alkyl-dihydroxyacetone phosphate synthase: A novel defect in plasmalogen?biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nagan, Narasimhan; Hajra, Amiya K.; Das, Arun K.; Moser, Hugo W.; Moser, Ann; Lazarow, Paul; Purdue, P Edward; Zoeller, Raphael A.

    1997-01-01

    Using fluorescence-activated cytotoxicity selection, followed by colony autoradiographic screening of the surviving population, we have isolated a unique plasmalogen-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. The mutant, NZel-1, showed a dramatic (90%) reduction in the rate of biosynthesis and levels of plasmalogens, as determined using short- and long-term labeling with 32Pi. Enzymatic assays and lipid supplementation studies showed that NZel-1 was defective in a single step in the bio...

  12. Studies of molecular species of the human androgen receptor (AR): comparison of the physicochemical properties of the [3H]methyltrienolone-AR complex formed in cytosol to the complex produced in intact genital skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two forms of the human genital skin fibroblast (GSF) androgen receptor (AR) complexed with [3H]17 alpha-methyltrienolone were compared: 1) the intact complex formed in cytosol at 4 C (broken cell or B/C complex); and 2) the complex formed in the whole cell at 37 C (W/C complex). The intact form of the B/C complex was distinguished from partly degraded forms by the gel filtration profile in 0.5 M KCl. The W/C complex was considered to represent the transformed state of the receptor. The W/C complex had a smaller molecular radius than the B/C complex by gel filtration (Kav = 0.26-0.28 vs. 0.11-0.18). By low salt density gradient centrifugation, the B/C complex sedimented at 8.8S and the W/C complex at 6.6S. However, in 0.5 M KCl, each sedimented at 5.1S, and they were homogeneous, indicating that the monomeric forms differed markedly in molecular radius, but by only about 20,000 daltons in calculated mol wt (134,500 vs. 114,300 daltons). The complexes were separated from DNA, desalted, and compared by chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and hydroxylapatite (HAP). The B/C complex bound readily to both column matrices and eluted from each as a sharp homogeneous peak: from DEAE at 172-190 mM KCl and from HAP at 123 mM phosphate. The W/C complex, however, was heterogeneous. One component did not bind to DEAE, and one eluted at 22-40 mM KCl. The W/C complex eluted from HAP as a peak at 42 mM, with a shoulder at 102 mM phosphate. Thus, transformation of the human genital skin fibroblast androgen receptor involves a major decrease in molecular radius and loss of negative charge with a possible loss of a 20,000-dalton macromolecular component

  13. Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Darby IA; Laverdet B; Bonté F; Desmoulière A

    2014-01-01

    Ian A Darby,1 Betty Laverdet,2 Frédéric Bonté3, Alexis Desmoulière2 1School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Physiology and EA 6309, FR 3503, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Limoges, Limoges, France; 3LVMH Recherche, Saint Jean de Braye, France Abstract: (Myo)fibroblasts are key players for maintaining skin homeostasis and for orchestrating physiological tissue repair. (Myo)fibroblasts are embed...

  14. Differential susceptibilities of human lung, breast and skin cancer cell lines to killing by five sea anemone venoms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Ramezanpour; K, Burke da Silva; BJ, Sanderson.

    Full Text Available Although sea anemones are well known for being rich sources of toxins, including cytolysins and neurotoxins, their venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. In the present study, the venoms from five sea anemones (Heteractis crispa, Heteractis magnifica, Heteractis malu, Cryptodendrum adhaesivum a [...] nd Entacmaea quadricolor) were obtained by the milking technique, and the potential of these venoms to kill cancer cells was tested on three cell lines (A549 lung cancer, T47D breast cancer and A431 skin cancer). The total protein level in the crude extract was determined by the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay. The cytotoxicity on different cell lines was assayed using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay which measures survival based on the detection of mitochondrial activity and by the crystal violet assay, which measures survival based on the ability of cells to remain adherent to microplates. The results indicate that the sea anemone venom is cytotoxic to human cancer cells. The A549 cell line was the most sensitive of the cell lines tested with a significant reduction in viability observed at 40 µg/mL. H. malu, C. adhaesivum and E. quadricolor had a significant inhibitory effect on A431 cells. Furthermore, H. malu and C. adhaesivum had a significant inhibitory effect on T47D cell line at 40 µg/mL. In conclusion, the sea anemone venoms tested have the potential to be developed as anticancer agents.

  15. Lumpy skin disease: Attempted propagation in tick cell lines and presence of viral DNA in field ticks collected from naturally-infected cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Tuppurainen, E.S.M.; E. H. Venter; COETZER, J. A. W.; Bell-Sakyi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is of substantial economic importance for the cattle industry in Africa and the Near and Middle East. Several insect species are thought to transmit the disease mechanically. Recent transmission studies have demonstrated the first evidence for a role of hard (ixodid) ticks as vectors of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The aim of this study was to attempt in vitro growth of the virus in Rhipicephalus spp. tick cell lines and investigate in vivo the presence of the vir...

  16. Comparative study on cytotoxicity effect of biological and commercial synthesized nanosilver on human gastric carcinoma and normal lung fibroblast cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Rashmezad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biosynthesis of nanoparticles has attracted the attention of the scientific community in nanotechnology and biotechnology due to their extensive application in the area of material sciences and medicine. Nowadays, despite a various application of nanomaterial’s, there is a little information about their impact on human health. In this study, we investigated the comparative study on cytotoxicity effect of biological and commercial synthesized nanosilver on human gastric carcinoma (AGS and normal lung fibroblast (MRC-5 cell lines. Methods: The current experimental study was carried out in Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch, from April to November 2014. The biological synthesis of nanosilver was obtained from Eucalyptus plant extract as a reducing agent. Further to more analysis, morphological study on size and shape of developed biological nanosilver was characterized by performing scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. AGS and MCR-5 cell lines were treated with various concentration of nanosilver for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Finally, the cell viability was evaluated by using MTT assay. Results: The results show that the nanosilver exerts a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on viability of cells. At 100µg/mL of commercial and biological synthesized nanosilver, the viability of AGS was reduced to 7.47±0.002% (P=0.002 and 3.65±0.01% (P=0.003 after 72 hours, respectively. In addition, the viability of MRC-5 at the same condition was reduced to 10.27±0.19% (P=0.001 and 9.16±1.53% (P=0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Based on a thorough literature surveys, the present study is the first research about biosynthesis of nanosilver using Eucalyptus plant extract. This eco-friendly and cost effective method can be used for large scale production of silver nanoparticle. In addition, based on the current obtained data, commercial and biological synthesized nanosilver can more inhibitory effect on cancer cells compared to the normal cells. Hence, silver nanoparticles might be used as a new strategy for treating many human cancers. However, further studies are necessary to ascertain their potential as anticancer agents.

  17. Skin pigmentary anomalies and mosaicism for an acentric marker chromosome originating from 3q

    OpenAIRE

    Portnoi, M; Boutchnei, S.; Bouscarat, F; Morlier, G; Nizard, S.; Dersarkissian, H.; Crickx, B; Nouchy, M.; Taillemite, J.; Belaich, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report on a 22 year old man with hyperpigmentation distributed along the lines of Blaschko in whom cytogenetic analysis showed mosaicism for an unusual supernumerary marker chromosome. The patient was of normal intelligence and was not dysmorphic. The marker was present in 30% of his lymphocytes and in 6% of his skin fibroblasts from a dark area, while fibroblasts from a light area showed a normal karyotype, 46,XY.We have identified the origin of the marker using fluorescence in situ hybri...

  18. Impaired response of fibroblasts from patients with hyperapobetalipoproteinemia to acylation-stimulating protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Cianflone, K M; Maslowska, M H; Sniderman, A D

    1990-01-01

    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) is a small, basic, human plasma protein that markedly stimulates triglyceride synthesis in human adipocytes and cultured human skin fibroblasts. The present studies examine the response to ASP of cultured skin fibroblasts from normal subjects patients with hyperapobetalipoproteinemia, patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, and patients with hypertriglyceridemia without hyperapobetalipoproteinemia. Triglyceride synthesis induced by ASP did not differ s...

  19. Human fibroblast collagenase: glycosylation and tissue-specific levels of enzyme synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, S M; Eisen, A. Z.; Teter, M.; Clark, S. D.; Kronberger, A; GOLDBERG, G.

    1986-01-01

    Human skin fibroblasts secrete collagenase as two proenzyme forms (57 and 52 kDa). The minor (57-kDa) proenzyme form is the result of a partial posttranslational modification of the major (52-kDa) proenzyme through the addition of N-linked complex oligosaccharides. Human endothelial cells as well as fibroblasts from human colon, cornea, gingiva, and lung also secrete collagenase in two forms indistinguishable from those of the skin fibroblast enzyme. In vitro tissue culture studies have shown...

  20. Mechanism of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Transactivation in Skin Cancer Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Bhuminder

    2008-01-01

    The main findings of this study are: 1. UV led to EGFR transactivation in melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. This pathway conferred cancer cells with survival advantage under UV irradiation. 2. UV/GPCR induced EGFR transactivation was found to be dependent on ROS production by the Nox protein family. 3. Inhibition strategies targeting ADAMs led to higher apoptosis by UV irradiation as compared to the direct EGFR inhibition, which could be explained by differences in ...

  1. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor activates the transcription of nuclear factor kappa B and induces the expression of nitric oxide synthase in a skin dendritic cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M Teresa; Carlos B. Duarte; Gonçalo, Margarida; Figueiredo, Américo; Carvalho, Arsélio P.; Lopes, M Celeste

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by skin dendritic cells and keratinocytes plays an important role in skin physiology, growth and remodelling. Nitric oxide is also involved in skin inflammatory processes and in modulating antigen presentation (either enhancing or suppressing it). In this study, we found that GM-CSF stimulates the expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a fetal-skin-derived dendritic cell line (FSDC) and, consequently, increases the nitrite production ...

  2. Skin moisturizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Malakooti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The function of the horny layer of the skin as a barrier is to protect the underlying tissues from infection, dryness, and mechanical stress. Disruption of this function results in increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL and is associated with conditions like atopic dermatitis and other chronic skin diseases. Moisturizers have been shown to improve these conditions through restoration of the integrity of the stratum corneum, acting as a barrier to water loss and replacement of skin lipids and other compounds. Also, moisturizers are commonly used to reduce fine lines and make the skin appear smooth and soft. They contain varying combinations of emollients, occlusives, and humectants to achieve their beneficial effects, and there are an overwhelming number of formulations available.

  3. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Kanae [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shishido, Mayumi [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Fujimoto, Keiko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirota, Yuko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshitaka, E-mail: tanakay@bioc.phar.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility.

  4. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility

  5. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cosmetic procedures to improve the health, function and beauty of skin through every stage of life. class="button-learn-more"> From forehead furrows to frown lines… Performing more than 5 million cosmetic procedures each year, ASDS member dermatologists offer many treatments that are ...

  6. Fetal ACL Fibroblasts Exhibit Enhanced Cellular Properties Compared with Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Stalling, Simone S.; Nicoll, Steven B.

    2008-01-01

    Fetal tendons and skin heal regeneratively without scar formation. Cells isolated from these fetal tissues exhibit enhanced cellular migration and collagen production in comparison to cells from adult tissue. We determined whether fetal and adult fibroblasts isolated from the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), a tissue that does not heal regeneratively, exhibit differences in cell migration rates and collagen elaboration. An in vitro migration assay showed fetal ACL fibroblasts migrated twice ...

  7. Replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts irradiated in obtaining feeder layer for the culture of human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human autologous epithelia cultivated in vitro, have been used successfully in treating damage to skin integrity. The methodology allowed the cultivation of these epithelia was described by Rheinwald and Green in 1975, this methodology consisted in seeding keratinocytes onto a feeder layer composed of lineage 3T3 murine fibroblasts, the proliferation rate is controlled through the action of ionizing radiation. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and murine viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, in this present work, we replaced the feeder layer originally composed of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts. To obtain this new feeder layer was necessary to standardize the enough irradiation dose to inhibit the replication of human fibroblasts and the verification of effectiveness of the development of keratinocytes culture on a feeder layer thus obtained. According to the obtained results we can verify that the human fibroblasts irradiated at various tested doses (60, 70, 100, 200, 250 and 300 Gy) had their mitotic activity inactivated by irradiation, allowing the use of any of these doses to confection of the feeder layer, since these fibroblasts irradiated still showed viable until fourteen days of cultivation. In the test of colony formation efficiency was observed that keratinocytes seeded on irradiated human fibroblasts were able to develop satisfactorily, preserving their clonogenic potential. Therefore it was possible the replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts in confection of the feeder layer, in order to eliminate this xenobiotic component of the keratinocytes culture. (author)

  8. Replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts irradiated in obtaining feeder layer for the culture of human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshito, Daniele; Sufi, Bianca S.; Santin, Stefany P.; Mathor, Monica B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Altran, Silvana C.; Isaac, Cesar [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Lab. de Microcirurgia Plastica; Esteves-Pedro, Natalia M. [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Controle Biologico; Herson, Marisa R. [DonorTissue Bank of Victoria (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    Human autologous epithelia cultivated in vitro, have been used successfully in treating damage to skin integrity. The methodology allowed the cultivation of these epithelia was described by Rheinwald and Green in 1975, this methodology consisted in seeding keratinocytes onto a feeder layer composed of lineage 3T3 murine fibroblasts, the proliferation rate is controlled through the action of ionizing radiation. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and murine viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, in this present work, we replaced the feeder layer originally composed of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts. To obtain this new feeder layer was necessary to standardize the enough irradiation dose to inhibit the replication of human fibroblasts and the verification of effectiveness of the development of keratinocytes culture on a feeder layer thus obtained. According to the obtained results we can verify that the human fibroblasts irradiated at various tested doses (60, 70, 100, 200, 250 and 300 Gy) had their mitotic activity inactivated by irradiation, allowing the use of any of these doses to confection of the feeder layer, since these fibroblasts irradiated still showed viable until fourteen days of cultivation. In the test of colony formation efficiency was observed that keratinocytes seeded on irradiated human fibroblasts were able to develop satisfactorily, preserving their clonogenic potential. Therefore it was possible the replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts in confection of the feeder layer, in order to eliminate this xenobiotic component of the keratinocytes culture. (author)

  9. Evaluation of in vitro toxicity of Rumalaya liniment using mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Ravi Varma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin irritation potential of topical formulations is investigated prior to human exposure to identify the chemicals which might induce adverse skin reactions. Rumalaya liniment (RL a novel formulation using natural oils and plant extracts is used for reducing inflammations associated with musculoskeletal disorders. Preclinical studies on RL are needed prior to skin application. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible cytotoxic effects of RL and a commercial sample (CS on mouse embryo fibroblasts and human keratinocytes using neutral red uptake, (3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol -2-yl-2,5-di phenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and resazurin assay. The CTC 50 values obtained for RL was significantly higher than that of CS, which revealed that RL is less toxic to CS. RL was less toxic (<17% on both cell lines at 400 ?g/ml and was nontoxic at further lower concentrations, whereas the toxicity of CS was above 59% even at 400 ?g/ml. It was observed from the present study that by using three different assay methods and two different cell lines, the toxicity of RL was significantly lower than that observed with CS. From the study, it could be concluded that RL could be safer to skin due to their low cytotoxicity as compared with CS.

  10. Hyaluronic Acid and Skin Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abdol Tehrani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA, the main and most important constituent of extracellular matrix, is a glycosaminologycan with water-absorbing capacity found in large amount in growing and repairing tissues. One of the main causes of skin problems, particulary in aging skin, is HA deficiency. More than half of the body HA is in the skin and is necessary for the maintenance of internal matrix and several cellular functions. Filler gels containing HA are used to repair skin defects. As these substances are derived from animals and bacteria, not the human, may cause skin reactions and have short half-life. So efforts to maintain and/or increase HA secretion from skin fibroblasts are important in the prevention and treatment of skin aging.

  11. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rays) damage your skin. This leads to early wrinkles, skin cancer and other skin problems. Being in the ... the more likely you are to get early wrinkles, skin cancer and other skin problems. 2. Use sunscreen. ...

  12. Induction of plasminogen activator by UV light in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Miskin, R; Ben-Ishai, R

    1981-01-01

    Normal and DNA repair-deficient human fibroblasts have been used to study induction of plasminogen activator (PA) by DNA damage. UV light induced the synthesis of PA in skin fibroblasts of all types of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) in XP heterozygotes and in human amniotic cells. Enzyme induction was, however, not observed in fibroblasts of normal adults. In classical XP, which are deficient in excision repair, PA synthesis occurred in a narrow range of low-UV fluences. In such strains, the leve...

  13. Heterogeneity in the radiation survival curves and biochemical properties of human lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human lung cancers of distinct histology exhibit different responses to radiation therapy in vivo. For examination of the basis of this phenomenon, the radiation survival curves and levels of relevant enzymes were determined in 16 lung cancer cell lines derived from tumors of different histology. These included lines from 5 adenocarcinomas, 7 small cell tumors, 3 variant small cell tumors, and 1 large cell tumor. These findings were compared to those obtained with the use of a normal skin fibroblast cell line. Whether cloned in liquid culture or soft agarose, cell lines had similar radiation survival curves. These curves were consistent with the apparent in vivo radiation responsiveness of the tumors. Although considerable heterogeneity in radiation survival curves was observed among the cell lines, cells from large cell lines and small variant lines had pronounced shoulders and extrapolation numbers (n) from 5.6 to 14. In contrast, cells from small cell lines and adenocarcinoma cell lines were more sensitive (-n values of 1-3.3). In these cell lines, levels of DNA polymerase beta, glutathione (GSH), GSH transferase, GSH reductase (NAD(P)H), gamma-glutamyltransferase did not correlate with radiation parameters of sensitivity. DNA polymerase beta and GSH levels were, however, higher than those in a line of normal skin fibroblasts. These cell lines may be useful in identifying the basis of the variable responsiveness of human lung cancer cells to ionizing radiation

  14. DNA repair in human fibroblasts, as reflected by host-cell reactivation of a transfected UV-irradiated luciferase gene, is not related to donor age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, Thomas J.; O' Brien, Katherine; Brooks, Philip J.; Tarone, Robert E.; Robbins, Jay H

    2004-10-04

    The effect of donor age on the ability of mammalian cells to repair ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage has been studied using several approaches, most recently via assays that measure the host-cell reactivation (HCR) of UV-irradiated reporter gene-containing plasmid vectors following their transfection into cells. Plasmid HCR assays indirectly quantify a cell line's ability to perform nucleotide excision repair (NER) by measuring the enzyme activity of the repaired reporter gene, e.g., chloramphenical acetyltransferase (cat) or luciferase (luc), and are useful in studies investigating whether increasing age may be a risk factor for the deficient repair of potentially cancer-causing, sunlight-induced, DNA lesions in skin cells. In our study, we quantified the DNA repair ability of cultured, nontransformed, human skin fibroblast lines through their HCR of a transfected UV-C-irradiated plasmid containing luc. HCR was measured at various times after transfection in five lines from normal donors of ages 21-96 years, and from one donor who had xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The normal lines displayed increasing HCR at successive post-transfection time points and showed no significant correlation between HCR and donor age. The XP-A line, known to be markedly deficient in NER of UV-induced DNA damage, showed minimal evidence of HCR compared to the normal lines. To further assess potential variation in HCR with donor age, fibroblast lines from five old donors, ages 84-94 years, were compared with lines from five young donors, ages 17-26 years. While significant differences in HCR were found between some lines, no significant difference was found between the young and old age groups (P=0.44). Our study provides no indication that the higher incidence of skin cancer observed with increasing age is due to an age-related decrease in the ability to repair UV-induced DNA damage.

  15. DNA repair in human fibroblasts, as reflected by host-cell reactivation of a transfected UV-irradiated luciferase gene, is not related to donor age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of donor age on the ability of mammalian cells to repair ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage has been studied using several approaches, most recently via assays that measure the host-cell reactivation (HCR) of UV-irradiated reporter gene-containing plasmid vectors following their transfection into cells. Plasmid HCR assays indirectly quantify a cell line's ability to perform nucleotide excision repair (NER) by measuring the enzyme activity of the repaired reporter gene, e.g., chloramphenical acetyltransferase (cat) or luciferase (luc), and are useful in studies investigating whether increasing age may be a risk factor for the deficient repair of potentially cancer-causing, sunlight-induced, DNA lesions in skin cells. In our study, we quantified the DNA repair ability of cultured, nontransformed, human skin fibroblast lines through their HCR of a transfected UV-C-irradiated plasmid containing luc. HCR was measured at various times after transfection in five lines from normal donors of ages 21-96 years, and from one donor who had xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The normal lines displayed increasing HCR at successive post-transfection time points and showed no significant correlation between HCR and donor age. The XP-A line, known to be markedly deficient in NER of UV-induced DNA damage, showed minimal evidence of HCR compared to the normal lines. To further assess potential variation in HCR with donor age, fibroblast lines from five old donors, ages 84-94 years, were compared with lines from five young donors, ages 17-26 years. While significant differences in HCR were found between some lines, no significant difference was found between the young and old age groups (P=0.44). Our study provides no indication that the higher incidence of skin cancer observed with increasing age is due to an age-related decrease in the ability to repair UV-induced DNA damage

  16. Establishment and Biological Characteristics of Hereford Cattle Fibroblast Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Weijun Guan; Mei Li; Changli Li; Wenxiu Zhang; Shen Wu; Yuehui Ma

    2012-01-01

    A fibroblast line from kindey tissue of Hereford cattle was established successfully by direct culture of explants and biology cryopreservation techniques. The cell line contained 101 tubes of frozen cells from 34 primary kidney samples. Biological analysis showed that the cells were morphologically consistent with fibroblasts and the growth curve was sigmoidal with a Population Doubling Time (PDT) of 35 h.The average viability of the cells was 95.8% before freezing and 93.4% after thawing. C...

  17. Loss of PPAR? expression by fibroblasts enhances dermal wound closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Wei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR? may be a key regulator of connective tissue deposition and remodeling in vivo. PPAR? expression is reduced in dermal fibroblasts isolated from fibrotic areas of scleroderma patients; PPAR? agonists suppress the persistent fibrotic phenotype of this cell type. Previously, we showed that loss of PPAR? expression in fibroblasts resulted in enhanced bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis. However, whether loss of PPAR? expression in skin fibroblasts affects cutaneous tissue repair or homeostasis is unknown. Results Mice deleted for PPAR? in skin fibroblasts show an enhanced rate of dermal wound closure, concomitant with elevated phosphorylation of Smad3, Akt and ERK, and increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, collagen, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA and CCN2. Conversely, dermal homeostasis was not appreciably affected by loss of PPAR? expression. Conclusion PPAR? expression by fibroblasts suppresses cutaneous tissue repair. In the future, direct PPAR? antagonists and agonists might be of clinical benefit in controlling chronic wounds or scarring, respectively.

  18. A uv-sensitive Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79/UC) with a possible defect in DNA polymerase activity is deficient in DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of repair enzyme activities in a uv-sensitive cell line (V79/UC) derived from Chinese hamster V79 cells have revealed levels of total DNA polymerase that are about 50% of the levels in the parental cell line. There are a number of DNA polymerase inhibitors available which allow us to distinguish between the major forms of DNA polymerase (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) identified in mammalian cells. Enzyme assays with these inhibitors indicate that the aphidicolin-sensitive DNA polymerase is defective in the V79/UC cell line. This could be either polymerase alpha or delta, or both. The V79/UC cells do not express resistance to aphidicolin in standard toxicity studies. However, when aphidicolin is added postirradiation in survival assays designed to measure the extent of inhibitable repair, V79/UC cells do not respond with the further decrease in survival seen in the parental line. Further evidence of a polymerase-dependent repair defect is evident from alkaline elution data. In this case the V79/UC cells show the appearance of single-strand breaks following uv irradiation in the absence of any added inhibitor. Cells of the V79/M12G parental line, on the other hand, show the appearance of single-strand breaks only when aphidicolin is present

  19. Development of a human mitochondrial oligonucleotide microarray (h-MitoArray and gene expression analysis of fibroblast cell lines from 13 patients with isolated F1Fo ATP synthase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansíková Hana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To strengthen research and differential diagnostics of mitochondrial disorders, we constructed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (h-MitoArray allowing expression analysis of 1632 human genes involved in mitochondrial biology, cell cycle regulation, signal transduction and apoptosis. Using h-MitoArray we analyzed gene expression profiles in 9 control and 13 fibroblast cell lines from patients with F1Fo ATP synthase deficiency consisting of 2 patients with mt9205?TA microdeletion and a genetically heterogeneous group of 11 patients with not yet characterized nuclear defects. Analysing gene expression profiles, we attempted to classify patients into expected defect specific subgroups, and subsequently reveal group specific compensatory changes, identify potential phenotype causing pathways and define candidate disease causing genes. Results Molecular studies, in combination with unsupervised clustering methods, defined three subgroups of patient cell lines – M group with mtDNA mutation and N1 and N2 groups with nuclear defect. Comparison of expression profiles and functional annotation, gene enrichment and pathway analyses of differentially expressed genes revealed in the M group a transcription profile suggestive of synchronized suppression of mitochondrial biogenesis and G1/S arrest. The N1 group showed elevated expression of complex I and reduced expression of complexes III, V, and V-type ATP synthase subunit genes, reduced expression of genes involved in phosphorylation dependent signaling along MAPK, Jak-STAT, JNK, and p38 MAP kinase pathways, signs of activated apoptosis and oxidative stress resembling phenotype of premature senescent fibroblasts. No specific functionally meaningful changes, except of signs of activated apoptosis, were detected in the N2 group. Evaluation of individual gene expression profiles confirmed already known ATP6/ATP8 defect in patients from the M group and indicated several candidate disease causing genes for nuclear defects. Conclusion Our analysis showed that deficiency in the ATP synthase protein complex amount is generally accompanied by only minor changes in expression of ATP synthase related genes. It also suggested that the site (mtDNA vs nuclear DNA and the severity (ATP synthase content of the underlying defect have diverse effects on cellular gene expression phenotypes, which warrants further investigation of cell cycle regulatory and signal transduction pathways in other OXPHOS disorders and related pharmacological models.

  20. Skin toxicity and quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer during first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI treatment in a single-arm phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler Josef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integument-related toxicities are common during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeted therapy. Panitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the EGFR that significantly improves progression-free survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have wild-type (WT KRAS tumours. Primary efficacy and tolerability results from a phase II single-arm study of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have been reported. Here we report additional descriptive tolerability and quality of life data from this trial. Methods Integument-related toxicities and quality of life were analysed; toxicities were graded using modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to and duration of first integument-related toxicity were prepared. Quality of life was measured using EuroQoL EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Best overall response was analysed by skin toxicity grade and baseline quality of life. Change in quality of life was analysed by skin toxicity severity. Results 154 patients were enrolled (WT KRAS n?=?86; mutant KRAS n?=?59; most (98% experienced integument-related toxicities (most commonly rash [42%], dry skin [40%] and acne [36%]. Median time to first integument-related toxicity was 8 days; median duration was 334 days. Overall, proportionally more patients with grade 2+ skin toxicity responded (56% compared with those with grade 0/1 (29%. Mean overall EQ-5D health state index scores (0.81 vs. 0.78, health rating scores (72.5 vs. 71.0 and QLQ-C30 global health status scores (65.8 vs. 66.7 were comparable at baseline vs. safety follow-up (8 weeks after completion, respectively and appeared unaffected by skin toxicity severity. Conclusions First-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI has acceptable tolerability and appears to have little impact on quality of life, despite the high incidence of integument-related toxicity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00508404

  1. Skin toxicity and quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer during first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI treatment in a single-arm phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integument-related toxicities are common during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy. Panitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the EGFR that significantly improves progression-free survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have wild-type (WT) KRAS tumours. Primary efficacy and tolerability results from a phase II single-arm study of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have been reported. Here we report additional descriptive tolerability and quality of life data from this trial. Integument-related toxicities and quality of life were analysed; toxicities were graded using modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to and duration of first integument-related toxicity were prepared. Quality of life was measured using EuroQoL EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Best overall response was analysed by skin toxicity grade and baseline quality of life. Change in quality of life was analysed by skin toxicity severity. 154 patients were enrolled (WT KRAS n = 86; mutant KRAS n = 59); most (98%) experienced integument-related toxicities (most commonly rash [42%], dry skin [40%] and acne [36%]). Median time to first integument-related toxicity was 8 days; median duration was 334 days. Overall, proportionally more patients with grade 2+ skin toxicity responded (56%) compared with those with grade 0/1 (29%). Mean overall EQ-5D health state index scores (0.81 vs. 0.78), health rating scores (72.5 vs. 71.0) and QLQ-C30 global health status scores (65.8 vs. 66.7) were comparable at baseline vs. safety follow-up (8 weeks after completion), respectively and appeared unaffected by skin toxicity severity. First-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI has acceptable tolerability and appears to have little impact on quality of life, despite the high incidence of integument-related toxicity. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00508404

  2. Solar aging of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aging of the skin is a combination of chronological aging and degenerative influences from the environment. Most important is the influence of ultraviolet radiation upon dermal fibroblasts. As a result of changes in collagen and elastic fibres with deposition of ''solar elastosis'', chronically sun-exposed skin looses elasticity and develops wrinkles. Results of recent investigations show that solar degenerative changes of the skin are spontaneously repaired when the radiation is stopped and/or sun filters are used. This repair process is accelerated by the topical use of retinoic acid

  3. Fibroblast differentiation in subcutaneous fibrosis after postmastectomy radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, C; Johansen, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to acquire a better understanding of the mechanism of radiation-induced fibrosis, we studied the differentiation of normal skin fibroblasts cultured from breast cancer radiotherapy patients with different risk of fibrosis. The differentiation state of fibroblasts was characterized in clonal cultures using established cytomorphological criteria. Collagen synthesis was determined by 3H-proline incorporation into pepsin-resistant protein. Radiation-induced inactivation of fibroblasts was paralleled by an increase in terminally differentiated fibrocytes, demonstrating that premature terminal differentiation is an important response to irradiation of fibroblasts from radiotherapy patients. Surviving colony-forming fibroblasts showed a change in differentiation with an increase in the ratio L:E of progenitor fibroblasts in late (L) compared to early (E) differentiation states. Furthermore, increased collagen production was observed after irradiation. The results provide evidence supporting a role of terminal fibroblast differentiation in radiation-induced fibrosis and imply that the progenitor population surviving radiotherapy might be more prone to terminal differentiation than before radiotherapy.

  4. Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. ? ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. ? UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. ? SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-?, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.

  5. Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzone, Santina, E-mail: santina.bruzzone@unige.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Battaglia, Florinda [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Mannino, Elena [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Parodi, Alessia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Fruscione, Floriana [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Basile, Giovanna [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Salis, Annalisa; Sturla, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Negrini, Simone; Kalli, Francesca; Stringara, Silvia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Filaci, Gilberto [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Department of Internal Medicine, Viale Benedetto XV 6, 16132 Genova (Italy); and others

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-{beta}, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.

  6. Lumpy skin disease: attempted propagation in tick cell lines and presence of viral DNA in field ticks collected from naturally-infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, E S M; Venter, E H; Coetzer, J A W; Bell-Sakyi, L

    2015-03-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is of substantial economic importance for the cattle industry in Africa and the Near and Middle East. Several insect species are thought to transmit the disease mechanically. Recent transmission studies have demonstrated the first evidence for a role of hard (ixodid) ticks as vectors of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The aim of this study was to attempt in vitro growth of the virus in Rhipicephalus spp. tick cell lines and investigate in vivo the presence of the virus in ticks collected from cattle during LSD outbreaks in Egypt and South Africa. No evidence was obtained for replication of LSDV in tick cell lines although the virus was remarkably stable, remaining viable for 35 days at 28°C in tick cell cultures, in growth medium used for tick cells and in phosphate buffered saline. Viral DNA was detected in two-thirds of the 56 field ticks, making this the first report of the presence of potentially virulent LSDV in ticks collected from naturally infected animals. PMID:25468765

  7. How to Create an Anti-Aging Skin Care Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommendations. Healthy skin care habits help prevent premature skin aging. Anti-aging skin care tips Protect your skin from the sun: Sun ... complexion, loss of skin’s firmness, premature lines and wrinkles, and leathery ... anti-aging skin care products in your plan, dermatologists recommend that you ...

  8. Fibroblasts induce heparin synthesis in chondroitin sulfate E containing human bone marrow-derived mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human bone marrow-derived mast cells (hBMMCs), differentiated in vitro in suspension culture and under the influence of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells conditioned medium (hCM), were tested for their response to recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) and for their behavior in different microenvironments. The hBMMCs were incubated in the presence of rhIL-3 and the changes in their proliferation rate were determined. Recombinant hIL-3 induced a more than sixfold increase in 3H-thymidine uptake into the hBMMC DNA in a dose-dependent manner. Human CM used as a control for proliferation response induced a more than eightfold maximal proliferation rate increase. Rabbit anti-rhIL-3 completely inhibited hBMMC 3H-thymidine uptake induced by rhIL-3 and decreased the hCM-induced proliferation by approximately 50%. These hBMMCs were cocultured with four different mytomicin C-treated cell monolayers and assayed for phenotypic changes. After only 2 days in coculture with either embryonic mouse skin-derived fibroblasts (MESFs) or human skin-derived fibroblasts (HSFs), a marked increase in granule number and density was noted on staining with toluidine blue. Mast cells that initially stained alcian blue+/safranin- at day 0 of coculture became alcian blue+/safranin+ during the coculture period. Human BMMC proteoglycan synthesis shifted from approximately 85% chondroitin sulfate E to approximately 60% heparin within 14 to 19 days of coculture with the MESF monolayer and to approximately 50% heparin within 19 days of coculture with the HSF monolayer. None of the above-mentioned changes were noted in cocultures of hBMMCs with 3T3 cell line fibroblast monolayers or in cocultures with bovine vascular endothelium (BVE) cell monolayers

  9. Fibroblasts induce heparin synthesis in chondroitin sulfate E containing human bone marrow-derived mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilead, L.; Bibi, O.; Razin, E. (Hebrew Univ.-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-09-15

    Human bone marrow-derived mast cells (hBMMCs), differentiated in vitro in suspension culture and under the influence of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells conditioned medium (hCM), were tested for their response to recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) and for their behavior in different microenvironments. The hBMMCs were incubated in the presence of rhIL-3 and the changes in their proliferation rate were determined. Recombinant hIL-3 induced a more than sixfold increase in 3H-thymidine uptake into the hBMMC DNA in a dose-dependent manner. Human CM used as a control for proliferation response induced a more than eightfold maximal proliferation rate increase. Rabbit anti-rhIL-3 completely inhibited hBMMC 3H-thymidine uptake induced by rhIL-3 and decreased the hCM-induced proliferation by approximately 50%. These hBMMCs were cocultured with four different mytomicin C-treated cell monolayers and assayed for phenotypic changes. After only 2 days in coculture with either embryonic mouse skin-derived fibroblasts (MESFs) or human skin-derived fibroblasts (HSFs), a marked increase in granule number and density was noted on staining with toluidine blue. Mast cells that initially stained alcian blue+/safranin- at day 0 of coculture became alcian blue+/safranin+ during the coculture period. Human BMMC proteoglycan synthesis shifted from approximately 85% chondroitin sulfate E to approximately 60% heparin within 14 to 19 days of coculture with the MESF monolayer and to approximately 50% heparin within 19 days of coculture with the HSF monolayer. None of the above-mentioned changes were noted in cocultures of hBMMCs with 3T3 cell line fibroblast monolayers or in cocultures with bovine vascular endothelium (BVE) cell monolayers.

  10. Fucoidan Promotes the Reconstruction of Skin Equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yu Seok; Li, Hailan; Balcos, Marie Carmel; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Choi, Hye-Ryung; Park, Kyoung-Chan; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of fucoidan on the proliferation of fibroblasts and the reconstruction of a skin equivalent (SE). Fucoidan significantly stimulated the proliferation of CCD-25Sk human fibroblasts and Western blot analysis demonstrated that fucoidan markedly increased the expression of cyclin D1 and decreased the expression of p27. Fucoidan was used to reconstruct SE. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the addition of fucoidan to dermal equivalents increased exp...

  11. Radiation response in vitro of fibroblasts from a Fanconi anemia patient with marked clinical radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuzenova, C.; Flentje, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Plowman, P.N. [Radiotherapy/Clinical Oncology, St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    Background: fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive chromosome instability disorder characterized by progressive pancytopenia and cancer susceptibility. The risks of radiation therapy in FA patients who have cancer remain to be investigated. Recently, Marcou et al. (2001) reported a case of severe clinical radiosensitivity in a female FA patient with a tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiotherapy. By contrast, her in vitro irradiated skin fibroblasts revealed nearly normal radiosensitivity as determined by the colony survival assay. Material and methods: in view of this discrepancy, the radiation response of this particular FA fibroblast strain (designated 425BR) was further analyzed in the present study by means of the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay, and also by the cytochalasin-blocked micronuclei (MN) test. In addition, the expression levels of DNA repair proteins, hMre11, Rad50, and Rad51, were investigated using Western blot and foci immunofluorescence staining. Results: the Comet assay revealed that the initial DNA fragmentation in irradiated FA cells was two times higher and the DNA rejoining process was three times slower than that in control (1BR3) fibroblasts. Moreover, although the baseline level of MNs was lower in FA cells than in controls, the FA fibroblasts were more prone (about two times) to MN production than control cells when irradiated with 2-4 Gy. Western blot analysis of the DNA repair proteins (hMre11, Rad50, and Rad51) did not reveal any abnormalities in protein expression levels or their migration patterns in the fibroblasts derived from an FA patient either before or after irradiation. At the same time, in vitro irradiated cells from the FA patient exhibited a significantly reduced number of nuclei with focally concentrated DNA repair Rad51 protein than in control cells. Conclusion: the increased DNA damage and MN induction in irradiated FA fibroblasts, and the reduction of the formation of DNA repair foci containing Rad51 suggest a possible link to the profound clinical radiosensitivity reported earlier for this FA patient. The findings on this particular FA cell strain presented in the study point toward the difficulties involved in the prediction of the radiation response of cell lines and tumors based solely on the colony survival test. (orig.)

  12. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... moles to develop into melanoma, a type of skin cancer. Because of this, you should have a health care professional check your moles if they look ...

  13. Induction of chromosomal aberrations in human primary fibroblasts and immortalized cancer cells exposed to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidly increasing possibilities of exposure to environmental extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields have become a topic of worldwide investigation. Epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields may increase cancer risk therefore assessment of chromosomal damage in various cell lines might be of predictive value for future risk estimation. Materials and Methods: Primary cultures of fibroblasts from human skin biopsy were exposed to continuous extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (3, 50 and 60 Hz, sinusoidal, 3h, and 4 m T). Also immortalized cell lines, SW480, MCF-7 and 1321N1 were exposed to continuous extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (50 Hz, sinusoidal, 3 h, 4 m T). Metaphase plates Were prepared according to standard methods and stained in 5% Giemsa solution. Chromosomal aberrations of both chromosome and chromatid types were scored to evaluate the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on primary or established cell lines. Results: Results indicate that by increasing the frequency of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields, chromosomal aberrations were increased up to 7-fold above background levels in primary human fibroblast cells. In addition, continuous exposure to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field led to a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations in SW480, MCF-7 and 1321N1 cell lines compared to sham control. Conclusion: Results obtained indicate that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields has the potential for induction of chromosomal aberrations in all cell types.

  14. Sarcophine-Diol, a Skin Cancer Chemopreventive Agent, Inhibits Proliferation and Stimulates Apoptosis in Mouse Melanoma B16F10 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Fahmy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarcodiol (SD is a semi-synthetic derivative of sarcophine, a marine natural product. In our previous work, we reported the significant chemopreventive effects of SD against non-melanoma skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo mouse models. In this investigation, we extended this work to study the effect of sarcodiol on melanoma development, the more deadly form of skin cancer, using the mouse melanoma B16F10 cell line. In this study we report that SD inhibits the de novo DNA synthesis and enhances fragmentation of DNA. We also evaluated the antitumor effect of SD on melanoma cell viability using several biomarkers for cell proliferation and apoptosis. SD inhibits the expression levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription protein (STAT-3 and cyclin D1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4. SD treatment also enhances cellular level of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53 and stimulates cleavage of the nuclear poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (cleaved-PARP. SD also enhances cellular levels of cleaved Caspase-3, -8, -9 and stimulates enzymatic activities of Caspase-3, -8 and -9. These results, in addition to inhibition of cell viability, suggest that SD inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by arresting the cell-division cycle in a Go quiescent phase and activates programmed cell death (apoptosis via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Finally, these studies demonstrate that SD shows a very promising chemopreventive effect in melanoma B16F10 tumor cells.

  15. Cell Synchronization of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, Michael J; Coschi, Courtney H; Isaac, Christian E; Dick, Frederick A

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental need in the analysis of the cell cycle is the ability to isolate relatively homogeneous populations of cells in different phases. This is complicated by the variable proliferative properties and responses to synchronizing methods of different cancer-derived cell lines. Paradoxically, cell lines with genetic defects in cell cycle control are sometimes chosen because they are amenable to chemical synchronization. Embryonic fibroblasts from mice present the opportunity to study the effects of defined genetic modifications on a normal cell cycle. However, synchronization of these cells has often been challenging. In this chapter we outline three basic protocols for isolating mouse fibroblasts at the G1-to-S-phase transition, in S phase, and during mitosis. PMID:26254919

  16. On the Role of Melatonin in Skin Physiology and Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Slominski, A; Fischer, T. W.; Zmijewski, M. A.; Wortsman, J.; Semak, I.; ZBYTEK, B.; Slominski, R.M.; Tobin, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    Melatonin has been experimentally implicated in skin functions such as hair growth cycling, fur pigmentation, and melanoma control, and melatonin receptors are expressed in several skin cells including normal and malignant keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts. Melatonin is also able to suppress ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage to skin cells and shows strong antioxidant activity in UV exposed cells. Moreover, we recently uncovered expression in the skin of the biochemical machinery invol...

  17. Chloride transport in human fibroblasts is activated by hypotonic shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugolo, M.; Mastocola, T.; Flamigni, A.; Lenaz, G. (Universita' di Bologna (Italy))

    1989-05-15

    Incubation of human skin fibroblasts in hypotonic media induced the activation of {sup 36}Cl- efflux which was roughly proportional to the decrease in the osmolality of the media. The efflux of {sup 36}Cl- was insensitive to DIDS plus furosemide and inhibited by addition of a Cl- channel blocker such as 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). We propose that a conductive pathway for Cl- transport, almost silent in isotonic conditions, is activated by exposing human fibroblasts to hypotonic shock, this conclusion being supported by evidence that also {sup 36}Cl- influx was enhanced by hypotonic medium.

  18. Purification of the migration stimulating factor produced by fetal and breast cancer patient fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grey, A.M.; Schor, A.M.; Rushton, G.; Ellis, I.; Schor, S.L. (Univ. of Manchester (England))

    1989-04-01

    The authors have previously shown that (i) human skin fibroblasts of fetal and adult origin display distinctive migratory phenotypes, (ii) this difference in cell behavior results from the production of a soluble migration stimulating factor (MSF) by fetal cells, and (iii) skin fibroblasts from breast cancer patients commonly resemble fetal fibroblasts both in migratory phenotype and in production of MSF. Data are now presented indicating that MSF present in the conditioned medium of fetal and cancer patient fibroblasts is precipitated at 10% saturation ammonium sulfate and binds to heparin and cation-exchange resins. Based on this information, they have devised a scheme for the purification of MSF involving the sequential application of ammonium sulfate precipitation, heparin affinity, gel filtration, and reverse-phase chromatography. Purified MSF has an estimated molecular mass of 70 kDa; amino acid analysis reveals a relatively high level of proline (13.34 residues per 100). The results further suggest that skin fibroblasts from breast cancer patients produce an additional factor with migration stimulating activity; this factor is precipitated at higher concentrations of ammonium sulfate and binds to anion-exchange resins. They have previously discussed the possible direct involvement of fetal-like fibroblasts in cancer pathogenesis. The availability of MSF obtained from cancer patient fibroblasts provides a potential means with which to examine the complex cellular interactions contributing to this process as well as develop a screening regime for identifying individuals at elevated risk of developing cancer.

  19. Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  20. Production of acid and neutral cysteine-proteinase inhibitors by a cultured human skin epithelium cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopsu-Havu, V K; Joronen, I; Rinne, A; Järvinen, M

    1985-01-01

    Human skin epithelial-like cells (NCTC-strain 2544) were grown in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with foetal calf serum for up to 2 weeks. The culture medium and extracts made from the cells were subjected to gel-filtration chromatography in a Sephacryl S-200 column for fractionation of the proteins. The fractions were assayed for acid and neutral cysteine-proteinase inhibitor (ACPI, NCPI) using time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay and radioimmunoassay, and the cysteine-proteinase-inhibiting activities were assayed using papain. Free NCPI, i.e. a molecule with isoelectric variants at pHs 6.0 and 6.5, which has an Mr of around 12,000 and is capable of inhibiting papain, was detected both in the culture medium and in the cells. Immunodiffusion studies revealed its immunological identity with human spleen-derived NCPI. The amount of NCPI increased during the incubation period. ACPI--characterized as a molecule having an isoelectric point of 4.9, an Mr of about 12,000, papain-inhibiting capacity and antigenic reactivity with spleen-derived ACPI--was not detected in the culture medium. It was, however, detected in the cells after 2 weeks in culture. These data prove that ACPI and NCPI are synthesized by the NCTC-2544 cells under the present culture conditions. PMID:4051554

  1. How to Approach Finnish Retail Market when Launching a New Skin Care Line: a Case Study of Créations Couleurs

    OpenAIRE

    Nordenswan, Katarina; Huttunen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The cosmetics industry is one of the biggest lines of businesses in the world. In Finland people spend thousands of Euros per year on cosmetic and hygiene products. Everything changes constantly and this has reflected to the cosmetics industry as well as consumers. People increasingly desire several options to choose from and want quick results. The topic for this thesis came from a French cosmetic company Créations Couleurs which develops and manufactures raw materials for different cosm...

  2. Mild heat stress stimulates 20S proteasome and its 11S activator in human fibroblasts undergoing aging in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm, Rasmus; Clark, Brian F C; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2004-01-01

    Repeated mild heat shock (RMHS) has been shown to have several beneficial hormetic effects on human skin fibroblast undergoing aging in vitro. Because an age-related decline in proteasome activity is 1 of the reasons for the accumulation of abnormal proteins during aging, we have investigated the effects of RMHS on the 20S proteasome, which is the major proteolytic system involved in the removal of abnormal and oxidatively damaged proteins. Serially passaged human skin fibroblasts exposed to RMH...

  3. Lumican Accelerates Wound Healing by Enhancing ?2?1 Integrin-Mediated Fibroblast Contractility

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao-Jin; Kong, Fan-Zhi; Wang, Ya-Hui; ZHENG, JIANG-HONG; WAN, WEI-DONG; Deng, Chen-Liang; MAO, GUANG-YU; Li, Jun; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Yan-Li; Zhang, Xue-li; YANG, SONG-LIN; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Lumican is a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan highly expressed in connective tissue and has the ability to regulate collagen fibril assembly. Previous studies have shown that lumican is involved in wound healing, but the precise effects of lumican on reepithelialization and wound contraction, the two pivotal aspects of skin wound healing, have not been investigated. Here we explored the roles of lumican in fibroblast contractility, a main aspect of skin wound healing, by adopting mice skin wound...

  4. GHK Peptide as a Natural Modulator of Multiple Cellular Pathways in Skin Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickart, Loren; Vasquez-Soltero, Jessica Michelle; Margolina, Anna

    2015-01-01

    GHK (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine) is present in human plasma, saliva, and urine but declines with age. It is proposed that GHK functions as a complex with copper 2+ which accelerates wound healing and skin repair. GHK stimulates both synthesis and breakdown of collagen and glycosaminoglycans and modulates the activity of both metalloproteinases and their inhibitors. It stimulates collagen, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and the small proteoglycan, decorin. It also restores replicative vitality to fibroblasts after radiation therapy. The molecule attracts immune and endothelial cells to the site of an injury. It accelerates wound-healing of the skin, hair follicles, gastrointestinal tract, boney tissue, and foot pads of dogs. It also induces systemic wound healing in rats, mice, and pigs. In cosmetic products, it has been found to tighten loose skin and improve elasticity, skin density, and firmness, reduce fine lines and wrinkles, reduce photodamage, and hyperpigmentation, and increase keratinocyte proliferation. GHK has been proposed as a therapeutic agent for skin inflammation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and metastatic colon cancer. It is capable of up- and downregulating at least 4,000 human genes, essentially resetting DNA to a healthier state. The present review revisits GHK's role in skin regeneration in the light of recent discoveries. PMID:26236730

  5. A synthetic Toll-like receptor 3 ligand mitigates profibrotic fibroblast responses by inducing autocrine interferon signaling

    OpenAIRE

    FANG, FENG; Ooka, Kohtaro; Sun, Xiaoyong; Shah, Ruchi; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Wei, Jun; Varga, John

    2013-01-01

    Activation of Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) by exogenous microbial ligands or endogenous injury-associated ligands leads to production of type I interferon (IFN). Scleroderma patients with progressive skin fibrosis display an IFN-regulated gene signature, implicating TLR3 signaling in the disease. We now show that TLR3 expression was detected on foreskin, adult skin and lung fibroblasts, and TLR3 levels were significantly elevated in a subset of scleroderma skin biopsies. In explanted skin and ...

  6. Insights in the etiopathology of galactosyltransferase II (GalT-II deficiency from transcriptome-wide expression profiling of skin fibroblasts of two sisters with compound heterozygosity for two novel B3GALT6 mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ritelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in B3GALT6, encoding the galactosyltransferase II (GalT-II involved in the synthesis of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG linkage region of proteoglycans (PGs, have recently been associated with a spectrum of connective tissue disorders, including spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity type 1 (SEMDJL1 and Ehlers–Danlos-like syndrome. Here, we report on two sisters compound heterozygous for two novel B3GALT6 mutations that presented with severe short stature and progressive kyphoscoliosis, joint hypermobility and laxity, hyperextensible skin, platyspondyly, short ilia, and elbow malalignment. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed the differential expression of several genes encoding extracellular matrix (ECM structural components, including COMP, SPP1, COL5A1, and COL15A1, enzymes involved in GAG synthesis and in ECM remodeling, such as CSGALNACT1, CHPF, LOXL3, and STEAP4, signaling transduction molecules of the TGF?/BMP pathway, i.e., GDF6, GDF15, and BMPER, and transcription factors of the HOX and LIM families implicated in skeletal and limb development. Immunofluorescence analyses confirmed the down-regulated expression of some of these genes, in particular of the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and osteopontin, encoded by COMP and SPP1, respectively, and showed the predominant reduction and disassembly of the heparan sulfate specific GAGs, as well as of the PG perlecan and type III and V collagens. The key role of GalT-II in GAG synthesis and the crucial biological functions of PGs are consistent with the perturbation of many physiological functions that are critical for the correct architecture and homeostasis of various connective tissues, including skin, bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, and generates the wide phenotypic spectrum of GalT-II-deficient patients.

  7. Gene expression changes induced by skin sensitizers in the KeratinoSens™ cell line: Discriminating Nrf2-dependent and Nrf2-independent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emter, Roger; van der Veen, Jochem W; Adamson, Greg; Ezendam, Janine; van Loveren, Henk; Natsch, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    The KeratinoSens™ assay is an in vitro screen for the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. It is based on a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the antioxidant response element of the aldoketoreductase gene AKR1C2. The transferability, reproducibility, and predictivity of the KeratinoSens™ assay have been investigated in detail and it is currently under assessment at the European Center for Validation of Alternatives to animal testing (ECVAM). Here we investigate the sensitizer-induced gene expression in the KeratinoSens™ cell line at the mRNA level and discriminate Nrf2-dependent and Nrf2-independent events by using siRNA to better characterize this test system at the molecular level. The results show that (i) the sensitizer-induced luciferase signal in KeratinoSens™ cells is completely dependent on Nrf2. The same holds true for the luciferase induction observed for the false positive chemical Tween80, indicating that the false positive result is not due to recruitment of an alternative transcription factor. (ii) Luciferase induction parallels the induction of endogenous Nrf2-dependent genes, indicating that the luciferase signal is representative for the sensitizer-induced Nrf2-response. (iii) The induction by sensitizers of additional genetic markers related to heat shock proteins and cellular stress could be reproduced in the KeratinoSens™ cell line and they were shown to be Nrf2-independent. These results confirm that the KeratinoSens™ cell line is a rapid and adequate screening tool to assess the sensitizer-induced Nrf2-response in keratinocytes. PMID:24055896

  8. Fibroblasts From Longer-Lived Species of Primates, Rodents, Bats, Carnivores, and Birds Resist Protein Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Andrew M; Lehr, Marcus; Kohler, William J; Han, Melissa L; Miller, Richard A

    2015-07-01

    Species differ greatly in their rates of aging. Among mammalian species life span ranges from 2 to over 60 years. Here, we test the hypothesis that skin-derived fibroblasts from long-lived species of animals differ from those of short-lived animals in their defenses against protein damage. In parallel studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, birds, and species from the Laurasiatheria superorder (bats, carnivores, shrews, and ungulates), we find associations between species longevity and resistance of proteins to oxidative stress after exposure to H(2)O(2) or paraquat. In addition, baseline levels of protein carbonyl appear to be higher in cells from shorter-lived mammals compared with longer-lived mammals. Thus, resistance to protein oxidation is associated with species maximal life span in independent clades of mammals, suggesting that this cellular property may be required for evolution of longevity. Evaluation of the properties of primary fibroblast cell lines can provide insights into the factors that regulate the pace of aging across species of mammals. PMID:25070662

  9. The mechanism of oxythiamine-induced collagen biosynthesis in cultured fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Szoka, Lukasz; Karna, Ewa; Palka, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The oxythiamine (OXY) is antivitamin of thiamine. The finding that OXY increases the cytoplasmic concentration of pyruvate, known to enhance collagen biosynthesis, led us to investigate the mechanism of this antivitamin action on collagen biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Confluent fibroblasts were treated with micromolar concentrations (30–1,000 µM) of OXY for 24 and 48 h. It was found that OXY-dependent increase in collagen biosynthesis was accompanied by parallel increase in...

  10. Experimental model for fibroblast culture Modelo experimental para cultura de fibroblastos

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney Mamoru Keira; Lydia Masako Ferreira; Alfredo Gragnani; Ivone da Silva Duarte; Isabel Anunciação Neves dos Santos

    2004-01-01

    The use of cell culture methods in Plastic Surgery opened a new horizon in the research of cellular mechanisms of proliferation and biosynthesis functions. Several types of cells have been investigated in the cutaneous compartment. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts have been studied aiming the possibility of developing biomaterial for skin substitution. The present study describes the standardization for the development of fibroblast primary culture, its utilization in experiments and its storage...

  11. Light Microscopic, Electron Microscopic, and Immunohistochemical Comparison of Bama Minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) and Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Jun-ying; Shang, Hai-Tao; Liu, Chang-e; WANG, YONG; Niu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Wei, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Here we sought to evaluate the possibility of using Chinese Bama miniature pig skin as a suitable animal model for human skin. Morphologic features of the skin of Bama miniature pigs resemble those of human skin, including skin layer thickness, development of a superficial vascular system, structure of the dermal–epidermal interface, and extracellular matrix. The characteristics and densities of Langerhans cells, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and mast cells were similar between Bam...

  12. The growth kinetics of synovial fibroblastic cells from inflammatory and noninflammatory arthropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiades, T P; Ley, J; Wood, A; Irwin, D

    1978-05-01

    The growth kinetics of subcultured human synovial fibroblasts from 16 patients with inflammatory and noninflammatory arthropathies were studied in antibiotic free media. The experimental design allowed a clear distinction between the growth rates and final saturation densities achieved. The effects of refeeding and of the serum concentration were evaluated for each line. Inflammatory lines achieved significantly higher final saturation densities and growth rates than noninflammatory lines for most protocols, but the differences between rheumatoid and nonrheumatoid groups were less marked. Inflammaroty fibroblasts demonstrated a greater independence to nutritional and growth stimulatory factors in their microenvironment than noninflammatory fibroblasts. PMID:580742

  13. Characterization and Biological Activities of Ocellatin Peptides from the Skin Secretion of the Frog Leptodactylus pustulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marani, Mariela Mirta; Dourado, Flávio Santos; Quelemes, Patrick Veras; de Araujo, Alyne Rodrigues; Perfeito, Márcia Luana Gomes; Barbosa, Eder Alves; Véras, Leiz Maria Costa; Coelho, Andreia Luísa Rodrigues; Andrade, Etielle Barroso; Eaton, Peter; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Leite, José Roberto S A

    2015-07-24

    Eight new peptides were isolated from the skin secretion of the frog Leptodactylus pustulatus and their amino acid sequences determined by de novo sequencing and by cDNA cloning. Structural similarities between them and other antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretion of Leptodactylus genus frogs were found. Ocellatins-PT1 to -PT5 (25 amino acid residues) are amidated at the C-terminus, while ocellatins-PT6 to -PT8 (32 amino acid residues) have free carboxylates. Antimicrobial activity, hemolytic tests, and cytotoxicity against a murine fibroblast cell line were investigated. All peptides, except for ocellatin-PT2, have antimicrobial activity against at least one Gram-negative strain. Ocellatin-PT8 inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis strains with MICs in the 60-240 ?M range. No significant effect was observed in human erythrocytes and in a murine fibroblast cell line after exposure to the peptides at MICs. A comparison between sequences obtained by both direct HPLC-MS de novo sequencing and cDNA cloning demonstrates the secretion of mature peptides derived from a pre-pro-peptide structure. PMID:26107622

  14. Age-related skin changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božani? Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related skin changes can be induced by chronological ageing, manifested in subcutaneous fat reduction, and photo-ageing eliciting increased elastotic substance in the upper dermis, destruction of its fibrilar structure, augmented intercellular substance and moderate inflammatory infiltrate. Forty-five biopsy skin samples of the sun-exposed and sun-protected skin were analyzed. The patients were both males and females, aged from 17 to 81 years. The thickness of the epidermal layers and the number of cellular living layers is greater in younger skin. The amount of keratohyaline granules is enlarged in older skin. Dermoepidermal junction is flattened and the presence of elastotic material in the dermis is pronounced with age. The amount of inflammatory infiltrate is increased, the fibrous trabeculae are thickened in older skin and the atrophy of the hypodermis is observed. Chronological ageing alters the fibroblasts metabolism by reducing their life span, capacity to divide and produce collagen. During ageing, the enlargement of collagen fibrils diminishes the skin elasticity.

  15. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  16. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itching. Allergies, irritants, your genetic makeup, and certain diseases and immune system problems can cause rashes, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect ...

  17. SKIN CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Putri Hendaria

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases was happened in United States, which makes it become the most common cancer type in that country. Skin cancer diagnosis is build from anamnesis, physic examination about skin eufloressence, using dermoscopy, and histopatologic examination as the gold standar. Therapy for skin cancer is classified to surgery and non surgery therapy and its prognostic is depend to the types of the skin cancer itself.

  18. Gene targeting in adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene targeting in nonhuman primates has the potential to produce critical animal models for translational studies related to human diseases. Successful gene targeting in fibroblasts followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been achieved in several species of large mammals but not yet in primates. Our goal was to establish the protocols necessary to achieve gene targeting in primary culture of adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts as a first step in creating nonhuman primate models of genetic disease using nuclear transfer technology. Results A primary culture of adult male fibroblasts was transfected with hTERT to overcome senescence and allow long term in vitro manipulations. Successful gene targeting of the HPRT locus in rhesus macaques was achieved by electroporating S-phase synchronized cells with a construct containing a SV40 enhancer. Conclusion The cell lines reported here could be used for the production of null mutant rhesus macaque models of human genetic disease using SCNT technology. In addition, given the close evolutionary relationship and biological similarity between rhesus macaques and humans, the protocols described here may prove useful in the genetic engineering of human somatic cells.

  19. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sun's ultraviolet, or UV, rays. That's why your skin gets tan if you spend a lot of time in the sun. But even though melanin is mighty, it can't shield you all by ... sunburns. Protecting your skin now also can help prevent skin cancer when ...

  20. Induction of MMP-9 release from human dermal fibroblasts by thrombin: involvement of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in MMP-9 release

    OpenAIRE

    He Shaoheng; Luo Jianmin; Wang Li

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been recognized that dermal fibroblasts and matrix metalloproteases (MMP) play crucial roles in wound healing process in skin. Thrombin was found to stimulate IL-8 release from human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). However, little is known of the effect of thrombin on secretion of MMPs from dermal fibroblasts. In the present study, the influence of thrombin on proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity release from primary cultured HDFs, and its potential signaling pathways were inv...

  1. Immunohistochemical characterization of human ?-irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An immunohistochemical analysis was carried out in order to characterize the phenotypic modifications induced by ?-rays in human skin and to study the expression of some growth factors and growth factor receptors. Following radiotherapy for breast carcinoma, dermal fibroblasts of mammary skin are located superficially near the dermo-epidermal junction. They exhibit either vimentin-positive/smooth muscle cells (SMC) ?-actin-negative quiescent phenotype or vimentin-positive/SMC ?-actin-positive 'reactive' myofibroblastic phenotype but no desmin intermediate filaments. Using two polyclonal antibodies against Transforming Growth Factor ? (TGF?), we observed a specific intranuclear staining in fibroblasts and epidermal cells. Epidermal Growth Factor-Receptors (EGFR) were detected as membrane-associated in all the epidermal cell layers of irradiated skin and this pattern appears strongly associated with previous irradiation. These data suggest that complex cellular interactions are involved between epidermal and dermal cells and with extracellular matrix components, mediated by various cytokines, including TGF? and EGF-like factors

  2. SKIN AND HAIR CHANGES AFTER FORTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a continuous, dynamic, and an irreversible process. Direct exposure to ultra-violet radiations, skin is particularly prone to early aging, known as photo aging. Skin aging is particularly important because of its visibility and social impact. As women age we will notice changes to our skin and hair during the menopause. Dry, thinning, fragile, less tolerant and sagging skin are common complaints. The main reasons for the change in skin is the loss of estrogen, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA etc, 1, 2, 3 from the age of 35 onwards up to menopause, the more we have had long-term exposure to the elements, such as sun and wind the more this becomes evident. Estrogen is very involved in the normal function of the skin. It directly affects the function of key cells in the skin, like the fibroblast (produces collagen and elastin, keratinocyte (closely involved in skin protection and melanocytes (involved in evenness of skin color, etc.. It also helps regulate hair follicle function (hair production as well as sebaceous gland activity (producing skin oils. After the age of forty most of women enters menopause, during which estrogens levels decreases, which leads to different types of hair and skin changes which has been described in this article.

  3. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem matter is briefly characterized of skin damage by irradiation and of the binding of radioactive materials to the skin. The results are summed up of some experiments aimed at skin resorption of various radioactive materials. Main attention is devoted to methods of skin decontamination. The principles are described in detail of the operation of the so-called hygiene loops where complete decontamination of personnel proceeds. The organizational chart of such a unit is presented in figure. Information is also presented on the composition of solutions for skin decontamination. (Z.M.)

  4. Influence of silymarin and its flavonolignans on H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Alena; Walterová, Daniela; Psotová, Jitka

    2006-12-01

    The administration of antioxidants has been shown to enhance repair and healing processes in cutaneous tissue. Silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum has been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of chemically-induced oxidative stress in mouse. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of silymarin, its flavonolignans silybin and dehydrosilybin and flavonoids quercetin and taxifolin against hydrogen peroxide-induced damage to human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts. The results showed that the cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide was dose-dependent in both cell lines. Pre-treatment with test compounds decreased oxidative injury. Dehydrosilybin and quercetin were the most powerful protectants. Silymarin was comparable to silybinin, its main component. This correlates with the antioxidant potential of the compounds. Our findings suggest that silymarin, flavonolignans and flavonoids may be useful as agents for improving skin tissue regeneration. PMID:17011711

  5. Antioxidant and potential anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and formulations of white tea, rose, and witch hazel on primary human dermal fibroblast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hili Pauline; Thring Tamsyn SA; Naughton Declan P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous reports have identified therapeutic roles for plants and their extracts and constituents. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacies of three plant extracts for their potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in primary human skin fibroblasts. Methods Aqueous extracts and formulations of white tea, witch hazel and rose were subjected to assays to measure anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, trolox equivalent and catalase activities. Skin fibroblast ...

  6. In vitro radiosensitivity of human diploid fibroblasts derived from patients with unusual clinical responses to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four diploid cell strains were derived from skin biopsies from patients exhibiting unusually sensitive or resistant clinical responses to ionizing radiation during radiotherapy. The in vitro x-ray survival curve parameters for these strains were determined and compared with those of two normal human skin fibroblast strains. No systematic correlation could be demonstrated between these single dose survival parameters in vitro, and the clinical radiation response in vivo of the normal tissue or the tumor

  7. Characterization of the oxytocin system in primary human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Deing, Verena Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this doctoral thesis was to characterize the oxytocin (OXT) system in human skin and to analyze its functional activity and relevance in cutaneous homeostasis. Apart from a recent study in 2012 showing OXT expression and release by epidermal keratinocytes (1), the OXT system in human skin has not been explored so far. The results obtained in the present study show that both OXT and its receptor are expressed by primary human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. OXT induced dose...

  8. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cosmetic procedures to improve the health, function and beauty of skin through every stage of life. class="button-learn-more"> From forehead furrows to frown lines… Performing more than 5 million cosmetic procedures each year, ASDS member dermatologists offer many treatments that are ...

  9. Order measurements in plasma membranes from Duchenne dystrophy fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J M; Henry, J E; Shaw, K V; Konigsberg, I R

    1983-08-24

    Plasma membranes have been isolated using different methods from Duchenne dystrophy and control human skin fibroblasts. Fluorescence techniques were utilized to resolve the rotational properties and the degree of hindered rotation of the fluorescent probe, 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in the membranes. Under specific conditions of fibroblast processing and membrane fractionation, plasma membranes from Duchenne fibroblasts showed significantly less order (0.0125 greater than P less than 0.0025) and less hindrance to probe rotation than membranes from control fibroblasts. The order differences did not seem to be the result of heterogeneity in the membrane environment sampled by the probe. The frequency dependence of the fluorescence lifetime for diphenylhexatriene indicated no measurable contribution by a short lifetime component. Analysis of diphenylhexatriene rotation in the plasma membranes using the 'wobbling-in-cone' theory suggested that both the angle of probe rotation (theta c) and the rotational rate (Dw) were important parameters in understanding the variations between Duchenne and control membranes at 16, 22 and 30 degrees C. Electron spin resonance studies with 5'-doxylstearic acid at 25 degrees C confirmed our fluorescence results. The segmental motion exhibited by the spin label revealed less order in the Duchenne membranes. PMID:6309223

  10. Fibroblast Growth Factors in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    van Scheltinga, Afke F. Terwisscha; Bakker, Steven C.; Kahn, René S

    2009-01-01

    A large association study by O'Donovan et al recently suggested that genetic variation in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2 increases the risk for developing schizophrenia. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are part of the family of glial growth factors; they control the growth and patterning of specific brain structures and regulate the maintenance and repair of neuronal tissues. In addition, a direct interaction was recently found between FGFRs and adenosine A2A receptors, leading t...

  11. Suppressive effects of induced pluripotent stem cell-conditioned medium on in vitro hypertrophic scarring fibroblast activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    REN, YE; DENG, CHEN-LIANG; WAN, WEI-DONG; ZHENG, JIANG-HONG; MAO, GUANG-YU; YANG, SONG-LIN

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring (HS) is a type of fibrosis that occurs in the skin, and is characterized by fibroblast activation and excessive collagen production. However, at present, therapeutic strategies for this condition are ineffective. Previous studies have identified that the mutual regulation of chronic inflammation, mechanical force and fibroblast activation leads to the formation of HS. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are novel bioengineered embryonic-like stem cells, initially created from mouse adult fibroblasts. The current study demonstrated that iPSC-conditioned medium (iPSC-CM) may significantly suppress hypertrophic scar fibroblast activation. It was observed that in the presence of iPSC-CM, the level of collagen I was markedly reduced and ?-smooth muscle actin, a marker for myofibroblasts (activated fibroblasts that mediate mechanical force-induced HS formation), exhibited a significantly lower level of expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) activated with transforming growth factor-?1. Additionally, iPSC-CM attenuated the local inflammatory cell response by blocking the adhesion of human acute monocytic leukemia cell monocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. In addition, the contractile ability of HDFs may be reduced by iPSC-CM. These observations suggest that iPSC-CM may protect against processes leading to hypertrophic scarring by attenuating fibroblast activation, blocking inflammatory cell recruitment and adhesion and reducing the contractile ability of fibroblasts. PMID:25524174

  12. Suppressive effects of induced pluripotent stem cell-conditioned medium on in vitro hypertrophic scarring fibroblast activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ye; Deng, Chen-Liang; Wan, Wei-Dong; Zheng, Jiang-Hong; Mao, Guang-Yu; Yang, Song-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Hypertrophic scarring (HS) is a type of fibrosis that occurs in the skin, and is characterized by fibroblast activation and excessive collagen production. However, at present, therapeutic strategies for this condition are ineffective. Previous studies have identified that the mutual regulation of chronic inflammation, mechanical force and fibroblast activation leads to the formation of HS. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are novel bioengineered embryonic?like stem cells, initially created from mouse adult fibroblasts. The current study demonstrated that iPSC?conditioned medium (iPSC?CM) may significantly suppress hypertrophic scar fibroblast activation. It was observed that in the presence of iPSC?CM, the level of collagen I was markedly reduced and ??smooth muscle actin, a marker for myofibroblasts (activated fibroblasts that mediate mechanical force?induced HS formation), exhibited a significantly lower level of expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) activated with transforming growth factor??1. Additionally, iPSC?CM attenuated the local inflammatory cell response by blocking the adhesion of human acute monocytic leukemia cell monocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. In addition, the contractile ability of HDFs may be reduced by iPSC?CM. These observations suggest that iPSC?CM may protect against processes leading to hypertrophic scarring by attenuating fibroblast activation, blocking inflammatory cell recruitment and adhesion and reducing the contractile ability of fibroblasts. PMID:25524174

  13. Nucleolin enhances the proliferation and migration of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bimei; Li, Yuanbin; Liang, Pengfei; Liu, Yanjuan; Huang, Xu; Tong, Zhongyi; Zhang, Pihong; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-11-12

    Denatured dermis, a part of dermis in burned skin, has the ability to restore its normal morphology and functions after their surrounding microenvironment is improved. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the denatured dermis could improve wound healing are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of nucleolin during the recovery of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts. Nucleolin mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased time-dependently during the recovery of heat-denatured human dermal fibroblasts (52?°C, 30 seconds). Heat-denaturation promoted a time-dependent cell proliferation, migration, chemotaxis, and scratched wound healing during the recovery of human dermal fibroblasts. These effects were prevented by knockdown of nucleolin expression with small interference RNA (siRNA), whereas overexpression of nucleolin enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis of human dermal fibroblasts with heat-denaturation. In addition, the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-?1) was significantly increased during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis and human dermal fibroblasts. TGF-?1 expression was up-regulated by nucleolin in human dermal fibroblasts. The results suggest that nucleolin expression is up-regulated, and play an important role in promoting cell proliferation, migration, and chemotaxis of human dermal fibroblasts during the recovery of heat-denatured dermis with a mechanism probably related to TGF-?1. PMID:26148015

  14. From microvasculature to fibroblasts: Contribution of anti-endothelial cell antibodies in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corallo, C; Franci, B; Lucani, B; Montella, A; Chirico, C; Gonnelli, S; Nuti, R; Giordano, N

    2015-03-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by skin and internal organ fibrosis, caused by microvascular dysfunction. In recent years, the hypothesis that anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) play a key role in microvascular damage seems to be increasingly convincing. In fact, AECA can induce antibody-dependent cellular apoptosis and stimulate the microvasculature to release pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines. Human-microvascular-endothelial-cells (MVECs) were stimulated with SSc sera (with and without AECA) and with sera from healthy donors. The conditioned MVEC culture media were then added to fibroblast cultures obtained from control skin (CTR), non-affected skin of SSc patients (NA), and affected skin of the same sclerodermic (SSc) patients, respectively. AECA contributed to the MVEC increased release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the culture medium and to MVEC apoptosis. Fibroblast (CTR, NA, and SSc) proliferation was increased after treatment with AECA-positive conditioned media, compared to AECA-negative and control conditioned media. Furthermore, both AECA-positive (in major contribution) and AECA-negative conditioned media were responsible for alpha-smooth-muscle-actin (?SMA) over-expression in all fibroblast cultures, compared to control conditioned media. Fibroblast type I collagen synthesis was upregulated by both SSc conditioned media (with and without AECA). Finally, the synthesis of fibroblast transforming-growth-factor-beta (TGF-?) was statistically higher in AECA-positive conditioned media, compared to AECA-negative and control conditioned media. These findings support the concept that AECA may mediate the crosstalk between endothelial damage and dermal-fibroblast activation in SSc. PMID:25816411

  15. Skin Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Article Also of Interest (Quiz) Warts (Video) Skin Cancer (News) Health Tip: Easing Hives (News) Many Patients With Acne ... Am I Correct? More Videos Health Day News Health Tip: Easing Hives (HealthDay News) -- Hives are red, itchy skin welts that stem from an allergic reaction. Finding ...

  16. Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darby IA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ian A Darby,1 Betty Laverdet,2 Frédéric Bonté3, Alexis Desmoulière2 1School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Physiology and EA 6309, FR 3503, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Limoges, Limoges, France; 3LVMH Recherche, Saint Jean de Braye, France Abstract: (Myofibroblasts are key players for maintaining skin homeostasis and for orchestrating physiological tissue repair. (Myofibroblasts are embedded in a sophisticated extracellular matrix (ECM that they secrete, and a complex and interactive dialogue exists between (myofibroblasts and their microenvironment. In addition to the secretion of the ECM, (myofibroblasts, by secreting matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, are able to remodel this ECM. (Myofibroblasts and their microenvironment form an evolving network during tissue repair, with reciprocal actions leading to cell differentiation, proliferation, quiescence, or apoptosis, and actions on growth factor bioavailability by binding, sequestration, and activation. In addition, the (myofibroblast phenotype is regulated by mechanical stresses to which they are subjected and thus by mechanical signaling. In pathological situations (excessive scarring or fibrosis, or during aging, this dialogue between the (myofibroblasts and their microenvironment may be altered or disrupted, leading to repair defects or to injuries with damaged and/or cosmetic skin alterations such as wrinkle development. The intimate dialogue between the (myofibroblasts and their microenvironment therefore represents a fascinating domain that must be better understood in order not only to characterize new therapeutic targets and drugs able to prevent or treat pathological developments but also to interfere with skin alterations observed during normal aging or premature aging induced by a deleterious environment. Keywords: myofibroblast, fibroblast, ?-smooth muscle actin, mechanical signaling, fibrosis, scarring 

  17. Suppressive effects of induced pluripotent stem cell-conditioned medium on in vitro hypertrophic scarring fibroblast activation

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Ye; Deng, Chen-Liang; WAN, WEI-DONG; ZHENG, JIANG-HONG; MAO, GUANG-YU; YANG, SONG-LIN

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring (HS) is a type of fibrosis that occurs in the skin, and is characterized by fibroblast activation and excessive collagen production. However, at present, therapeutic strategies for this condition are ineffective. Previous studies have identified that the mutual regulation of chronic inflammation, mechanical force and fibroblast activation leads to the formation of HS. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are novel bioengineered embryonic-like stem cells, initially crea...

  18. GM2-ganglioside metabolism in hexosaminidase A deficiency states: determination in situ using labeled GM2 added to fibroblast cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, S S; Krusell, A; Krusell, J; Lyerla, T A; Kolodny, E H

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between hexosaminidase A (HEX A) activity and GM2-ganglioside hydrolysis in atypical clinical situations of HEX A deficiency, we have developed a simple method to assess GM2-ganglioside metabolism in cultured fibroblasts utilizing GM2 labeled with tritium in the sphingosine portion of the molecule. The radioactive lipid is added to the media of cultured skin fibroblasts, and after 10 days the cells are thoroughly washed, then harvested, and their lipid composition ...

  19. Effects of the basic fibroblast growth factor and its anti-factor in the healing and collagen maturation of infected skin wound / Efeitos do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básico e do seu anti-fator na cicatrização e maturação do colágeno de feridas infectadas de pele

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Medeiros, Dantas Filho; José Lamartine de Andrade, Aguiar; Luís Reginaldo de Menezes, Rocha; Ítalo Medeiros, Azevedo; Esdras, Ramalho; Aldo Cunha, Medeiros.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básico (FCFâ) e do anti-FCFâ na cicatrização e maturação do colágeno em feridas infectadas na pele de ratos. MÉTODOS: Um estudo experimental foi realizado em 60 ratos Wistar, divididos em dois grupos (A e B). Cada grupo foi dividid [...] os em 03 subgrupos A1,B1; A2,B2 e A3,B3. Após anestesia com pentobarbital sódico intraperitoneal, foram feitas duas feridas abertas de 1cm² na pele no dorso distando 4cm uma da outra. Essas feridas foram denominadas feridas F1 (para análise inflamatória) e F2 (para estudo do colágeno). No grupo A(n=30), as feridas foram contaminadas com solução multibateriana e no grupo B (n=30) as feridas não foram contaminadas. As feridas receberam tratamento tópico com aplicação única. Nos subgrupos A1 e B1 foram tratadas com solução salina tópica, as dos subgrupos A2 e B2 foram tratadas com o FCFâ e nos subgrupos A3 e B3 foram tratadas com FCFâ e com o anti-FCFâ. Os dados formam analisados pelos testes ANOVA de Tukey, considerando p Abstract in english PURPOSE: The infection is one of the main factors that affect the physiological evolution of the surgical wounds. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of fibroblast growth factor (FGFâ) and anti-FGFâ in the healing, synthesis and maturation of collagen when topically used on infected skin [...] wounds of rats. METHODS: An experimental study was perfomed in 60 male Wistar rats. All animals were divided in two groups (A and B). Each group was divided in three subgroups A1, B1; A2, B2 and A3, B3. After anesthesia with pentobarbital, two open squared wounds (1cm²), 4cm distant to each other, were done in the dorsal skin of all the rats. In group A (n=30) the wounds were contaminated with multibacterial standard solution, and in group B(n=30) the wounds were maintained sterile. These wounds were named F1 (for inflammation analysis) and F2 (for collagen study). The open wounds of A1 and B1 rats were topically treated with saline solution, A2 and B2 were treated with FGFâ and subgroups A3 and B3 were treated with FGFâ and anti-FGFâ. The rats were observed until complete epitelization of F2 wounds for determination of healing time and the expression of types I and III collagen, using Picro Sirius Red staining. Inflammatory reaction in F1 wounds was studied using hematoxilineosin staining. The three variable was measured by the Image Pro-Plus Média Cybernetics software. The statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tukey test, considering p

  20. Effects of the basic fibroblast growth factor and its anti-factor in the healing and collagen maturation of infected skin wound Efeitos do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básico e do seu anti-fator na cicatrização e maturação do colágeno de feridas infectadas de pele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Medeiros Dantas Filho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The infection is one of the main factors that affect the physiological evolution of the surgical wounds. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of fibroblast growth factor (FGFâ and anti-FGFâ in the healing, synthesis and maturation of collagen when topically used on infected skin wounds of rats. METHODS: An experimental study was perfomed in 60 male Wistar rats. All animals were divided in two groups (A and B. Each group was divided in three subgroups A1, B1; A2, B2 and A3, B3. After anesthesia with pentobarbital, two open squared wounds (1cm², 4cm distant to each other, were done in the dorsal skin of all the rats. In group A (n=30 the wounds were contaminated with multibacterial standard solution, and in group B(n=30 the wounds were maintained sterile. These wounds were named F1 (for inflammation analysis and F2 (for collagen study. The open wounds of A1 and B1 rats were topically treated with saline solution, A2 and B2 were treated with FGFâ and subgroups A3 and B3 were treated with FGFâ and anti-FGFâ. The rats were observed until complete epitelization of F2 wounds for determination of healing time and the expression of types I and III collagen, using Picro Sirius Red staining. Inflammatory reaction in F1 wounds was studied using hematoxilineosin staining. The three variable was measured by the Image Pro-Plus Média Cybernetics software. The statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tukey test, considering pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básico (FCFâ e do anti-FCFâ na cicatrização e maturação do colágeno em feridas infectadas na pele de ratos. MÉTODOS: Um estudo experimental foi realizado em 60 ratos Wistar, divididos em dois grupos (A e B. Cada grupo foi divididos em 03 subgrupos A1,B1; A2,B2 e A3,B3. Após anestesia com pentobarbital sódico intraperitoneal, foram feitas duas feridas abertas de 1cm² na pele no dorso distando 4cm uma da outra. Essas feridas foram denominadas feridas F1 (para análise inflamatória e F2 (para estudo do colágeno. No grupo A(n=30, as feridas foram contaminadas com solução multibateriana e no grupo B (n=30 as feridas não foram contaminadas. As feridas receberam tratamento tópico com aplicação única. Nos subgrupos A1 e B1 foram tratadas com solução salina tópica, as dos subgrupos A2 e B2 foram tratadas com o FCFâ e nos subgrupos A3 e B3 foram tratadas com FCFâ e com o anti-FCFâ. Os dados formam analisados pelos testes ANOVA de Tukey, considerando p<0,05 como significante. RESULTADOS: A infecção retardou de modo significante o tempo de cicatrização e a aplicação do FCFâ foi capaz de reverter a inibição da cicatrização provocada pela infecção(p<0.05. A resposta inflamatória foi maior nos grupos tratados com o FCFâ, e a aplicação do anti-FCFâ inibiu a reação inflamatória(p<0.05. Houve aumento significante dos colágenos tipo I e III em todos os subgrupos tratados com FCFâ, comparando com os não tratados, sendo a expressão do tipo I mais intensa do que do tipo III (p<0.05. A aplicação do anti-FCFâ inibiu a expressão das moléculas do colágeno. CONCLUSÕES: O FCFâ foi capaz de acelerar a cicatrização de feridas abertas infectadas e contribui para a maturação do colágeno, ao aumentar a expressão do colágeno tipo I, fenômeno que foi atenuado pela ação do anti-FCFâ.

  1. [Short peptides stimulate skin cell regeneration during ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalisova, N I; Lin'kova, N S; Zhekalov, A N; Orlova, A O; Ryzhak, G A; Khavinson, V Kh

    2014-01-01

    The actual goal of gerontocosmetology is deal with the research of new effective and harmless low- molecular substances. The influence of LK and AEDG peptides in concentrations 0.05-2.00 ng/ml on organotypic skin cell cultures proliferation in young and old animals were investigated. Peptides stimulated skin fibroblasts proliferation on 29-45% in skin cell cultures of young and old rats. This effect was observed in smaller concentration diapason and level during skin ageing in old cell cultures as compared to young cell cultures. These data open new approach for creation cosmetology substances in the base of LKand AEDG peptides. PMID:25946846

  2. The gene expression profiles of canine mammary cancer cells grown with carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) as a co-culture in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Król Magdalena; Paw?owski Karol M; Szyszko Katarzyna; Maciejewski Henryk; Dolka Izabella; Manuali Elisabetta; Jank Micha?; Motyl Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background It is supposed that fibroblasts present in tumour microenvironment increase cancer invasiveness and its ability to metastasize but the mechanisms have not been clearly defined yet. Thus, the current study was designed to assess changes in gene expression in five various cancer cell lines grown as a co-culture with the carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in vitro. Results A carcinoma-associated fibroblast cell line was isolated from a canine mammary cancer. Then, a co-c...

  3. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color.

  4. Skin Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amelia; Hessler, Jill L

    2015-08-01

    Aging skin is among the most common patient concerns in a facial plastic surgery practice. Ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage expedites the pace of intrinsic aging, resulting in many of the visible signs of aging, such as rough skin texture, pigmentation irregularities, fine and deep wrinkling, and inelasticity. Primary prevention of UV and environmental damage with proper skin care and the use of sunscreen are critical. There is great interest in topically applied products to reverse or delay the visible signs of photoaging. We discuss the most common topically applied agents for photoaging, reviewing their mechanisms and supporting evidence. PMID:26208767

  5. Chick embryo fibroblasts produce two forms of hyaluronidase

    OpenAIRE

    Orkin, RW; Toole, BP

    1980-01-01

    Cultured chick embryo fibroblasts derived from skin and skeletal muscle exhibit hyaluronidase activity both associated with the cell layer and secreted into the medium. Although both forms of the enzyme have a number of similar characteristics (R.W. Orkin and B.P. Toole, 1980, J. Biol. CHem. 255), they differ in thermal stability at neutral pH and in behavior on ion-exchange chromatography. Both forms of the enzyme are equally stable at acidic pH for long intervals, but the cell-associated h...

  6. Cryotherapy - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryotherapy is a method of superfreezing tissue in order to destroy it. This article discusses cryotherapy of the skin. ... Cryotherapy is done using a cotton swab that has been dipped into liquid nitrogen or a probe ...

  7. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 8 Rigel DS, Russak J, Friedman R. The evolution of melanoma diagnosis: 25 years beyond the ABCDs. ... 2014 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2015. 11 Melanoma of the Skin , ...

  8. Abnormal iron metabolism in fibroblasts from a patient with the neurodegenerative disease hereditary ferritinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghetti Bernardino

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleotide duplications in exon 4 of the ferritin light polypeptide (FTL gene cause the autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease neuroferritinopathy or hereditary ferritinopathy (HF. Pathologic examination of patients with HF has shown abnormal ferritin and iron accumulation in neurons and glia in the central nervous system (CNS as well as in cells of other organ systems, including skin fibroblasts. To gain some understanding on the molecular basis of HF, we characterized iron metabolism in primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts from an individual with the FTL c.497_498dupTC mutation. Results Compared to normal controls, HF fibroblasts showed abnormal iron metabolism consisting of increased levels of ferritin polypeptides, divalent metal transporter 1, basal iron content and reactive oxygen species, and decreased levels of transferrin receptor-1 and IRE-IRP binding activity. Conclusions Our data indicates that HF fibroblasts replicate the abnormal iron metabolism observed in the CNS of patients with HF. We propose that HF fibroblasts are a unique cellular model in which to study the role of abnormal iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of HF without artifacts derived from over-expression or lack of endogenous translational regulatory elements.

  9. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...

  10. Effect of radiation on reconstitution of skin equivalent (dermal alterations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermal equivalents have been treated by single doses of gamma irradiation of 10, 20, 30 and 50 Gray. Numerations at different times show a dose and time dependant diminution of cellular population. This diminution is histologically observed in dermal part of reconstituted skin, in association with cellular and functional alterations of fibroblast cells. Modifications of epidermal epithelia are also noted in some reconstituted skin. This model would be useful to apprehend the effect of a dermal irradiation lesion on the later epidermization. (author)

  11. Chemokines and cytokines network in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory skin diseases: atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and skin mastocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nedoszytko, Bogus?aw; Soko?owska-Wojdy?o, Ma?gorzata; Ruckemann-Dziurdzi?ska, Katarzyna; Roszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Nowicki, Roman J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines are signaling peptides which regulate cell trafficking and provide control of the tissue-specific cell homing. In the skin, chemokines are secreted both by the resident cells such as keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts, dendritic cells and mast cells, as well as by infiltrated cells – lymphocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes. Chemokines, together with cytokines, participate in induction and maintenance of inflammation in the skin and regulate the composition of the cellular infi...

  12. Direct Generation of Neurosphere-Like Cells from Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Song, Young-Mi; Jeon, Daejong; KIM, SEUNG U.; Kim, Manho; Lee, Sang Kun; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation replaces damaged brain cells and provides disease-modifying effects in many neurological disorders. However, there has been no efficient way to obtain autologous NSCs in patients. Given that ectopic factors can reprogram somatic cells to be pluripotent, we attempted to generate human NSC-like cells by reprograming human fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were transfected with NSC line-derived cellular extracts and grown in neurosphere culture conditions. The cells...

  13. Inhibition of the growth of Rickettsia prowazekii in cultured fibroblasts by lymphokines

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The effect of lymphokine treatment of mouse and human fibroblast cell lines on the growth of Rickettsia prowazekii within the fibroblasts was studied. Treatment of mouse L929 cells with concanavalin A- or antigen- induced mouse lymphokines both before and after infection with R. prowazekii led to clearance of the rickettsiae from a substantial proportion of the cells and suppression of rickettsial growth in those cells which remained infected. Similar but less dramatic anti- rickettsial effec...

  14. Mast cell tryptase stimulates the synthesis of type I collagen in human lung fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, J.A.; Walls, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Mast cell activation is a characteristic feature of chronic inflammation, a condition that may lead to fibrosis as a result of increased collagen synthesis by fibroblasts. We have investigated the potential of tryptase, the major protease of human mast cells, to stimulate collagen synthesis in the human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5. Tryptase was isolated from human lung tissue by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. At concentrations of 18 and 36 mU/ml, tryptase stimulated both an inc...

  15. The sensitizers nickel sulfate and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene increase CD40 and IL-12 receptor expression in a fetal skin dendritic cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Vital, Ana Luísa; Gonçalo, Margarida; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Américo; Carlos B. Duarte; Lopes, Maria Celeste

    2004-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) capable of capturing haptens and to process and present them to T lymphocytes. In order to sensitize T cells for contact hypersensitivity (CHS), skin DCs suffer a maturation process with modifications on their surface molecules. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes induced by two contact sensitizers, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and nickel sulfate (NiSO4), and a non-sensitizer 2,4-dichloronitrobenzene (DCNB), on the protein ...

  16. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Enhances the Growth Hormone Receptor Expression in Tendon Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsun Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to explore the effect of BPC 157 on tendon fibroblasts isolated from Achilles tendon of male Sprague-Dawley rat. From the result of cDNA microarray analysis, growth hormone receptor was revealed as one of the most abundantly up-regulated genes in tendon fibroblasts by BPC 157. BPC 157 dose- and time-dependently increased the expression of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels as measured by RT/real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The addition of growth hormone to BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts dose- and time-dependently increased the cell proliferation as determined by MTT assay and PCNA expression by RT/real-time PCR. Janus kinase 2, the downstream signal pathway of growth hormone receptor, was activated time-dependently by stimulating the BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts with growth hormone. In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon.

  17. A Study on the Insulin Receptor of the Cultured Human Fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluated the usefulness of cultured human fibroblast for insulin receptor assay, the authors cultured fibroblast from biopsied normal adult female eyelid skin and assayed the insulin receptor with radioreceptor assay method. From the data obtained, percent of labeled insulin bound, numbers of insulin binding sites, affinity constants(Ka) and affinity of the empty sites(Ke) were calculated. The results were as follow; 1) The percent radioactivity bound of cultured fibroblast reached plateau at 4 hours 15 .deg. C incubation. 2) The scatchard plot of insulin binding to cultured human fibroblast was curvilinear and the affinity to receptor was decreased with increased receptor occupancy. 3) The numbers of high affinity, low affinity and total insulin receptor of cultured fibroblasts were 852, 24,800 and 25,652 sites per cell. 4) High and low affinity constants of cultured fibroblasts were 3.4 X 1010M-1, and l.08 X 108M-1, and the affinity of empty site was 5.0 X 108M-1.

  18. Single Exposure of Human Oral Mucosa Fibroblasts to Ultraviolet B Radiation Reduces Proliferation and Induces COX-2 Expression and Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Boza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The lip vermillion constitutes a transition tissue, between oral mucosa and skin, where oral mucosal cells from epithelial and connective tissue compartments are exposed to ultraviolet (UV sunlight. Fibroblasts are abundant resident cells of the connective tissue which are key regulators of extracellular matrix composition, as well as, epithelial and endothelial cell function. UVB light, an inherent component of sunlight, causes several alterations in skin fibroblasts, including premature senescence and increased cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression. To assess if UVB irradiation had similar effects on fibroblasts derived from human oral mucosa (HOM, primary cultures of HOM fibroblasts were irradiated with a single dose of 30 or 60 mJ/cm²of UVB light or sham-irradiated. Fibroblast proliferation was assessed from 3 to 48 hrs after UVB-irradiation utilizing [³H]-thymidine incorporation and MTT assays. In addition, COX-2 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR, and PGE2 production was assessed using enzyme immunoassay from 0.5 to 24 hrs after UVB-irradiation. The results showed a significant decrease in proliferation of UVB-irradiated HOM fibroblasts as compared to controls as measured by both [³H]-thymidine incorporation and MTT assays (p<0.001. HOM fibroblasts had increased COX-2 mRNA expression at 0.5 and 12 hrs after irradiation, and PGE2 production was elevated at 12 and 24 hrs post-irradiation as compared to controls (p<0.05. The results showed an inhibitory effect of a single dose of UVB irradiation on HOM fibroblast proliferation with an increase in COX-2 expression and activation. Therefore, photodamaged fibroblasts may play and important role in the pathogenesis of UV-induced lesions of the lip.

  19. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  20. Human fibroblasts (KMST-6/RAS line) transformed with 60Co gamma-rays and c-Ha-ras oncogene constitutively produce a large amount of human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human fibroblasts (KMST-6/RAS) transformed with 60Co gamma-rays and the Ha-ras oncogene formed tumors in nude mice. These mice showed splenomegaly and an increase in granulocytes in the peripheral blood. There was a direct correlation between tumor size and spleen size. Histologically, prominent proliferation of granulocytes was observed in the enlarged spleen. These findings indicated that KMST-6/RAS cells might have been producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the nude mice. In fact, in vitro studies demonstrated that the cells produced G-CSF in the culture medium and that production of G-CSF was greater during the logarithmic growth than during the stationary phase. Nearly equal amounts of G-CSF were produced by cells grown in serum-free or 10% serum-supplemented medium. Neither expression of the ras oncogene nor the tumorigenicity of cells correlated with the production of G-CSF. G-CSF production in KMST-6/RAS cells was significantly stimulated by butyrate, but not by dexamethasone or 5-azacytidine. (author)

  1. Differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into dermal fibroblasts in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yanfu [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Chai, Jiake, E-mail: cjk304@126.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Sun, Tianjun; Li, Dongjie; Tao, Ran [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential seed cells for tissue-engineered skin. {yields} Tissue-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UCMSCs) can readily be isolated in vitro. {yields} We induce UCMSCs to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts via conditioned medium. {yields} Collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA level was higher in differentiated cells. {yields} UCMSCs-derived fibroblast-like cells strongly express fibroblast-specific protein. -- Abstract: Tissue-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) can be readily obtained, avoid ethical or moral constraints, and show excellent pluripotency and proliferation potential. UCMSCs are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In this study, we collected newborn umbilical cord tissue under sterile conditions and isolated UCMSCs through a tissue attachment method. UCMSC cell surface markers were examined using flow cytometry. On the third passage, UCMSCs were induced to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts in conditioned induction media. The induction results were detected using immunofluorescence with a fibroblast-specific monoclonal antibody and real time PCR for type I and type III collagen. UCMSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and reached 90% confluency 14 to 18 days after primary culture. Cultured UCMSCs showed strong positive staining for CD73, CD29, CD44, CD105, and HLA-I, but not CD34, CD45, CD31, or HLA-DR. After differentiation, immunostaining for collagen type I, type III, fibroblast-specific protein, vimentin, and desmin were all strongly positive in induced cells, and staining was weak or negative in non-induced cells; total transcript production of collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA was higher in induced cells than in non-induced cells. These results demonstrate that UCMSCs can be induced to differentiate into fibroblasts with conditioned induction media and, in turn, could be used as seed cells for tissue-engineered dermis.

  2. Differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into dermal fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential seed cells for tissue-engineered skin. ? Tissue-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UCMSCs) can readily be isolated in vitro. ? We induce UCMSCs to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts via conditioned medium. ? Collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA level was higher in differentiated cells. ? UCMSCs-derived fibroblast-like cells strongly express fibroblast-specific protein. -- Abstract: Tissue-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) can be readily obtained, avoid ethical or moral constraints, and show excellent pluripotency and proliferation potential. UCMSCs are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In this study, we collected newborn umbilical cord tissue under sterile conditions and isolated UCMSCs through a tissue attachment method. UCMSC cell surface markers were examined using flow cytometry. On the third passage, UCMSCs were induced to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts in conditioned induction media. The induction results were detected using immunofluorescence with a fibroblast-specific monoclonal antibody and real time PCR for type I and type III collagen. UCMSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and reached 90% confluency 14 to 18 days after primary culture. Cultured UCMSCs showed strong positive staining for CD73, CD29, CD44, CD105, and HLA-I, but not CD34, CD45, CD31, or HLA-DR. After differentiation, immunostaining for collagen type I, type III, fibroblast-specific protein, vimentin, and desmin were all strongly positive in induced cells, and staining was weak or negative in non-induced cells; total transcript production of collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA was higher in induced cells than in non-induced cells. These results demonstrate that UCMSCs can be induced to differentiate into fibroblasts with conditioned induction media and, in turn, could be used as seed cells for tissue-engineered dermis.

  3. A single nucleotide change in the prolidase gene in fibroblasts from two patients with polypeptide positive prolidase deficiency. Expression of the mutant enzyme in NIH 3T3 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanoue, A; Endo, F; Kitano, A; Matsuda, I.

    1990-01-01

    Prolidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mental retardation and various skin lesions. Cultured skin fibroblasts were obtained from two independent patients with abnormal prolidase. Using the polymerase chain reaction, we amplified the entire coding region of human prolidase mRNA derived from patients' fibroblasts. Nucleotide sequence analysis of amplified cDNA products revealed a G to A substitution at position 826 in exon 12, where aspartic acid was replaced b...

  4. Stress responses of human dermal fibroblasts exposed to zinc pyrithione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Emil; Cervinka, Miroslav

    2011-07-28

    Zinc pyrithione is used as a topical agent in a range of medicinal and cosmetic applications. Despite its extensive use and reported beneficial effects in treatment of various dermal problems, its potential toxicity towards skin cells remains relatively underexplored. In this work we investigated effects of nM zinc pyrithione on cell stress response pathways of primary human skin fibroblasts during 24h of exposure. We demonstrate that zinc pyrithione-induced cytotoxity in dermal fibroblasts is dose-dependent and it associates with increased intracellular zinc concentrations and activated stress response pathways including p53 and stress kinase p38. Higher zinc pyrithione concentrations (500nM and above) stimulate oxidative stress and moderate DNA damage which occur in the presence of activated p38 kinase. Cells further upregulate the expression of p53 which increases its transcriptional activity while mitogenic signaling exemplified by mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) expression is suppressed and these steps lead to mitochondrial, caspase-dependent apoptosis. Conversely, lower zinc concentrations (125nM) fail to induce oxidative stress and significant DNA damage; however, treated cells still activate p38 and upregulate the expression and transcriptional activity of p53 and its target gene p21 as well as the expression of p16 in the presence of active mTOR pathway and a changed DNA methylation pattern. The end result is premature senescence phenotype. Specific pharmacological inhibitors as well as gene knockdown technology prove that an interaction between p38, p53 and mTOR might be responsible for these observed endpoints. Taken together, exposure of dermal fibroblasts to varying concentrations of zinc pyrithione may result in either cell death-apoptosis or cellular premature senescence which attests to the ability of this compound to affect this type of cells in an in vitro model system. PMID:21557991

  5. Differential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in response to basic fibroblast growth factor in skeletal muscle cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, J.S.; Wenderoth, M P; Hauschka, S D; Krebs, E G

    1995-01-01

    In the MM14 mouse myoblast cell line, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) stimulates proliferation and represses differentiation. However, the intracellular signaling pathways used by FGF to affect these cellular processes are unknown. The predominant FGF receptor present on MM14 cells, FGFR1, is a receptor tyrosine kinase capable of activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in fibroblast and neuronal cell lines. To determine whether the FGF signal is mediated via the MAPK cas...

  6. Photoprotective Potential of Anthocyanins Isolated from Acanthopanax divaricatus Var. albeofructus Fruits against UV Irradiation in Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, Su-Yun; Park, Won-Bong

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) A penetrates deeply into the skin and induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing damage to fibroblasts, which leads to aging of the skin. However, the body has developed an antioxidant defence system against the harmful effects of ROS. Enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) play critical roles on the removal of excess ROS in living organisms. In this study, the antioxidant activities of anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-galactoside and cyani...

  7. Variable radiosensitivity in fibroblasts from patients with tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that some of the cultured cell strains derived from patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS) showed hypersensitivity to gamma-rays or a radiomimetic chemical. Thirteen fibroblast cell strains from 11 patients with TS were examined for their sensitivity to x-rays as determined from their colony-forming ability. All strains derived from normal-appearing skin of patients, either sporadic or familial cases, showed sensitivity within the normal control range. Five cell strains originating from tumorous skin of 3 patients did not show hypersensitivity. It was concluded that the sensitivity to x-rays of cultured cells of TS is essentially normal. However, the mean D0 or D10 values of the strains from tumorous skin tended to be lower compared to those for normal skin of patients. In addition, the hypersensitivity to x-rays was confirmed in the cell strains of TS which had been shown to be hypersensitive to gamma-rays. These results appear to indicate that at least some of the cells of TS are liable to change to exhibit a hypersensitive trait in unknown acquired conditions

  8. On-chip constructive cell-Network study (I: Contribution of cardiac fibroblasts to cardiomyocyte beating synchronization and community effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuda Kenji

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds To clarify the role of cardiac fibroblasts in beating synchronization, we have made simple lined-up cardiomyocyte-fibroblast network model in an on-chip single-cell-based cultivation system. Results The synchronization phenomenon of two cardiomyocyte networks connected by fibroblasts showed (1 propagation velocity of electrophysiological signals decreased a magnitude depending on the increasing number of fibroblasts, not the lengths of fibroblasts; (2 fluctuation of interbeat intervals of the synchronized two cardiomyocyte network connected by fibroblasts did not always decreased, and was opposite from homogeneous cardiomyocyte networks; and (3 the synchronized cardiomyocytes connected by fibroblasts sometimes loses their synchronized condition and recovered to synchronized condition, in which the length of asynchronized period was shorter less than 30 beats and was independent to their cultivation time, whereas the length of synchronized period increased according to cultivation time. Conclusions The results indicated that fibroblasts can connect cardiomyocytes electrically but do not significantly enhance and contribute to beating interval stability and synchronization. This might also mean that an increase in the number of fibroblasts in heart tissue reduces the cardiomyocyte 'community effect', which enhances synchronization and stability of their beating rhythms.

  9. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of kids who have asthma also have eczema. Atopic dermatitis (ay-tah-pik der-mah-ty-tis) The most common kind of eczema, a disease that causes itchy, red, irritated skin. Search Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Site ...

  10. Cellular metabolic rates in cultured primary dermal fibroblasts and myoblast cells from fast-growing and control Coturnix quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Cooper-Mullin, Clara; Anthony, Nicholas B; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-05-01

    Fibroblast cells have been extensively used in research, including in medicine, physiology, physiological-ecology, and conservation biology. However, whether the physiology of fibroblasts reflects the physiology of other cell types in the same animal is unknown. Dermal fibroblasts are responsible for generating connective tissue and involved in wound healing, but generally, this cell type is thought to be metabolically inactive until it is required at the site of tissue damage. Thus, one might question whether fibroblasts are a representative model system to portray the metabolic profile of the whole organism, as compared with cells isolated from other tissues, like muscle, brain or kidneys. To explore whether fibroblasts have the same metabolic profile as do myoblast cells, we cultured cells from day-old chicks of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) selected for fast-growth or normal growth (our control group). Our results suggest that isolated primary fibroblasts and myoblast cells had higher rates of glycolysis, oxygen consumption and more mitochondria in the fast-growing line than in the control line. Our findings lend support for the idea that fibroblasts are a representative cell system to characterize the whole organism metabolic signature at the cellular-level. These data are striking, however, because fibroblasts had higher rates of metabolism for every parameter measured than myoblast cells isolated from the same individuals. PMID:24530798

  11. 11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase blockade prevents age-induced skin structure and function defects

    OpenAIRE

    Tiganescu, Ana; Tahrani, Abd A.; Morgan, Stuart A; Otranto, Marcela; Desmoulière, Alexis; Abrahams, Lianne; Hassan-Smith, Zaki; Walker, Elizabeth A; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H; Cooper, Mark S; Amrein, Kurt; Lavery, Gareth G.; Stewart, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) excess adversely affects skin integrity, inducing thinning and impaired wound healing. Aged skin, particularly that which has been photo-exposed, shares a similar phenotype. Previously, we demonstrated age-induced expression of the GC-activating enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) in cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Here, we determined 11?-HSD1 levels in human skin biopsies from young and older volunteers and examined the aged 11?-HSD1 KO mou...

  12. Antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yinghua, Song; Lubing, Zhu; Ming, Li.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in sclerotic mice. METHODS: Skin fibroblasts that were isolated from three systemic scleroderma (SSc) patients and three healthy subjects were treated with crocetin (0.1, 1 or 10 ?M). Cell proliferation [...] was measured with an MTT assay. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was detected via an immunohistochemical method. Alpha 1 (I) procollagen (COL1A1), alpha 1 (III) procollagen (COL3A1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. SSc mice were established by the subcutaneous injection of bleomycin. Crocetin (50 mg/kg/d) was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. Dermal thickness and lung fibrosis were assessed with Masson's trichrome staining. Plasma ET-1 was detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Skin and lung ET-1 and COL1A1 mRNA levels were measured via real-time PCR. RESULTS: Crocetin inhibited the proliferation of SSc and normal fibroblasts, an effect that increased with crocetin concentration and incubation time. Crocetin decreased the expression of ?-SMA and the levels of mRNA for COL1A1, COL3A1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1, while crocetin increased TIMP-1 mRNA levels in both SSc and normal fibroblasts. Skin and lung fibrosis was induced, and the levels of ET-1 in the plasma, skin and lungs were elevated in bleomycin-injected mice. Crocetin alleviated the thickening of the dermis and lung fibrosis; decreased COL1A1 mRNA levels in the skin and lung; and simultaneously decreased ET-1 concentrations in the plasma and ET-1 mRNA levels in the skin and lungs of the bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice, especially during the early phase (weeks 1-3). CONCLUSION: Crocetin inhibits cell proliferation, differentiation and collagen production in SSc fibroblasts. Crocetin alleviates skin and lung fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, in part due to a reduction in ET-1.

  13. Comparison of epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts as potential target cells for somatic gene therapy of phenylketonuria.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rikke; Güttler, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) and increased levels of phenylalanine. PAH requires the cofactor BH(4) to function and the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BH(4) is GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTP-CH). The skin is a potential target tissue for PKU gene therapy. We have previously shown that overexpression of PAH and GTP-CH in primary human keratinocytes leads to high levels of phenylalanine clearance without BH(4) supplementation [Gene Ther. 7 (2000) 1971]. Here, we investigate the capacity of fibroblasts, another cell type from the skin, to metabolize phenylalanine. After retroviral gene transfer of PAH and GTP-CH both normal and PKU patient fibroblasts were able to metabolize phenylalanine, however, in lower amounts compared to genetically modified keratinocytes. Further comparative analyses between keratinocytes and fibroblasts revealed a higher copy number of transgenes in keratinocytes and also a higher metabolic capacity. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Aug

  14. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...

  15. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections Cellulitis Erysipelas Erythrasma Folliculitis and Skin Abscesses Hidradenitis Suppurativa Impetigo and Ecthyma ... Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections Cellulitis Erysipelas Erythrasma Folliculitis and Skin Abscesses Hidradenitis Suppurativa Impetigo and Ecthyma ...

  16. Skin Allergy Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share | Skin Allergy Quiz Skin irritations can be very frustrating. Identifying the cause of a skin ailment is essential in order ... can be caused by several things including an allergy, infection or skin problem like eczema or psoriasis. ...

  17. Radiation sensitivity of fibroblasts of bilateral retinoblastoma patients as determined by micronucleus induction in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation sensitivity of fibroblasts isolated from bilateral retinoblastoma (RB) patients was investigated using an in vitro micronucleus assay. Bilateral RB is an autosomal dominant disease associated with single locus, RB-1; therefore, all cells in an affected individual carry the germ line mutation. The ability to identify gene carriers made it possible to study the effect of the RB-1 mutation in the heterozygous state on the sensitivity of the cells to chromosome breakage by ?-rays. The fibroblasts from bilateral RB patients did not differ systematically from the normal fibroblasts in either the spontaneous or the induced rates of micronucleus production. Thus, bilateral RB fibroblasts are not more sensitive to the clastogenic effects of ?-radiation than the controls. (Auth.)

  18. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  19. Propagation and Culture of Human Renal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sven-Jean; Hewitson, Tim D

    2016-01-01

    The renal fibroblast and phenotypically related myofibroblast are universally present in all forms of progressive kidney disease. The in vitro study of the fibroblast, its behavior, and factors affecting its activity is therefore key to understanding both its role and significance. In this protocol, we describe a reproducible method for selective propagation and culture of primary human renal fibroblasts from the human kidney cortex. Techniques for their isolation, subculture, characterization, and cryogenic storage and retrieval are described in detail. PMID:26676123

  20. Age-Related Changes in the Mechanical Properties of Human Fibroblasts and Its Prospective Reversal After Anti-Wrinkle Tripeptide Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Duli?ska-Molak, Ida; Pasikowska, Monika; Pogoda, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Ma?gorzata; Eris, Irena; Lekka, Ma?gorzata

    2013-01-01

    One of an essential characteristic of human skin are time dependent mechanical properties. Here, we demonstrate that stiffness of human dermal fibroblast correlates with age and it can be restored after anti-wrinkle tripeptide treatment. The stiffness of human fibroblasts isolated from donors of 30-, 40- and 60 years old were examined. Additionally the effect of anti- wrinkle tripeptide of latter cells was investigated. The atomic force microscopy measurements were performed on untreated fibr...

  1. Differential expression, function and response to inflammatory stimuli of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in human fibroblasts: a mechanism for tissue-specific regulation of inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Rowan S; Filer, Andrew; Cooper, Mark S; Parsonage, Greg; Raza, Karim; Hardie, Debbie L; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H; Stewart, Paul M; Buckley, Christopher D; Hewison, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Stromal cells such as fibroblasts play an important role in defining tissue-specific responses during the resolution of inflammation. We hypothesized that this involves tissue-specific regulation of glucocorticoids, mediated via differential regulation of the enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1). Expression, activity and function of 11?-HSD1 was assessed in matched fibroblasts derived from various tissues (synovium, bone marrow and skin) obtained from patients with rheuma...

  2. Familial Hypercholesterolemia: EVIDENCE FOR A NEWLY RECOGNIZED MUTATION DETERMINING INCREASED FIBROBLAST RECEPTOR AFFINITY BUT DECREASED CAPACITY FOR LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN IN TWO SIBLINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Ostlund, Richard E; Levy, Richard A.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Schonfeld, Gustav

    1982-01-01

    Cultured skin fibroblasts were obtained from two siblings with classic clinical features of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Plasma cholesterol values were 970 and 802 mg/100 ml in the siblings, 332 mg/100 ml in the mother, and 426 mg/100 ml in the father. Fibroblast receptor-specific capacity for binding and degradation of 125I-low density lipoprotein (LDL) at 37°C was 11% of normal, consistent with the diagnosis of “homozygous LDL receptor-defective” hypercholesterolemia, a disorde...

  3. Dermal fibroblasts in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome with the lamin A G608G mutation have dysmorphic nuclei and are hypersensitive to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worman Howard J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670 is a rare sporadic disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 per 8 million live births. The phenotypic appearance consists of short stature, sculptured nose, alopecia, prominent scalp veins, small face, loss of subcutaneous fat, faint mid-facial cyanosis, and dystrophic nails. HGPS is caused by mutations in LMNA, the gene that encodes nuclear lamins A and C. The most common mutation in subjects with HGPS is a de novo single-base pair substitution, G608G (GGC>GGT, within exon 11 of LMNA. This creates an abnormal splice donor site, leading to expression of a truncated protein. Results We studied a new case of a 5 year-old girl with HGPS and found a heterozygous point mutation, G608G, in LMNA. Complementary DNA sequencing of RNA showed that this mutation resulted in the deletion of 50 amino acids in the carboxyl-terminal tail domain of prelamin A. We characterized a primary dermal fibroblast cell line derived from the subject's skin. These cells expressed the mutant protein and exhibited a normal growth rate at early passage in primary culture but showed alterations in nuclear morphology. Expression levels and overall distributions of nuclear lamins and emerin, an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, were not dramatically altered. Ultrastructural analysis of the nuclear envelope using electron microscopy showed that chromatin is in close association to the nuclear lamina, even in areas with abnormal nuclear envelope morphology. The fibroblasts were hypersensitive to heat shock, and demonstrated a delayed response to heat stress. Conclusion Dermal fibroblasts from a subject with HGPS expressing a mutant truncated lamin A have dysmorphic nuclei, hypersensitivity to heat shock, and delayed response to heat stress. This suggests that the mutant protein, even when expressed at low levels, causes defective cell stability, which may be responsible for phenotypic abnormalities in the disease.

  4. Shear instability in skin tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Ciarletta, Pasquale; Gower, Artur L

    2013-01-01

    We propose two toy-models to describe, predict, and interpret the wrinkles appearing on the surface of skin when it is sheared. With the first model, we account for the lines of greatest tension present in human skin by subjecting a layer of soft tissue to a pre-stretch, and for the epidermis by endowing one of the layer's faces with a surface tension. For the second model, we consider an anisotropic model for the skin, to reflect the presence of stiff collagen fibres in a softer elastic matrix. In both cases, we find an explicit bifurcation criterion, linking geometrical and material parameters to a critical shear deformation accompanied by small static wrinkles, with decaying amplitudes normal to the free surface of skin.

  5. Giant dense bodies in fibroblasts cultured from beige mice with the Chédiak-Higashi syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, R. A.; Spicer, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    Fibroblasts cultured from the skin of beige mice manifesting the Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), unlike cells derived from normal black mice, exhibited giant dense bodies in the cytoplasm. These megabodies were membrane-delimited and exhibited dense content by electron microscopy, with myelin figures, highly osmiophilic, thick membranous contours, and lucent areas. The megabodies evidenced acid phosphatase ultrastructurally. Cells of both normal and CHS mice contained smaller dense bodies. Du...

  6. Abnormal iron metabolism in fibroblasts from a patient with the neurodegenerative disease hereditary ferritinopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghetti Bernardino; Delisle Marie B; Levade Thierry; Barbeito Ana G; Vidal Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Nucleotide duplications in exon 4 of the ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) gene cause the autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease neuroferritinopathy or hereditary ferritinopathy (HF). Pathologic examination of patients with HF has shown abnormal ferritin and iron accumulation in neurons and glia in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in cells of other organ systems, including skin fibroblasts. To gain some understanding on the molecular basis of HF, we charact...

  7. Antiproliferative effect of methanolic extraction of tualang honey on human keloid fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Gan Siew; Halim Ahmad; Nurul Syazana Mohamad; Shamsuddin Shaharum

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Keloid is a type of scar which extends beyond the boundaries of the original wound. It can spread to the surrounding skin by invasion. The use of Tualang honey is a possible approach for keloid treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extraction of Tualang honey to primary human keloid fibroblasts and to identify the volatile compounds in methanol extraction of Tualang honey. Methods Crude Tualang honey was extracte...

  8. Effect of elastin peptides on ion fluxes in mononuclear cells, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, M P; Fülöp, T; Foris, G; Robert, L

    1987-01-01

    Elastin peptides prepared by alcoholic potassium hydroxide degradation of highly purified fibrous elastin from bovine ligamentum nuchae (kappa-elastin) were shown to act on the ion channels of human monocytes, aorta smooth muscle cells, and skin fibroblasts. In small amounts (between 0.1 and 1 microgram/ml), elastin peptides strongly increased calcium influx and inhibited calcium efflux by an apparently calmodulin-dependent mechanism. They also were shown to increase sodium influx and to decr...

  9. Enalapril stimulates collagen biosynthesis through prolidase-dependent mechanism in cultured fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Szoka, Lukasz; Karna, Ewa; Morka, Renata Pawlak; Palka, Jerzy A.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of a lower incidence of dermatological manifestations in patients treated with enalapril compared to patients treated with other ACE-inhibitors, e.g., captopril, is not known. The finding that prolidase plays an important role in collagen biosynthesis and that some angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect prolidase activity led us to evaluate its effect on collagen biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Since insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and transforming g...

  10. Uptake and mitochondrial dysfunction of alpha-synuclein in human astrocytes, cortical neurons and fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Braidy, Nady; Gai, Wei-Ping; Xu, Ying Hua; Sachdev, Perminder; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Jiang, Xing-Mai; Ballard, J William O; Horan, Martin P; Fang, Zhi Ming; Chong, Beng H.; Chan, Daniel Kam Yin

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein (?-syn) in several tissue including the brain is a major pathological hallmark in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this study, we show that ?-syn can be taken up by primary human cortical neurons, astrocytes and skin-derived fibroblasts in vitro. Our findings that brain and peripheral cells exposed to ?-syn can lead to impaired mitochondrial function, leading to cellular degeneration and cell death, provides additional evidence for the involveme...

  11. Extracellular low pH affects circadian rhythm expression in human primary fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Kil; Achieng, Elsie; Maddox, Connie; Chen, Suephy C.; Iuvone, Michael; Fukuhara, Chiaki

    2011-01-01

    Circadian rhythm is a fundamental biological system involved in the regulation of various physiological functions. However, little is known about a nature or function of circadian clock in human primary cells. In the present study, we have applied in vitro real time circadian rhythm monitoring to study human clock properties using primary skin fibroblasts. Among factors that affect human physiology, slightly lower extracellular pH was chosen to test its effects on circadian rhythm expression....

  12. Fn14, a Downstream Target of the TGF-? Signaling Pathway, Regulates Fibroblast Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Lai, Wen; Ye, Litong; Chen, Jing; Hou, Xinghua; Ding, Hong; Zhang, Wenwei; Wu, Yueheng; Liu, Xiaoying; Huang, Shufang; Yu, Xiyong; Xiao, Dingzhang

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis, the hallmark of human injuries and diseases such as serious burns, is characterized by excessive collagen synthesis and myofibroblast accumulation. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), a potent inducer of collagen synthesis, has been implicated in fibrosis in animals. In addition to TGF-?, fibroblast growth factor-inducible molecule 14 (Fn14) has been reported to play an important role in fibrotic diseases, such as cardiac fibrosis. However, the function and detailed regulatory mechanism of Fn14 in fibrosis are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of Fn14 on the activation of human dermal fibroblasts. In normal dermal fibroblasts, TGF-? signaling increased collagen production and Fn14 expression. Furthermore, Fn14 siRNA blocked extracellular matrix gene expression; even when TGF-? signaling was activated by TGF-?1, fibroblast activation remained blocked in the presence of Fn14 siRNA. Overexpressing Fn14 increased extracellular matrix gene expression. In determining the molecular regulatory mechanism, we discovered that SMAD4, an important TGF-? signaling co-mediator, bound to the Fn14 promoter and activated Fn14 transcription. Taken together, these results indicate that the TGF-? signaling pathway activates Fn14 expression through the transcription factor SMAD4 and that activated Fn14 expression increases extracellular matrix synthesis and fibroblast activation. Therefore, Fn14 may represent a promising approach to preventing the excessive accumulation of collagen or ECM in skin fibrosis. PMID:26625141

  13. In vitro and in vivo analysis of human fibroblast reprogramming and multipotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Rongqing; Zhu, Xiangqing; Geng, Jia; Zhang, Yongyun; Wang, Qiang; He, Jie; Wang, Jinxiang; Zhu, Guangxu; Xiong, Fu; Zhang, Cheng; Ruan, Guangping; Pan, Xinghua

    2015-09-01

    Multipotent stem cells have potential therapeutic roles in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, the limited access to stem cell sources restricts their clinical application. To address this issue, we established a simple in vitro epigenetic reprogramming technique in which skin fibroblasts are induced to dedifferentiate into multipotent cells. In this study, human fibroblasts were isolated from circumcised adult foreskin and were reprogrammed by co-culture for 72 h with fish oocyte extract (FOE) in serum-free medium. The cells were then observed and analyzed by immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry and in vitro differentiation assays. Then FOE-treated human fibroblasts were transplanted by tail vein injection into irradiated mdx mice, an animal model of DMD. Two months after injection, the therapeutic effects of FOE-treated fibroblasts on mdx skeletal muscle were evaluated by serum creatine kinase (CK) activity measurements and by immunostaining and RT-PCR of human dystrophin expression. The results indicated that the reprogrammed fibroblasts expressed higher levels of the pluripotent antigen markers SSEA-4, Nanog and Oct-4, and were able to differentiate in vitro into adipogenic cells, osteoblastic cells, and myotube-like cells. Tail vein injection of FOE-treated fibroblasts into irradiated mdx mice slightly reduced serum CK activity and the percentage of centrally nucleated myofibers two months after cell transplantation. Furthermore, we confirmed human dystrophin protein and mRNA expression in mdx mouse skeletal muscle. These data demonstrated that FOE-treated fibroblasts were multipotent and could integrate into mdx mouse myofibers through the vasculature. PMID:26208388

  14. Treatment for skin loss using bilayered tissue engineered skin in an allograft model in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The ability of the skin to repair itself following minor injuries is remarkable but when the injury is severe, medical intervention is required both to speed the recovery of the skin itself and to protect the body from infection and fluid loss. The injuries of severe burn patients must quickly be covered and traditionally, this has involved the use of cadaver skin. Our previous study demonstrates that the autologous bilayered skin via tissue engineering promotes healing better. Now, we try to propose a new approach to promote wound healing by using allograft tissue engineered skin. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usage and functionality of the allograft skin comprises of keratinocytes and fibroblasts after irradiation of wound healing therapy in sheep model. Bilayered tissue engineered skin (BSE) was reconstructed. The sheep skin were cleaned, digested using collagenase I and cultured using Define Keratinocytes layer. The BSE was irradiated with gamma ray at the dosage of 2 Gy and implanted on the circumferential lesion that was created at the dorsum of the sheep. After 3 weeks, the sheep were euthanized and the excised tissues were fixed in formalin for histological examination via Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichome. Macroscopically, lesions implanted with the irradiated BSE showed better healing compared to unirradiated BSE that served as control. H and E staining demonstrated lesions implanted with irradiated BSE produced continuous multiple layer of epidermal layer with presence of keratin pearls. In contrary, the control lesions showed no better layer of skin formation. Throughout Masson Trichome, the collagen formation more clear in irradiated BSE compared to control. Our allograft bilayered skin tissue engineering after irradiated could be accepted and migrate with the native skin. (Author)

  15. Keratinocytes in tissue engineering of human skin: invitro and in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Full thickness wounds, such as deep burns, need restoration of both the dermal and epidermal layers of the skin. In normal wound healing, re-epithelialization occurs by migration and proliferation of keratinocytes from the wound edges and by differentiation of stem cells from remaining hair follicles. Restoration of dermis occurs by influx of growth factors secreted by macrophages, platelets, and fibroblasts; by fibroblast proliferation and subsequent synthesis and remodeling of collagenous d...

  16. Fibroblast growth factor and hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, P; Giménez-Gallego, G

    2000-01-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was studied in ventricular ependyma and choroid plexus of aged-matched normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats at different ages using a polyclonal antibody against bFGF. The bFGF-like immunoreactivity was observed in brain ependyma and choroid plexus of young and old normotensive rats. However, a progressive loss of immunoreactivity was observed with age in spontaneously hypertensive rats, that was associated with a progressive cerebroventricular dilation. These results show a new neuroendocrine anomaly to be added to the many others previously observed in this rat strain, when they develop hydrocephalus as they age. PMID:10672586

  17. Lithospermum erythrorhizon extract protects keratinocytes and fibroblasts against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hee Geun; Lee, Bong Han; Kim, Wooki; Lee, Jong Suk; Kim, Gun Hee; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2014-11-01

    Oxidative stress damages dermal and epidermal cells and degrades extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen, ultimately leading to skin aging. The present study evaluated the potential protective effect of the aqueous methanolic extract obtained from Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) against oxidative stress, induced by H2O2 and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, on human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and human dermal fibroblast-neonatal (HDF-n) cells. Exposure of cells to H2O2 or UVB irradiation markedly increased oxidative stress and reduced cell viability. However, pretreatment of cells with the LE extract not only increased cell viability (up to 84.5%), but also significantly decreased oxidative stress. Further, the LE extract downregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1, an endopeptidase that degrades extracellular matrix collagen. In contrast, treatment with the LE extract did not affect the expression of procollagen type 1 in HDF-n cells exposed to UVA irradiation. Thirteen phenolic compounds, including derivatives of shikonin and caffeic acid, were identified by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. These results suggest that LE-derived extracts may protect oxidative-stress-induced skin aging by inhibiting degradation of skin collagen, and that this protection may derive at least in part from the antioxidant phenolics present in these extracts. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential utility of LE-derived extracts in both therapeutic and cosmetic applications. PMID:25136892

  18. Hyaluronic acid abrogates ethanol-dependent inhibition of collagen biosynthesis in cultured human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donejko, Magdalena; Przylipiak, Andrzej; Rysiak, Edyta; Miltyk, Wojciech; Galicka, El?bieta; Przylipiak, Jerzy; Zar?ba, Ilona; Surazynski, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol on collagen biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts, and the role of hyaluronic acid (HA) in this process. Regarding the mechanism of ethanol action on human skin fibroblasts we investigated: expression of ?1 integrin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-IR), signaling pathway protein expression: mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), protein kinase B (Akt), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) transcription factor, cytotoxicity assay and apoptosis, metalloproteinase activity, as well as the influence of HA on these processes. Materials and methods Collagen biosynthesis, activity of prolidase, DNA biosynthesis, and cytotoxicity were measured in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that have been treated with 25, 50, and 100 mM ethanol and with ethanol and 500 µg/mL HA. Western blot analysis and zymography were performed to evaluate expression of collagen type I, ?1 integrin receptor, IGF-IR, NF-?B protein, phospho-Akt protein, kinase MAPK, caspase 9 activity, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2). Results Ethanol in a dose-dependent manner lead to the impairment of collagen biosynthesis in fibroblast cultures through decreasing prolidase activity and expression of ?1 integrin and IGF-IR. This was accompanied by an increased cytotoxicity, apoptosis and lowered expression of the signaling pathway proteins induced by ?1 integrin and IGF-IR, that is, MAPK (ERK1/2) kinases. The lowered amount of synthesized collagen and prolidase activity disturbance may also be due to the activation of NF-?B transcription factor, which inhibits collagen gene expression. It suggests that the decrease in fibroblast collagen production may be caused by the disturbance in its biosynthesis but not degradation. The application of HA has a protective effect on disturbances caused by the examined substances. It seems that regulatory mechanism of ethanol-induced collagen aberration take place at the level of collagen biosynthesis, since no effect of ethanol and HA was found on process of collagen degradation by MMP-2 and MMP-9. Conclusion This study provides evidence that ethanol impairs collagen metabolism in human skin fibroblasts, leading to a significant decrease in the amount of produced protein. This mechanism probably is due to downregulation of prolidase activity, expression of ?1 integrin and IGF-IR receptors, and the signaling pathway proteins induced by these receptors. PMID:26648698

  19. Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Formation of Skin Wrinkling and Sagging I: Reduced Skin Elasticity, Highly Associated with Enhanced Dermal Elastase Activity, Triggers Wrinkling and Sagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genji Imokawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The repetitive exposure of skin to ultraviolet B (UVB preferentially elicits wrinkling while ultraviolet A (UVA predominantly elicits sagging. In chronically UVB or UVA-exposed rat skin there is a similar tortuous deformation of elastic fibers together with decreased skin elasticity, whose magnitudes are greater in UVB-exposed skin than in UVA-exposed skin. Comparison of skin elasticity with the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in the dermis of ovariectomized rats after UVB or UVA irradiation demonstrates that skin elasticity is more significantly decreased in ovariectomized rats than in sham-operated rats, which is accompanied by a reciprocal increase in elastase activity but not in the activities of collagenases I or IV. Clinical studies using animal skin and human facial skin demonstrated that topical treatment with a specific inhibitor or an inhibitory extract of skin fibroblast-derived elastase distinctly attenuates UVB and sunlight-induced formation of wrinkling. Our results strongly indicated that the upregulated activity of skin fibroblast-derived elastase plays a pivotal role in wrinkling and/or sagging of the skin via the impairment of elastic fiber configuration and the subsequent loss of skin elasticity.

  20. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can also cause skin cancer. Anyone, of any skin color, can get skin cancer. People with fair skin that freckles easily ... Check Moles, Birthmarks, or Other Parts of the Skin for the “ABCDE’s” A = A ... = C olor changes or more than one color D = D iameter greater than the size of ...

  1. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the ... Skin exam : A doctor or nurse checks the skin for bumps or spots that look abnormal in color, size, shape, or texture. Skin biopsy : All or ...

  2. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the ... Skin exam : A doctor or nurse checks the skin for bumps or spots that look abnormal in color, size, shape, or texture. Skin biopsy : All or ...

  3. Basic fibroblast growth factor in an artificial dermis promotes apoptosis and inhibits expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, leading to reduction of wound contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Yoshikiyo; Ono, Ichiro; Tominaga, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ito, Kinji; Suzuki, Takeya; Imaizumi, Risa; Ishiguro, Shigeki; Jimbow, Kowichi; Ishii, Toshiharu

    2007-01-01

    To clarify the mechanisms underlying declines in wound contraction caused by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and the role of autologous fibroblasts in modulating wound healing, we have examined the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and apoptosis in a model of wound healing using collagen sponges with and without bFGF (1 microg) and/or fibroblasts (1 x 10(6) cells/cm(2)) applied to experimentally produced full-thickness skin wounds in rats (n=10 for each group). At 7 days postoperatively, wounds filled with a fibroblast-seeded collagen sponge (fibroblast-seeded group) displayed a greater area of collagen sponge and a smaller area of fibroblasts compared with control wounds filled with collagen sponge alone (control group). Therefore, seeding of fibroblasts in the dermal substitute might retard degradation of the collagen sponge, inhibiting fibroblast infiltration into the substitute. By day 14, wounds filled with bFGF-treated collagen sponge without fibroblast seeding (bFGF group) displayed decreased alpha-SMA expression and significantly increased apoptosis compared with other wounds. Double staining revealed that apoptosis in alpha-SMA-positive fibroblastic cells was significantly increased in the bFGF group, suggesting that bFGF treatment is a potent stimulator of myofibroblast apoptosis. Furthermore, morphometric analysis demonstrated the significant decrease in the level of wound contraction and the degree of mature collagen bundle formation in the bFGF group by day 42. The bFGF group also showed increased bFGF expression in macrophages by day 28. These results suggest that bFGF administration to an artificial dermis promotes apoptosis of alpha-SMA-positive fibroblastic cells and inhibits alpha-SMA expression in the treated wound, thus reducing wound contraction. PMID:17537125

  4. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1? in ameloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1? levels. • IL-1? derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1? than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1? antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave interactively via these cytokines to create a microenvironment that leads to the extension of ameloblastomas

  5. Interaction between head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells and fibroblasts in the biosynthesis of PGE2

    OpenAIRE

    Alcolea, Sonia; Antón, Rosa; Camacho, Mercedes; Soler, Marta; Alfranca, Arantzazu; Avilés-Jurado, Francesc-Xavier; Redondo, Juan-Miguel; Quer, Miquel; León, Xavier; Vila, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG)E2 is relevant in tumor biology, and interactions between tumor and stroma cells dramatically influence tumor progression. We tested the hypothesis that cross-talk between head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells and fibroblasts could substantially enhance PGE2 biosynthesis. We observed an enhanced production of PGE2 in cocultures of HNSCC cell lines and fibroblasts, which was consistent with an upregulation of COX-2 and microsomal PGE-synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in fibr...

  6. Lung fibroblasts from patients with emphysema show markers of senescence in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima M

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The loss of alveolar walls is a hallmark of emphysema. As fibroblasts play an important role in the maintenance of alveolar structure, a change in fibroblast phenotype could be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. In a previous study we found a reduced in vitro proliferation rate and number of population doublings of parenchymal lung fibroblasts from patients with emphysema and we hypothesized that these findings could be related to a premature cellular aging of these cells. In this study, we therefore compared cellular senescence markers and expression of respective genes between lung fibroblasts from patients with emphysema and control patients without COPD. Methods Primary lung fibroblasts were obtained from 13 patients with moderate to severe lung emphysema (E and 15 controls (C undergoing surgery for lung tumor resection or volume reduction (n = 2. Fibroblasts (8E/9C were stained for senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal. In independent cultures, DNA from lung fibroblasts (7E/8C was assessed for mean telomere length. Two exploratory 12 k cDNA microarrays were used to assess gene expression in pooled fibroblasts (3E/3C. Subsequently, expression of selected genes was evaluated by quantitative PCR (qPCR in fibroblasts of individual patients (10E/9C and protein concentration was analyzed in the cell culture supernatant. Results The median (quartiles percentage of fibroblasts positive for SA-?-Gal was 4.4 (3.2;4.7 % in controls and 16.0 (10.0;24.8 % in emphysema (p = 0.001, while telomere length was not different. Among the candidates for differentially expressed genes in the array (factor ? 3, 15 were upregulated and 121 downregulated in emphysema. qPCR confirmed the upregulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-rP1 (p = 0.029, p = 0.0002, while expression of IGFBP-5, -rP2 (CTGF, -rP4 (Cyr61, FOSL1, LOXL2, OAZ1 and CDK4 was not different between groups. In line with the gene expression we found increased cell culture supernatant concentrations of IGFBP-3 (p = 0.006 in emphysema. Conclusion These data support the hypothesis that premature aging of lung fibroblasts occurs in emphysema, via a telomere-independent mechanism. The upregulation of the senescence-associated IGFBP-3 and -rP1 in emphysema suggests that inhibition of the action of insulin and insulin-like growth factors could be involved in the reduced in vitro-proliferation rate.

  7. Human beta defensin-4 and keratinocyte growth factor gene expression in cultured keratinocyte and fibroblasts of burned patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvana Aparecida Alves Corrêa de, Noronha; Samuel Marcos Ribeiro de, Noronha; Larissa Elias, Lanziani; Michele Zampieri, Ipolito; Lydia Masako, Ferreira; Alfredo, Gragnani.

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate KGF and human beta defensin-4 (HBD-4) levels produced by dermic fibroblasts and keratinocytes cultivated from burned patients' skin samples. METHODS: Keratinocytes and fibroblasts of 10 patients (four major burns, four minor burns and two controls) were primarily cultivated [...] according to standard methods. HBD-4 and KGF genes were analyzed by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: In fibroblasts, KGF gene expression was 220±80 and 33.33±6.67 (M±SD; N=4), respectively for major and minor burn groups. In keratinocytes, KGF gene expression was 11.2±1.9 and 3.45±0.37 (M±SD; N=4), respectively for major and minor burn groups. In fibroblasts, HBD-4 gene expression was 15.0±4.0 and 11.5±0.5 (M±SD; N=4), respectively for major and minor burn. In keratinocyte, HBD-4 gene expression was 0.0±0.0 and 13.4±4.8 (M±SD; N=4), respectively for major and minor burn. CONCLUSIONS: KGF expression was increased in burn patient fibroblasts compared to control group. In keratinocytes culture, KGF suppression is inversely proportional to burn extension; it is active and increased in major burn but decreased in minor burn. HBD-4 expression was increased in fibroblasts and decreased in keratinocytes from all burned patients.

  8. Adaptive skin detection based on online training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Jie; Rong, Gang

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a widely used cue for porn image classification. Most conventional methods are off-line training schemes. They usually use a fixed boundary to segment skin regions in the images and are effective only in restricted conditions: e.g. good lightness and unique human race. This paper presents an adaptive online training scheme for skin detection which can handle these tough cases. In our approach, skin detection is considered as a classification problem on Gaussian mixture model. For each image, human face is detected and the face color is used to establish a primary estimation of skin color distribution. Then an adaptive online training algorithm is used to find the real boundary between skin color and background color in current image. Experimental results on 450 images showed that the proposed method is more robust in general situations than the conventional ones.

  9. Establishment and Biological Characteristics of Hereford Cattle Fibroblast Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Guan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fibroblast line from kindey tissue of Hereford cattle was established successfully by direct culture of explants and biology cryopreservation techniques. The cell line contained 101 tubes of frozen cells from 34 primary kidney samples. Biological analysis showed that the cells were morphologically consistent with fibroblasts and the growth curve was sigmoidal with a Population Doubling Time (PDT of 35 h.The average viability of the cells was 95.8% before freezing and 93.4% after thawing. Cross-contamination among cell lines was excluded by isoenzyme analysis of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH and Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH. The frequency of cells having the diploid chromosome number (60 was 97.5%. Detection of bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycoplasmas was verified negative. At 24, 48 and 72 h after transfection, the expression efficiency of fluorescent protein genes (pEGFP-N3, pEYFP-N1 and pDsRed1-N1 were between 18.6~32%; The fluorescence could be observed well-distributed in cytoplasm and nucleus in addition to some cryptomere vesicles at 12 h after transfection.

  10. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

  11. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Survivor Covert Ops: Skin Cancer Surgery in the Reagan White House Coming of Age with Skin Cancer ... Stories Covert Ops: Skin Cancer Surgery in the Reagan White House A Dermatologist’s Battle with Melanoma A ...

  12. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quiz) Structure and Function of the Skin (Video) Skin Cancer (News) Health Tip: Recognizing Signs of Nail Fungus (News) Health Tip: Easing Hives Additional Content Medical News Necrotizing Skin Infections by A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD NOTE: ...

  13. Children skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter authors investigate the peculiarities of children skin cancer, the theory of it's descent, quote some statistical data on children skin cancer and variety clinical forms of children skin cancer was shown

  14. Learning about Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  15. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quiz) Structure and Function of the Skin (Video) Skin Cancer (News) Health Tip: Recognizing Signs of Nail Fungus (News) Health Tip: Easing Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections by A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD NOTE: ...

  16. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quiz) Structure and Function of the Skin (Video) Skin Cancer (News) Health Tip: Recognizing Signs of Nail Fungus (News) Health Tip: Easing Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of Fungal Skin Infections by Denise M. Aaron, MD NOTE: This ...

  17. EBI3 Downregulation Contributes to Type I Collagen Overexpression in Scleroderma Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Hideo; Wang, Zhongzhi; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Wakana; Inoue, Kuniko; Honda, Noritoshi; Nakashima, Taiji; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Katsunari; Makino, Takamitsu; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2015-10-15

    IL-12 family cytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, but their role in the regulation of extracellular matrix expression and its contribution to the phenotype of systemic sclerosis (SSc) remain to be elucidated. Among the IL-12 family members, IL-35 decreases type I collagen expression in cultured dermal fibroblasts. IL-35 consists of p35 and EBI3 subunits, and EBI3 alone could downregulate the protein and mRNA expression of type I or type III collagen in the presence or absence of TGF-? costimulation. We found that collagen mRNA stability was reduced by EBI3 via the induction of miR-4500. The IL-35 levels in the sera or on the surface of T cells were not altered in SSc patients, while EBI3 expression was decreased in the keratinocytes of the epidermis and regulatory T cells of the dermis in SSc skin compared with normal skin, which may induce collagen synthesis in SSc dermal fibroblasts. We also found that gp130, the EBI3 receptor, was expressed in both normal and SSc fibroblasts. Moreover, we revealed that EBI3 supplementation by injection into the skin improves mice skin fibrosis. Decreased EBI3 in SSc skin may contribute to an increase in collagen accumulation and skin fibrosis. Clarifying the mechanism regulating the extracellular matrix expression by EBI3 in SSc skin may lead to better understanding of this disease and new therapeutic strategies using ointment or microinjection of the subunit. PMID:26355156

  18. Fibroblasts maintain the phenotype and viability of the rat heparin-containing mast cell in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat serosal heparin-containing mast cells (HP-MC) were maintained in vitro for as long as 30 days when co-cultured with mouse skin-derived 3T3 fibroblasts. In contrast, when the mast cells were cultured alone, on fibronectin-, gelatin-, or dermal-collagen-coated dishes, on acid and heat-killed fibroblasts in the presence or absence of 24 hr fibroblast-conditioned medium, or on a monolayer of mouse serosal macrophages, they failed to adhere to the dishes, released significant amounts of their histamine and lactate dehydrogenase, and stained with trypan blue, indicating a loss of viability. The rat serosal HP-MC cultured with the 3T3 fibroblasts became so adherent to the fibroblasts that the two cell types could be separated from one another only by trypsinization. The cultured HP-MC stained with both alcian blue and safranin and continued to synthesize proteoglycan at a rate comparable to that of freshly isolated cells. The 35S-labeled proteoglycan synthesized by these cultured cells, like that produced by freshly isolated rat serosal HP-MC, was a 750,000 to 1,000,000 m.w. proteoglycan containing only heparin glycosaminoglycans of 50,000 to 100,000 m.w. As assessed by electron microscopy, many of the cultured HP-MC resembled freshly isolated cells except that some secretory granules had fused with one another in some cells. These results demonstrate that the in vivo differentiated rat HP-MC maintain their histology, morphology, immunologic responsiveness, histamine content, and ability to synthesize heparin proteoglycan when co-cultured with living fibroblasts

  19. Snapshot RGB mapping of skin melanin and hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigulis, Janis; Oshina, Ilze

    2015-05-01

    The concept of snapshot red-green-blue (RGB) multispectral imaging was applied for skin chromophore mapping. Three monochromatic spectral images have been extracted from a single RGB image dataset at simultaneous illumination of skin by 473-, 532-, and 659-nm laser lines. The spectral images were further transformed into distribution maps of skin melanin, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin, related to pigmented and vascular skin malformations. The performance and clinical potential of the proposed technique are discussed.

  20. Role of Micronutrients in Skin Health and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyungho

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the first line of defense for protecting our bodies against external perturbations, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, mechanical/chemical stress, and bacterial infection. Nutrition is one of many factors required for the maintenance of overall skin health. An impaired nutritional status alters the structural integrity and biological function of skin, resulting in an abnormal skin barrier. In particular, the importance of micronutrients (such as certain vitamins and minerals) for...

  1. Cellulose acetate based 3-dimensional electrospun scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atila, Deniz; Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Ay?en

    2015-11-20

    Skin defects that are not able to regenerate by themselves are among the major problems faced. Tissue engineering approach holds promise for treating such defects. Development of tissue-mimicking-scaffolds that can promote healing process receives an increasing interest in recent years. In this study, 3-dimensional electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) pullulan (PULL) scaffolds were developed for the first time. PULL was intentionally used to obtain 3D structures with adjustable height. It was removed from the electrospun mesh to increase the porosity and biostability. Different ratios of the polymers were electrospun and analyzed with respect to degradation, porosity, and mechanical properties. It has been observed that fiber diameter, thickness and porosity of scaffolds increased with increased PULL content, on the other hand this resulted with higher degradation of scaffolds. Mechanical strength of scaffolds was improved after PULL removal suggesting their suitability as cell carriers. Cell culture studies were performed with the selected scaffold group (CA/PULL: 50/50) using mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929). In vitro cell culture tests showed that cells adhered, proliferated and populated CA/PULL (50/50) scaffolds showing that they are cytocompatible. Results suggest that uncrosslinked CA/PULL (50/50) electrospun scaffolds hold potential for skin tissue engineering applications. PMID:26344279

  2. Insulin binding and stimulation of hexose and amino acid transport by normal and receptor-defective human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyzed insulin receptors in cells cultured from a sibship of related parents who had two offspring with severe insulin resistance (Leprechaunism). 124I-Insulin (1 ng/ml) binding to skin fibroblasts from the proband, mother, and father was 9, 60 and 62% of control cells, respectively, at equilibrium, Non-linear regression analysis, utilizing a two receptors model, of curvilinear Scatchard plots indicated a reduced number of high-affinity binding sites in both parents. Influx of L-Proline (System A), L-Serine (ASC) and L-Leucine (L) was similar in control and mutant cells. Similarly, during the depletion of intracellular amino acid pools, there was a release from transinhibition for System A and a decrease of transstimulation of Systems ASC and L in both cell lines. Surprisingly, insulin augmented, normally, A system influx with an ED50 = 70 ng/ml at 240C and 7 ng/ml at 370C. By contrast insulin failed to simulated 3-0-methyl-D-glucose influx into the proband's cells, while normal cells were stimulated 30% with an ED50 of 6 ng/ml. These results indicate that defective high-affinity insulin binding is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; that general membrane functions are intact; that insulin regulates A system amino acid and hexose transport by two different mechanisms; and, that the latter mechanism is impaired by this family's receptor mutation

  3. A Bilayer Engineered Skin Substitute for Wound Repair in an Irradiation-Impeded Healing Model on Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Hilmi, A.B.; Hassan, Asma; Halim, Ahmad Sukari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An engineered skin substitute is produced to accelerate wound healing by increasing the mechanical strength of the skin wound via high production of collagen bundles. During the remodeling stage of wound healing, collagen deposition is the most important event. The collagen deposition process may be altered by nutritional deficiency, diabetes mellitus, microbial infection, or radiation exposure, leading to impaired healing. This study describes the fabrication of an engineered bilayer skin substitute and evaluates its effectiveness for the production of collagen bundles in an impaired healing model. Approach: Rats were exposed to 10 Gy of radiation. Two months postirradiation, the wounds were excised and treated with one of three skin replacement products: bilayer engineered skin substitutes, chitosan skin templates, or duoderm©. The collagen deposition was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: On day 21 postwound, the irradiated wounds displayed increased collagen bundle deposition after treatment using bilayer engineered skin substitutes (3.4±0.25) and chitosan skin templates (3.2±0.58) compared with duoderm (2.0±0.63). Innovation: We provide the first report on the fabrication of bilayer engineered skin substitutes using high density human dermal fibroblasts cocultured with HFSCs on chitosan skin templates. Conclusion: The high density of fibroblasts significantly increases the penetration of cells into chitosan skin templates, contributing to the fabrication of bilayer engineered skin substitute. PMID:26005597

  4. Fibroblast biology: Role of synovial fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Pap, Thomas; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Gay, Renate E; Gay, Steffen

    2000-01-01

    There is growing evidence that activated synovial fibroblasts, as part of a complex cellular network, play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In recent years, significant progress has been made in elucidating the specific features of these fibroblasts. It has been understood that although macrophage and lymphocyte secreted factors contribute to their activation, rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RA-SFs) do not merely respond to stimulation by pro-inflammat...

  5. Oxidant Exposure Induces Cysteine-Rich Protein 61 (CCN1) via c-Jun/AP-1 to Reduce Collagen Expression in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Zhaoping; Robichaud, Patrick; He, TianYuan; Fisher, Gary J.; John J. Voorhees; Quan, Taihao

    2014-01-01

    Human skin is a primary target of oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from both extrinsic and intrinsic sources. Oxidative stress inhibits the production of collagen, the most abundant protein in skin, and thus contributes to connective tissue aging. Here we report that cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1), a negative regulator of collagen production, is markedly induced by ROS and mediates loss of type I collagen in human dermal fibroblasts. Conversely, antioxidant N-ace...

  6. Cardiac fibroblasts, fibrosis and extracellular matrix remodeling in heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Dong; Takawale Abhijit; Lee Jiwon; Kassiri Zamaneh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Fibroblasts comprise the largest cell population in the myocardium. In heart disease, the number of fibroblasts is increased either by replication of the resident myocardial fibroblasts, migration and transformation of circulating bone marrow cells, or by transformation of endothelial/epithelial cells into fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. The primary function of fibroblasts is to produce structural proteins that comprise the extracellular matrix (ECM). This can be a constructive proce...

  7. Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Human Skin Cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CRISTIAN A, ACEVEDO; ELIZABETH Y, SÁNCHEZ; JUAN G, REYES; MANUEL E, YOUNG.

    Full Text Available Skin produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released to the environment with emission patterns characteristic of climatic conditions. It could be thought that these compounds are intermediaries in cell metabolism, since many intermediaries of metabolic pathways have a volatile potential. In this [...] work, using gas chromatography, we answered the question of whether VOC profiles of primary cultures of human dermal fibroblasts were affected by the type of culture conditions. VOCs were determined for different types of culture, finding significant differences between skin cells grown in classical monolayer culture -2D- compared with 3D matrix immobilized cultures. This indicates that VOC profiles could provide information on the physiological state of skin cells or skin

  8. The mechanism of butyrate-induced collagen biosynthesis in cultured fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, Ewa; Trojan, Sylwia; Pa?ka, Jerzy A

    2009-01-01

    The data showing that butyrate may play an important role in cellular metabolism led us to study its effect on collagen biosynthesis in cultured fibroblasts. Since insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is the most potent stimulator of collagen biosynthesis in fibroblasts, the effect of butyrate on IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression was evaluated. Confluent human dermal fibroblasts were treated with millimolar concentrations of sodium butyrate (NaB) for 48 hours. It was found that butyrate induced collagen biosynthesis and prolidase activity. It was found that the exposure of the cells to 4 mM butyrate contributed to a distinct increase in IGF-IR. It was accompanied by a parallel increase in the expression of Sos protein and MAP-kinases (ERK1, ERK2). It was found that the MEK inhibitor decreased collagen biosynthesis and expression of MAP-kinases (ERK1, ERK2), while NaB counteracted the process. The data suggests that butyrate-dependent stimulation of collagen biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts undergoes through IGF-IR signaling. PMID:19645322

  9. Trehalose reverses cell malfunction in fibroblasts from normal and Huntington's disease patients caused by proteosome inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Estevez, Maria Angeles; Casarejos, Maria Jose; López Sendon, Jose; Garcia Caldentey, Juan; Ruiz, Carolina; Gomez, Ana; Perucho, Juan; de Yebenes, Justo García; Mena, Maria Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric deficits, associated with predominant loss of striatal neurons and is caused by polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein. Mutant huntingtin protein and its fragments are resistant to protein degradation and produce a blockade of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). In HD models, the proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin aggravates protein accumulation and the inductor of autophagy, trehalose, diminishes it. We have investigated the effects of epoxomicin and trehalose in skin fibroblasts of control and HD patients. Untreated HD fibroblasts have increased the levels of ubiquitinized proteins and higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), huntingtin and the autophagy marker LAMP2A. Baseline replication rates were higher in HD than in controls fibroblasts but that was reverted after 12 passages. Epoxomicin increases the activated caspase-3, HSP70, huntingtin, ubiquitinated proteins and ROS levels in both HD and controls. Treatment with trehalose counteracts the increase in ROS, ubiquitinated proteins, huntingtin and activated caspase-3 levels induced by epoxomicin, and also increases the LC3 levels more in HD fibroblast than controls. These results suggest that trehalose could revert protein processing abnormalities in patients with Huntington's Disease. PMID:24587280

  10. APC+/? alters colonic fibroblast proteome in FAP

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Bhavinkumar B.; Li, Xin-Ming; Dixon, Maketa P.; Blagoi, Elena L.; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; Seeholzer, Steven H.; Cheng, David; He, Yin A.; Coudry, Renata A.; Howard, Sharon D.; Riddle, Dawn M.; Cooper, Harry S; Boman, Bruce M.; Conrad, Peggy; Crowell, James A

    2011-01-01

    Here we compared the proteomes of primary fibroblast cultures derived from morphologically normal colonic mucosa of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with those obtained from unaffected controls. The expression signature of about 19% of total fibroblast proteins separates FAP mutation carriers from unaffected controls (P < 0.01). More than 4,000 protein spots were quantified by 2D PAGE analysis, identifying 368 non-redundant proteins and 400 of their isoforms. Specifically, all th...

  11. Simvastatin induces apoptosis by a Rho-dependent mechanism in cultured cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several clinical trials have shown the beneficial effects of statins in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Additionally, statins promote apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells, in renal tubular epithelial cells and also in a variety of cell lines; yet, the effects of statins on cardiac fibroblast and myofibroblast, primarily responsible for cardiac tissue healing are almost unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of simvastatin on cardiac fibroblast and myofibroblast viability and studied the molecular cell death mechanism triggered by simvastatin in both cell types. Methods: Rat neonatal cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts were treated with simvastatin (0.1-10 ?M) up to 72 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by trypan blue exclusion method and by flow cytometry, respectively. Caspase-3 activation and Rho protein levels and activity were also determined by Western blot and pull-down assay, respectively. Results: Simvastatin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis of cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with greater effects on fibroblasts than myofibroblasts. These effects were prevented by mevalonate, farnesylpyrophosphate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate, but not squalene. These last results suggest that apoptosis was dependent on small GTPases of the Rho family rather than Ras. Conclusion: Simvastatin triggered apoptosis of cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts by a mechanism independent of cholesterol synthesis, but dependent of isoprenilation of Rho protein. Additionally, cardiac fibroblasts were more susceptible to simvastatin-induced apoptosis than cardiac myofibroblasts. Thus simvastatin could avoid adverse cardiac remodeling leading to a less fibrotic repair of the damaged tissues. - Research Highlights: ? Simvastatin decreases CF and CMF viability independent of cholesterol synthesis. ? Simvastatin induces CF and CMF apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner being CMF more resistant than CF. ? CMF has higher expression and active RhoA protein levels.

  12. Integrin-linked kinase: Dispensable for radiation survival of three-dimensionally cultured fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cancer treatment by conventional radiotherapy is limited by normal tissue side-effects. Fibroblasts as 'non-target' stromal cell type are considered as strong promoter of tumor growth and for developing a therapy resistant phenotype. Regarding application of novel molecular therapeutics combined with radiotherapy, evaluation of a specific targeted molecule in both tumor and normal cells is mandatory for efficacy and tolerability assessment. Previous work showed integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a mediator of ?-integrin signals and putative phosphorylator of AKT, as potent anti-survival regulator in human cancer cell lines. Materials and methods: To evaluate the role of ILK in normal fibroblast survival, ILK-wild-type (ILKfl/fl), ILK-/- and ILKN-terminal and ILKC-terminal domain expressing fibroblasts were irradiated with X-rays on different substrata or in three-dimensional laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM). Results: On control substrata, ILK-deficient and ILK-mutant fibroblasts showed significant increase in radiation survival relative to ILK-wild-type cells. This effect was compensated by growth on ECM proteins and in 3D lrECM. ILK regulated AKT activity in a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner. Upon PI3K inhibition, only ILK-wild-type fibroblasts showed significant radiosensitization. Conclusions: These findings obtained in 3D cell cultures suggest ILK to be dispensable for the radiation survival response of normal fibroblasts. However, targeting the PI3K/AKT signaling axis pharmacologically might be critical for survival of normal fibroblasts exposed to ionizing radiation

  13. The influence of different nanostructured scaffolds on fibroblast growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, I.-Cheng; Li, Ching-Wen; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2013-08-01

    Skin serves as a protective barrier, modulating body temperature and waste discharge. It is therefore desirable to be able to repair any damage that occurs to the skin as soon as possible. In this study, we demonstrate a relatively easy and cost-effective method for the fabrication of nanostructured scaffolds, to shorten the time taken for a wound to heal. Various scaffolds consisting of nanohemisphere arrays of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polylactide and chitosan were fabricated by casting using a nickel (Ni) replica mold. The Ni replica mold is electroformed using the highly ordered nanohemisphere array of the barrier-layer surface of an anodic aluminum oxide membrane as the template. Mouse fibroblast cells (L929s) were cultured on the nanostructured polymer scaffolds to investigate the effect of these different nanohemisphere arrays on cell proliferation. The concentration of collagen type I on each scaffold was then measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to find the most effective scaffold for shortening the wound-healing process. The experimental data indicate that the proliferation of L929 is superior when a nanostructured PLGA scaffold with a feature size of 118 nm is utilized.

  14. The influence of different nanostructured scaffolds on fibroblast growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Cheng Chung, Ching-Wen Li and Gou-Jen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin serves as a protective barrier, modulating body temperature and waste discharge. It is therefore desirable to be able to repair any damage that occurs to the skin as soon as possible. In this study, we demonstrate a relatively easy and cost-effective method for the fabrication of nanostructured scaffolds, to shorten the time taken for a wound to heal. Various scaffolds consisting of nanohemisphere arrays of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, polylactide and chitosan were fabricated by casting using a nickel (Ni replica mold. The Ni replica mold is electroformed using the highly ordered nanohemisphere array of the barrier-layer surface of an anodic aluminum oxide membrane as the template. Mouse fibroblast cells (L929s were cultured on the nanostructured polymer scaffolds to investigate the effect of these different nanohemisphere arrays on cell proliferation. The concentration of collagen type I on each scaffold was then measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to find the most effective scaffold for shortening the wound-healing process. The experimental data indicate that the proliferation of L929 is superior when a nanostructured PLGA scaffold with a feature size of 118 nm is utilized.

  15. Fibroblasts in fibrosis: novel roles and mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RyanThomasKendall

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are the most common cell type of the connective tissues found throughout the body and the principal source of the extensive extracellular matrix (ECM characteristic of these tissues. They are also the central mediators of the pathological fibrotic accumulation of ECM and the cellular proliferation and differentiation that occurs in response to prolonged tissue injury and chronic inflammation. The transformation of the fibroblast cell lineage involves classical developmental signaling programs and includes a surprisingly diverse range of precursor cell types—most notably, myofibroblasts that are the apex of the fibrotic phenotype. Myofibroblasts display exaggerated ECM production; constitutively secrete and are hypersensitive to chemical signals such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors; and are endowed with a contractile apparatus allowing them to manipulate the ECM fibers physically to close open wounds. In addition to ECM production, fibroblasts have multiple concomitant biological roles, such as in wound healing, inflammation, and angiogenesis, which are each interwoven with the process of fibrosis. We now recognize many common fibroblast-related features across various physiological and pathological protracted processes. Indeed, a new appreciation has emerged for the role of noncancerous fibroblast interactions with tumors in cancer progression. Although the predominant current clinical treatments of fibrosis involve nonspecific immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative drugs, a variety of potential therapies under investigation specifically target fibroblast biology.

  16. Deformable skinning on bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Petersen, Kim Steen; Jakobsen, Bjarke

    2001-01-01

    Applying skin to a model is a relatively simple task to implement. Nonetheless it seems that no good resource exists that describes both the concepts and math necessary to understand and implement skinning. The intention of this article is an attempt to give a thoroughly description of the theoretical and mathematical background of skin-ning.

  17. Immunohistochemical Distribution of Desmin and Vimentin in the Skin of Zavot Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    ASLAN, ?ahin; KOCAMI?, Hakan; NAZLI, Mümtaz; GÜLMEZ*, Nurhayat

    2005-01-01

    The distribution patterns of desmin and vimentin were determined in Zavot cattle skin using standard immunohistochemical techniques. Skin samples were collected from the different regions of the bodies. Vimentin-immunoreactivity was observed in the cells of subepidermal region, in the myoepithelial cells surrounding sebaceous and sweat glands, in the fibroblast, smooth muscle, endothelial cells of vessels and some hair follicles. Desmin-immunoreactivity was dense in the smooth muscle of arrec...

  18. Skin cancer in skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Porcia T

    2009-01-01

    In general, skin cancer is uncommon in people of color when compared to Caucasians. When it does occur, it is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Differences in survival rates may be attributed to skin cancers being diagnosed at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as lack of adequate insurance coverage and lack of transportation can function as barriers to timely diagnosis and early treatment. In addition to advanced stage at presentation, malignant skin lesions in skin of color often present in an atypical fashion. Because skin cancer prevention and screening practices historically have been lower among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, and given the changing demographics in the United States, interventions that are tailored to each of these groups will be needed. Public educational campaigns should be expanded to educate people of all skin types with emphasis on skin cancers occurring in areas not exposed to the sun (Byrd-Miles et al., 2007), since sunlight is not as important an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in people of color. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should instruct their darker-skinned patients on how to perform routine skin self-examinations. Physicians should also encourage patients to ask their specialists such as their gynecologist, dentist, and ophthalmologist to look for abnormal pigmentation during routine exams. To reduce the burden of skin cancer, several prevention methods for all people have been strongly encouraged, including monthly self-examinations, daily use of SPF 30 or greater sunscreen, sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses, and avoiding tanning booths (American Cancer Society, 2008) (see Table 7). In addition, recommendations for clinicians to promote the prevention of skin cancer in skin of color have also been made, including closely monitoring changing pigmented lesions on the palms and soles and hyperkeratotic or poorly healing ulcers in immunosuppressed patients (Halder & Bridgeman-Shah, 1995) (see Table 7). PMID:19691228

  19. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ?mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ?Ci [14C]acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest [14C]acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total 14C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1

  20. Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates fibroblast proliferation and excessive collagen production by effectively intervening TGF-?1 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Narayanan; Kalayarasan, Srinivasan; Manikandan, Ramar; Arumugam, Munusamy; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) poses a huge burden to the patients and society due to lack of an effective treatment drug. Activation of fibrocyte, fibroblast and myofibroblasts are important steps in the development of PF. Targeting this common pathway with natural chemicals may lead to the development of new drug regimens for PF treatment. In this study, PF was induced in male Wistar rats by intratracheal administration of Bleomycin (BLM). Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was administered to one of the groups of rats to test its efficacy against the development of PF. Bleomycin-induction resulted in significant elevation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 expression, increased RNA and protein expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, Smads and alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). EGCG treatment normalized the BLM induced aberrations in these rats. The protective role of EGCG was also validated in vitro using the WI-38 fibroblast cell line. TGF-?1 incubated cells exhibited increased fibroblast proliferation and hydroxyproline levels with a concomitant decrease in the expression of MMPs 2 and 9. An increase in protein expression levels of p-Smad, ?-SMA and type I collagen (COL1A) was also exhibited by fibroblasts upon TGF-?1 incubation. Simultaneous treatment of EGCG to WI-38 cells significantly decreased these protein expressions alongside normalizing the MMPs expression. The study revealed that EGCG inhibited fibroblast activation and collagen accumulation by inhibiting TGF-?1 signalling and thus can be considered as an effective drug against PF. PMID:26010495

  1. KL-6, a human MUC1 mucin, promotes proliferation and survival of lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serum level of KL-6, a MUC1 mucin, is a clinically useful marker for various interstitial lung diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that KL-6 promotes chemotaxis of human fibroblasts. However, the pathophysiological role of KL-6 remains poorly understood. Here, we further investigate the functional aspects of KL-6 in proliferation and apoptosis of lung fibroblasts. KL-6 accelerated the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of all human lung fibroblasts examined. An anti-KL-6 monoclonal antibody counteracted both of these effects induced by KL-6 on human lung fibroblasts. The pro-fibroproliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of KL-6 are greater than and additive to those of the maximum effective concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor-?. These findings indicate that increased levels of KL-6 in the epithelial lining fluid may stimulate fibrotic processes in interstitial lung diseases and raise the possibility of applying an anti-KL-6 antibody to treat interstitial lung diseases

  2. Allogeneic skin substitutes applied to burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanchahal, J; Dover, R; Otto, W R

    2002-05-01

    Early re-surfacing of burn wounds remains the ideal but is limited by the availability of skin graft donor sites. Cultured grafts overcome these problems and autologous keratinocytes can be grown in culture and placed on a dermal substitute, but this results in delay and requires two operations. We developed an organotypic skin substitute, which achieves cover in one procedure, and have previously found allogeneic cell survival up to 2.5 years after grafting onto clean elective wounds (tattoo removal). Here, we report a short series using the same model applied to burns patients with less than 20% total body surface area affected. The skin substitutes consisted of allogeneic dermal fibroblasts embedded in a collagen gel overlain with allogeneic epidermal keratinocytes, and were grafted to patients with tangentially excised burns. A side-by-side comparison with meshed split-thickness autografts was performed. No grafts became infected. The allogeneic skin substitute showed little effective take at 1 week, and by 2 weeks only small islands of keratinocytes survived. These sites were subsequently covered with meshed split-thickness autograft, which took well. It is concluded that further development of this model is needed to overcome the hostile wound bed seen in burns patients. PMID:11996857

  3. Experimental model for fibroblast culture / Modelo experimental para cultura de fibroblastos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sidney Mamoru, Keira; Lydia Masako, Ferreira; Alfredo, Gragnani; Ivone da Silva, Duarte; Isabel Anunciação Neves dos, Santos.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de métodos de cultura de células em Cirurgia Plástica abriu um novo horizonte na pesquisa dos mecanismos celulares de proliferação e biossíntese. Vários tipos de células têm sido investigados no compartimento cutâneo. Os queratinócitos e os fibroblastos têm sido estudados objetivando-se [...] o desenvolvimento de biomateriais para substituição de pele. O presente estudo descreve uma padronização metodológica para o estabelecimento de uma cultura primária de fibroblastos, sua utilização em experimentos e seu armazenamento. Abstract in english The use of cell culture methods in Plastic Surgery opened a new horizon in the research of cellular mechanisms of proliferation and biosynthesis functions. Several types of cells have been investigated in the cutaneous compartment. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts have been studied aiming the possibili [...] ty of developing biomaterial for skin substitution. The present study describes the standardization for the development of fibroblast primary culture, its utilization in experiments and its storage.

  4. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Equine Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Kristina; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Zhang, Puzheng; Laflamme, Simon; Vincent, Patrick; Agha-Mohammadi, Siamak; Woltjen, Knut; Monetti, Claudio; Michael, Iacovos Prodromos; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Nagy, Andras

    2011-01-01

    The domesticated horse represents substantial value for the related sports and recreational fields, and holds enormous potential as a model for a range of medical conditions commonly found in humans. Most notable of these are injuries to muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have sparked tremendous hopes for future regenerative therapies of conditions that today are not possible to cure. Equine iPS (EiPS) cells, in addition to bringing promises to the ve...

  5. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. ? YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. ? There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. ? The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. ? The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929–933 sequence of the ?1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate peptide for the treatment of skin aging and wrinkles.

  6. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo [NovaCell Technology Inc., Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So Young [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hwan-Hee [Functional Food and Nutrition Division, Department of Agrofood Resources, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-853 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Sung Ho [Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Beom Joon [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taehoon G., E-mail: taehoon@novacelltech.com [NovaCell Technology Inc., Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the {beta}1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate peptide for the treatment of skin aging and wrinkles.

  7. Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rettinger, Gerhard

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance.Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors.Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice.

  8. Science of Hyaluronic Acid Beyond Filling: Fibroblasts and Their Response to the Extracellular Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Marina; Fagien, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Loss of viscoelasticity is one of the primarily signs of skin aging, followed by appearance of visible wrinkles. Hyaluronic acid (HA)-based fillers are widely used to fill wrinkles and compensate for volume loss. Recent clinical observations demonstrate persistence of the filling effect longer than the biological availability of the filler. Stimulation of new collagen by cross-linked HA and up-regulation of elastin have been suggested as possible explanation to this observation and have been supported experimentally. Cross-linked HA substitutes for fragmented collagen in restoring extracellular matrix required for normal activity of fibroblasts, such as collagen and elastin production. To restore extracellular matrix efficiently, serial monthly treatments are required. Boosting of facial and nonfacial skin through fibroblast activation is a new indication for HA-based products. Injectable HA has also been recently registered in Europe as agents specific for the improvement of skin quality (Restylane Skinboosters). Further explanation of the possible mechanisms supported by long-term clinical examples is presented herein. PMID:26441098

  9. Improved regeneration potential of fibroblasts using ascorbic acid-blended nanofibrous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Sreepathy; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional scaffolds, three-dimensional scaffolds, and dermal substitutes are extensively used for biomedical applications in skin tissue regeneration. Not much explored synthetic polymers, like poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly-(?-caprolactone) (PLACL), natural polymers, like silk fibroin (SF), and active inducing agents, such as ascorbic acid (AA) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH), represent a favorable matrix for fabricating dermal substitutes to engineer artificial skin for wound repair. The profligate nature of residing skin cells near the wound site is a paramount to survival and also regulating stem cells and other cellular networks and mechanical forces. PLACL/SF/TCH/AA nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and characterized for fiber morphology, membrane porosity, wettability, and significant subchains using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for culturing human-derived dermal fibroblasts. The PLACL, PLACL/SF, PLACL/SF/TCH, and PLACL/SF/TCH/AA scaffolds obtained diameters between 250 and 340 nm. The secretion of collagen by the laboratory-grown fibroblasts over the AA-blended scaffolds was found to be significantly higher compared with that of other scaffolds. The obtained results positively prove that introduction of naturally secreting compounds (AA) by the cells into the nanofibrous scaffolds will favor cell's microenvironment and eventually leads to complete tissue regeneration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 3431-3440, 2015. PMID:25903719

  10. N-cadherin is overexpressed in Crohn's stricture fibroblasts and promotes intestinal fibroblast migration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, John P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibroblasts mediate stricture formation in Crohn\\'s disease (CD). Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is important in fibroblast activation, while cell attachment and migration is regulated by the adhesion molecule N-cadherin. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of N-cadherin in intestinal fibroblasts in patients with fibrostenosing CD. METHODS: Intestinal fibroblasts were cultured from seromuscular biopsies from patients undergoing resection for terminal ileal fibrostenosing CD (n = 14) or controls patients (n = 8). N-cadherin expression was assessed using Western blot and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Fibroblasts were stimulated with TGF-beta and selective pathway inhibitors Y27632, PD98050, and LY294002 were used to examine the Rho\\/ROCK, ERK-1\\/2, and Akt signaling pathways, respectively. Cell migration was assessed using a scratch wound assay. N-cadherin was selectively overexpressed using a plasmid. RESULTS: Fibroblasts from fibrostenosing CD express increased constitutive N-cadherin mRNA and protein and exhibit enhanced basal cell migration relative to those from directly adjacent normal bowel. Control fibroblasts treated with TGF-beta induced N-cadherin in a dose-dependent manner which was inhibited by Rho\\/ROCK and Akt pathway modulation. Control fibroblasts exhibited enhanced cell migration in response to treatment with TGF-beta or transfection with an N-cadherin plasmid. CONCLUSIONS: Fibroblasts from strictures in CD express increased constitutive N-cadherin and exhibit enhanced basal cell migration. TGF-beta is a potent inducer of N-cadherin in intestinal fibroblasts resulting in enhanced cell migration. The TGF-beta-mediated induction of N-cadherin may potentiate Crohn\\'s stricture formation.

  11. Evaluation of UV radiation-induced toxicity and biophysical changes in various skin cells with photo-shielding molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Devasier; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-08-24

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) triggers many complex events in different types of skin cells, including benign, malignant and normal cells. Chromophores present in these cells play a crucial role in various cellular processes. Unprecedented methods are required for the real-time monitoring of changes in an in vitro model exposed to intermittent mild and intense UVR to determine the mechanisms underlying cell degeneration and the effects of unexpected toxic, agonist and antagonist agents. This study reports the analytical application of a whole cell-based sensor platform for examining the biophysical effects of UVR. We used human keratinocyte, melanocyte and fibroblast cell lines to determine the normal, pathological and protective roles of UVR. In addition, we examined the real-time morphological, biophysical and biomechanical changes associated with cell degeneration induced by UVR at 254 and 365 nm. Information on UVR-induced changes in the cytoskeleton ultrastructure, cellular integrity, cell spreading area, actin microfilament distribution inflammation, microtubule damage, membrane damage, rupture and death was characterized by examining the loss or increase in biophysical and biomechanical properties of these cells. All cells exposed to UVR at 254 and 365 nm showed a significant increase in surface roughness and stiffness in a time-dependent manner. UVR-induced toxicity in differently pigmented skin cells was compared with that in cells pretreated with melanin, keratin and basic fibroblast growth factor to analyze the shielding efficiency of these agents. Melanin exerted a significant shielding effect compared to the other two agents. The biophysical and biomechanical information obtained in this study could advance our understanding of the UVR-induced degeneration process, and help in developing new interventions strategies. PMID:26247629

  12. Down-Regulation by Resveratrol of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Stimulated Osteoprotegerin Synthesis through Suppression of Akt in Osteoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Gen Kuroyanagi; Takanobu Otsuka; Naohiro Yamamoto; Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki; Akira Nakakami; Jun Mizutani; Osamu Kozawa; Haruhiko Tokuda

    2014-01-01

    It is firmly established that resveratrol, a natural food compound abundantly found in grape skins and red wine, has beneficial properties for human health. In the present study, we investigated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells and whether resveratrol affects the OPG synthesis. FGF-2 stimulated both the OPG release and the expression of OPG mRNA. Resveratrol significantly suppressed the FGF-2-stimulated ...

  13. Dual regulation of skin sensitizer-induced HMOX1 expression by Bach1 and Nrf2: Comparison to regulation of the AKR1C2-ARE element in the KeratinoSens cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emter, Roger; Natsch, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (HMOX1) is the most consistently found genetic marker induced by skin sensitizers. HMOX1 is often referred to as typical gene regulated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), however, it is also regulated by other DNA-binding factors, including BTB and CNC homolog 1 (Bach1). The KeratinoSens™ assay is the first validated in vitro assay for sensitizers that measures gene induction. It is based on luciferase expression regulated by the antioxidant response element (ARE) of the aldoketoreductase 1C2 (AKR1C2) gene. Luciferase upregulation is dependent on Nrf2, while HMOX1 upregulation is only partially Nrf2-dependent. Thus, sensitizer-dependent activation of HMOX1 may integrate multiple signals thereby providing additional information. We constructed reporter cell lines containing the full HMOX1 regulatory region or the HMOX1-ARE sequence and compared them with the construct containing the AKR1C2-ARE sequence. Induction of the AKR1C2-ARE depends on Nrf2, but not on the repressor Bach1. Results obtained with HMOX1-ARE and the full HMOX1 promoter indicate that, within the HMOX1 promoter, the HMOX1-ARE is sufficient to explain the induction by sensitizers and that (i) inhibiting Bach1 leads to strong basal expression, (ii) fold-induction by sensitizers above this level is reduced in the absence of Bach1 and (iii) these constructs are less dependent on Nrf2 as compared to the AKR1C2-ARE. Nevertheless, congruent dose response curves for luciferase activity were obtained with all constructs. Thus, while sensitizer-induced HMOX1 activation is dependent on Nrf2 and Bach1, all constructs give identical information for the in vitro prediction of the sensitization potential. PMID:26244607

  14. Microarray analysis of radiation response genes in primary human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify radiation-induced early transcriptional responses in primary human fibroblasts and understand cellular pathways leading to damage correction. Methods and Materials: Primary human fibroblast cell lines were irradiated with 2 Gy ?-radiation and RNA isolated 2 h later. Radiation-induced transcriptional alterations were investigated with microarrays covering the entire human genome. Time- and dose dependent radiation responses were studied by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: About 200 genes responded to ionizing radiation on the transcriptional level in primary human fibroblasts. The expression profile depended on individual genetic backgrounds. Thirty genes (28 up- and 2 down-regulated) responded to radiation in identical manner in all investigated cells. Twenty of these consensus radiation response genes were functionally categorized: most of them belong to the DNA damage response (GADD45A, BTG2, PCNA, IER5), regulation of cell cycle and cell proliferation (CDKN1A, PPM1D, SERTAD1, PLK2, PLK3, CYR61), programmed cell death (BBC3, TP53INP1) and signaling (SH2D2A, SLIC1, GDF15, THSD1) pathways. Four genes (SEL10, FDXR, CYP26B1, OR11A1) were annotated to other functional groups. Many of the consensus radiation response genes are regulated by, or regulate p53. Time- and dose-dependent expression profiles of selected consensus genes (CDKN1A, GADD45A, IER5, PLK3, CYR61) were investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. Transcriptional alterations depended on the applied dose, and on the time after irradiation. Conclusions: The data presented here could help in the better understanding of early radiation responses and the development of biomarkers to identify radiation susceptible individuals

  15. Static Filtered Skin Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rehanullah Khan; Zeeshan Khan; Muhammad Aamir

    2012-01-01

    A static skin filter defines explicitly (using a number of rules) the boundaries the skin cluster has in a color space. Single or multiple ranges of threshold values for each color space component are created and the image pixel values falling within these range(s) for all the chosen color components are defined as skin pixels. In this paper, we investigate and evaluate static skin filters for skin segmentation. As a contribution, two new static skin filters for the IHLS and CIELAB color spac...

  16. Development of a high-throughput screening system for identification of novel reagents regulating DNA damage in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seunghee; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major inducer of skin aging and accumulated exposure to UV radiation increases DNA damage in skin cells, including dermal fibroblasts. In the present study, we developed a novel DNA repair regulating material discovery (DREAM) system for the high-throughput screening and identification of putative materials regulating DNA repair in skin cells. First, we established a modified lentivirus expressing the luciferase and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) genes. Then, human dermal fibroblast WS-1 cells were infected with the modified lentivirus and selected with puromycin to establish cells that stably expressed luciferase and HPRT (DREAM-F cells). The first step in the DREAM protocol was a 96-well-based screening procedure, involving the analysis of cell viability and luciferase activity after pretreatment of DREAM-F cells with reagents of interest and post-treatment with UVB radiation, and vice versa. In the second step, we validated certain effective reagents identified in the first step by analyzing the cell cycle, evaluating cell death, and performing HPRT-DNA sequencing in DREAM-F cells treated with these reagents and UVB. This DREAM system is scalable and forms a time-saving high-throughput screening system for identifying novel anti-photoaging reagents regulating DNA damage in dermal fibroblasts. PMID:26431110

  17. Contribution of human skin topography to the characterization of dynamic skin tension during senescence: morpho-mechanical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structuring of the dermis with a network of collagen and elastic fibres gives a three-dimensional structure to the skin network with directions perpendicular and parallel to the skin surface. This three-dimensional morphology prints on the surface of the stratum corneum a three dimensional network of lines which express the mechanical tension of the skin at rest. To evaluate the changes of skin morphology, we used a three-dimensional confocal microscopy and characterization of skin imaging of volar forearm microrelief. We have accurately characterize the role of skin line network during chronological aging with the identification of depth scales on the network of lines (z ? 60?m) and the network of lines covering Langer's lines (z > 60 microns). During aging has been highlighted lower rows for elastic fibres, the decrease weakened the tension and results in enlargement of the plates of the microrelief, which gives us a geometric pertinent indicator to quantify the loss of skin tension and assess the stage of aging. The study of 120 Caucasian women shows that ageing in the volar forearm zone results in changes in the morphology of the line network organisation. The decrease in secondary lines (z ? 60 ?m) is counterbalanced by an increase in the depth of the primary lines (z > 60 ?m) and an accentuation of the anisotropy index

  18. Cytotoxicity testing of silver-containing burn treatments using primary and immortal skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkaew, Benjawan; Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2014-12-01

    A novel burn wound hydrogel dressing has been previously developed which is composed of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid sodium salt with silver nanoparticles (silver AMPS). This study compared the cytotoxicity of this dressing to the commercially available silver products; Acticoat™, PolyMem Silver(®) and Flamazine™ cream. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT and primary HEK) and normal human fibroblasts (NHF) were exposed to dressings incubated on Nunc™ polycarbonate inserts for 24, 48 and 72h. Four different cytotoxicity assays were performed including; Trypan Blue cell count, MTT, Celltiter-Blue™ and Toluidine Blue surface area assays. The results were expressed as relative cell viability compared to an untreated control. The cytotoxic effects of Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ cream were dependent on exposure time and cell type. After 24h exposure, Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ cream were toxic to all tested cell lines. Surprisingly, HaCaTs treated with Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ had an improved ability to survive at 48 and 72h while HEKs and NHFs had no improvement in survival with any treatment. The novel silver hydrogel and PolyMem Silver(®) showed low cytotoxicity to all tested cell lines at every time interval and these results support the possibility of using the novel silver hydrogel as a burn wound dressing. Researchers who rely on HaCaT cells as an accurate keratinocyte model should be aware that they can respond differently to primary skin cells. PMID:24767717

  19. Chemical dispersants used in the Gulf of Mexico oil crisis are cytotoxic and genotoxic to sperm whale skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Catherine F; Wise, James T F; Wise, Sandra S; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-07-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico drew attention to the need for toxicological studies of chemical dispersants. We are still learning the effects these spills had on wildlife. Little is known about the toxicity of these substances in marine mammals. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of the two dispersants (Corexit 9500 and 9527). Corexit 9500 and 9527 were both cytotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts. Corexit 9527 was less cytotoxic than 9500. S9 mediated metabolism did not alter cytotoxicity of either dispersant. Both dispersants were genotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts; S9 mediated metabolism increased Corexit 9527 genotoxicity. PMID:24813266

  20. Generation of a Fibrin Based Three-Layered Skin Substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Johanna; Gugerell, Alfred; Schmid, Melanie; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Keck, Maike

    2015-01-01

    A variety of skin substitutes that restore epidermal and dermal structures are currently available on the market. However, the main focus in research and clinical application lies on dermal and epidermal substitutes whereas the development of a subcutaneous replacement (hypodermis) is often disregarded. In this study we used fibrin sealant as hydrogel scaffold to generate a three-layered skin substitute. For the hypodermal layer adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and mature adipocytes were embedded in the fibrin hydrogel and were combined with another fibrin clot with fibroblasts for the construction of the dermal layer. Keratinocytes were added on top of the two-layered construct to form the epidermal layer. The three-layered construct was cultivated for up to 3 weeks. Our results show that ASCs and fibroblasts were viable, proliferated normally, and showed physiological morphology in the skin substitute. ASCs were able to differentiate into mature adipocytes during the course of four weeks and showed morphological resemblance to native adipose tissue. On the surface keratinocytes formed an epithelial-like layer. For the first time we were able to generate a three-layered skin substitute based on a fibrin hydrogel not only serving as a dermal and epidermal substitute but also including the hypodermis. PMID:26236715

  1. Modeling Schizophrenia Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell–Derived and Fibroblast-Induced Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ngoc N.; Ladran, Ian G.; Brennand, Kristen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although schizophrenia affects a number of brain regions and produces a range of clinical symptoms, we believe its origins lie at the level of single neurons and simple networks. Owing to this, as well as to its high degree of heritability, we hypothesize that schizophrenia is amenable to cell-based studies in vitro. Using induced pluripotent stem cell–derived neurons and/or fibroblast-induced neurons, a limitless quantity of live human neurons can now be generated from patient skin biopsies....

  2. Cytosolic free calcium and cell spreading decrease in fibroblasts from aged and Alzheimer donors.

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, C; Ratan, R R; Shelanski, M. L.; Goldman, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Aging and Alzheimer disease lead to alterations in calcium homeostasis. The concentration of cytosolic free calcium in cultured skin fibroblasts during aging and Alzheimer disease was determined with the calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes quin-2 and fura-2. The Alzheimer donors showed a decline of 70% when compared to age-matched controls (P less than 0.001) and 81% when compared to cells from young adult donors (P less than 0.001). This reduction in quin-2-calcium fluorescence does not appea...

  3. Differential Gene Expression of Fibroblasts: Keloid versus Normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Angel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study investigated gene regulation and unique gene products in both keloid (KDF and normal (NDF dermal fibroblasts in established cell lines. For gene regulation, NDF versus KDF were compared using Clontech's Atlas™ Human cDNA Expression Array while unique gene products were studied using RNA Fingerprinting Kit. RNA from each sample was converted to cDNA using oligo-dT primers. Down-regulated genes using Atlas Array in KDF were 1 60 S ribosomal protein, 2 Thioredoxin dependent peroxidase, 3 Nuclease sensitive element DNA binding protein, 4 c-myc purine-binding transcription factor, 5 c-AMP dependent protein kinase, and, 6 Heat Shock Protein 90 kDa. Genes that are up regulated in KDF were 1 Tubulin and 2 Heat Shock Protein 27 kDa. With the differential display, we found 17 bands unique to both KDF and NDF. The specific gene and the manner in which they were differentially regulated have direct implications to understanding keloid fibroblast proliferation.

  4. Radiobiological studies with a series of human cell lines of varying glutathione content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of decreased levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH) on the radiosensitivity of aerated and hypoxic cells was studied using human skin fibroblasts obtained from patients affected with the inborn error of metabolism, 5-oxoprolinuria. The oxygen enhancement ratios (OER) were determined for four cell lines obtained from a single family, SR and SUR (heterozygous parents) and GM3877 and GM3878 (affected homozygous siblings). Glutathione values ranged from 7.4 to 130% of control values. Only GM3877 with a GSH value 7.4% of control exhibited a reduced OER of 1.9 compared with a control value of 3. These results suggest that a reduction in OER is observed only when GSH levels reach extremely low values. (author)

  5. Rapid repair of potentially lethal damage in normal and ataxia telangiectasia cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) was investigated in two normal and three ataxia telangiectasia (AT) human-skin fibroblast cell lines cultured in vitro. Using plateau-phase cells, time kinetics and repair were measured after irradiation. PLDR depended on both dose and survival level, as previously seen in rodent cells. Human cells differed from rodent cells in PLDR speed and ability to discern two components within the repair response. Fast repair had a t1/2 of approximately 5-7 min; the slow response occurred over hours. AT cells had demonstrable PLDR contrasting previous studies. Quantitatively, the proportion of fast and slow repair was similar for each dose in either normal or AT cells. However, AT cells had lower levels of both types of repair. When analyzing PLDR in human cells, differences in repair rates between human and rodent cells must be considered. (author)

  6. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Items Awareness Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly ... use this video. UPDATED: February 5, 2015 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly ...

  7. Laser Skin Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form) to make the skin look younger. Aged skin has wrinkles, brown spots, uneven texture, and sags due to ... permanent) Infection Scaring ... agents can improve wrinkles by filling in the depression. Deep chemical peels, ...

  8. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node ... Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node ...

  9. Acid mucopolysaccharides (MPS) in fibroblast cultures. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultures of embryonic rat fibroblasts were incubated with 35S-sulfate at pH 6.6 and 7.4 (Eagle medium, Hepes buffer) for 48 hours. The MPS were isolated and fractionated. Determination of hexuronic acid was done according to Bitter and Muir, measuring of sulfate incorporation by liquid scintillation counting. It could be demonstrated in which way the MPS pattern was modified in fibroblast cultures by changes in the concentrations of lactate and protons. Individually acting anabolic and catabolic processes that were influenced by cell density, pH and lactate were decisive factors for the MPS pools concerned. (author)

  10. Biology of Skin Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  11. Artificial skin. Jinko hifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kifune, K. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    In order to restore the human skin wounds, the transplantation is only one measure. The transplantation can take only when own skin is used, and there is no successful example by using other person's skin. When the own skin is not sufficient due to the too vast damage, the artificial skin, which can be regenerated as it is, is required. The artificial skin is said to be the most difficult organ among the artificial organs, even though its function is quite simple. Although there are the pig skin, the collagen membrane and the synthetic materials such as the polyurethane and so forth, as the materials similar to the artificial skin, they cover the wounds just until the cuticle is formed. Recently there is a cultivated skin. Firstly the normal skin with a size of the stamp is cut off, and then the cuticle cells are taken to pieces and cultivated, and consequently it is possible to increase the area by several 10 times. In addition, there is also a trial to make the artificial skin synthetically. Its upper layer is composed of the silicon, and the lower layer is the collagen membrane with a sponge structure. The silicon, membrane can be said to be an ideal artificial skin, because it detaches naturally. The chitin, which has recently appeared as the wound protection material, is also the promising material. 3 figs.

  12. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injecting a small amount of allergen into the skin. The health care provider then watches for a reaction at ... the skin: Possible allergens are taped to the skin for 48 hours. The health care provider will look at the area in ...

  13. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin cancer screening tests include the following: Finding skin cancer does not always improve health or help you live longer. Screening may not improve your health or help you live longer if you have advanced skin cancer . Some cancers never cause symptoms or become ...

  14. Friction induced skin tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegue, Francisco; Fachal, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Skin tags are common benign neoplasm located predominantly in intertriginous skin. Generally of cosmetic concern, they can be easily treated with cryotherapy, electrodessication or snip-excision. Despite their high incidence data about their etiopathogenesis are scarce in the medical literature. We describe a patient who developed multiple skin tags arranged in a linear fashion suggesting an etiopathogenic role for friction. PMID:18627719

  15. Fibroblasts in post-infarction inflammation and cardiac repair

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblasts are the predominant cell type in the cardiac interstitium. As the main matrix-producing cells in the adult mammalian heart, fibroblasts maintain the integrity of the extracellular matrix network, thus preserving geometry and function. Following myocardial infarction fibroblasts undergo dynamic phenotypic alterations and direct the reparative response. Due to their strategic location, cardiac fibroblasts serve as sentinel cells that sense injury and activate the inflammasome secret...

  16. FDC-P1 myeloid cells engineered to express fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 proliferate and differentiate in the presence of fibroblast growth factor and heparin.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, M; Bernard, O

    1992-01-01

    Full-length murine fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1 (FGFR-1L) cDNA was introduced into the FDC-P1 mouse myeloid progenitor cell line, which lacks FGF receptors and depends on interleukin 3 (IL-3) or granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for its proliferation and survival. The expression of the FGFR-1L gene in FDC-P1 cells allowed these cells to grow in the presence of FGF and heparin. The resulting cell line, designated FD FGFR-1L.A, exhibited a more mature myeloi...

  17. RhoA signaling modulates cyclin D1 expression in human lung fibroblasts; implications for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoban PR

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF is a debilitating disease characterized by exaggerated extracellular matrix deposition and aggressive lung structural remodeling. Disease pathogenesis is driven by fibroblastic foci formation, consequent on growth factor overexpression and myofibroblast proliferation. We have previously shown that both CTGF overexpression and myofibroblast formation in IPF cell lines are dependent on RhoA signaling. As RhoA-mediated regulation is also involved in cell cycle progression, we hypothesise that this pathway is key to lung fibroblast turnover through modulation of cyclin D1 kinetic expression. Methods Cyclin D1 expression was compared in primary IPF patient-derived fibroblasts and equivalent normal control cells. Quantitative real time PCR was employed to examine relative expression levels of cyclin D1 mRNA; protein expression was confirmed by western blotting. Effects of Rho signaling were investigated using transient transfection of constitutively active and dominant negative RhoA constructs as well as pharmacological inhibitors. Cellular proliferation of lung fibroblasts was determined by BrdU incorporation ELISA. To further explore RhoA regulation of cyclin D1 in lung fibroblasts and associated cell cycle progression, an established Rho inhibitor, Simvastatin, was incorporated in our studies. Results Cyclin D1 expression was upregulated in IPF compared to normal lung fibroblasts under exponential growth conditions (p Conclusion These findings report for the first time that cyclin D1 expression is deregulated in IPF through a RhoA dependent mechanism that influences lung fibroblast proliferation. This potentially unravels new molecular targets for future anti-IPF strategies; accordingly, Simvastatin inhibition of Rho-mediated cyclin D1 expression in IPF fibroblasts merits further exploitation.

  18. Taking Care of Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... future problems, like wrinkles and even skin cancer. Clean Skin Is Happy Skin One simple way to take care of your skin is to keep it clean. Keeping your hands clean is especially important because ...

  19. A co-cultured skin model based on cell support membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue engineering of skin based on collagen: PCL biocomposites using a designed co-culture system is reported. The collagen: PCL biocomposites having collagen: PCL (w/w) ratios of 1:4, 1:8, and 1:20 have been proven to be biocompatible materials to support both adult normal human epidermal Keratinocyte (NHEK) and mouse 3T3 fibroblast growth in cell culture, respectively, by Dai, Coombes, et al. in 2004. Films of collagen: PCL biocomposites were prepared using non-crosslinking method by impregnation of lyophilized collagen mats with PCL/dichloromethane solutions followed by solvent evaporation. To mimic the dermal/epidermal structure of skin, the 1:20 collagen: PCL biocomposites were selected for a feasibility study of a designed co-culture technique that would subsequently be used for preparing fibroblast/biocomposite/keratinocyte skin models. A 55.3% increase in cell number was measured in the designed co-culture system when fibroblasts were seeded on both sides of a biocomposite film compared with cell culture on one surface of the biocomposite in the feasibility study. The co-culture of human keratinocytes and 3T3 fibroblasts on each side of the membrane was therefore studied using the same co-culture system by growing keratinocytes on the top surface of membrane for 3 days and 3T3 fibroblasts underneath the membrane for 6 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry assay revealed good cell attachment and proliferation of both human keratinocytes and 3T3 fibroblasts with these two types of cells isolated well on each side of the membrane. Using a modified co-culture technique, a co-cultured skin model presenting a confluent epidermal sheet on one side of the biocomposite film and fibroblasts populated on the other side of the film was developed successfully in co-culture system for 28 days under investigations by SEM and immunohistochemistry assay. Thus, the design of a co-culture system based on 1:20 (w/w) collagen: PCL biocomposite membranes for preparation of a bi-layered skin model with differentiated epidermal sheet was proven in principle. The approach to skin modeling reported here may find application in tissue engineering and screening of new pharmaceuticals

  20. Effects of UV irradiation on a living skin equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Living Skin Equivalent is an organotypic coculture composed of human dermal fibroblasts interspersed in a collagen-containing matrix and overlaid with human keratinocytes forming a stratified epidermis. The LSE has a dry, air-exposed epidermal surface suitable for the application of oils, creams and emulsions. The protective effects of an 8% homosylate standard and of five UV-A sunscreens, topically applied to the LSE, were determined and compared with their reported protection factors in human skin. Morphological changes and the release of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-1-''alpha, tumor necrosis factor-? and prostaglandin E2) implicated in UV-induced erythema were also demonstrated in the LSE exposed to UV-A or UV-B. The data suggest that the LSE can be used for studying the effects of UV radiation on skin and may have utility for assessing the efficacy of certain sunscreens against UV-B and UV-A. (Author)

  1. In vitro effect of 470 nm LED (Light Emitting Diode in keloid fibroblasts Efeito in vitro do LED (Light Emitting Diode de 470 nm em fibroblastos de quelóide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvilena Bonatti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To quantify keloid fibroblasts after irradiation with 470nm blue LED, in vitro. Methods: Fibroblasts from keloid and adjacent skin have been obtained from 6 patients. Cells have been cultivated and maintained in DMEM culture medium. In Petri dishes, they were irradiated with energy doses of 6J, 12J and 18J. After 24 h, counting was done by the average of the triplicates for each sample. Results: There were no significant differences in the number of irradiated keloid fibroblasts at the studied doses (p=0.261. In adjacent skin fibroblasts, differences were observed (p=0.025 concerning the doses of 18 J and 6 J (p=0.03. Conclusions: There was a reduction in the number of adjacent skin fibroblasts irradiated with 470nm blue LED at the energy dose of 18 J compared to the ones irradiated at the energy dose of 6 J. There were no changes in keloid fibroblasts counting at any of the doses applied, 24 h after irradiation.Objetivo: Quantificar fibroblastos de quelóide após irradiação com LED azul de 470nm, in vitro. Métodos: Foram obtidos fibroblastos de quelóide e pele adjacente, de seis pacientes. As células foram cultivadas e mantidas em meio de cultura DMEM. Em placas de Petri, receberam irradiação com doses de energia de 6J, 12J e 18J. Após 24 horas a contagem foi feita pela média da triplicata para cada amostra. Resultados: Não houve diferença na quantidade de fibroblastos de quelóide irradiados nas doses estudadas (p=0,261. Observou-se diferença nos fibroblastos de pele adjacente (p=0,025, com relação às doses de 18 J e 6 J (p=0,03. Conclusões: Houve redução dos fibroblastos de pele adjacente irradiados com LED azul de 470 nm na dose de energia de 18 J em relação à dose de 6 J. Não houve alteração na quantidade de fibroblastos de quelóide nas doses aplicadas após 24 horas da irradiação.

  2. New mouse xenograft model modulated by tumor-associated fibroblasts for human multi-drug resistance in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Lin, Zhiqiang; Fallon, John K; Zhao, Qiang; Liu, Dan; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    We developed an MDR tumor model that is modulated by tumor-associated fibroblasts. Studies on proliferation of tumor cell lines including paclitaxel-sensitive and resistant cell lines were performed. The expressions of P-gp and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) antigen were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Quantitative P-gp analyses of different cell lines were accomplished by nanoUPLC?MS/MS. Tumor cell colony formation assay and established xenograft model was used to investigate the relationship between P-gp expression, fibroblast levels and tumorigenesis. The mouse xenograft model was developed after co-inoculation with MDR tumor cells and NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells. There was no correlation between tumorigenesis in vivo and the growth rate of cells in vitro. The proliferation among different cell lines had no significant differences, but the P-gp expression and tumor growth in the xenograft model were fairly different. P-gp determination and ?-SMA immunofluorescence staining clarified the relationship between P-gp expression, fibroblast levels and tumorigenesis. It was more difficult for tumor cells with higher P-gp levels to recruit fibroblasts in vivo, resulting in lower tumorigenesis due to the lack of structural and chemical support during tumor progression. In the established paclitaxel-resistant mouse xenograft model, no obvious antitumor effect was observed after Taxol treatment, but a significant decrease in tumor size for the group treated with gemcitabine sensitive to the model. The results show that the added fibroblasts do not disturb the applicability of the model in MDR. Therefore, this mouse xenograft MDR model could serve as an effective tool for MDR research. PMID:26352907

  3. Heterogeneous Stem Cells in Skin Homeostatis and Wound Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meilana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The skin protects mammals from insults, infection and dehydration and enables thermoregulation and sensory perception. Various skin-resident cells carry out these diverse functions. Constant turnover of cells and healing upon injury necessitate multiple reservoirs of stem cells. The skin is a complex organ harboring several distinct populations of stem cells and a rich array of cell types. Advances in genetic and imaging tools have brought new indings about the lineage relationships between skin stem cells and their progeny. Such knowledge may offer novel avenues for therapeutics and regenerative medicine.CONTENT: In the past years, our view of the mechanisms that govern skin homeostasis and regeneration have markedly changed. New populations of stem cells have been identified that behave spatio-temporally differently in healthy tissues and in situations of damage, indicating that a great level of stem cell heterogeneity is present in the skin. There are believed to be distinct populations of stem cells in different locations. The lineages that they feed are normally constrained by signals from their local environment, but they can give rise to all epidermal lineages in response to appropriate stimuli. Given the richness of structures such as blood vessels, subcutaneous fat, innervation and the accumulation of ibroblasts under the upper parts of the rete ridges (in the case of human skin, it is reasonable to speculate that the microenvironment might be essential for interfollicular epidermal homeostasis. The bloodstream is probably the main source of long-range signals reaching the skin, and cues provided by the vascular niche might be essential for skin homeostasis.SUMMARY: A key function of the interfollicular epidermis is to act as a protective interface between the body and the external environment, and it contains several architectural elements that enable it to fulill this function. All elements of the epidermis play active roles in regulating skin function, which might not have been anticipated from their role in maintaining skin integrity. Skin cell research benefits from the integration of complementary technologies and disciplines. How skin function is regulated and how it may be possible to intervene to treat a variety of skin conditions. Ultimately also impairing the maintenance of self-renewing satellite cells. Therefore, only anti-aging strategies taking both factors, the stem cell niche and the stem cells per se, into consideration may ultimately be successful. KEYWORDS: epidermis, hair follicle, fibroblast, skin stem cells, homeostasis, regeneration

  4. Phenotypic differences in matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity between fibroblasts from 3 bovine muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archile-Contreras, A C; Mandell, I B; Purslow, P P

    2010-12-01

    Different muscles in a beef carcass are known to respond differently to the same stimulus or animal growth pattern or both. This may complicate the search by the meat industry for production methods to render meat tender. One of the major differences between muscles in the same carcass is in the expression of intramuscular connective tissue. Current study investigates the existence of a phenotypic difference among fibroblasts from 3 bovine skeletal muscles as exemplified by the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) the main enzymes responsible for connective tissue turnover. The sensitivity of phenotypic differences to cell culture conditions (passage number, presence of growth factors from fetal serum) was also examined. Fibroblasts, the main cells responsible for the production and turnover of collagen were isolated from LM, semitendinosus (STN), and sternomandibularis (SMD) muscles from a bull calf and grown in DMEM, 10% fetal bovine serum, and 5% CO(2). Cell doubling times, survival time, resting expression, and activity of MMP and the effect of serum withdrawal in the culture media on MMP expression and activity were determined for each cell line during 15 passages. Fibroblasts isolated from the 3 muscles had different growth potentials. The shortest (P 0.05) of MMP-2 activity in comparison with LM and SMD cells until passage 4. At passage 15, no activity was detected for any cell line. Serum withdrawal generally reduced MMP-2 activation but did not eliminate differences in activity between fibroblasts from the 3 muscles. These results suggest that fibroblasts from different locations are phenotypically different and may respond differently to the same growth or nutritional stimulus in vitro. This may be related to in vivo differences in accumulation, maturity, and turnover of collagen, and ultimately meat tenderness. These findings may be important for selecting a management strategy for improving meat tenderness by manipulation of animal growth; a strategy applied to the whole animal may work for some muscles but not for others. PMID:20802142

  5. Acid mucopolysaccharides in fibroblast cultures. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of 100 mg% L-lactate in the culture media of monolayers of embryonic rat fibroblasts was studied at pH 7.4. Cell proliferation, amount of total MPS, MPS-distribution pattern, 35S-sulfate incorporation (relative synthesis rate, specific activity, MPS-metabolism) were determined in their dependence on cell density. (author)

  6. Acid mucopolysaccharides in fibroblast cultures. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultures of embryonic rat fibroblasts were incubated with 35S-sulfate at pH 6.6 and 7.4 (Eagle basal medium plus HEPES buffer) for 12 to 48 hours. The acid mucopolysaccharides were isolated and fractionated after the method of SVEJCAR and ROBERTSON. Sulfate incorporation was determined by liquid scintillation counting. (author)

  7. Protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage due to UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage exposed to UVB and its mechanism, and to provide the experimental basis for the protection of skin damage exposed to UVB. Methods: The skin of guinea pigs was exposed to UVB (28.38 J/cm2 · 30 d) to establish the oxidative damage model. The skin erythema and the rough were observed during the experiment; the thickness of epiderm and the number of fibroblast were observed under light microscope after the experiment. The activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC and the contain of MDA in the supernate of skin homogenate were detected with biochemical methods. Results: The epiderm in UVB exposure group and blank group thickened, but that in protective group weren't observed; the number of fibroblast in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, while that in protective group increased, but that in control group didn't. The content of MDA in the supemate of skin homogenate in UVB exposure group and blank group increased, but that in protective group deceased, and the activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, but those in protective group increased, and control group had no change. Conclusions: Oleum curcumae wenchowensis has the protective effects on skin damage exposed to UVB, which may be mediated by increasing the contain of antioxidases and eliminating the flee radical. (authors)

  8. Expression of Periostin in Normal, Atopic, and Nonatopic Chronically Inflamed Canine Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineshige, T; Kamiie, J; Sugahara, G; Yasuno, K; Aihara, N; Kawarai, S; Yamagishi, K; Shirota, M; Shirota, K

    2015-11-01

    In humans, periostin plays a critical role in the enhancement and chronicity of allergic skin inflammation; however, whether it is involved in the pathogenesis of canine dermatitis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the expression patterns of periostin in healthy, atopic, and nonatopic chronically inflamed canine skin. Biopsy specimens from 47 dogs with skin disease and normal skin tissue from 5 adult beagles were examined by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. In normal skin, periostin was localized just beneath the epidermis and around the hair follicles. In chronically inflamed skin, periostin expression was most intense in the dermis with inflammatory cell infiltrates. In contrast, low levels of periostin were detected in acutely inflamed and noninflamed skin. Conversely, all canine atopic dermatitis tissues characteristically showed the most intense expression of periostin in the superficial dermis, particularly at the epidermal-dermal junction. In situ hybridization showed that periostin mRNA was broadly expressed in the basal epidermal keratinocytes, outer root sheath cells, and dermal fibroblasts in normal dog skin. High expression of periostin mRNA was observed in fibroblasts in dog skin with chronically inflamed dermatitis. Moreover, in some chronically inflamed skin specimens, periostin mRNA expression was increased in basal keratinocytes. The severity score of chronic pathologic changes and CD3+ cell number in the dermis were correlated with distribution pattern of periostin in the atopic skin. These data suggest that periostin could play a role in the pathophysiology of chronic dermatitis, including atopic dermatitis, in dogs. PMID:25755133

  9. Mannose corrects altered N-glycosylation in carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Panneerselvam, K.; Freeze, H H

    1996-01-01

    Type I carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome (CDGS) patients fail to add entire N-linked oligosaccharide chains to some serum glycoproteins. Here we show that four CDGS fibroblast cell lines have two related glycosylation abnormalities. First, they incorporate 3-10-fold less [3H] mannose into proteins, and, second, the size of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor (LLO) is much smaller than in controls. Addition of exogenous mannose, but not glucose, to these CDGS cells corrects b...

  10. Lymph Node Fibroblastic Reticular Cells Construct the Stromal Reticulum via Contact with Lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Katakai, Tomoya; Hara, Takahiro; Sugai, Manabu; Gonda, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Akira

    2004-01-01

    The sophisticated microarchitecture of the lymph node, which is largely supported by a reticular network of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) and extracellular matrix, is essential for immune function. How FRCs form the elaborate network and remodel it in response to lymphocyte activation is not understood. In this work, we established ERTR7+gp38+VCAM-1+ FRC lines and examined the production of the ER-TR7 antigen. Multiple chemokines produced by FRCs induced T cell and dendritic cell chemot...

  11. Rapid induction of lung adenocarcinoma by fibroblast growth factor 9 signaling through FGF receptor 3

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Yongjun; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Garbow, Joel R.; Miao, Jinbai; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Ornitz, David M

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are expressed in many non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) primary tumors and derived cell lines, and mutations in FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) have been identified in human lung adenocarcinoma. FGF9 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NSCLC by synergizing with EGFR pathways or by providing an escape pathway mediating resistance to EGFR inhibition. To model pathogenic mechanisms mediated by FGF signals, we have established a mouse model in which FGF9 expression...

  12. In vitro differences of neonatal and later postnatal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krej?í, E; Kodet, O; Szabo, P; Borský, J; Smetana, K; Grim, M; Dvo?ánková, B

    2015-08-20

    Skin healing process is postnatally always associated with scarring of various extent. Based on the clinical experience of plastic surgeons, the healing after lip cleft reconstruction is surprisingly almost scar-less when it is carried out within a few first days after birth. This phenomenon is not seen in delayed cases. In order to decipher causative mechanism, we have isolated and studied principal cell populations, keratinocytes and fibroblast, from residual tissue samples after reconstructive operation (N=39) performed at various age (0-9 years). These cells play the pivotal role in the healing and that is why we focused on description of their phenotype and also functionality with respect to age. We have identified a population of remarkably small cells in explants from newborns (day 0-10). These small cells were strongly positive for markers of low differentiated keratinocytes, keratin-8 and -19, and moreover also for vimentin. In the explants cultures from older babies this population was missing. Fibroblasts from newborns and older patients differed namely in terms of nestin expression and also in the production of extracellular matrix components. We conclude that in vitro described properties of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in newborns could participate on the almost scar-less wound healing in earliest neonatal period. PMID:25470521

  13. Enhanced skin wound healing by a sustained release of growth factors contained in platelet-rich plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hee Seok; Shin, Jaehoon; Bhang, Suk Ho; Shin, Jung-Youn; Park, Jooyeon; Im, Gun-Il; Kim, Chang-Sung; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors that promote tissue regeneration. Previously, we showed that heparin-conjugated fibrin (HCF) exerts the sustained release of growth factors with affinity for heparin. Here, we hypothesize that treatment of skin wound with a mixture of PRP and HCF exerts sustained release of several growth factors contained in PRP and promotes skin wound healing. The release of fibroblast growth factor 2, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and vascular endothe...

  14. Regulation of epithelial–mesenchymal IL-1 signaling by PPAR?/? is essential for skin homeostasis and wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Han Chung; Tan, Ming Jie; Philippe, Virginie; Tan, Siew Hwey; Tan, Chek Kun; Ku, Chee Wai; Goh, Yan Yih; Wahli, Walter; Michalik, Liliane; Tan, Nguan Soon

    2009-01-01

    Skin morphogenesis, maintenance, and healing after wounding require complex epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. In this study, we show that for skin homeostasis, interleukin-1 (IL-1) produced by keratinocytes activates peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?) expression in underlying fibroblasts, which in turn inhibits the mitotic activity of keratinocytes via inhibition of the IL-1 signaling pathway. In fact, PPAR?/? stimulates production of the secreted IL-1 receptor antago...

  15. The myofibroblast markers ?-SM actin and ?-actin are differentially expressed in 2 and 3-D culture models of fibrotic and normal skin

    OpenAIRE

    Vozenin, M.-C.; Lefaix, J.-L.; Ridi, R.; Biard, D. S. F.; DABURON, F.; Martin, M.

    1998-01-01

    To characterize the differences between fibrotic myofibroblasts and normal fibroblasts, we studied two differentiation markers: ?-smooth muscle (SM) actin, a specific marker of myofibroblast differentiation, and ?-actin, which is overexpressed in the fibrotic tissue. Experiments were performed on fibroblasts isolated from normal pig skin and on subcutaneous myofibroblasts isolated from pig radiation-induced fibrosis. Three culture models were used: cells in monolayers, equivalent dermis, cons...

  16. Hyperglycemia enhances function and differentiation of adult rat cardiac fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamhart, Patricia E; Luther, Daniel J; Adapala, Ravi K; Bryant, Jennifer E; Petersen, Kyle A; Meszaros, J Gary; Thodeti, Charles K

    2014-07-01

    Diabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can eventually cause cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) are the critical mediators of physiological and pathological cardiac remodeling; however, the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac fibroblast function and differentiation is not well known. Here, we performed a comprehensive investigation on the effects of hyperglycemia on cardiac fibroblasts and show that hyperglycemia enhances cardiac fibroblast function and differentiation. We found that high glucose treatment increased collagen I, III, and VI gene expression in rat adult cardiac fibroblasts. Interestingly, hyperglycemia increased CF migration and proliferation that is augmented by collagen I and III. Surprisingly, we found that short term hyperglycemia transiently inhibited ERK1/2 activation but increased AKT phosphorylation. Finally, high glucose treatment increased spontaneous differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts with increasing passage compared with low glucose. Taken together, these findings suggest that hyperglycemia induces cardiac fibrosis by modulating collagen expression, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:24959995

  17. Mitogenic activity of fetal bovine serum, fish fry extract, insulin-like growth factor-I, and fibroblast growth factor on brown bullhead catfish cells - BB line / Atividade mitogênica do soro fetal bovino, extrato de larvas de peixe, fator insulínico de crescimento-I e fator de crescimento de fibroblastos na linhagem celular BB do bagre "brown bullhead"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. E. P., CYRINO; D.R., MULVANEY.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de diferentes níveis de suplementação do meio de cultivo com soro fetal bovino (FBS), extrato de larvas de peixe (FE), combinações de FBS e FE e adição de fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina I (IGF-I) e fator de crescimento fibroblástico (FGF), na proliferação da li [...] nhagem de células somáticas do bagre "brown bullhead" (BB). Os tratamentos (n = 4) utilizados foram: suplementação do meio de cultivo com 2,5, 5, 10% e 15% FBS ou FE, ou 5/2,5, 5/5, 10/2,5 e 10/5 da combinação FBS/FE ou, ainda, a adição de 0,1, 1, 2,5, 10, 25 e 75 ng/ml de IGF-I ou FGF ao meio de cultivo. Foi utilizada uma densidade inicial de 1,1 x 10(6) células/câmara, em placas não recobertas de 24 câmaras. A temperatura de incubação foi de 29,5 ± 0,7ºC. Seis horas após plaqueamento, o meio de cultura inicial foi removido das placas; estas foram enxaguadas com solução salina fosfatada tamponizada de Dulbecco, o meio experimental foi adicionado e as células ficaram em proliferação por 24 horas. Um bioensaio paralelo foi conduzido utilizando-se a linhagem celular mioblástica Omega de ratos (RMo), utilizando-se os mesmos níveis de suplementação do meio com FBS, FE e FBS/FE, tendo por meio básico de cultivo o meio Dulbecco’s MEM. A densidade inicial de células/câmara era de 7,2 x 10(6) células e o bioensaio foi conduzido a 36 ± 0,5ºC em uma incubadora com atmosfera de 95% de ar e 5% de CO2. O aumento nos níveis de suplementação com FBS tiveram um efeito positivo (P Abstract in english Biossays were performed to assess the effects of different levels of growth medium supplementation with fetal bovine serum (FBS), fish fry extract (FE), combinations of FBS and FE, and addition of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) on the proliferation of brown b [...] ullhead catfish cells (BB line). Treatments (n = 4) were: 2.5, 5, 10, and 15.0% FBS or FE and 5/2.5, 5/5, 10/2.5, and 10/5 of a FBS/FE combination as supplement to the growth medium, or the addition of 0.1, 1, 2.5, 10, 25, and 75 ng/ml of either IGF-I or FGF to the growth media. Initial cell density was 1.1 x 10(6) cells per well on uncoated 24-well plates. Incubation temperature was 29.5 ± 0.7ºC. Six hours after plating, initial culture medium was removed, plates rinsed with Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline, treatment media added, and cells allowed to proliferate for 24 hours. Another bioassay was performed with rat myoblast omega cells (RMo) using the same levels of growth medium supplemented with FBS, FE and FBS/FE. Base growth medium was Dulbecco’s MEM. The initial cell density was 7.2 x 10(6) cells per well, and the bioassay was carried out at 36.0 ± 0.5ºC, on a 95% air, 5% CO2 incubator. Increasing levels of FBS had a positive effect (P

  18. Asiaticoside induces cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Yulianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Asiatiocoside, a saponin component isolated from Centella asiatica can improve wound healing by promoting the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF and synthesis of collagen. The skin-renewing cells and type I and III collagen synthesis decrease with aging, resulting in the reduction of skin elasticity and delayed wound healing. Usage of natural active compounds from plants in wound healing should be evaluated and compared to retinoic acid as an active agent that regulates wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the effect of asiaticoside and retinoic acid to induce greater cell proliferation and type I and III collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblast. Methods Laboratory experiments were conducted using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF isolated from human foreskin explants. Seven passages of HDF were treated with asiaticoside and retinoic acid at several doses and incubated for 24 and 48 hours. Cell viability in all groups was tested with the MTT assay to assess HDF proliferation. Type I and III collagen synthesis was examined using the respective ELISA kits. Analysis of variance was performed to compare the treatment groups. Results Asiaticoside had significantly stronger effects on HDF proliferation than retinoic acid (p<0.05. The type III collagen production was significantly greater induction with asiaticoside compared to retinoic acid (p<0.05. Conclusion Asiaticoside induces HDF proliferation and type I and III collagen synthesis in a time- and dose-dependent pattern. Asiaticoside has a similar effect as retinoic acid on type I and type III collagen synthesis.

  19. The mechanism of oxythiamine-induced collagen biosynthesis in cultured fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoka, Lukasz; Karna, Ewa; Palka, Jerzy

    2015-05-01

    The oxythiamine (OXY) is antivitamin of thiamine. The finding that OXY increases the cytoplasmic concentration of pyruvate, known to enhance collagen biosynthesis, led us to investigate the mechanism of this antivitamin action on collagen biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Confluent fibroblasts were treated with micromolar concentrations (30-1,000 µM) of OXY for 24 and 48 h. It was found that OXY-dependent increase in collagen biosynthesis was accompanied by parallel increase in prolidase activity and level, compared to untreated cells. Since phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is known as an inhibitor of prolidase-the enzyme that plays important role in collagen biosynthesis, the mechanism of pyruvate interconversion was considered as a regulatory switch in collagen biosynthesis. In fact, 3-MPA, specific inhibitor of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), contributed to up-regulation of prolidase activity, suggesting that down-regulation of PEP formation is an underlying mechanism. Since collagen biosynthesis and prolidase activity are regulated by signal induced by activated ?2?1 integrin receptor as well as insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), the expression of these receptors was measured by Western immunoblot analysis. The exposure of the cells to OXY contributed to decrease in IGF-IR, ?2?1 integrin receptor, pERK1/2, and NF-?B p65 expressions. It was accompanied by increase in total ERK1/2 expression and induction of phosphorylation of Akt protein. The data suggest that OXY-dependent increase of collagen biosynthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts results from activation of prolidase activity and level, induction in pAkt expression and down-regulation of pERK1/2 and NF-?B p65, the known inhibitor of collagen gene expression. PMID:25626895

  20. Mitochondrial impairment observed in fibroblasts from South African Parkinson’s disease patients with parkin mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mitochondrial dysfunction observed in patients with parkin-null mutations. • Mitochondrial ATP levels were decreased. • Electron-dense vacuoles were observed in the patients. • Mitochondria from muscle biopsies appeared within normal limits. • One patient did not show these defects possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. - Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD), defined as a neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra in the midbrain. Loss-of-function mutations in the parkin gene are a major cause of autosomal recessive, early-onset PD. Parkin has been implicated in the maintenance of healthy mitochondria, although previous studies show conflicting findings regarding mitochondrial abnormalities in fibroblasts from patients harboring parkin-null mutations. The aim of the present study was to determine whether South African PD patients with parkin mutations exhibit evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. Fibroblasts were cultured from skin biopsies obtained from three patients with homozygous parkin-null mutations, two heterozygous mutation carriers and two wild-type controls. Muscle biopsies were obtained from two of the patients. The muscle fibers showed subtle abnormalities such as slightly swollen mitochondria in focal areas of the fibers and some folding of the sarcolemma. Although no differences in the degree of mitochondrial network branching were found in the fibroblasts, ultrastructural abnormalities were observed including the presence of electron-dense vacuoles. Moreover, decreased ATP levels which are consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction were observed in the patients’ fibroblasts compared to controls. Remarkably, these defects did not manifest in one patient, which may be due to possible compensatory mechanisms. These results suggest that parkin-null patients exhibit features of mitochondrial dysfunction. Involvement of mitochondria as a key role player in PD pathogenesis will have important implications for the design of new and more effective therapies

  1. Immunohistochemical characterization of human [gamma]-irradiated skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyahia, B.; Magdelenat, H. (Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France))

    1993-01-01

    An immunohistochemical analysis was carried out in order to characterize the phenotypic modifications induced by [gamma]-rays in human skin and to study the expression of some growth factors and growth factor receptors. Following radiotherapy for breast carcinoma, dermal fibroblasts of mammary skin are located superficially near the dermo-epidermal junction. They exhibit either vimentin-positive/smooth muscle cells (SMC) [alpha]-actin-negative quiescent phenotype or vimentin-positive/SMC [alpha]-actin-positive 'reactive' myofibroblastic phenotype but no desmin intermediate filaments. Using two polyclonal antibodies against Transforming Growth Factor [beta] (TGF[beta]), we observed a specific intranuclear staining in fibroblasts and epidermal cells. Epidermal Growth Factor-Receptors (EGFR) were detected as membrane-associated in all the epidermal cell layers of irradiated skin and this pattern appears strongly associated with previous irradiation. These data suggest that complex cellular interactions are involved between epidermal and dermal cells and with extracellular matrix components, mediated by various cytokines, including TGF[beta] and EGF-like factors.

  2. Genetics and skin aging

    OpenAIRE

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female...

  3. Psychorheology of skin cream

    OpenAIRE

    Greenaway, Ruth Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between physical and sensory properties of 40 model skin creams was investigated. Creams were formulated according to an experimental design to ensure that a wide range of textural properties could be produced from a minimal number of ingredients. The core project study comprised of objective sensory profiling of model skin creams (QDA, Quantitative Descriptive Analysis) and the physical characterisation of the textural and flow properties relevant to the use of skin crea...

  4. Aldara(®) -induced skin inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, H; Iversen, Lars; Steiniche, T; Kragballe, K; Johansen, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The application of Aldara(®) cream containing 5% imiquimod stimulates Toll-like receptor 7/8 on plasmacytoid dendritic cells, thereby producing a potent immunomodulatory effect. This has been reported to trigger psoriasis. OBJECTIVES: To establish a human model of Aldara-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in patients with psoriasis. METHODS: Nonlesional psoriatic skin of 13 patients was treated with Aldara for 2 or 7 days. The skin was evaluated clinically and histologically on...

  5. Archaea on Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Alexander J.; Auerbach, Anna K.; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin mi...

  6. Ixora coccinea Enhances Cutaneous Wound Healing by Upregulating the Expression of Collagen and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Aadesh; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Goyary, Danswrang; Mitra Mazumder, Papiya; Veer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Background. Ixora coccinea L. (Rubiaceae) has been documented for traditional use in hypertension, menstrual irregularities, sprain, chronic ulcer, and skin diseases. In the present study, I. coccinea was subjected to in vitro and in vivo wound healing investigation. Methods. Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and water sequential I. coccinea leaves extracts were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and fibroblast proliferation activities. The promising I. coccinea methanol extract (IxME) was screened for in vivo wound healing activity in Wistar rat using circular excision model. Wound contraction measurement, hydroxyproline quantification, and western blot for collagen type III (COL3A1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and Smad-2, -3, -4, and -7 was performed with 7-day postoperative wound granulation tissue. Gentamicin sulfate (0.01% w/w) hydrogel was used as reference standard. Results. IxME showed the potent antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, with significant fibroblast proliferation inducing activity, as compared to all other extracts. In vivo study confirmed the wound healing accelerating potential of IxME, as evidenced by faster wound contraction, higher hydroxyproline content, and improved histopathology of granulation tissue. Western blot analysis revealed that the topical application of I. coccinea methanol extract stimulates the fibroblast growth factor and Smad mediated collagen production in wound tissue. PMID:24624303

  7. Incorporation of (3H) thymidine stimulated by ultraviolet radiation into human fibroblast cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA repair synthesis after ultraviolet irradiation was studied in human fibroblasts cultured in vitro by measuring the ultraviolet-stimulated incorporation of [3H] thymidine into cells in which the semi-conservative DNA replication was inhibited by hydroxyurea. Experiments performed with five fibroblasts lines derived from healthy donors showed a relatively fast initial process (that is completed within 1 h for 100 erg/mm2 and within 2 h for 500 erg/mm2) and a subsequent slower process, evident between 2 and 6 h after irradiation. The repair capacity of normal cells is expressed by the difference between the values of incorporation (in presence of hydroxyurea) of irradiated and control cells. The pattern of repair was similir in all five cell lines: repair capacity was positive and the amount of repair synthesis increased with incubation time after UV irradiation. Similar experiments were performed with fibroblasts derived from five patients with the classical xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and from one patient with the De Sanctis-Cacchione syndrome. Normal and XP cells could be distinguished according to whether they displayed a positive or negative value of repair synthesis and/or according to the degree of the slope of the repair synthesis curve as a function of the incubation time after irradiation. It was concluded that the technique used in these experiments can demonstrate in a rapid and simple way a defect in the repair capacity in fibroblast cultures; the data are in good agreement with those obtained in the same XP cell lines by other authors, who have measured unscheduled DNA synthesis in autoradiographs and repair replication after addition of BUdR

  8. Radio-induced fibrosis of skin: contribution to its development and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibrosis of skin is frequently observed after therapeutic and accidental irradiations, and is characterized by the appearance of activated fibroblasts called myo-fibroblasts and the accumulation of extracellular matrix compounds. We postulated that radiation fibrosis could be considered as a chronic scar, where constant production of activating signals are emitted, whereas no negative feed back regulation occur. However, recent studies demonstrated that radiation-induced fibrosis could be treated using therapeutic agents like the superoxide dismutase. In order to better understand the mechanisms leading to skin fibrosis, we studied both the early reactions and the late fibrotic tissue induced by high radiation doses in normal skin. In particular, we investigated in the role of growth factors in these reactions. The synthesis of TGF-?1 was found to be increased, both the epidermis and the dermis, immediately after irradiation. This overexpression sustained during the development and the persistence phases of fibrosis, suggesting that the immediate cellular response induce a cascade of activation for genes and proteins which will result in the late effect of radiation in skin. Furthermore, these observations showed that the TGF-?1 could be a target for anti-fibrotic treatment. In order to test this hypothesis and to investigate further in the mechanisms leading to fibrosis regression after SOD treatment, we develop normal and fibrosis-like reconstructed skin models. These reconstructed skins were treated with liposomal and carrier-free Cu/Zn SOD, and examined for their effects on cell number, apoptosis and phenotypic differentiation. The results showed that SOD did not induce myo-fibroblast cell death or apoptosis whereas it significantly reduced TGF-?1 expression, thus demonstrating that SOD might be considered as a potent antagonist of the major fibro-genic growth factor. We also found that SOD significantly lowered the levels of the myo-fibroblast marker ?-sm actin, of the ?-actin, and of the extracellular matrix components ?1(I) collagen and tenascin-C. In conclusion, our results suggest that SOD anti-fibrotic action occurred in vitro through the reversion of myo-fibroblasts into normal fibroblasts. (author)

  9. Cardiac fibroblasts, fibrosis and extracellular matrix remodeling in heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fibroblasts comprise the largest cell population in the myocardium. In heart disease, the number of fibroblasts is increased either by replication of the resident myocardial fibroblasts, migration and transformation of circulating bone marrow cells, or by transformation of endothelial/epithelial cells into fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. The primary function of fibroblasts is to produce structural proteins that comprise the extracellular matrix (ECM. This can be a constructive process; however, hyperactivity of cardiac fibroblasts can result in excess production and deposition of ECM proteins in the myocardium, known as fibrosis, with adverse effects on cardiac structure and function. In addition to being the primary source of ECM proteins, fibroblasts produce a number of cytokines, peptides, and enzymes among which matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs, directly impact the ECM turnover and homeostasis. Function of fibroblasts can also in turn be regulated by MMPs and TIMPs. In this review article, we will focus on the function of cardiac fibroblasts in the context of ECM formation, homeostasis and remodeling in the heart. We will discuss the origins and multiple roles of cardiac fibroblasts in myocardial remodeling in different types of heart disease in patients and in animal models. We will further provide an overview of what we have learned from experimental animal models and genetically modified mice with altered expression of ECM regulatory proteins, MMPs and TIMPs.

  10. Fibroblast growth factor 23 - et fosfatregulerende hormon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Pedersen, Susanne MØller

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) er et nyligt identificeret fosfatonin. FGF23's fysiologiske hovedfunktion er at opretholde normalt serumfosfat og at virke som et D-vitaminmodregulatorisk hormon. Sygdomme, der er koblet til forhøjet serum FGF23, er hypofosfatæmisk rakitis, fibrøs dysplasi og tumorinduceret osteomalaci. Hyperfosfatæmisk familiær tumoral calcinosis er derimod associeret med forhøjet nedbrydning af FGF23. Måling af FGF23 er et differentialdiagnostisk redskab ved udredning af tilstande med længerevarende hypofosfatæmi. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-May 17

  11. Fibroblast growth factor 23--et fosfatregulerende hormon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pedersen, Susanne MØller

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified phosphatonin. Its main physiological functions are to maintain serum phosphate within its reference range and to counter regulate the effects of vitamin D. Diseases correlated to high serum values of FGF23 are hypophosphatemic rickets, fibrous dysplasia, and tumour-induced osteomalacia. In contrast, hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis is associated with accelerated degradation of FGF23. Measuring FGF23 serves as a differential diagnostic tool in elucidating conditions of long-lasting hypophosphatemia.

  12. Coupling of cytoskeleton functions for fibroblast locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Lenn, M; Rees, D A

    1985-01-01

    Using a chick cell phenotype specialised for locomotion with morphometric measurements made possible by modern instrumentation technology, we have reinvestigated motile functions in fibroblast locomotion. Quantitative analysis of rapid fluctuations in cell form and organelle distribution during locomotion showed many significant correlations between different parts of the cell despite much irregularity in individual displacements over the time scale of the order of one second. These broke down w...

  13. Fibroblast growth factor 23--et fosfatregulerende hormon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Kassem, Moustapha; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified phosphatonin. Its main physiological functions are to maintain serum phosphate within its reference range and to counter regulate the effects of vitamin D. Diseases correlated to high serum values of FGF23 are hypophosphatemic rickets, fibrous dysplasia, and tumour-induced osteomalacia. In contrast, hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis is associated with accelerated degradation of FGF23. Measuring FGF23 serves as a differential diagnos...

  14. Caveolae in fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper D; Tamas, Raluca M; Riemann, Anne; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte W; Hansen, Gert Helge; Michael Danielsen, E

    2009-01-01

    The fibroblast-like synoviocyte is a CD13-positive cell-type containing numerous caveolae, both single and interconnected clusters. In unstimulated cells, all single caveolae at the cell surface and the majority of those localized deeper into the cytoplasm were freely accessible from the medium, as judged from electron microscopy of synoviocytes exposed to the membrane impermeable marker Ruthenium Red. Caveolar internalization could be induced by a CD13 antibody or by cholera toxin B subunit (CT...

  15. Microsatellite analysis in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    F. Kullmann; Widmann, T; Kirner, A.; Justen, H.; Wessinghage, D.; Dietmaier, W.; Ruschoff, J.; Gay, S.; Scholmerich, J.; Muller-Ladner, U.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease characterised by irreversible destruction of the affected joints. As aggressive transformed-appearing synovial fibroblasts are commonly found at the site of invasion of the rheumatoid synovium into the adjacent cartilage and bone, the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) and expression of mismatch repair enzymes as a possible mechanism in the alteration of these cells was examined.?METHODS—DNA was extracted from the synovial fi...

  16. Cell Motility and Local Viscoelasticity of Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, S.; D. Koch; Cardenas, R; Käs, J.; Shih, C. K.

    2005-01-01

    Viscoelastic changes of the lamellipodial actin cytoskeleton are a fundamental element of cell motility. Thus, the correlation between the local viscoelastic properties of the lamellipodium (including the transitional region to the cell body) and the speed of lamellipodial extension is studied for normal and malignantly transformed fibroblasts. Using our atomic force microscopy-based microrheology technique, we found different mechanical properties between the lamellipodia of malignantly tran...

  17. Fluorescence measurement of chloride transport in monolayer cultured cells. Mechanisms of chloride transport in fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, A. C.; Dix, J A; Sellers, M. C.; VERKMAN, A. S.

    1989-01-01

    The methodology has been developed to measure Cl activity and transport in cultured cells grown on a monolayer using the entrapped Cl-sensitive fluorophore 6-methoxy-N-[3-sulfopropyl] quinolinium (SPQ). The method was applied to a renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PKI, and a nonepithelial cell line, Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. SPQ was nontoxic to cells when present for greater than h in the culture media. To load with SPQ (5 mM), cells were made transiently permeable by exposure to hypotonic buffer ...

  18. Differential regulation of GLUT1 activity in human corneal limbal epithelial cells and fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, David P.; Scripture, Jared P.; Gunnink, Stephen M.; Salie, Matthew J.; Schotanus, Mark P.; Ubels, John L.; Louters, Larry L.

    2012-01-01

    The corneal epithelial tissue is a layer of rapidly growing cells that are highly glycolytic and express GLUT1 as the major glucose transporter. It has been shown that GLUT1 in L929 fibroblast cells and other cell lines can be acutely activated by a variety agents.However, the acute regulation of glucose uptake in corneal cells has not been systematically investigated. Therefore, we examined glucose uptake in an immortalized human corneal–limbal epithelial (HCLE) cell line and compared it to ...

  19. Fibroblasts as architects of cancer pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Timothy; Pietras, Kristian; McAllister, Sandra S

    2013-07-01

    Studies of epithelial cancers (i.e., carcinomas) traditionally focused on transformation of the epithelium (i.e., the cancer cells) and how aberrant signaling within the cancer cells modulates the surrounding tissue of origin. In more recent decades, the normal cells, blood vessels, molecules, and extracellular components that surround the tumor cells, collectively known as the "tumor microenvironment" or "stroma", have received increasing attention and are now thought to be key regulators of tumor initiation and progression. Of particular relevance to the work reviewed herein are the fibroblasts, which make up the major cell type within the microenvironment of most carcinomas. Due to their inherent heterogeneity, plasticity, and function, it is perhaps not surprising that fibroblasts are ideal modulators of normal and cancerous epithelium; however, these aspects also present challenges if we are to interrupt their tumor-supportive functions. Here, we review the current body of knowledge and the many questions that still remain about the special entity known as the cancer-associated fibroblast. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fibrosis: Translation of basic research to human disease. PMID:23123598

  20. Tips for Relieving Dry Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guides Home Dermatology A to Z Health and beauty General skin care Dry skin tips Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin Simple changes can soothe dry skin Following the same skin care routine year round may not work so well when the ...

  1. Curcumin loaded chitin nanogels for skin cancer treatment via the transdermal route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalathillam, Sabitha; Rejinold, N. Sanoj; Nair, Amrita; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Jayakumar, Rangasamy

    2011-12-01

    In this study, curcumin loaded chitin nanogels (CCNGs) were developed using biocompatible and biodegradable chitin with an anticancer curcumin drug. Chitin, as well as curcumin, is insoluble in water. However, the developed CCNGs form a very good and stable dispersion in water. The CCNGs were analyzed by DLS, SEM and FTIR and showed spherical particles in a size range of 70-80 nm. The CCNGs showed higher release at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. The cytotoxicity of the nanogels were analyzed on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF) and A375 (human melanoma) cell lines and the results show that CCNGs have specific toxicity on melanoma in a concentration range of 0.1-1.0 mg mL-1, but less toxicity towards HDF cells. The confocal analysis confirmed the uptake of CCNGs by A375. The apoptotic effect of CCNGs was analyzed by a flow-cytometric assay and the results indicate that CCNGs at the higher concentration of the cytotoxic range showed comparable apoptosis as the control curcumin, in which there was negligible apoptosis induced by the control chitin nanogels. The CCNGs showed a 4-fold increase in steady state transdermal flux of curcumin as compared to that of control curcumin solution. The histopathology studies of the porcine skin samples treated with the prepared materials showed loosening of the horny layer of the epidermis, facilitating penetration with no observed signs of inflammation. These results suggest that the formulated CCNGs offer specific advantage for the treatment of melanoma, the most common and serious type of skin cancer, by effective transdermal penetration.

  2. Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts Are as Efficient as Mouse Fibroblasts as a Feeder Layer to Improve Human Epidermal Cell Culture Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Germain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A fibroblast feeder layer is currently the best option for large scale expansion of autologous skin keratinocytes that are to be used for the treatment of severely burned patients. In a clinical context, using a human rather than a mouse feeder layer is desirable to reduce the risk of introducing animal antigens and unknown viruses. This study was designed to evaluate if irradiated human fibroblasts can be used in keratinocyte cultures without affecting their morphological and physiological properties. Keratinocytes were grown either with or without a feeder layer in serum-containing medium. Our results showed that keratinocytes grown either on an irradiated human feeder layer or irradiated 3T3 cells (i3T3 can be cultured for a comparable number of passages. The average epithelial cell size and morphology were also similar. On the other hand, keratinocytes grown without a feeder layer showed heavily bloated cells at early passages and stop proliferating after only a few passages. On the molecular aspect, the expression level of the transcription factor Sp1, a useful marker of keratinocytes lifespan, was maintained and stabilized for a high number of passages in keratinocytes grown with feeder layers whereas Sp1 expression dropped quickly without a feeder layer. Furthermore, gene profiling on microarrays identified potential target genes whose expression is differentially regulated in the absence or presence of an i3T3 feeder layer and which may contribute at preserving the growth characteristics of these cells. Irradiated human dermal fibroblasts therefore provide a good human feeder layer for an effective expansion of keratinocytes in vitro that are to be used for clinical purposes.

  3. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it ...

  4. Static Filtered Skin Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehanullah Khan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A static skin filter defines explicitly (using a number of rules the boundaries the skin cluster has in a color space. Single or multiple ranges of threshold values for each color space component are created and the image pixel values falling within these range(s for all the chosen color components are defined as skin pixels. In this paper, we investigate and evaluate static skin filters for skin segmentation. As a contribution, two new static skin filters for the IHLS and CIELAB color spaces are developed. The two new static filters and four state-of-the-art static filters in YCbCr, HSI, RGB and normalized RGB color spaces are evaluated on the two datasets DS1 and DS2, on the basis of F-measure. Experimental results reveal the feasibility of the developed static skin filters. We also found that since the static filters use static boundaries, any shift of skin color ranges from the static boundaries will result in varying performance. Therefore, the F-measure rankings of the color spaces are different for the datasets DS1 and DS2.

  5. Artificial skins: Hierarchical wrinkling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Wilhelm T. S.

    2005-04-01

    Wrinkling is a ubiquitous form of mechanical instability, occurring in such widely different systems as skin and lava flows. Hierarchical wrinkling leading to topographical features, with length scales spanning five orders of magnitude, has now been observed and harnessed in an artificial skin.

  6. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  7. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequent bathing, and by medical conditions, such as atopic dermatitis and malnutrition. Dry skin develops due to a decrease in the natural ... May Prescribe References/Trusted Links Related diseases: Eczema (Atopic ... Skin (Ichthyosis Vulgaris) View all diseases Community: Discussion Forum ...

  8. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M - P Q - T U - W Health and beauty For kids About dermatology A to Z: The video ... atopic dermatitis as children often have very dry skin as adults. Dry skin is common. It can occur at any age and for many reasons. Using a moisturizer often ...

  9. Understanding skin care and skin barrier function in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    Skin care practices involving the application of products to the skin are common. This article focuses on these aspects of infant skin care, the importance of skin barrier function and how the use of products and therapies applied to the skin can affect skin?barrier function. It also challenges current practice and tradition, and highlights the evolving body of research into practice and tradition. PMID:24021151

  10. Nicotine signals through muscle-type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in both human bronchial epithelial cells and airway fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luketich James D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-neuronal cells, including those derived from lung, are reported to express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR. We examined nAChR subunit expression in short-term cultures of human airway cells derived from a series of never smokers, ex-smokers, and active smokers. Methods and Results At the mRNA level, human bronchial epithelial (HBE cells and airway fibroblasts expressed a range of nAChR subunits. In multiple cultures of both cell types, mRNA was detected for subunits that constitute functional muscle-type and neuronal-type pentomeric receptors. Two immortalized cell lines derived from HBE cells also expressed muscle-type and neuronal-type nAChR subunits. Airway fibroblasts expressed mRNA for three muscle-type subunits (?1, ?, and ? significantly more often than HBE cells. Immunoblotting of HBE cell and airway fibroblast extracts confirmed that mRNA for many nAChR subunits is translated into detectable levels of protein, and evidence of glycosylation of nAChRs was observed. Some minor differences in nAChR expression were found based on smoking status in fibroblasts or HBE cells. Nicotine triggered calcium influx in the immortalized HBE cell line BEAS2B, which was blocked by ?-bungarotoxin and to a lesser extent by hexamethonium. Activation of PKC and MAPK p38, but not MAPK p42/44, was observed in BEAS2B cells exposed to nicotine. In contrast, nicotine could activate p42/44 in airway fibroblasts within five minutes of exposure. Conclusions These results suggest that muscle-type and neuronal-type nAChRs are functional in airway fibroblasts and HBE cells, that prior tobacco exposure does not appear to be an important variable in nAChR expression, and that distinct signaling pathways are observed in response to nicotine.

  11. Amnion s and radio-sterilized porcine skin use as potential matrices for the development of human skin substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injuries by burns constitute a primordial problem of public health; they cause a high mortality index, severe physical and psychological disability, etc. The autologous skin transplant is the replacement therapy recommended for its treatment, but in patients that present a high percentage of burnt skin; this is not possible to carry out. Another strategy is the transplant of donated skin; however, due to the little donation that exists in our country is not very feasible to apply this treatment. A challenge of the tissues engineering is to develop biological skin substitutes, based on cells and amnion s, favoring the cutaneous regeneration and quick repair of injuries, diminishing this way the hospitalization expenses. At present skin substitutes that can equal to the same skin do not exist. On the other hand, the mesenchymal stromal cells (Msc) represent an alternative to achieve this objective; since has been demonstrated that the Msc participate in the tissue repair by means of inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and differentiation to dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. To apply the Msc in cutaneous injuries a support material is required that to allow transplanting these cells to a lesion or burn. The radio-sterilized human amnion and the radio-sterilized porcine skin, processed by the Radio-Sterilized Tissues Bank of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), are biomaterials that are used as temporary cutaneous coverings. We suppose that these two matrices will be appropriate for the growth and maintenance in cultivation of the Msc, to generate two biological skin substitutes, in collaboration with the Biotechnology Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion. (Author)

  12. Primary cell culture from human oral tissue: gingival keratinocytes,gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreya Wanichpakorn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture of human oral tissue has many applications for oral biology research. There are two techniques in primary culture, which includes the enzymatic and direct explant technique. The objectives of this study were (1 to isolate and investigate the difference in percentage the success in culturing three cell types from human oral tissue: gingival keratinocytes, gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament fibroblasts by using the direct explant technique; (2 to compare the effect of sex and age on the success of tissue culturing. Twenty seven tissue samples were obtained from healthy human gingival tissue, 19 female and 8 male patients aged 14-67 years (37.7±17.5. The tissue was cut into 1x1 mm pieces and placed on plastic culture plates containing Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 µg/ml streptomycin and 1% amphotericin B. For the keratinocytes culture, after the epithelial cells started to multiply around the gingival origin and the diameter was 2-5 mm., the fibroblasts were liminated by mechanical removal under inverted microscope to prevent fibroblast overgrowth and the medium was changed to keratinocyte-SFM (Gibco, BRL supplemented with 5 µg/ml gentamycin. The results revealed that gingival fibroblast gave the highest success rate in culture (96.3%, followed by gingival keratinocytes (88.9% and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (81.5%. There was no significant difference in the success rate of cultivation between younger and older individuals, as between sex of the subjects (p>0.05. The risk of failure in culture techniques is mainly caused by microbiological contamination from the tissue samples.

  13. Multiple effects of electroporation on the adhesive behaviour of breast cancer cells and fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pehlivanova Viktoria N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently electroporation using biphasic pulses was successfully applied in clinical developments for treating tumours in humans and animals. We evaluated the effects of electrical treatment on cell adhesion behaviour of breast cancer cells and fibroblasts. By applying bipolar electrical pulses we studied short- and long-lived effects on cell adhesion and survival, actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion contacts in adherent cancer cells and fibroblasts. Methods Two cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 and one fibroblast cell line 3T3 were used. Cells were exposed to high field intensity (200 - 1000 V/cm. Cell adhesion and survival after electrical exposure were studied by crystal violet assay and MTS assay. Cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell adhesion contacts were visualized by actin staining and fluorescent microscope. Results The degree of electropermeabilization of the adherent cells elevated steadily with the increasing of the field intensity. Adhesion behaviour of fibroblasts and MCF-7 was not significantly affected by electrotreatment. Interestingly, treating the loosely adhesive cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with 200 V/cm and 500 V/cm resulted in increased cell adhesion. Cell replication of both studied cancer cell lines was disturbed after electropermeabilization. Electroporation influenced the actin cytoskeleton in cancer cells and fibroblasts in different ways. Since it disturbed temporarily the actin cytoskeleton in 3T3 cells, in cancer cells treated with lower and middle field intensity actin cytoskeleton was well presented in stress fibers, filopodia and lamellipodia. The electrotreatment for cancer cells provoked preferentially cell-cell adhesion contacts for MCF-7 and cell-ECM contacts for MDA-MB- 231. Conclusions Cell adhesion and survival as well as the type of cell adhesion (cell-ECM or cell-cell adhesion induced by the electroporation process is cell specific. The application of suitable electric pulses can provoke changes in the cytoskeleton organization and cell adhesiveness, which could contribute to the restriction of tumour invasion and thus leads to the amplification of anti-tumour effect of electroporation-based tumour therapy.

  14. Fluorescence decay kinetics and localization of disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine in fibroblasts: a confocal fluorescence microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, Zdenek; Ostler, Richard B.; Eigenbrot, Ilya V.; Phillips, David

    1999-05-01

    Steady state and time resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy, using a point scanning system, is applied to an investigation of the early stages of photo-induced changes in 3T3-L1 murine fibroblasts using di-sulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS2) as a photosensitizer. A comparison is made with data obtained using a line scan system and V79-4 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. The steady state data obtained in this work demonstrate that intracellular AlPcS2 fluorescence intensity increases progressively on photoirradiation. Time-resolved studies indicate that this could result from a progressive decrease in the concentration of the self-quenched membrane-associated form of AlPcS2 following its conversion into the fluorescent monomeric form.

  15. Differential effects of tryptophan photoproducts and H202 on the growth of mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of dilute solutions of L-tryptophan in balanced salt mixtures to near-ultraviolet light (ca. 320-390 nm) yield several photo-products capable of inhibiting the growth of cultured mouse embryonic fibro-blasts. Recent literature suggested a need to test the possibility that the major toxic photoproduct is hydrogen peroxide, and therefore several lines of experimentation were pursued. On the basis of chemical and morphological studies and an analysis of the uptake of 3H-thymidine by these cells and its incorporation into their DNA, it is concluded that sufficient hydrogen peroxide could not be generated without the addition of high concentrations of oxygen to influence the growth or DNA synthesis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (author)

  16. Antioxidant and potential anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and formulations of white tea, rose, and witch hazel on primary human dermal fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hili Pauline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous reports have identified therapeutic roles for plants and their extracts and constituents. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacies of three plant extracts for their potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in primary human skin fibroblasts. Methods Aqueous extracts and formulations of white tea, witch hazel and rose were subjected to assays to measure anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, trolox equivalent and catalase activities. Skin fibroblast cells were employed to determine the effect of each extract/formulation on IL-8 release induced by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. Microscopic examination along with Neutral Red viability testing was employed to ascertain the effects of hydrogen peroxide directly on cell viability. Results Considerable anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, and antioxidant activities were measured for all extracts apart from the witch hazel distillate which showed no activity in the collagenase assay or in the trolox equivalence assay. All of the extracts and products tested elicited a significant decrease in the amount of IL-8 produced by fibroblast cells compared to the control (p Conclusions These data show that the extracts and products tested have a protective effect on fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide induced damage. This approach provides a potential method to evaluate the claims made for plant extracts and the products in which these extracts are found.

  17. General Information about Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  19. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... For information on establishing skin tolerance, see our “Pressure Sores” pamphlet.) Pressure releases in a wheelchair can be ...

  20. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... are having a skin problem, such as a pressure sore or a healing surgical incision, you should increase ...