WorldWideScience

Sample records for skin fibroblast lines

  1. Potentially lethal damage repair in cell lines of radioresistant human tumours and normal skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation cell survival data were obtained in vitro for three cell lines isolated from human tumours traditionally considered to be radioresistant-two melanomas and one osteosarcoma-as well as from a diploid skin fibroblast cell line. One melanoma cell line was much more radioresistant than the other, while the osteosarcoma and fibroblast cell lines were more radiosensitive than either. For cells growing exponentially, little potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) could be demonstrated by comparing survival data for cells in which subculture was delayed by 6 h with those sub-cultured immediately after treatment. For the malignant cells in plateau phase, which in these cells might be better termed 'slowed growth phase', since an appreciable fraction of the cells are still cycling, a small amount of PLDR was observed, but not as much as reported by other investigators in the literature. The normal fibroblasts, which achieved a truer plateau phase in terms of noncycling cells, showed a significantly larger amount of PLDR than the tumour cells. (author)

  2. Establishment and characterization of fibroblast cell lines from the skin of the Yangtze finless porpoise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhen; Su, Weiting; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Xiao, Wuhan; Wang, Ding

    2011-10-01

    The Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), as the sole freshwater subspecies of N. phocaenoides, is endemic to the Yangtze River and its adjacent lakes. Its population has declined significantly over recent decades. In this study, we established a skin-derived finite fibroblast cell line of the Yangtze finless porpoise, named YFP-SF1, using primary cell culture methods, and an immortalized cell line, T-YFP-SF1, through co-transfection (GFP and SV40 T antigens) techniques. YFP-SF1 proliferated continuously with a minimum population doubling time of 31 h and exhibited age-dependent changes in growth rate. T-YFP-SF1 cells exhibited fibroblast morphology and were characterized by a shorter doubling time, higher attachment efficiencies, colony formation at a low seeding density, and growth in low serum concentrations. Anchorage independence and foci formation in the cell monolayer were observed from passage 36. The chromosome number of YFP-SF1 and T-YFP-SF1 remained stable at 2n?=?44 in the early passages, and the viability of thawed cells remained above 90% after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen. Taken together, we have established fibroblast cell lines of Yangtze finless porpoise for the first time, which might assist as an in vitro model for this endangered mammal. PMID:21959845

  3. Generation of fluorescently labeled cell lines, C3A hepatoma cells, and human adult skin fibroblasts to study coculture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samluk, Anna; Zakrzewska, Karolina Ewa; Pluta, Krzysztof Dariusz

    2013-07-01

    Hepatic/nonhepatic cell cocultures are widely used in studies on the role of homo- and heterotypic interactions in liver physiology and pathophysiology. In this article, for the first time, establishment of the coculture model employing hepatoma C3A cells and human skin fibroblasts, stably expressing fluorescent markers, is described. Suitability of the model in studying coculture conditions using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry was examined. C3A cells spontaneously formed island-like growth patterns surrounded by fibroblasts. The "islands" size and resulting intensity of the homo- and heterotypic interactions can easily be tuned by applying various plated cells ratios. We examined the capability of the hepatoma cells to produce albumin in hepatic/nonhepatic cell cocultures. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests showed that greater number of fibroblasts in coculture, resulting in smaller sizes of hepatoma "islands," and thus, a larger heterotypic interface, promoted higher albumin synthesis. The use of fluorescently labeled cells in flow cytometry measurements enabled us to separately gate two cell populations and to evaluate protein expression only in/on cells of interest. Flow cytometry confirmed ELISA results indicating the highest albumin production in hepatoma cells cocultured with the greatest number of fibroblasts and the inhibited protein synthesis in coculture with osteosarcoma cells. PMID:23581829

  4. Lymphoblastoid lines and skin fibroblasts from patients with tuberous sclerosis are abnormally sensitive to ionizing radiation and to a radiomimetic chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphoblastoid lines, derived by transforming peripheral blood lymphocytes with Epstein-Barr virus, and skin fibroblast lines were established from two patients with tuberous sclerosis. The number of viable lymphoblastoid cells was determined by their ability to exclude the vital dye trypan blue after their irradiation with x-rays or 254 nm ultraviolet light. The growth of fibroblasts was determined by their ability to form colonies after treatment with the radiomimetic, DNA-damaging chemical N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The tuberous sclerosis lymphoblastoid lines were hypersensitive to x-rays but had normal sensitivity to the ultraviolet radiation. The tuberous sclerosis fibroblast lines were hypersensitive to the N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The hypersensitivity of tuberous sclerosis cells to x-rays and to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine is believed to reflect defective repair of DNA damaged by these agents and may provide the basis for in vitro, including prenatal, diagnostic tests for tuberous sclerosis

  5. Cytoskeletal proteins from human skin fibroblasts, peripheral blood leukocytes, and a lymphoblastoid cell line compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differences in proteins between cells grown as suspension cultures and those grown as attached cultures were studied by comparing the proteins of detergent-resistant cytoskeletons prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes and a lymphoblastoid cell line (GM607) (both grown as suspension cultures) and those of human skin fibroblasts (grown as attached cultures) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The major cytoskeletal proteins of the leukocytes were also present in the protein pattern of GM607 cytoskeletons. In contrast, the fibroblast cytoskeletal protein pattern contained four groups of proteins that differed from the patterns of the leukocytes and GM607. In addition, surface labeling of GM607 and human fibroblasts with 125I demonstrated that substantial amounts of vimentin and actin are exposed at the surface of the attached fibroblasts, but there is little evidence of similar exposure at the surface of the suspension-grown GM607. These results demonstrate some differences in cytoskeletal protein composition between different types of cells could be related to their ability or lack of ability to grow as attached cells in tissue culture

  6. Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh L. Thangapazham

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices.

  7. Dynamics of Micronuclei in Rat Skin Fibroblasts after X Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspler, P.; Pintilie, M.; Hill, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated DNA damage, expressed as micronuclei, in binucleate dermal fibroblasts obtained from human skin 2-9 weeks after fractionated radiotherapy. Here we assessed micronuclei in X-irradiated skin fibroblasts from 9-14-week-old female Lewis rats as a function of time after a single dose of radiation to determine the lifetime of such damage in the skin. After irradiation with 5, 10, 15 and 18 Gy, formation of micronuclei at 1 day or 2 months postirradiation increas...

  8. "Short Take": Resistance of Skin Fibroblasts to Peroxide and UV Damage Predicts Hearing Loss in Aging Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Richard A.; Dolan, David; Han, Melissa; Kohler, William; Schacht, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Those mice whose skin-derived primary fibroblast cell lines resist lethal injury induced by hydrogen peroxide or UV light show lower age-related decline in hearing. Skin cell lines may provide an easily accessible surrogate index of intrinsic stress resistance that varies among individuals and influences the pace of neurosensory decline in aging mice.

  9. Extracellular depolymerization of hyaluronic acid in cultured human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chain length of [3H]hyaluronic acid synthesized by cultivating human skin fibroblasts in the presence of [3H]glucosamine was investigated. [3H]Hyaluronic acid obtained from the matrix fraction was excluded from a Sepharose CL-2B column irrespective of the incubation period, whereas that from the medium was depolymerized into a constant chain length (Mr = 40,000). The reducing and non-reducing terminals of the depolymerized hyaluronic acid were N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid, respectively. Prolonged incubation produced no oligosaccharides as shown by examination of hyaluronidase digests, suggesting the presence of a novel endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase in cultured human skin fibroblasts

  10. Studies of the in vivo radiosensitivity of human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To examine the radiosensitivity of skin cells obtained directly from the irradiated skin of patients undergoing fractionated radiation treatment prior to surgery for treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and to determine if there was a relationship with the development of wound healing complications associated with the surgery post-radiotherapy. Methods: Micronucleus (MN) formation was measured in cells (primarily dermal fibroblasts) obtained from human skin at their first division after being removed from STS patients during post-radiotherapy surgery (2-9 weeks after the end of the radiotherapy). At the time of radiotherapy (planned tumor dose - 50 Gy in 25 daily fractions) measurements were made of surface skin dose at predetermined marked sites. Skin from these sites was obtained at surgery and cell suspensions were prepared directly for the cytokinesis-blocked MN assay. Cultured strains of the fibroblasts were also established from skin nominally outside the edge of the radiation beam and DNA damage (MN formation) was examined following irradiation in vitro for comparison with the results from the in situ irradiations. Results: Extensive DNA damage (MN) was detectable in fibroblasts from human skin at extended periods after irradiation (2-9 weeks after the end of the 5-week fractionated radiotherapy). Analysis of skin receiving a range of doses demonstrated that the level of damage observed was dose dependent. There was no clear correlatioe dependent. There was no clear correlation between the level of damage observed after irradiation in situ and irradiation of cell strains in culture. Similarly, there was no correlation between the extent of MN formation following in situ irradiation and the propensity for the patient to develop wound healing complications post-surgery. Conclusions: Despite the presence of DNA damage in dermal fibroblasts weeks after the end of the radiation treatment, there was no relationship between this damage and wound healing complications following surgery post-irradiation. These results suggest that factors other than the radiosensitivity of the skin fibroblasts likely also play a role in wound healing in deep wound sites associated with surgery for STS following radiation therapy

  11. Tumorigenicity of green turtle fibropapilloma-derived fibroblast lines in immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, L H; Sundberg, J P; Shultz, L D; Gray, B A; Klein, P A

    1998-04-01

    Fibroblast lines derived from normal skin and spontaneous or experimentally induced fibropapillomas of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) were established and propagated in medium composed of a combination of Dulbecco's minimal essential with F12 medium plus 10% fetal bovine serum at 30 degrees C. Fibropapilloma-derived fibroblasts were indistinguishable from normal skin fibroblasts in vitro. Tumor lines did not exhibit loss of contact inhibition, anchorage independence, or reduced serum requirements. Inoculation of primary and early-passage tumor cells into the medial margin of the pinna of C57BL/6J-nu/nu, C.B17-scid/scid, or NOD-scid/scid mice, however, resulted in fibroma formation, whereas inoculation of normal skin fibroblasts did not. Tumor-derived cells inoculated into the flanks of mice did not form tumors. The turtle origin of fibroblasts in tumors from mouse ears was confirmed by immunohistochemical and karyotype analysis. Fibroblast lines that were established from mouse ear fibromas had the normal karyotype (modal 2N = 55) of C. mydas. The cooler anatomic sites (ears) of immunodeficient mice are useful for confirming the tumorigenic (transformed) phenotype of green turtle fibropapillomatosis-derived fibroblasts. This mouse ear tumorigenicity test should facilitate studies of mechanisms of cellular transformation in green turtle fibropapillomatosis and other neoplastic diseases of poikilothermic vertebrates. PMID:10090007

  12. Proliferation index of camel skin fibroblast cells as nuclear donor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiselmeri is an excellent breed of riding camel, found in Jaiselmer and other adjoining districts of Western Rajasthan in India. Jaiselmeri camel like other pack animals are declining in India over the years due to increased mechanization and control of desert agriculture to some extent. The deep freezing technology on camel semen is poorly developed in India. The somatic cell technology has been developed at this Institute as an alternative tool of long-term conservation on endangered livestock breeds. For this study, samples of (0.25 cm2) skin tissue were collected from ear biopsy from elite male germplasm from National Research Centre on Camel, Bikaner. Skin tissues were cultured at 37 deg. C in Medium (DMEM+ Ham's F-12 nutritive mixture) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, L-Glutamine and antibiotics in an incubator under 98% humidified and 5% Co2 atmosphere. The cell explants were visible from 12-16 days of culture. The cells were allowed to confluent in the TC flasks for additional 3-5 days till nearly 80% surface area is covered by the cells. The primary cells were harvested by usual trypsin-EDTA protocol. The cells were counted using Neubar's haemocytometer and cells were passaged subsequently. Since no reference values were available for camel skin fibroblasts, the present experiments were conducted to study the cell proliferation index, population doubling time, standard growth curve and cell viability using standard growth and MTT assays. ity using standard growth and MTT assays. It is shown that growth curves showed true sigmoid shape but a marked variation between the cell lines was observed. Moreover, cells, which grew faster attained plateau on day 6 while in slow growing cultures, the curve showed elevation even on day 8. This is probably due to non-availability of growing space for cells having faster growth rate. It was concluded that all animals do not produce karyoplast donors at equal rate or efficiency. Therefore, the growing cultures need to be compared with standard growth curve each time the cells are used as nuclear donor cells for cloning. Cell Proliferation Index: Cell multiplication rates vary considerably under different culture condition and slight change in environment or composition of medium may affect the proliferation of cells significantly. For camel skin fibroblast cells, the standard multiplication rate and the population doubling time was not known earlier. In order to study the proliferative indices of the growing cells using objective parameters, MTT assay was conducted. In this assay, the dividing and viable cells take up MTT [3- (4,5- dimethylthiozol- 2yl) 2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide] and a colour is developed. The intensity of colour is measured by ELISA reader at 540-570 nm. For this, 4000 cells per well were seeded in 96 well ELISA plate (flat bottom, Nunc) and cultured at 37 deg. C. First two rows of eight wells each were kept as negative and positive controls respectively. Rest of the 10 rows were kept as treatments. One row was harvested at an interval of 24 hours and adjoining row was treated with MTT solution for 4 hours. The MTT treated cells were fixed in 10% DMSO. Figures 2 and 3 show that the cell proliferation index both in terms of cell count and absorbance values in ELISA reader at appropriate wavelength was similar. From this study it is clear that MTT assay can give fairly accurate figures of cell proliferation rate of skin fibroblasts. Ploidy level: During long-term culture, the cells are likely to develop one or other type of chromosomal abnormalities. It must be ensured that the cells in different passages are checked for normal ploidy so that the viable clones can be developed from them. In order to see the utility of cells from Jaiselmeri camel as nuclear donor, the chromosomal profile was studied following the protocol described elsewhere. The 2N chromosomes up to passage No 4 (15th population doubling) was found to be normal (74XY) in 97% of the cells. From these preliminary studies it appears that camel skin fibroblast cells behave normally i

  13. Treatment of Skin Avulsion Injuries with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Summary: This report describes favorable outcomes in 9 patients with skin avulsion injuries of the extremities who underwent full-thickness skin grafting and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) application. Following removal of contaminated subcutaneous fat tissue on the inside of skin, the avulsed skin was processed into a full-thickness skin graft, with as much of the skin used as possible irrespective of damage. Several drainage holes (5–10?mm in diameter) were made on the graft for drainage from the graft bed and to prevent seroma and hematoma formation. Genetically recombinant human bFGF was sprayed at a dose of 1 ?g/cm2 onto the graft bed, which was then covered with the graft and sutured. Pressure immobilization with ointment gauzes and elastic bandages was administered for 1 week postoperatively, and the surface of the skin grafts that did not take was scraped away, preserving the revascularized dermal component on the debrided raw surface as much as possible. bFGF was sprayed again onto the debrided surface to promote epithelialization. Wound closure was achieved in all cases with conservative therapy. The surgical procedure was effective in preventing postoperative ulcer formation and scar contracture and resulted in wound healing with the formation of good-quality, flexible scars. PMID:25973349

  14. Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptides in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion

  15. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid and arsenic trioxide regulate the productions and activities of matrix metalloproteinases in human skin fibroblasts and human leukemia cell line THP-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-hui Liang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In order to reveal the treatment mechanism of Chinese medicine with the effect of activating blood and resolving putridity, we selected acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA and arsenic trioxide (ATO, the main monomeric components of frankincense and arsenolite which are two most commonly used Chinese medicine with effect of activating blood and resolving putridity. We combined AKBA and ATO as a compound, and explored its regulatory role in productions and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human skin fibroblasts (HSFbs and human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 in inflammatory state.Methods: In order to simulate the inflammatory micro-environment of chronic wounds, we established 3 cell models: HSFb model activated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?, THP-1 cell model activated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA and HSFb-THP-1 cell coculture system. AKBA and ATO were cocultured with these cell models. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, gelatin zymography assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were used to test the secretions, activities and mRNA expressions of MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9. In the study of the regulatory mechanism of AKBA and ATO on MMPs, AKBA and ATO were cocultured with the cell models. ELISA was used to test the secretions of TNF-? and interleukin-1beta (IL-? and Western blot was used to test the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated proteinkinase (p38MAPK. Results: Compound of AKBA and ATO inhibited MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expressions, secretions and activities respectively in HSFbs and THP-1 cells in inflammatory state (P?0.05, P?0.01. Also compound of AKBA and ATO inhibited secretions of TNF-? and IL-1? in THP-1 cells and cell coculture system (P?0.01. It also decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in HSFbs and THP-1 cells (P?0.05, P?0.01. Conclusion: The combined use of AKBA and ATO which in line with the rule of activating blood and resolving putridity inhibits fibroblasts and inflammatory cells in producing MMPs in inflammatory state through inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors and MAPK cascade pathway.

  16. Influence of retinoids on skin fibroblasts metabolism in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurzak, Magdalena; Latocha, Ma?gorzata; Gojniczek, Katarzyna; Kapral, Ma?gorzata; Garncarczyk, Agnieszka; Pierzcha?a, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The most dangerous environmental factor for our skin condition is ultraviolet light radiation. Chronic exposition to ultraviolet light can induce epidermal atrophy, keratosis, depigmentation and dysplasia. In the dermis, UV light causes dramatic up-regulation of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are engaged in collagen, elastin and other extracellular matrix components degradation. In addition, to increase level of destructive enzymes, UV light has been shown to decrease collagen production. As a consequence of UV impact on skin, it shows signs of aging including loss of tone and elasticity, increased skin fragility, blood vessels weakness and wrinkles. The most dangerous effect of UV on skin is an increased risk of melanoma and other skin cancers. Retinoids are well known antiaging agents. For many years this vitamin has been used for the prevention and treatment of photoaging. Retinoids abolish cellular atypia, increase compacting of the stratum corneum and reduce skin hyperpigmentation caused by sun light. Recent evidence suggests that retinoids also play a role in the prevention of aging, because of its inhibitory effects on metalloproteinases expression. The aim of this study was to examine if all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) effects MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-14 gene expression in fibroblasts cultured in vitro. PMID:18536179

  17. Site-Specific Keloid Fibroblasts Alter the Behaviour of Normal Skin and Normal Scar Fibroblasts through Paracrine Signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Ashcroft, Kevin J.; Syed, Farhatullah; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2013-01-01

    Keloid disease (KD) is an abnormal cutaneous fibroproliferative disorder of unknown aetiopathogenesis. Keloid fibroblasts (KF) are implicated as mediators of elevated extracellular matrix deposition. Aberrant secretory behaviour by KF relative to normal skin fibroblasts (NF) may influence the disease state. To date, no previous reports exist on the ability of site-specific KF to induce fibrotic-like phenotypic changes in NF or normal scar fibroblasts (NS) by paracrine mechanisms. Therefore, t...

  18. Aluminum is More Cytotoxic than Lunar Dust in Human Skin and Lung Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, D.; Shehata, T.; Hammond, D.; Shehata, T.; Wise, J.P.; Martino, J; Wise, J.P.; Wise, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA plans to build a permanent space station on the moon to explore its surface. The surface of the moon is covered in lunar dust, which consists of fine particles that contain silicon, aluminum and titanium, among others. Because this will be a manned base, the potential toxicity of this dust has to be studied. Also, toxicity standards for potential exposure have to be set. To properly address the potential toxicity of lunar dust we need to understand the toxicity of its individual components, as well as their combined effects. In order to study this we compared NASA simulant JSC-1AVF (volcanic ash particles), that simulates the dust found on the moon, to aluminum, the 3rd most abundant component in lunar dust. We tested the cytotoxicity of both compounds on human lung and skin fibroblasts (WTHBF-6 and BJhTERT cell lines, respectively). Aluminum oxide was more cytotoxic than lunar dust to both cell lines. In human lung fibroblasts 5, 10 and 50 g/sq cm of aluminum oxide induced 85%, 61% and 30% relative survival, respectively. For human skin fibroblasts the same concentrations induced 58%, 41% and 58% relative survival. Lunar dust was also cytotoxic to both cell lines, but its effects were seen at higher concentrations: 50, 100, 200 and 400 g/sq cm of lunar dust induced a 69%, 46%, 35% and 30% relative survival in the skin cells and 53%, 16%, 8% and 2% on the lung cells. Overall, for both compounds, lung cells were more sensitive than skin cells. This work was supported by a NASA EPSCoR grant through the Maine Space Grant Consortium (JPW), the Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health., a Fulbright Grant (JM) and a Delta Kappa Gamma Society International World Fellowship (JM).

  19. Radiobiological studies of human hybrid cells (skin fibroblasts x HeLa) and their tumourigenic segregants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented on the survival characteristics following ?-irradiation of a human hybrid cell line (skin fibroblasts x HeLa), and its tumourigenic segregant, which indicate that transition from the non-tumourigenic to the tumourigenic state is associated with a decrease in the ability to accumulate and repair sublethal damage. Previous studies have demonstrated that this transition to the tumourigenic state is also associated with loss of specific chromosomes (one copy each of chromosomes 11 and 14). It is suggested that this loss of chromosomes may account for the change in radiosensitivity. (author)

  20. A Marfan syndrome gene expression phenotype in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emond Mary

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marfan syndrome (MFS is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. This syndrome constitutes a significant identifiable subtype of aortic aneurysmal disease, accounting for over 5% of ascending and thoracic aortic aneurysms. Results We used spotted membrane DNA macroarrays to identify genes whose altered expression levels may contribute to the phenotype of the disease. Our analysis of 4132 genes identified a subset with significant expression differences between skin fibroblast cultures from unaffected controls versus cultures from affected individuals with known fibrillin-1 mutations. Subsequently, 10 genes were chosen for validation by quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusion Differential expression of many of the validated genes was associated with MFS samples when an additional group of unaffected and MFS affected subjects were analyzed (p-value -6 under the null hypothesis that expression levels in cultured fibroblasts are unaffected by MFS status. An unexpected observation was the range of individual gene expression. In unaffected control subjects, expression ranges exceeding 10 fold were seen in many of the genes selected for qRT-PCR validation. The variation in expression in the MFS affected subjects was even greater.

  1. AGE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN HUMAN SKIN FIBROBLASTS INDUCED BY MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-Related Gene Expression Changes In Human Skin Fibroblasts Induced By methyl methanesulfonate. Geremy W. Knapp, Alan H. Tennant, and Russell D. Owen. Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U. S. Environmental Prote...

  2. Mutagenic effects of alpha particles in normal human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-irradiation to the bronchial airways from inhaled radon progeny increases the risk of developing lung cancer. The molecular mechanism of radon-induced lung cancer is not clear, but one of the most important genetic effects of ionizing radiation is the induction of gene mutation. Mutations, especially those associated with visible chromosome abnormalities in humans, have been associated with cancer. Therefore, our objective is to use a well-defined model system to determine the mutagenic potential of alpha particles in normal human skin cells and to define this action at the molecular level. Normal human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with alpha particles (3.59 MeV, LET 115 keV ?m-1) emitted from the decay of 238Pu. Mutagenicity was determined at the X-linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus. Results from this study indicate that beta particles were more efficient in mutation induction than gamma rays. Based on the initial slopes of the dose-response curves, the RBE for mutation is about 8 for alpha particles. HPRT-deficient mutants which are resistant to 6-thioguanine have been isolated and analyzed by the Southern blot technique. To date, we have characterized 69 gamma-ray-induced and 195 alpha-particle-induced HPRT-deficient mutants. Our data indicate that more than 50% of all gamma-ray-induced mutants have band patterns identical to that observed for the normal structural HPRT gene, whereas the remaining mutural HPRT gene, whereas the remaining mutants (45%) contain either a rearrangement, partial deletion, or total deletion of the HPRT gene. In contrast, only 30% of alpha-particle-induced human HPRT mutants contain a normal Southern blot pattern, and about 50% indicate total deletion of the HPRT gene. Our results support the notion that high-LET radiation produces more unrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage than do gamma rays

  3. PTCH1+/? Dermal Fibroblasts Isolated from Healthy Skin of Gorlin Syndrome Patients Exhibit Features of Carcinoma Associated Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Thomas; Ripoche, Hugues; Brellier, Florence; Chevallier-Lagente, Odile; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Gorlin's or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) causes predisposition to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the commonest cancer in adult human. Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTCH1 are responsible for this autosomal dominant syndrome. In NBCCS patients, as in the general population, ultraviolet exposure is a major risk factor for BCC development. However these patients also develop BCCs in sun-protected areas of the skin, suggesting the existence of other mechanisms for BCC predisposition in NBCCS patients. As increasing evidence supports the idea that the stroma influences carcinoma development, we hypothesized that NBCCS fibroblasts could facilitate BCC occurence of the patients. WT (n?=?3) and NBCCS fibroblasts bearing either nonsense (n?=?3) or missense (n?=?3) PTCH1 mutations were cultured in dermal equivalents made of a collagen matrix and their transcriptomes were compared by whole genome microarray analyses. Strikingly, NBCCS fibroblasts over-expressed mRNAs encoding pro-tumoral factors such as Matrix Metalloproteinases 1 and 3 and tenascin C. They also over-expressed mRNA of pro-proliferative diffusible factors such as fibroblast growth factor 7 and the stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha, known for its expression in carcinoma associated fibroblasts. These data indicate that the PTCH1+/? genotype of healthy NBCCS fibroblasts results in phenotypic traits highly reminiscent of those of BCC associated fibroblasts, a clue to the yet mysterious proneness to non photo-exposed BCCs in NBCCS patients. PMID:19287498

  4. Mercury-induced micronuclei in skin fibroblasts of beluga whales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, J.M.; Dubeau, H.; Rassart, E. [Univ. du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Biologiques

    1998-12-01

    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabiting the St. Lawrence estuary are highly contaminated with environmental pollutants and have a high incidence of cancer. Environmental contaminants may be partly responsible for the high incidence of cancer observed in this population. DNA damage plays an important role in the development of cancer. The micronuclei assay was used to test the genotoxic potential of mercury compounds in skin fibroblasts of an Arctic beluga whale. Both mercuric chloride (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) induced a highly significant dose-response increase of micronucleated cells. Statistically significant increases in micronucleated cells were observed for 0.5, 5, and 20 {micro}g/ml Hg and 0.05, 0.5, and 2 {micro}g/ml MeHg when compared to control cultures. Concentrations of 0.5, 5, and 20 {micro}g/ml Hg induced a two-, three- and fourfold increase of micronucleated cells, respectively. Treatment with MeHg was one order of magnitude more potent in inducing micronuclei and in inhibiting cell proliferation than Hg. Although results of this in vitro study do not imply that mercury compounds are involved in the etiology of cancer in St. Lawrence beluga whales, significant increases in micronuclei frequency were found at low concentrations of MeHg that are believed to be comparable to concentrations present in certain whales of this population.

  5. In vitro culture of skin fibroblast cells for potential cloning by nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donor cell lines were developed from skin tissue for the conservation of the endangered Jaiselmeri camel breed of India. Average cell proliferation rates varied from 0.82 to 0.69 in different passages, and population doubling time from 29.3 h to 34.8 h. Around 15 population doublings were accomplished during this culturing. Cell viability was 97 to 99% in different passages. Growth curves of cells from the JC-5 cell line reached a plateau on day 7, while the slower-growing cultures of JC-3 showed elevation even on day 10, possibly due to donor age differences. Cell proliferation rates by both cell count and MTT absorbance showed similar patterns, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79. MTT assay, a colorimetric method, can handle large samples in somatic cell cultures. Diploid chromosomal counts in passages 1, 3 and 5 were normal (2N=74, XY) in 97% of the cells. Occasional metaphase plates showed polyploidy. The present baseline data on standard growth curve, linear relationship in colorimetric assay for estimation of cell proliferation rate, and normal ploidy and karyological levels in camel skin fibroblast cells in multiplication could be useful in developing competent donor somatic cell lines for conservation now and revival of this camel breed by cloning in the future. (author)

  6. Senescent phenotypes of skin fibroblasts from patients with Tangier disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangier disease (TD) is characterized by a deficiency of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma and patients with TD have an increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Recently, we reported that fibroblasts from TD exhibited large and flattened morphology, which is often observed in senescent cells. On the other hand, data have accumulated to show the relationship between cellular senescence and development of atherosclerotic CAD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether TD fibroblasts exhibited cellular senescence. The proliferation of TD fibroblasts was gradually decreased at population doubling level (PDL) ?10 compared with control cells. TD cells practically ceased proliferation at PDL ?30. DNA synthesis was markedly decreased in TD fibroblasts. TD cells exhibited a higher positive rate for senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal), which is one of the biomarkers of cellular senescence in vitro. These data showed that TD cells reached cellular senescence at an earlier PDL compared with controls. Although, there was no difference in the telomere length of fibroblasts between TD and controls at the earlier passage (PDL 6), the telomere length of TD cells was shorter than that of controls at the late passage (PDL 25). Taken together, the current study demonstrates that the late-passaged TD fibroblasts showed senescent phenotype in vitro, which might be related to the increased cardiovascular manifestations in TD patientsifestations in TD patients

  7. Phenotypic responses to mechanical stress in fibroblasts from tendon, cornea and skin

    OpenAIRE

    Mackley, J.; Ando, J.; Herzyk, P.; Winder, S. J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Primary fibroblasts isolated from foetal mouse cornea, skin and tendon were subjected to linear shear stress and analysed for morphological parameters and by microarray as compared with unstimulated controls. Approximately 350 genes were either up or down regulated by a significant amount, with 51 of these being common to all 3 cell types. Approximately 50% of altered genes in tendon and cornea fibroblasts were changed in common with one of the other cell types, with the r...

  8. Enhanced reactivation of ultraviolet-damaged herpes virus in ultraviolet pretreated skin fibroblasts of cancer prone donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enhanced reactivation of ultraviolet-damaged (u.v. at 254 nm) unclear replicating double-stranded DNA viruses occurs when corresponding host cells are treated with radiation or carcinogens prior to infection. This phenomenon seems to be due to an induced DNA repair activity the nature of which is yet unknown. The u.v.-induced enhanced reactivation (ER) of u.v.-damaged herpes simplex virus (u.v. - HSV) was compared in dividing skin fibroblasts of 30 donors either normal or afflicted by genetic disorders, some of which confer a high risk for sunlight induced skin cancers. Cultures were exposed to a single dose of 1.0-25 J.m-2 from 0-60 h before infection with u.v.-HSV (at about 10-3 survival) and the rate of viral production was determined. ER was maximal for a 36 h time interval in all lines. The u.v. dose eliciting maximal ER was 15 J.m-2 in fibroblasts from normal donors, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) heterozygotes, Mibelli's porokeratosis, diffused naevomatosis, Down's syndrome, xerodermoids, XP variants and epidermodysplasia verruciformis. However, in the latter 3 cases, ER was almost 10 times more pronounced than in the normal cases. The u.v. dose eliciting maximal ER was 0.1, 0.3 and 2 J.m-2 in excision deficient XP fibroblasts from groups A, D and C, respectively, 2.5 J.m-2 in 11961 fibroblasts and 5 J.m-2 in fibroblast lines from cockayne s syndrome

  9. Enhanced reactivation of ultraviolet-damaged herpes virus in ultraviolet pretreated skin fibroblasts of cancer prone donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppey, J.; Menezes, S.

    1981-01-01

    An enhanced reactivation of ultraviolet-damaged (u.v. at 254 nm) unclear replicating double-stranded DNA viruses occurs when corresponding host cells are treated with radiation or carcinogens prior to infection. This phenomenon seems to be due to an induced DNA repair activity the nature of which is yet unknown. The u.v.-induced enhanced reactivation (ER) of u.v.-damaged herpes simplex virus (u.v. - HSV) was compared in dividing skin fibroblasts of 30 donors either normal or afflicted by genetic disorders, some of which confer a high risk for sunlight induced skin cancers. Cultures were exposed to a single dose of 1.0-25 J.m-2 from 0-60 h before infection with u.v.-HSV (at about 10-3 survival) and the rate of viral production was determined. ER was maximal for a 36 h time interval in all lines. The u.v. dose eliciting maximal ER was 15 J.m-2 in fibroblasts from normal donors, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) heterozygotes, Mibelli's porokeratosis, diffused naevomatosis, Down's syndrome, xerodermoids, XP variants and epidermodysplasia verruciformis. However, in the latter 3 cases, ER was almost 10 times more pronounced than in the normal cases. The u.v. dose eliciting maximal ER was 0.1, 0.3 and 2 J.m-2 in excision deficient XP fibroblasts from groups A, D and C, respectively, 2.5 J.m-2 in 11961 fibroblasts and 5 J.m-2 in fibroblast lines from cockayne s syndrome.

  10. Human fetal skin fibroblasts: Extremely potent and allogenic candidates for treatment of diabetic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Ghahari, Aziz; Warnock, Garth L; Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Goodarzi, Parisa; Falahzadeh, Khadijeh; Arjmand, Babak

    2015-06-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has been expected around 300 million by 2025 and 366 million by 2030 by WHO. On the other hand, diabetic wounds as one of the common complications of diabetes represent major health challenges. Recently, wound care biological products have been proposed for treatment of chronic wounds such as the diabetic wound. Accordingly, tissue-engineered skin substitutes have demonstrated promising effects. Some of these products have used adult skin and neonatal foreskin fibroblasts to produce a tissue-engineered skin substitute. Although adult skin and neonatal foreskin fibroblasts have demonstrated promising effects, but fetal skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes have depicted some unique and considerable properties over adult and neonatal skin cells for instance, skin regeneration with no inflammation and scar formation, low immunogenicity, more VEGF-A secretion than their adult counterparts, immunomodulatory effect by the expression of Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase, more resistance to oxidative and physical stresses, etc. On the other hand fetal dermal cells with intrinsic IDO-dependent immunosuppressive activity have introduced them as an allogeneic alternative for treatment of chronic wounds. Therefore, based on the mentioned advantages they are ideal skin substitutes. Accordingly, we suggest that using these cells alone or in combination with biocompatible scaffolds for treatment of different types of ulcers such as diabetic wounds. PMID:25784640

  11. Influence of caffeine and hyaluronic acid on collagen biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donejko M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Magdalena Donejko,1 Andrzej Przylipiak,1 Edyta Rysiak,2 Katarzyna G?uszuk,2 Arkadiusz Sura?y?ski2 1Department of Esthetic Medicine, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Bia?ystok, Bia?ystok, Poland Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on collagen biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts and the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA on this process. Materials and methods: Collagen, [3H]-thymidine incorporation, and prolidase activity were measured in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that had been treated with 1, 2, and 5 mM caffeine and with caffeine and 500 µg/mL HA. Western immunoblot analysis was performed to evaluate expression of ß1-integrin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor phospho-Akt protein and mitogen-activated protein kinase (phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Results: Caffeine inhibited collagen biosynthesis in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of this process was found at the level of prolidase activity. Caffeine significantly inhibited the enzyme activity. The addition of HA had no effect on collagen biosynthesis or prolidase activity in fibroblasts incubated with caffeine. Caffeine also had an inhibitory effect on DNA biosynthesis. HA, however, did not have any significant effect on this process. The inhibition of the expression of ß1-integrin and insulin-like growth factor receptor in fibroblasts incubated with the caffeine indicates a possible mechanism of inhibition of collagen biosynthesis. Conclusion: Caffeine reduces collagen synthesis in human cultured skin fibroblasts. HA did not have any significant protective effect on this process. This is the first study to our knowledge that reports caffeine-induced inhibition of collagen synthesis in human skin fibroblasts. Keywords: collagen, caffeine, hyaluronic acid, fibroblast

  12. Basal level of autophagy is increased in aging human skin fibroblasts in vitro, but not in old skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirovic, Dino; Nizard, Carine; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular autophagy (AP) is a stress response that is enhanced under conditions of limitation of amino acids, growth factors and other nutrients, and also when macromolecules become damaged, aggregated and fibrillated. Aging is generally accompanied by an increase in intracellular stress due to all the above factors. Therefore, we have compared the basal levels of AP in serially passaged human facial skin fibroblasts undergoing aging and replicative senescence in vitro, and ex vivo in the skin biopsies from the photo-protected and photo-exposed area of the arms of 20 healthy persons of young and old ages. Immunofluorescence microscopy, employing antibodies against a specific intracellular microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 (LC3) as a well established marker of AP, showed a 5-fold increase in the basal level of LC3 in near senescent human skin fibroblasts. However, no such age-related increase in LC3 fluorescence and AP could be detected in full thickness skin sections from the biopsies obtained from 10 healthy young (age 25 to 30 yr) and 10 old (age 60 to 65 yr) donors. Furthermore, there was no difference in the basal level of LC3 in the skin sections from photo-protected and photo-exposed areas of the arm. Thus, in normal conditions, the aging phenotype of the skin cells in culture and in the body appears to be different in the case of AP. PMID:25950597

  13. Hyaluronan synthase 2 protects skin fibroblasts against apoptosis induced by environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Lauer, Mark E; Anand, Sanjay; Mack, Judith A; Maytin, Edward V

    2014-11-14

    A balanced turnover of dermal fibroblasts is crucial for structural integrity and normal function of the skin. During recovery from environmental injury (such as UV exposure and physical wounding), apoptosis is an important mechanism regulating fibroblast turnover. We are interested in the role that hyaluronan (HA), an extracellular matrix molecule synthesized by HA synthase enzymes (Has), plays in regulating apoptosis in fibroblasts. We previously reported that Has1 and Has3 double knock-out (Has1/3 null) mice show accelerated wound closure and increased numbers of fibroblasts in the dermis. In the present study, we report that HA levels and Has2 mRNA expression are higher in cultured Has1/3 null primary skin fibroblasts than in wild type (WT) cells. Apoptosis induced by two different environmental stressors, UV exposure and serum starvation (SS), was reduced in the Has1/3 null cells. Hyaluronidase, added to cultures to remove extracellular HA, surprisingly had no effect upon apoptotic susceptibility to UVB or SS. However, cells treated with 4-methylumbelliferone to inhibit HA synthesis were sensitized to apoptosis induced by SS or UVB. When fibroblasts were transfected with Has2-specific siRNA that lowered Has2 mRNA and HA levels by 90%, both Has1/3 null and WT cells became significantly more sensitive to apoptosis. The exogenous addition of high molecular weight HA failed to reverse this effect. We conclude that Has1/3 null skin fibroblasts (which have higher levels of Has2 gene expression) are resistant to stress-induced apoptosis. PMID:25266724

  14. Zinc and Propolis Reduces Cytotoxicity and Proliferation in Skin Fibroblast Cell Culture: Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Propolis

    OpenAIRE

    Tyszka-czochara, Ma?gorzata; Pas?ko, Pawe?; Reczyn?ski, Witold; Szlo?sarczyk, Marek; Bystrowska, Beata; Opoka, W?odzimierz

    2014-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that zinc exerts its beneficial influence on skin fibroblasts. Propolis, a complex mixture of plant-derived and bees’ products, was reported to stimulate cicatrization processes in skin and prevent infections. The aim of this study was to find out how zinc and propolis influence human skin fibroblasts in cell culture and to compare the effect of individual compounds to the effect of a mixture of zinc and propolis. In this study, zinc, as zinc aspartate, at a concent...

  15. Normal skin and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts differentially regulate collagen and fibronectin expression as well as mitochondrial membrane potential in response to basic fibroblast growth factor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rui, Song; Hui-Ning, Bian; Wen, Lai; Hua-De, Chen; Ke-Seng, Zhao.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) regulates skin wound healing; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be defined. In the present study, we determined the effects of bFGF on the regulation of cell growth as well as collagen and fibronectin expression in fibroblasts from normal human skin a [...] nd from hypertrophic scars. We then explored the involvement of mitochondria in mediating bFGF-inducedeffects on the fibroblasts. We isolated and cultivated normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts from tissue biopsies of patients who underwent plastic surgery for repairing hypertrophic scars. The fibroblasts were then treated with different concentrations of bFGF (ranging from 0.1 to 1000 ng/mL). The growth of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts became slower with selective inhibition of type I collagen production after exposure to bFGF. However, type III collagen expression was affected in both normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. Moreover, fibronectin expression in the normal fibroblasts was up-regulated after bFGF treatment. bFGF (1000 ng/mL) also induced mitochondrial depolarization in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (P

  16. Multi-layered culture of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes through three-dimensional freeform fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhye; Debasitis, Jason Cushing; Lee, Vivian Kim; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Fischer, Krisztina; Edminster, Karl; Park, Je-Kyun; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2009-03-01

    We present a method to create multi-layered engineered tissue composites consisting of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes which mimic skin layers. Three-dimensional (3D) freeform fabrication (FF) technique, based on direct cell dispensing, was implemented using a robotic platform that prints collagen hydrogel precursor, fibroblasts and keratinocytes. A printed layer of cell-containing collagen was crosslinked by coating the layer with nebulized aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The process was repeated in layer-by-layer fashion on a planar tissue culture dish, resulting in two distinct cell layers of inner fibroblasts and outer keratinocytes. In order to demonstrate the ability to print and culture multi-layered cell-hydrogel composites on a non-planar surface for potential applications including skin wound repair, the technique was tested on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold with 3D surface contours as a target substrate. Highly viable proliferation of each cell layer was observed on both planar and non-planar surfaces. Our results suggest that organotypic skin tissue culture is feasible using on-demand cell printing technique with future potential application in creating skin grafts tailored for wound shape or artificial tissue assay for disease modeling and drug testing. PMID:19108884

  17. Epicatechin and its methylated metabolite attenuate UVA-induced oxidative damage to human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Modak, Sharmila; Gordon, Matthew J; Dobson, Laura H; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Rice-Evans, Catherine; Tyrrell, Rex M

    2003-10-15

    The ultraviolet A component of sunlight causes both acute and chronic damage to human skin. In this study the potential of epicatechin, an abundant dietary flavanol, and 3'-O-methyl epicatechin, one of its major in vivo metabolites, to protect against UVA-induced damage was examined using cultured human skin fibroblasts as an in vitro model. The results obtained clearly show that both epicatechin and its metabolite protect these fibroblasts against UVA damage and cell death. The hydrogen-donating antioxidant properties of these compounds are probably not the mediators of this protective response. The protection is a consequence of induction of resistance to UVA mediated by the compounds and involves newly synthesized proteins. The study provides clear evidence that this dietary flavanol has the potential to protect human skin against the deleterious effects of sunlight. PMID:14556855

  18. Circadian clocks in rat skin and dermal fibroblasts: differential effects of aging, temperature and melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Cristina; Liu, Taole; Malan, André; Challet, Etienne; Pévet, Paul; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule

    2015-06-01

    As a peripheral tissue localized at the interface between internal and external environments, skin performs functions which are critical for the preservation of body homeostasis, in coordination with environmental changes. Some of these functions undergo daily variations, such as temperature or water loss, suggesting the presence of time-keeping mechanisms. Rhythmic functions are controlled by a network of circadian oscillators present virtually in every cell and coordinated by the central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. At the molecular level, circadian rhythms are generated by conserved transcriptional-translational feedback loops involving several clock genes, among which Per1 and Per2 play a central role. Here we characterize clock activity in skin of the transgenic Per1-luciferase rat during postnatal development and adulthood, by real-time recording of bioluminescence in explants and primary dermal fibroblasts, and report marked transformation in circadian properties, from early life to aging. Using primary dermal fibroblast cultures we provide evidence that melatonin treatment phase dependently increases the amplitude of circadian oscillations and that ambient temperature impacts on their period, with slight overcompensation. Together, these findings demonstrate that skin contains a self-sustained circadian clock undergoing age-dependent changes. Dermal fibroblasts, one of the major skin cell types, also exhibit robust, yet specific, circadian rhythmicity which can be fine-tuned by both internal (melatonin) and external (temperature) factors. PMID:25563487

  19. Cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with porokeratosis are hypersensitive to the lethal effects of X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porokeratosis is an autosomal dominant inherited skin disorder. The lesions are characterized by localized abnormal keratinization and may develop into malignant tumors. To determine the cellular basis of the cancer susceptibility associated with this skin condition, we examined the colony-forming ability of X-ray or ultraviolet (UV) light irradiated, cultured fibroblasts derived from porokeratosis patients' normal-appearing skin. Four fibroblast strains derived from four porokeratosis patients' skin were significantly hypersensitive to the lethal effects of X-radiation. However, they all showed a similar sensitivity to strains from normal donors to 254 nm UV light. The hypersensitivity to X-ray radiation in cultured skin fibroblasts from porokeratosis patients suggests an inherent instability of cellular DNA and may prbably be associated with the cancer-prone nature of this skin condition. (author)

  20. Cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with porokeratosis are hypersensitive to the lethal effects of X-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Fujio; Watanabe, Ryohji; Moro, Akiko; Ohkochi, Hitoshi; Ishibashi, Yasumasa

    1989-01-01

    Porokeratosis is an autosomal dominant inherited skin disorder. The lesions are characterized by localized abnormal keratinization and may develop into malignant tumors. To determine the cellular basis of the cancer susceptibility associated with this skin condition, we examined the colony-forming ability of X-ray or ultraviolet (UV) light irradiated, cultured fibroblasts derived from porokeratosis patients' normal-appearing skin. Four fibroblast strains derived from four porokeratosis patients' skin were significantly hypersensitive to the lethal effects of X-radiation. However, they all showed a similar sensitivity to strains from normal donors to 254 nm UV light. The hypersensitivity to X-ray radiation in cultured skin fibroblasts from porokeratosis patients suggests an inherent instability of cellular DNA and may prbably be associated with the cancer-prone nature of this skin condition.

  1. Protective effect of maghemite nanoparticles on ultraviolet-induced photo-damage in human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the optical properties of an oxidized form of maghemite (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles and their protective effects against the photoaging of human skin fibroblasts irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 8.7 to 12 nm were prepared using a chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were coated with two surfactants to obtain a water-based product. The onset of the absorption of the ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in the UV-visible absorption spectra increased with increasing particle size. The ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles significantly inhibited the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblast HS 68 cells by 60% compared with the UV-irradiated control. These results suggest that ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have photoprotective properties, and have potential use as an agent against photoaging

  2. A FTIR Imaging Characterization of Fibroblasts Stimulated by Various Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Saroj; Shabi, Thankaraj Salammal; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the microenvironment plays a major role in breast cancer progression. Yet, the mechanism explaining the transition from normal fibroblasts to cancer-stimulated fibroblasts remains to be elucidated. Here we report a FTIR imaging study of the effects of three different breast cancer cell lines on normal fibroblasts in culture. Fibroblast activation process was monitored by FTIR imaging and spectra compared by multivariate statistical analyses. Principal component analysis ...

  3. Characterization of the camel skin cell line Dubca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopries, M; Wernery, U; Kaaden, O R

    1995-01-01

    A skin fibroblast cell culture was established from a 2-month-old dromedary foetus. The cells were transformed by infection with SV40 and cloned in soft agar. The established cell line is now designated Dubca cells (Dubai camel) and has been in permanent culture for 95 passages. The cell culture was examined morphologically, chromosome preparations made and DNA fingerprinting performed by hybridization with the oligonucleotide probe (GTG)5. SV40 large T antigen was detected by western blotting. The viral host range was determined by infection with viruses of different families. Camelpox virus (CaPV) bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and border disease virus (BDV) could be propagated in these cells. PMID:8556315

  4. Recovery from UV-induced potentially lethal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The repair of ultraviolet light-induced potentially lethal damage was investigated in density-inhibited skin fibroblast cell strains derived from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The effect of exposure to polychromatic ultraviolet light composed of environmentally relevant wavelengths or to the more commonly studied, short wavelength (254 nm) ultraviolet light was studied. Systemic lupus erythematosus cells, which are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light under growth promoting conditions, were able to repair potentially lethal damage as well as normal cells. (author)

  5. DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA light used in clinical PUVA treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with a clinically used UVA light source. The doses (1.1 and 3 J/cm2) were similar to those reaching the dermis during clinical PUVA treatment of psoriasis. DNA strand breaks, as determined by alkaline elution, were formed in a dose-dependent way and disappeared within 1 hr of postincubation at 37 degrees C. These findings have clinical implications since UVA-induced DNA damage may be accompanied by mutagenic and tumor promoting effects

  6. The effect of ursolic and oleanolic acids on human skin fibroblast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Donica; Piotr Niedziela; Anna Matysik-Wo?niak; Roman Paduch; Magdalena Wójciak-Kosior

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we look at how ursolic and oleanolic acids can be used for the purpose of quality control of natural products used in dermatocosmetology as well as of various other therapeutic preparations. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are pentacyclic triterpenes and they are constituents of many medicinal herbs. In this study, we analyzed the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity of OA and UA against normal human skin fibroblasts (HSF). Additionally, the scavenging activity...

  7. Oxidant stress leads to transcriptional activation of the human heme oxygenase gene in cultured skin fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Keyse, S. M.; Applegate, L. A.; Tromvoukis, Y.; Tyrrell, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with near-UV radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induces accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA and protein. In this study, these treatments led to a dramatic increase in the rate of RNA transcription from the heme oxygenase gene but had no effect on mRNA stability. Transcriptional activation, therefore, appears to be the major mechanism of stimulation of expression of this gene by either oxidative stress or sulfydryl reagents.

  8. Oxidant stress leads to transcriptional activation of the human heme oxygenase gene in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with near-UV radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induces accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA and protein. In this study, these treatments led to a dramatic increase in the rate of RNA transcription from the heme oxygenase gene but had no effect on mRNA stability. Transcriptional activation, therefore, appears to be the major mechanism of stimulation of expression of this gene by either oxidative stress or sulfydryl reagents

  9. Heterogeneous response to X-ray and ultraviolet light irradiations of cultured skin fibroblasts in two families with Gardner's Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heterogeneous response to X-ray and far UV (254 nm) light irradiations was found in cultured skin fibroblast lines from 2 separate families with Gardner's syndrome. When compared to 2 normal control cultures and cultures from 2 patients with nonfamilial colon cancer, cultures from 4 clinically affected members of family 1 showed increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of both X-ray and UV light irradiations. These cells also showed a delayed pattern of X-ray potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) and absent UV PLDR. In contrast, cultures from 3 members of family 2 (2 of whom were clinically affected) showed a normal response of survival and PLDR to both X-ray and UV light irradiations. Thus increased sensitivity of cultured skin fibroblasts to X-ray and UV light irradiations was not a consistent in vitro finding in patients with Gardner's syndrome. However, in families with Gardner's syndrome who demonstrate in vitro radiosensitivity, additional studies are needed to assess the usefulness of these techniques in detecting affected individuals prior to the development of colon carcinoma and other manifestations

  10. Radiosensitivity of fibroblasts obtained from a cafe-au-lait spot and normal-appearing skin of a patient with neurofibromatosis (NF-6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblast cells derived from a cafe-au-lait spot and normal-appearing skin of a neurofibromatosis (NF-6) patient were studied for radiosensitivity in comparison with two normal cell lines used as controls. No difference in radiosensitivity was observed between the patient's cell lines and the controls using acute gamma-irradiation. However, a markedly increased radiosensitivity of the fibroblasts obtained from the patient's skin of normal appearance was demonstrated after chronic gamma-irradiation. The cells from the cafe-au-lait spot showed intermediate sensitivity to chronic irradiation as compared with the control cell lines and the fibroblasts derived from the normal skin of the patient. These results showed the usefulness of chronic irradiation in detecting increased cellular radiosensitivity which may result from a unique DNA repair defect in an NF patient. We suggest that enhanced genetic changes in radiosensitive NF patients may lead to formation of cafe-au-lait lesions and certain tumors. Such a transformation may be associated with production of radiotolerant cells

  11. Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the interaction of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)2D [1,25(OH)2D]. We analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer containing 300 mM KCl and 10 mM sodium molybdate. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses om clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)2D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds

  12. Abnormal phenotype of cultured fibroblasts in human skin with chronic radiotherapy damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The pathophysiological aspects of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) have not been well characterized. We therefore cultured human fibroblasts from samples of skin with RIF to investigate the long-term effects of therapeutic irradiation. Materials and methods: Biopsies of normal and RIF skin were obtained from patients previously irradiated for cancer, without recurrence. Cells were extracted from dermis samples by the outgrowth technique, seeded as monolayers and cultured at confluence. Enzyme activities and proteins were assayed, RNA was isolated and Northern blot analysis was performed on surviving cells between passages 2 and 5. Results: RIF cell cultures displayed heterogeneous fibroblasts populations. The initial outgrowth consisted of one-third small cells that floated rapidly, one-third spindle-shaped cells migrating far from the explant to form islets and one-third large pleiomorphic cells. In subsequent subcultures, surviving cells exhibited either myofibroblastic characteristics with a normal proliferative capacity or senescent morphology with a reduced proliferative capacity. These RIF cells had a brief finite lifespan, with dramatically reduced growth rate during their initial outgrowth and the following passages. Study of the antioxidant metabolism showed that Mn superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly weaker in surviving RIF cells than healthy fibroblasts. These exhausted RIF cells exhibited no overexpression of transformi exhibited no overexpression of transforming growth factor ? or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. Conclusion: Irradiation may lead to apparently contradictory effects such as fibrosis and necrosis in clinical practice. In cell culture, we observed two main cellular phenotypes which may be related to both processes, i.e. myofibroblast-like cells and fibrocyte-like cells. These two phenotypes may represent two steps in the differentiation induced as a long-term effect of therapeutic irradiation of the skin. Cell culture probably accelerates the induction of the terminal differentiation in RIF fibroblasts. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18-2 evokes chromosomal instability and transforms primary rat skin fibroblasts

    KAUST Repository

    Kashuba, Elena

    2015-05-12

    We have shown earlier that overexpression of the human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPS18-2 (S18-2) led to immortalization of primary rat embryonic fibroblasts. The derived cells expressed the embryonic stem cell markers, and cellular pathways that control cell proliferation, oxidative phosphorylation, cellular respiration, and other redox reactions were activated in the immortalized cells. Here we report that, upon overexpression of S18-2 protein, primary rat skin fibroblasts underwent cell transformation. Cells passed more than 300 population doublings, and two out of three tested clones gave rise to tumors in experimental animals. Transformed cells showed anchorage-independent growth and loss of contact inhibition; they expressed epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and ?-catenin. Transformed cells showed increased telomerase activity, disturbance of the cell cycle, and chromosomal instability. Taken together, our data suggest that S18-2 is a newly identified oncoprotein that may be involved in cancerogenesis.

  14. Characterisation of the kynurenine pathway in skin-derived fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheipouri, Diba; Grant, Ross; Bustamante, Sonia; Lovejoy, David; Guillemin, Gilles J; Braidy, Nady

    2015-06-01

    Acute UVB exposure triggers inflammation leading to the induction of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO1), one of the first enzymes in the kynurenine pathway (KP) for tryptophan degradation. However, limited studies have been undertaken to determine the catabolism of tryptophan within the skin. The aim of this study was two fold: (1) to establish if the administration of the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and/or UVB radiation elicits differential KP expression patterns in human fibroblast and keratinocytes; and (2) to evaluate the effect of KP metabolites on intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ) levels, and cell viability. Primary cultures of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes were used to examine expression of the KP at the mRNA level using qPCR, and at the protein level using immunocytochemistry. Cellular responses to KP metabolites were assessed by examining extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and intracellular NAD(+) levels. Major downstream KP metabolites were analyzed using GC/MS and HPLC. Our data shows that the KP is fully expressed both in human fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Exposure to UVB radiation and/or IFN-? causes significant changes in the expression pattern of downstream KP metabolites and enzymes. Exposure to various concentrations of KP metabolites showed marked differences in cell viability and intracellular NAD(+) production, providing support for involvement of the KP in the de novo synthesis of NAD(+) in the skin. This new information will have a significant impact on our understanding of the pathogenesis of UV related skin damage and the diagnosis of KP related disease states. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 903-922, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25639585

  15. Hesperetin glucuronide, a photoprotective agent arising from flavonoid metabolism in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteggente, Anna R; Basu-Modak, Sharmila; Kuhnle, Gunter; Gordon, Matthew J; Youdim, Kuresh; Tyrrell, Rex; Rice-Evans, Catherine A

    2003-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the biological properties of flavonoids in terms of their antioxidant and cytoprotective actions. The interaction of the flavanone hesperetin with human skin fibroblasts (FEK4) has revealed the potential for metabolism to hesperetin glucuronide and its subsequent extrusion. As a consequence of this observation, the effectiveness of hesperetin glucuronides, in comparison with that of the aglycone form, in protecting against UV-A radiation has been investigated. The results indicate that hesperetin glucuronides, but not hesperetin, protect against UV-A-induced necrotic cell death. PMID:14556312

  16. Binding of plasma fibronectin to cell layers of human skin fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Human plasma fibronectin bound to confluent cell layers of cultured human-skin fibroblasts in two distinct pools. Initial binding of fibronectin occurred in a deoxycholate-soluble pool (Pool I). Binding in Pool I was reversible and reached a steady state after 3 h. After longer periods of incubation, fibronectin became bound in a deoxycholate-insoluble pool (Pool II). Binding in Pool II was irreversible and proceeded at a linear rate for 30 h. After 30 h of incubation, a significant proportio...

  17. Nerve growth factor displays stimulatory effects on human skin and lung fibroblasts, demonstrating a direct role for this factor in tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micera, A; Vigneti, E; Pickholtz, D; Reich, R; Pappo, O; Bonini, S; Maquart, F X; Aloe, L; Levi-Schaffer, F

    2001-05-22

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a polypeptide which, in addition to its effect on nerve cells, is believed to play a role in inflammatory responses and in tissue repair. Because fibroblasts represent the main target and effector cells in these processes, to investigate whether NGF is involved in lung and skin tissue repair, we studied the effect of NGF on fibroblast migration, proliferation, collagen metabolism, modulation into myofibroblasts, and contraction of collagen gel. Both skin and lung fibroblasts were found to produce NGF and to express tyrosine kinase receptor (trkA) under basal conditions, whereas the low-affinity p75 receptor was expressed only after prolonged NGF exposure. NGF significantly induced skin and lung fibroblast migration in an in vitro model of wounded fibroblast and skin migration in Boyden chambers. Nevertheless NGF did not influence either skin or lung fibroblast proliferation, collagen production, or metalloproteinase production or activation. In contrast, culture of both lung and skin fibroblasts with NGF modulated their phenotype into myofibroblasts. Moreover, addition of NGF to both fibroblast types embedded in collagen gel increased their contraction. Fibrotic human lung or skin tissues displayed immunoreactivity for NGF, trkA, and p75. These data show a direct pro-fibrogenic effect of NGF on skin and lung fibroblasts and therefore indicate a role for NGF in tissue repair and fibrosis. PMID:11344264

  18. Mechanisms of Fibroblast Cell Therapy for Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa: High Stability of Collagen VII Favors Long-term Skin Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Johannes S; Loeckermann, Stefan; Fritsch, Anja; Hausser, Ingrid; Roth, Wera; Magin, Thomas M; Mack, Claudia; Müller, Marcel L; Paul, Oliver; Ruther, Patrick; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Here, we report on the first systematic long-term study of fibroblast therapy in a mouse model for recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), a severe skin-blistering disorder caused by loss-of-function of collagen VII. Intradermal injection of wild-type (WT) fibroblasts in >50 mice increased the collagen VII content at the dermal–epidermal junction 3.5- to 4.7-fold. Although the active biosynthesis lasted

  19. Protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis in cultures of skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects and patients with rheumatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the mechanism of the lasting disturbance of fibroblast function, protein, RNA and DNA synthesis was investigated in skin fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic scleroderma (SS). The labeled precursors used to analyze synthesis of protein, RNA, and DNA were 14C-protein hydrolysate, (14C)uridine, and (14C) thymidine. Stimulation was determined by measuring incorporation of (14C)proline into fibroblast proteins. During analysis of stability of fast-labeled RNA tests were carried out to discover whether all measurable radioactivity belonged to RNA molecules

  20. Action spectra for inactivation of normal and xeroderma pigmentosum human skin fibroblasts by ultraviolet radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Action spectra for UV-induced lethality as measured by colony forming ability were determined both for a normal human skin fibroblast strain (1BR) and for an excision deficient xeroderma pigmentosum strain (XP4LO) assigned to complementation group A using 7 monochromatic wavelengths in the range 254-365 nm. The relative sensitivity of the XP strain compared to the normal skin fibroblasts shows a marked decrease at wavelengths longer than 313 nm, changing from a ratio of about 20 at the shorter wavelengths to just greater than 1.0 at the longer wavelengths. The action spectra thus indicate that the influence on cell inactivation of the DNA repair defect associated with XP cells is decreased and almost reaches zero at longer UV wavelengths. This would occur, for example, if the importance of pyrimidine dimers as the lethal lesion decreased with increasing wavelength. These results are consistent with pyrimidine dimers induced in DNA being the major lethal lesion in both cell strains over the wavelength range 254-313 nm. However, it is indicated that different mechanisms of inactivation operate at wavelengths longer than 313 nm. (author)

  1. Sensitivity of cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with neurofibromatosis to DNA-damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with various constitutional abnormalities as well as a striking predisposition for malignant and nonmalignant neoplasms, both in cells originating in and not originating in the neural crest. We have examined the sensitivity of cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with neurofibromatosis to several types of DNA damage. Fibroblasts in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium were plated at 10(2) to 2 X 10(4) cells per 75 cm2 tissue culture plates, and exposed to various doses of gamma radiation (leads to DNA scission), actinomycin D, or mitomycin C. Cells were reincubated for 15 to 40 days until surviving colonies exhibited greater than 30-50 cells. Plates were then stained with 1% methylene blue and the colonies counted, with surviving fraction determined relative to plating efficiency. Nine skin fibroblast cell strains from normal individuals were studied as controls. One neurofibromatosis (NF) cell strain, SB23, exhibited normal sensitivity to all three DNA-damaging agents studied in early (7-8) and middle (12-13) in vitro passage. Strain GM0622, on the other hand, exhibited normal sensitivity to the three DNA-damaging agents studied at early passage, but showed a significant decrease in survival after exposure to both gamma radiation (D0 = 106 rad) and actinomycin D (D0 = 0.024 mcg/ml) with increasing passage. Strain GM1639 exhibited decreased survival after actinomycin D exposure at early passage (D0 =inomycin D exposure at early passage (D0 = 0.017 mcg/ml), with normal survival after exposure to gamma radiation and mitomycin C at the same passage

  2. Oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts cultures from patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arenas Joaquín

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease (PD patients, increased lipid peroxidation, decreased activities of the mitochondrial complex I of the respiratory chain, catalase and glutathione-peroxidase, and decreased levels of reduced glutathione have been reported. These observations suggest that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a role in the neurodegeneration in PD. We assessed enzymatic activities of respiratory chain and other enzymes involved in oxidative processes in skin fibroblasts cultures of patients with PD. Methods We studied respiratory chain enzyme activities, activities of total, Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide-dismutase, gluthatione-peroxidase and catalase, and coenzyme Q10 levels in skin fibroblasts cultures from 20 Parkinson's disease (PD patients and 19 age- and sex- matched healthy controls. Results When compared with controls, PD patients showed significantly lower specific activities for complex V (both corrected by citrate synthase activity and protein concentrations. Oxidized, reduced and total coenzyme Q10 levels (both corrected by citrate synthase and protein concentrations, and activities of total, Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide-dismutase, gluthatione-peroxidase and catalase, did not differ significantly between PD-patients and control groups. Values for enzyme activities in the PD group did not correlate with age at onset, duration, scores of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating scales and Hoehn-Yahr staging. Conclusions The main result of this study was the decreased activity of complex V in PD patients. This complex synthesizes ATP from ADP using an electrochemical gradient generated by complexes I-IV. These results suggest decreased energetic metabolism in fibroblasts of patients with PD.

  3. Skin fibroblasts from a D-deletion type retinoblastoma patient are abnormally X-ray sensitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinoblastoma is a rare malignant eye tumour that appears either spontaneously or in genetically predisposed persons. The latter group is composed of persons who inherit the tumour with a dominant mode of transmission (the familial type) and those who have a deletion in the long arm of chromosome 13 referred to as the D-deletion type. When this deletion is present it is observed in many somatic cells and is often associated with structural defects. Survivors of the genetic forms of retinoblastoma have an increased risk of the development of cancers at other sites. A single genetic locus is unlikely to predispose many somatic cells to tumour formation unless a fundamental molecular defect, possibly related to DNA repair, is present. In order to investigate this hypothesis a study was made of the in vitro X-ray sensitivity of skin fibroblasts derived from three retinoblastoma patients, comprising a pair of twins with the familial type accompanied by no gross chromosome abnormalities, and a patient with the D-deletion type. It was found that fibroblasts derived from the D-deletion patient were significantly more radiosensitive than those from the other two patients. X-ray survival curves are shown. It is concluded that skin fibroblasts derived from a patient with the D-deletion variant of retinoblastoma are abnormally radiosensitive. Future investigations may indicate a specific defect in molecular repair of DNA that will explain the predisposition of these patients to n the predisposition of these patients to the development of other tumours. (U.K.)

  4. Zeolite encapsulation decreases TiO2-photosensitized ROS generation in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Biao; Scaiano, J C; English, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    Sunscreens protect skin against sunburn. However, studies have demonstrated that UV-irradiated sunscreen components such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) promote the photogeneration of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because encapsulation of TiO2 within zeolites alters its photocatalytic activity, supramolecular composites based on NaY zeolite hosts containing TiO2 guests were prepared, and the effects on ROS formation in cells under UVA-irradiation evaluated. DCFH-DA (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate) was used as a profluorescent probe to monitor intracellular ROS. The detection of intracellular 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence by confocal microscopy revealed that DCFH-DA was taken up, hydrolyzed and oxidized by yeast cells and cultured human skin fibroblasts within 20 and 6 min, respectively. Higher DCF fluorescence was observed in fibroblasts following UVA irradiation in the absence but not in the presence of the radical nitroxide, TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperydine-1-oxyl), which exhibits superoxide dismutase-mimetic and catalase-mimetic activity. UVA-induced fluorescence increased by approximately 50% in the presence of 32-nm anatase TiO2 particles and decreased by essentially an equal amount in the presence of TiO2 encapsulated within NaY zeolites (TiO2@NaY). Addition of the uncomplexed NaY host also decreased (by approximately 30%) the amount of UVA-induced fluorescence but, unexpectedly, the combination of the free guest and host (TiO2+NaY) caused a doubling of the fluorescence. Protection of cells against TiO2-induced intracellular ROS by encapsulation suggests that supramolecular species may be beneficial in photoprotection of the skin. In contrast, the potentiation of TiO2-induced ROS by uncomplexed NaY points to a critical role for formulation when free TiO2 is used as a sun screen ingredient. PMID:16149847

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates skin wound healing: an in vitro study of fibroblast and keratinocyte scratch assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M N M; Wright, K T; Fuller, H R; MacNeil, S; Johnson, W E B

    2010-04-15

    We have used in vitro scratch assays to examine the relative contribution of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the wound repair process and to test the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secreted factors on both skin cell types. Scratch assays were established using single cell and co-cultures of L929 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes, with wound closure monitored via time-lapse microscopy. Both in serum supplemented and serum free conditions, wound closure was faster in L929 fibroblast than HaCaT keratinocyte scratch assays, and in co-culture the L929 fibroblasts lead the way in closing the scratches. MSC-CM generated under serum free conditions significantly enhanced the wound closure rate of both skin cell types separately and in co-culture, whereas conditioned medium from L929 or HaCaT cultures had no significant effect. This enhancement of wound closure in the presence of MSC-CM was due to accelerated cell migration rather than increased cell proliferation. A number of wound healing mediators were identified in MSC-CM, including TGF-beta1, the chemokines IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES, and collagen type I, fibronectin, SPARC and IGFBP-7. This study suggests that the trophic activity of MSC may play a role in skin wound closure by affecting both dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte migration, along with a contribution to the formation of extracellular matrix. PMID:20206158

  6. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates skin wound healing: An in vitro study of fibroblast and keratinocyte scratch assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used in vitro scratch assays to examine the relative contribution of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the wound repair process and to test the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secreted factors on both skin cell types. Scratch assays were established using single cell and co-cultures of L929 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes, with wound closure monitored via time-lapse microscopy. Both in serum supplemented and serum free conditions, wound closure was faster in L929 fibroblast than HaCaT keratinocyte scratch assays, and in co-culture the L929 fibroblasts lead the way in closing the scratches. MSC-CM generated under serum free conditions significantly enhanced the wound closure rate of both skin cell types separately and in co-culture, whereas conditioned medium from L929 or HaCaT cultures had no significant effect. This enhancement of wound closure in the presence of MSC-CM was due to accelerated cell migration rather than increased cell proliferation. A number of wound healing mediators were identified in MSC-CM, including TGF-?1, the chemokines IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES, and collagen type I, fibronectin, SPARC and IGFBP-7. This study suggests that the trophic activity of MSC may play a role in skin wound closure by affecting both dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte migration, along with a contribution to the formation of extracellular matrix.

  7. Cytotoxic and Oxidative Stress Caused by Cadmium and Lead on Human Skin Fibroblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Beman Zaree Mahmodabady

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals are important occupational andenvironmental pollutants that cause damage to various organs.Although there is no effective therapy for such a poisoning,metallothionein has been shown to play a key role in thedetoxification of cadmium (Cd. Evidence in the literature suggeststhat superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalaseconstitute important defense mechanisms against oxygen toxicity inthe cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect ofcadmium chloride and Pb-acetate on antioxidant enzymes in thehuman skin fibroblast cells (HF2FF.Material and Methods: The human skin fibroblast (HF2FF cellswere incubated in serum-free medium containing 20 ?M CdCl2 for18 hr three times a week. The same exposure to an equimolar doseof Pb-acetate was performed. After each exposure and after threetimes exposure the cells were collected and cell viability, thecontents of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px, GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA weremeasured.Results: Cd caused cytotoxicity and inhibition of glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px and SOD activity, as well as depletion of thereduced form of glutathione (GSH in the cell. The level of lipidperoxidation (LP was increased, but catalase activity was notsignificantly altered. These defects were increased with repeatedexposures. The same exposure to an equimolar dose of Pb-acetateevoked only inhibition of GSH-Px and SOD. The values of GSH,catalase and LP activity remained unchanged.Conclusion: The inhibition of GSH-Px and SOD may be consideredas an important biomarker of the toxic effect of metals.

  8. Radiation-induced comet-formation in human skin fibroblasts from radiotherapy patients with different normal tissue reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In clinical radiotherapy most patients tolerate the applied dosage with no or moderate side effects. However, 5 to 10% of all individuals show increased acute and/or late reactions. In-vitro test systems are investigated for their suitability for predictive purposes. This paper attempts a correlation between the induction and repair of DNA damage measured in the comet assay and the clinical observed reaction in order to evaluate the suitability of the comet assay for prediction of radiation sensitivity. Patients and methods: Skin fibroblasts of 30 patients with average tissue reactions or acute and/or late increased side effects and cell lines of 4 individuals carrying the heritable disease ataxia telangiectasia (AT) were irradiated in vitro. The induction and repair of DNA damage was measured at different time points after irradiation in the comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis). These results were compared to the acute and late clinical reactions classified according to the RTOG grading system. Results: The radiation induced DNA damage decreased over time reflecting DNA repair. Cells of the AT individuals showed and elevated damage induction and a reduced repair capacity compared to patients with average tissue reactions. Fibroblast of patients with increased acute and late side effects exhibited slower DNA repair. In addition to the known lack of cell cycle control, our results indicate that AT cells show reduced DNA repair capacity. Conclusionsw reduced DNA repair capacity. Conclusions: The comet assay seems to be able to detect some types of increased individual radiation sensitivity. In contrast to other predictive in-vitro tests, the comet assay needs less time and fewer cells, which would be useful in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  9. Relationship between the in vitro radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts and the expression of subcutaneous fibrosis, telangiectasia, and skin erythema after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate if the occurrence of subcutaneous fibrosis after radiotheraphy in an unselected group of breast cancer patients is related to cellular radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts as measured in a clonogenic assay. Materials and methods: An in vitro colony-forming assay of normal fibroblast radiosensitivity was applied to primary skin biopsies from 31 breast cancer patients who received post-mastectomy radiotherapy with large doses per fraction (2.7-3.9 Gy) more than 10 years earlier. Three clinical normal-tissue endpoints were assessed. Two late endpoints, subcutaneous fibrosis and telangiectasia, were evaluated in three treatments fields by a single experienced clinician. In addition, skin erythema had been assessed at the end of treatment by members of the staff and junior staff. >From previous analyses of normal tissue response, individual clinical radiosensitivity could be assessed as 'excess risk' of each of the three reactions. This was defined as the difference between the actual observed response in the patient and the expected response estimated from individual treatment characteristics in a linear quadratic (LQ) mixture model and, for the two late endpoints, with correction for the follow-up time. This clinical radioresponsiveness was compared with the in vitro radiosensitivity of the skin fibroblasts. To this end, the fractions of colony-forming cells after graded single doses were fitted by an LQ survival curve using non-linear and linea survival curve using non-linear and linear regression from which the surviving fraction at 3.5 Gy (SF3.5) was estimated. Assessment at 3.5 Gy was chosen to reflect the fraction size during clinical radiotherapy. Results: A statistically significant variability of in vitro radiosensitivity between patients could be detected for both SF2 (P = 0.0095) and SF3.5 (P = 0.0008). A significant correlation was observed between SF3.5 and excess risk of fibrosis (rs -0.46, P = 0.009) while no association was found between fibroblast radiosensitivity and either the occurrence of severe skin telangiectasia or the acute endpoint skin erythema. Conclusion: These results suggest that variability in the occurrence of subcutaneous fibrosis, but not telangiectasia or erythema, after radiotherapy is partly accounted for by differences in cellular radiosensitivity of normal skin fibroblasts

  10. Potential and limitations of cultivated fibroblasts in the study of senescence in animals. A review on the murine skin fibroblasts system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gansen, P; Van Lerberghe, N

    1988-03-01

    Senescence is the last period of the life span, leading to death. It happens in all animals, with the exception of a few didermic species (Hydras) having a stock of embryonic cells and being immortal. The causes of animal senescence are badly known. They depend both on genetic characters (maximum life span of a species) and on medium factors (mean expectation of life of the animals of a species). Animal senescence could depend on cell aging: (1) by senescence and death of the differentiated cells, (2) by modified proliferation of the stem cells of differentiated tissues, (3) by alterations in the extracellular matrices, (4) by interactions between factors (1) (2) and (3) in each tissue, and (5) by interactions between the several tissues of an organism. This complexity badly impedes the experimental study of animal senescence. Normal mammal cells are aging when they are cultivated (in vitro aging). Present literature upon in vitro aging of cultivated human fibroblasts consists essentially of papers devoted to proliferation and differentiation characteristics and not to cell senescence. Murine skin fibroblasts have been studied in our laboratory, using different systems: (1) primary cultures isolated from peeled skins of mouse embryos, (2) mouse derms analysed in the animals, (3) cultivated explants of skins, (4) serial sub-cultures of fibroblasts isolated from these explants, (5) cells cultivated comparably on plane substrates (glass, plastic, collagen films) and on three-dimensional matrices (collagen fibres). In primary cultures (system 1) all the cell generations have been analysed, including the last one until death of the culture. We have shown that many characters are varying with cell generation. All the observed variations were: progressive, non-linear and correlated (intracellular feedbacks). We come to the conclusion that the main effects of cell mitotic age are (1) to depress the plasticity of the chromatin, (2) to change the organization of the cytoplasmic filaments, (3) to change the organization of the extracellular matrix. The collagen fibres are also acting upon nucleus and filaments either in the animals or in the cultures. The phenotype of a fibroblastic cell is thus both age- and environment-dependent. Overall data on in vitro cell aging point to the hypothesis that senescent cells are phenotypic variants and not mutant cells. Aging cell cultures are remarkably useful to the studies on cell proliferation decrease and cell cycle lengthening shown by the stem cells in animal tissues. We propose the hypothesis that the fibroblasts of the vertebrates would be homologous to the pluripotent mesenchyme cells of their embryos. PMID:3284497

  11. Potentiation by caffeine of x-ray damage to cultured human skin fibroblasts from normal subjects and ataxia telangiectasia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin fibroblasts from patients with the recessive genetic disorder ataxia telangiectasia (AT) are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than cells from normal subjects (N). Previously, it had been suggested that AT cells are like caffeine-treated normal cells in that their radiosensitivity is not caused by their inability to repair damage but by their failure to go through those x-ray induced delays that allow normal cells to repair damage before it can be expressed. This paper examines whether or not caffeine could potentiate x-ray induced potentially-lethal damage in AT human fibroblasts to the same extent as in N human fibroblast cells. If AT cells resemble caffeine-treated N cells the addition of caffeine to irradiated AT cells should not further enhance cell killing

  12. Parabiosis and transplantation models show no evidence of circulating dermal fibroblast progenitors in bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boban, Ivana; Barisic-Dujmovic, Tatjana; Clark, Stephen H

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis of an extra-dermal origin of dermal fibroblasts, parabiosis, and transplantation models were developed utilizing a collagen promoter green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter transgene expressed in dermal fibroblasts. Parabiotic pairs were treated with bleomycin to induce the skin fibrosis that was evaluated for a dense deposition of collagen and inflammatory cell infiltrates in the thickened dermis in comparison with parabiotic pairs treated with saline. Although, in all cases, repeated injection of bleomycin for 4 weeks induced skin fibrosis, only a few GFP positive cells were detected in skin samples from some of the treated non-transgenic mice. Unexpectedly, similar results were observed in saline treated controls. Furthermore, bone marrow chimeras were created in which non-transgenic recipient mice received injections of bone marrow cell preparations isolated from pOBCol3.6GFP transgenic mice. After bone marrow chimerism had been successfully established, fibrotic lesions in the skin were induced by local bleomycin injections. Donor GFP expressing cells were observed in the skin from all recipient mice. However, no difference in the presence of GFP expressing cells was observed between non-treated mice or mice treated with bleomycin or saline. A large number of GFP expressing cells were observed in the lung preparations from all chimeric mice. Mac-3 antibody immunostaining confirmed a macrophage phenotype for these GFP expressing cells suggesting the expression of the pOBCol3.6GFP transgene in a non-collagen producing cell. Based on these observations, we found no evidence of circulating dermal fibroblast progenitors that participate in the development of bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis. PMID:17579342

  13. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress by Low-Molecular-Weight Polysaccharides with Various Functional Groups in Skin Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Drummen, Gregor P. C.; Rong-Huei Chen; Min-Lang Tsai; Szu-Kai Chen; Chu-Hsi Hsu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in cellulo inhibition of hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts using different low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (LMPS) prepared from agar (LMAG), chitosan (LMCH) and starch (LMST), which contain various different functional groups (i.e., sulfate, amine, and hydroxyl groups). The following parameters were evaluated: cell viability, intracellular oxidant production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Trolox was used as a po...

  14. Recovery from x-ray induced damage in primary cultures of human skin fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human skin fibroblast cells from six patients were obtained during surgical operations and grown in culture. Dose response survival curves from single dose exposures of X-rays were developed for the six cell strains. Individual Do values varied in the six strains from 61 to 83 cGy. The shouldered survival curves had extrapolation numbers (n) ranging from 2.2 to 4.8. To assess repair of sublethal damage, cells were exposed to a total dose of 304 cGy split into two equal fractions separated by varying time intervals. Maximal increase in cell survival was observed when the time interval was at least three hours. Dose-response curves were generated for the six cell strains by first irradiating cells with 152 cGy X-rays and then allowing four hours for recovery from sublethal damage before exposing them to second graded doses. The fractionated dose-response survival curves were distinctly different from the single dose exposure curves and confirmed the ability of these cells to recover from X-ray-induced damage. (author)

  15. Repair of ?- or X-radiation-induced DNA damage in cultured human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors previously reported the RBE for cell killing and mutagenicity at the hgprt locus in cultured human skin fibroblasts (GM10) was 7 and 13-18, respectively, for high-LET /sup 238/Pu-emitted ?-particles compared to low-LET 250 kVp X-rays. Dose fractionation studies indicated repair of sublethal and mutational damages in X-irradiated cells, whereas, this repair was not observed in cells exposed to ?-radiation. In this report, the agents present data on radiation-induced DNA single-strand and double-strand breaks (ssb and dsb) and their repair in both proliferating and confluent monolayers of GM10 cells. Employing sensitive alkaline and neutral DNA filter elution analyses, rates of ssb induced by X-rays were 6-fold that observed for ?-particles, whereas rates of dsb induced by ?-particles were 2.4-fold greater than those induced by X-rays. Rejoining the ssb induced by either radiation was rapid and >90% were repaired within 60 min post-irradiation incubation at 370. The time necessary for 50% repair (t/sub 1/2/) of X-ray-induced dsb was --40 min, however, for ---irradiated cells (20-110 Gy) the t/sub 1/2/ was 4-8-fold greater. Even after prolonged post-irradiation incubation (48 hr) using confluent GM10, --30% dsb remained unrepaired. This class of unrepaired DNA lesions probably contributes to the elevated RBE for high-LET radiation

  16. Protective effects of acteoside against X?ray?induced damage in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhua; Yan, Yao; Liu, Huibin; Wang, Jianhua; Hu, Junping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the protective effects of acteoside against apoptosis induced by X?ray radiation in human skin fibroblasts (HSFs), the cells were divided into the following groups: Control group; X?ray radiation group; acteoside group, in which the confluent cells were preincubated with 50 µg/ml acteoside for 2 h followed by radiation; and positive control group, in which the cells were preincubated with 50 µg/ml paeoniflorin followed by radiation. For the radiation, HSF cells preincubated with acteoside or paeoniflorin were exposed to X?ray beams at a dose?rate of 3 Gy/min (16 Gy in total). Cell viability, apoptosis and intracellular alteration of redox were monitored by MTT and ?ow cytometry. Compared with the radiation group, the number of cells arrested at the G0/G1 phase was significantly reduced in the acteoside and paeoniflorin groups, respectively (Peffect. Compared with the radiation group, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was abrogated by pre?incubation with acteoside or paeoniflorin (Pprotect the cells from X?ray induced damage through enhancing the scavenging activity of ROS, decreasing the Bax/Bcl?2 ratio and downregulating the activity of procaspase?3, as well as modulating the mitogen?activated protein kinase signaling pathways. PMID:25892089

  17. Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of high let charged particles on human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles were quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts. The span of LETs selected were from 25 keV/?m(330 MeV/u) to 920 keV/?m (600 MeV/u). Mutations were scored at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus using 6-thioguanine (6-TG) for selection. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves whereas mutant induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/?m. The inactivation cross-section (?i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (?m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 ?m2 and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10-3 ?m2 respectively, the maximum values were obtained by 56Fe with an LET of 200 keV/?m. The mutagenicity (?m/?i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10-5 with the maximum value at 150 keV/?m. Furthermore, the results of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of some of the mutants induced by charged particles indicate that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus. (author)

  18. Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts from atomic bomb survivors with and without breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblasts were established in vitro from skin biopsies obtained from 55 women and one man with or without breast cancer and with or without exposure to radiation from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima. The radiosensitivity of these cells was evaluated by clonogenic assays after exposure to X rays or to fission neutrons from a 252Cf source. Data were fitted to a multitarget model, S/S0 = A[1-(1-ekD)N], for both X-ray and neutron dose-survival curves. A single-hit model, S/S0 = AekD, fits the neutron dose-survival responses as well. These was no difference in the means or variances of radiosensitivity between exposed and nonexposed groups, or between patients with or without breast cancer. Hence, although the sample is not large, it provides no support for the hypothesis that A-bomb radiation preferentially induces breast cancer in women whose cells in vitro are sensitive to cell killing by radiation. (author)

  19. Studies of the UVC-sensitivity of non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic human cell hybrids (HeLa x skin fibroblasts)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UVC-sensitivities of a non-tumorigenic and a tumorigenic human cell hybrid (HeLa x skin fibroblasts) are compared and contrasted. The tumorigenic cells differ from the non-tumorigenic cells in that they have lost one copy each of chromosomes 11 and 14. For exponentially growing cultures, the tumorigenic cells are considerably more resistant than the non-tumorigenic cells. For confluent cultures, the differential in photosensitivity is much less. Flow cytometric studies of cell cycle distributions of both exponentially growing and confluent cultures of these cells indicate that the differences in photosensitivity cannot be explained by differences in cell cycle distribution. Studies of the kinetics of potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) in confluent cultures of both cell lines indicate little or no recovery over the first 6h followed by an increase in survival over the next 12-24h. These data are consistent with previously published observations in human skin fibroblasts where the kinetics of PLDR reflected the kinetics of thymine dimer loss. The data are not consistent with 6-4 photoproducts being a potentially lethal lesion since such damage is rapidly repaired in human cells. (author)

  20. Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Mouse Skin Derived Precursors (SKPs) and SKP-Derived Fibroblasts (SFBs) by RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yujie; Xiong, Lidan; Wang, Siyu; Zhong, Jianqiao; Zhou, Rongying; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) from dermis possess the capacities of self-renewal and multipotency. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that they can differentiate into fibroblasts. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of the differentiation of SKPs into fibroblasts. Here we compare the transcriptomes of mouse SKPs and SKP-derived fibroblasts (SFBs) by RNA-Seq analysis, trying to find differences in gene expression between the two kinds of cells and then elucidate the candidate genes that may play important roles in the differentiation of SKPs into fibroblasts. A total of 1971 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by RNA-Seq, which provided abundant data for further analysis. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that genes related to cell differentiation, cell proliferation, protein binding, transporter activity and membrane were significantly enriched. The most significantly up-regulated genes Wnt4, Wisp2 and Tsp-1 and down-regulated genes Slitrk1, Klk6, Agtr2, Ivl, Msx1, IL15, Atp6v0d2, Kcne1l and Thbs4 may play important roles in the differentiation of SKPs into fibroblasts. KEGG analysis showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in the TGF-? signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway and Notch signaling pathway, which have been previously proven to regulate the differentiation and self-renewal of various stem cells. These identified DEGs and pathways could facilitate further investigations of the detailed molecular mechanisms, making it possible to take advantage of the potential therapeutic applications of SKPs in skin regeneration in the future. PMID:25719759

  1. Molecular alterations of tropoelastin and proteoglycans induced by tobacco smoke extracts and ultraviolet A in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional integrity of normal skin is dependent on the balance between the biosynthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, primarily composed of collagen, elastin and proteoglycans. In our previous studies, we found that tobacco smoke extracts decreased expressions of type I and III procollagen and induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in the cultured skin fibroblasts. We here further investigated the effects of tobacco smoke extracts or ultraviolet A (UVA) treatments on the expression of tropoelastin (soluble elastin protein), and versican and decorin (proteoglycans) in cultured skin fibroblasts. The mRNA of tropoelastin increased by tobacco smoke extracts or UVA irradiation. Versican was markedly shown to decrease after these treatments by using western blotting and the mRNA of versican V0 also significantly decreased. UVA treatment did not show remarkable change in decorin protein, but resulted in marked decrease of decorin D1 mRNA. In contrast to UVA irradiation, the treatments of tobacco smoke extracts resulted in significant increase in decorin, while mRNA of decorin D1 decreased as compared to the control. MMP-7 increased after the treatment of tobacco smoke extracts or UVA. These results indicated that common molecular features might underlie the skin premature aging induced by tobacco smoke extracts and UVA, including abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix deposition through elevated MMPs, reduced collagen production, abnormal tropoeduced collagen production, abnormal tropoelastin accumulation, and altered proteoglycans. (author)

  2. Glucocorticoid coordinate regulation of type I procollagen gene expression and procollagen DNA-binding proteins in chick skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclei were isolated from control and dexamethasone-treated (2 h) embryonic chick skin fibroblasts and transcribed in vitro. Nuclei isolated from dexamethasone-treated fibroblasts transcribed less pro?1(I) and pro?2(I) mRNAs but not ?-actin mRNA. Fibroblasts receiving dexamethasone and [5,6-3H]uridine also demonstrated decreased synthesis of nuclear type I procollagen mRNAs but not ?-actin mRNA. In fibroblasts treated with cycloheximide the newly synthesized nuclear type I procollagen mRNA species were markedly decreased. An enhanced inhibitory effect was observed when fibroblasts were treated with cycloheximide plus dexamethasone. Since the studies above demonstrate that active protein synthesis is required to maintain the constitutive expression of the type I procollagen genes, the authors determined if glucocorticoids regulate DNA-binding proteins with sequence specificity for the ?2(I) procollagen gene. Nuclear protein blots were probed with the 32P-end-labeled pBR322 vector DNA and 32P-end-labeled ?2(I) procollagen promoter containing DNA. Nonhistone proteins remained bound to labeled DNA at stringency washes of 0.05 and 0.1 M NaCl. As the ionic strength was increased to 0.2 and 0.3 M NaCl, the nonhistone-protein DNA binding was preferentially lost. Only the low molecular weight proteins remained bound to labeled DNA at the highest ionic strength, indicating nonspecific binding of these nuclear proteins. Dexamethasone treatmclear proteins. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in an increase of binding of nonhistone proteins to vector- and promoter-labeled DNAs over that observed in control fibroblasts at stringency washes of 0.05 and 0.1 M NaCl and to a lesser extent at 0.2 M NaCl. The binding specificities of nonhistone proteins for the ?2(I) procollagen promoter containing DNA were calculated

  3. Dracorhodin perchlorate induces apoptosis in primary fibroblasts from human skin hypertrophic scars via participation of caspase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peihua; Li, Jin; Tang, Xudong; Zhang, Junlei; Liang, Jie; Zeng, Guofang

    2014-04-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HS) is an abnormally proliferative disorder characterized by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and redundant deposition of extracellular matrix. An unbalance between fibroblast proliferation and apoptosis has been assumed to play an important role in HS formation. To explore the regulative effects of dracorhodin perchlorate (Dp), one of the derivants of dracorhodin that is a major constituent in the traditional Chinese medicine, on primary fibroblasts from human skin hypertrophic scars, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometric analysis were respectively used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Dp on the cells and to determine cell cycle distribution. Additionally, cellular apoptosis was separately detected with Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The expression levels of caspase-3 mRNA and protein were respectively measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, and caspase-3 activity were determined using a colorimetric assay kit. The results showed that Dp significantly inhibited cell growth, and induced apoptosis in fibroblasts in a dose-and time-dependent manner, arresting cell cycle at G1 phase. Additionally, Dp slightly up-regulated caspase-3 mRNA expression in fibroblasts, but significantly down-regulated caspase-3 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and concurrently elevated caspase-3 activity. Taken together, these data indicated that Dp could effectively inhibit cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in fibroblasts, at least partially via modulation of caspase-3 expression and its activity, which suggests that Dp is an effective and potential candidate to develop for HS treatment. PMID:24525335

  4. Endogenous glutathione protects human skin fibroblasts against the cytotoxic action of UVB, UVA and near-visible radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-380 nm) regions of sunlight damage human skin cells but, particularly at the longer wavelengths, information is scant concerning the mechanism(s) of damage induction and the roles of cellular defense mechanisms. Following extensive glutathione depletion of cultured human skin fibroblasts, the cells become strongly sensitized to the cytotoxic action of near-visible (405 nm), UVA (334 nm, 365 nm) and UVB (313 nm) but not UVC (254 nm) radiations. In the critical UVB region, the magnitude of the protection afforded by endogenous glutathione approaches that of the protection provided by excision repair. The results suggest that a significant fraction of even UVB damage can be mediated by free radical attack and that a major role of glutathione in human skin cells is to protect them from the cytotoxic action of sunlight. (author)

  5. Radiation induced DNA damage and damage repair in human tumor and fibroblast cell lines assessed by histone H2AX phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the radiation-induced levels of ?H2AX and its decay kinetics in 10 human cell lines covering a wide range of cellular radiosensitivity (SF2, 0.06-0.63). Methods and Materials: Five tumor cell lines included Colo-800 melanoma, two glioblastoma (MO59J and MO59K), fibrosarcoma HT 1080, and breast carcinoma MCF7. Five primary skin fibroblasts lines included two normal strains, an ataxia telangiectasia strain, and two fibroblast strains from breast cancer patients with an adverse early skin reaction to radiotherapy. Cellular radiosensitivity was assessed by colony-forming test. Deoxyribonucleic acid damage and repair were analyzed according to nuclear ?H2AX foci intensity, with digital image analysis. Results: The cell lines tested showed a wide degree of variation in the background intensity of immunostained nuclear histone ?H2AX, which was higher for the tumor cell lines compared with the fibroblast strains. It was not possible to predict clonogenic cell survival (SF2) for the 10 cell lines studied from the radiation-induced ?H2AX intensity. In addition, the slopes of the dose-response (0-4 Gy) curves, the rates of ?H2AX disappearance, and its residual expression (?18 h after irradiation) did not correlate with SF2 values. Conclusions: The results from 10 cell lines showed that measurements of immunofluorescence intensity by digital image analysis of phosphorylated histone H2AX as a surrogate marker of DNA double-strand breaks did not allow relble-strand breaks did not allow reliable ranking of cell strains according to their clonogenic survival after irradiation

  6. Acute leukemia after radiotherapy in a patient with Turcot's syndrome. Impaired colony formation in skin fibroblast cultures after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonic polyposis and carcinoma developed in a woman with Turcot's syndrome at the age of 31 years; astrocytoma developed when she was 37. Her brother and sister had died of astrocytoma at the ages of 18 and 33 years, respectively. Progressive neutropenia developed in the patient three months after radiotherapy for her brain tumor and acute myelomonocytic leukemia 19 months after treatment. Three laboratories independently evaluated cultures of her skin fibroblasts for in vitro sensitivity to cell killing (loss of colony-forming ability) by x-rays. Survival assays consistently revealed slight but significant radiosensitivity in an early-passage (six to 10 doublings) fibroblast subculture. A later subculture (21 to 29 doublings) showed no abnormality, a possible effect of selective in vitro loss of radiosensitive cells

  7. Impaired colony-forming ability following ? irradiation of skin fibroblasts from tuberous scierosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivity of cultured dermal fibroblasts from human subjects afflicted with tuberous sclerosis (TS), a hereditary neurocutaneous syndrome, was assessed by assaying loss of colony-forming ability in response to acute ?-ray exposure. Related to control strains from clinically normal donors, three cell lines (GM1635, GM1643, GM2333) from two affected patients displayed enhanced sensitivity to inactivation by 60Co ?-ray treatment, whether administered oxically (air-saturated) or hypoxically (N2-gassed); a fourth strain (GM1644) from a third patient exhibited normal radiosensitivity under both treatment conditions. The post-?-irradiaton colony-forming ability of the three hypersensitive TS strains was intermediate between that of normal controls and that of strains from patients inheriting the radiotherapy-sensitive neurovascular disorder ataxia telangiectasia. The variability in the radioresponse of the TS stains (three sensitive and one normal) is not surprising, considering the widely recognized clinical heterogeneity in the disease. Our findings, aside from providing a laboratory marker for early (possible presymptomatic) detection of persons at high risk for TS, may lead to a better understanding of the origin and progressive development of this multifaceted syndrome

  8. Epilobium angustifolium extract demonstrates multiple effects on dermal fibroblasts in vitro and skin photo-protection in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszová, Ema; Cheel, José; Pávek, Stanislav; Moravcová, Martina; Hermannová, Martina; Mat?jková, Ilona; Spilková, Ji?ina; Velebný, Vladimír; Kubala, Lukáš

    2013-09-01

    Stress-induced fibroblast senescence is thought to contribute to skin aging. Ultraviolet light (UV) radiation is the most potent environmental risk factor in these processes. An Epilobium angustifolium (EA) extract was evaluated for its capacity to reverse the senescent response of normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) in vitro and to exhibit skin photo-protection in vivo. The HPLC-UV-MS analysis of the EA preparation identified three major polyphenol groups: tannins (oenothein B), phenolic acids (gallic and chlorogenic acids) and flavonoids. EA extract increased the cell viability of senescent NHDF induced by serum deprivation. It diminished connective tissue growth factor and fibronectin gene expressions in senescent NHDF. Down-regulation of the UV-induced release of both matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3 and the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -2, and also down-regulation of the gene expression of hyaluronidase 2 were observed in repeatedly UV-irradiated NHDF after EA extract treatment. Interestingly, EA extract diminished the down-regulation of sirtuin 1 dampened by UV-irradiation. The application of EA extract using a sub-irritating dose protected skin against UV-induced erythema formation in vivo. In summary, EA extract diminished stress-induced effects on NHDF, particularly on connective tissue growth factor, fibronectin and matrix metalloproteinases. These results collectively suggest that EA extract may possess anti-aging properties and that the EA polyphenols might account for these benefits. PMID:23817638

  9. Lipid peroxidation-derived 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins accumulate in human facial skin fibroblasts during ageing in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Peter; Milkovic, Lidija

    2014-01-01

    The reactive aldehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), is recognized as a product of lipid peroxidation, which binds to macromolecules, in particuar proteins. HNE-modified proteins (HNE-MP) have been shown to accumulate during ageing, generally by using polyclonal antibodies, which increases the possibility of detecting false positives. Therefore, we have used a genuine monoclonal antibody specific for HNE-His adducts of proteins/peptides, which were revealed by immunoblotting method for whole-cell HNE-MP measurements in serially passaged human facial skin fibroblasts undergoing ageing in vitro. There was a significant increase in the levels of HNE-MP in serially passaged cells approaching a near senescent state at high passage level (P-61), as compared with low passage level (P-11) young and middle-aged (P-27) cells. However, if the cells were analyzed soon after re-initiation from the frozen samples without any further passaging, the amount of HNE-MP was low even in relatively high passage level (P-37) cells, which is an indication of selective elimination of cells with high molecular damage during the process of thawing and re-initiation in culture. This pilot study on normal human facial skin fibroblasts shows that HNE-MP detection by monoclonal antibody-based dot blot method can be used as a marker for age-related accumulation of lipid peroxidative molecular damage, and could be useful for testing and monitoring the effects of potential skin care products on ageing parameters.

  10. Fabrication of a nanofibrous scaffold with improved bioactivity for culture of human dermal fibroblasts for skin regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineering dermal substitutes with electrospun nanofibres have lately been of prime importance for skin tissue regeneration. Simple electrospinning technology served to produce nanofibrous scaffolds morphologically and structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of native tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds of poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly(?-caprolactone) (PLACL) and PLACL/gelatin complexes were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These nanofibres were characterized for fibre morphology, membrane porosity, wettability and chemical properties by FTIR analysis to culture human foreskin fibroblasts for skin tissue engineering. The nanofibre diameter was obtained between 282 and 761 nm for PLACL and PLACL/gelatin scaffolds; expressions of amino and carboxyl groups and porosity up to 87% were obtained for these fibres, while they also exhibited improved hydrophilic properties after plasma treatment. The results showed that fibroblasts proliferation, morphology, CMFDA dye expression and secretion of collagen were significantly increased in plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin scaffolds compared to PLACL nanofibrous scaffolds. The obtained results prove that the plasma-treated PLACL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold is a potential biocomposite material for skin tissue regeneration.

  11. Effect of bradykinin on prostaglandin production by human skin fibroblasts in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studying the effect of bradykinin on prostaglandin formation in fibroblasts, two general types of assays have been employed. Radioimmunoassays were utilized to determine specific prostaglandins, PGI2 and 6-keto-PGF, using tritium as radiolabel. A second procedure involved initial incubation of the fibroblasts with [14C]arachidonate and identification and quantification of the metabolites by chromatographic methods. After radiolabelling of fibroblasts with [14C]arachidonate, bradykinin was found to release radiolabel from membrane lipids approximately 2-fold. In the presence of bradykinin, there was a close coupling of phospholipase S2 activity, arachidonate mobilization, and synthesis of a specific prostaglandin, PGI2

  12. Altered transcriptome signature of phenotypically normal skin fibroblasts heterozygous for CDKN2A in familial melanoma: relevance to early intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Meiyun; Pfeffer, Susan R.; Henry T. Lynch; Cassidy, Pamela; Leachman, Sancy; Pfeffer, Lawrence M; KOPELOVICH, LEVY

    2013-01-01

    Familial melanoma (FM) is a dominantly heritable cancer that is associated with mutations in the tumor suppressor CDKN2A/p16. In FM, a single inherited “hit” occurs in every somatic cell, enabling interrogation of cultured normal skin fibroblasts (SFs) from FM gene carriers as surrogates for the cell of tumor origin, namely the melanocyte. We compared the gene expression profile of SFs from FM individuals with two distinct CDKN2A/p16 mutations (V126D-p16 and R87P-p16) with the gene expres...

  13. Curcumin induces heme oxygenase-1 in normal human skin fibroblasts through redox signaling : relevance for anti-aging intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Cristo?va?o F.; Wilson, Cristina Pereira; Rattan, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin, a component of the spice turmeric, was tested for its potential hormetic anti-aging effects as an inducer of mild stress. Methods and results: Early passage young human skin fibroblasts treated with low doses of curcumin (below 20 mM) showed a time- and concentration-dependent induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), followed by compensatory increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity, GSH levels and GSH/GSSG ratio. These effects were preceded by induction of oxidative stress (in...

  14. Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with [3H]glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of [3H]chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-centrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics

  15. Characterization of the maitotoxin-activated cationic current from human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Morales-Tlalpan, Verónica; Vaca, Luis

    2002-01-01

    The maitotoxin (MTX)-induced cationic current (I(mtx)) from human skin fibroblasts was characterized using the patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Under resting conditions (absence of MTX), the main current observed is produced by an outwardly rectifying K(+) channel which is inhibited by 1 mM TEA. The current reversal potential was -86 mV (n = 12). MTX (500 pM) activated a current with a linear current-voltage relationship and a reversal potential of -10 mV (n = 10). Replacing the extracellular Na(+) and K(+) with N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) caused a shift of the reversal potential to a value below -100 mV, indicating that Na(+) and K(+), but not NMDG, carry I(mtx). Further ion selectivity experiments showed that Ca(2+) carries I(mtx) also. The resulting permeability sequence obtained with the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation yielded Na(+) (1) approximately equal to K(+) (1) > Ca(2+) (0.87). The I(mtx) activation time course reflected the changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and Na(+) measured with the fluorescent indicators fura-2 and SBFI, respectively, suggesting that the activation of I(mtx) brings about an increment in intracellular Ca(2+) and Na(+). Reducing the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration below 1.8 mM prevented the activation of I(mtx) and the increment in intracellular Na(+) induced by MTX. Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) could not replace Ca(2+), but Ba(2+) could replace Ca(2+). MTX activation of current in 10 mM Ba(2+) was approximately 50 % of that induced in the presence of 1.8 mM Ca(2+). When 5 mM of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA was included in the patch pipette, MTX either failed to activate the current or induced a small current (less than 15 % of the control), indicating that intracellular Ca(2+) is also required for the activation of I(mtx). Intracellular Ba(2+) can replace Ca(2+) as an activator of I(mtx). However, in the presence of 10 mM Ba(2+) the activation by MTX of the current was 50 % less than the activation with nM concentrations of free intracellular Ca(2+). PMID:11773318

  16. DNA damage in wounded, hypoxic and acidotic human skin fibroblast cell cultures after low laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins Evans, D.; Mbene, A.; Zungu, I.; Houreld, N.; Abrahamse, H.

    2009-02-01

    Phototherapy has become more popular and widely used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. To ensure sound results as evidence of its effectiveness, well designed experiments must be conducted when determining the effect of phototherapy. Cell culture models such as hypoxic, acidotic and wounded cell cultures simulating different disease conditions including ischemic heart disease, diabetes and wound healing were used to determine the effect of laser irradiation on the genetic integrity of the cell. Even though phototherapy has been found to be beneficial in a wide spectrum of conditions, it has been shown to induce DNA damage. However, this damage appears to be repairable. The risk lies in the fact that phototherapy may help the medical condition initially but damage DNA at the same time leaving undetected damage that may result in late onset, more severe, induced medical conditions including cancer. Human skin fibroblasts were cultured and used to induce a wound (by the central scratch model), hypoxic (by incubation in an anaerobic jar, 95% N2 and 5% O2) and acidotic (reducing the pH of the media to 6.7) conditions. Different models were irradiated using a Helium-Neon (632.8 nm) laser with a power density of 2.07 mW/cm2 and a fluence of 5 J/cm2 or 16 J/cm2. The effect of the irradiation was determined using the Comet assay 1 and 24 h after irradiation. In addition, the Comet assay was performed with the addition of formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) obviating strand brakes in oxidized bases at a high fluence of 16 J/cm2. A significant increase in DNA damage was seen in all three injured models at both 1 and 24 h post-irradiation when compared to the normal un-injured cells. However, when compared to non-irradiated controls the acidotic model showed a significant decrease in DNA damage 24 h after irradiation indicating the possible induction of cellular DNA repair mechanisms. When wounded cells were irradiated with higher fluences of 16 J/cm2, there was a significant increase in DNA damage in irradiated cells with and without the addition of FPG. These results are indicative of the importance of both cell injury model as well as fluence when assessing the effect of phototherapy on DNA integrity.

  17. Human lysosomes can be purified from diploid skin fibroblasts by free-flow electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Harms, E.; Kern, H.; Schneider, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Human diploid fibroblasts underwent lysis when resuspended in isotonic sucrose. After preparation of a granular fraction by differential centrifugation, lysosomes were almost completely purified by free-flow electrophoresis. Electron micrographs of the final fraction of fibroblast lysosomes (about 25-fold purified) showed mostly secondary lysosomes having an appearance identical to those in intact cells. There was no indication that the purification steps selectd for any lysosomal subpopulati...

  18. Extracellular Matrix Modulates Morphology, Growth, Oxidative Stress Response and Functionality of Human Skin Fibroblasts during Aging In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Peter; Rattan, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The Hayflick system of cellular aging and replicative senescence in vitro has been used widely in both basic and applied research in biogerontology. The state of replicative senescence is generally considered to be irreversible, but is modifiable by genetic and environmental manipulations. Some recent observations indicate that replicative lifespan, senescence and functionality of cells in vitro can be significantly affected by the quality of the extra cellular matrix (ECM). Following up on those reports, here we show that using the ECM prepared from early passage young cells, partial rejuvenation of serially passaged human facial skin fibroblasts was possible in pre-senescent middle-aged cells, but not in fully senescent late passage cells. ECM from young cells improved the appearance, viability, stress tolerance and wound healing ability of skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, young ECM modulated the oxidative stress response transcription factor Nrf-2 and its downstream effector haem-oxygenase (HO-1), possibly through the amelioration of the environmental stress induced by the plastic surface of the culturing flasks. Therefore, it is important to consider the role of ECM in modulating the response of cells both for mechanistic understanding of cellular senescence and while testing for potential aging interventions.

  19. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress by Low-Molecular-Weight Polysaccharides with Various Functional Groups in Skin Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor P. C. Drummen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in cellulo inhibition of hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts using different low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (LMPS prepared from agar (LMAG, chitosan (LMCH and starch (LMST, which contain various different functional groups (i.e., sulfate, amine, and hydroxyl groups. The following parameters were evaluated: cell viability, intracellular oxidant production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Trolox was used as a positive control in order to allow comparison of the antioxidant efficacies of the various LMPS. The experimentally determined attenuation of oxidative stress by LMPS in skin fibroblasts was: LMCH > LMAG > LMST. The different protection levels of these LMPS may be due to the physic-chemical properties of the LMPS’ functional groups, including electron transfer ability, metal ion chelating capacities, radical stabilizing capacity, and the hydrophobicity of the constituent sugars. The results suggest that LMCH might constitute a novel and potential dermal therapeutic and sun-protective agent.

  20. Mutations of ATIC and ADSL affect purinosome assembly in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with AICA-ribosiduria and ADSL deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresova, Veronika; Skopova, Vaclava; Sikora, Jakub; Patterson, David; Sovova, Jana; Zikanova, Marie; Kmoch, Stanislav

    2012-04-01

    The purinosome is a multienzyme complex composed by the enzymes active in de novo purine synthesis (DNPS) that cells transiently assemble in their cytosol upon depletion or increased demand of purines. The process of purinosome formation has thus far been demonstrated and studied only in human epithelial cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and human liver carcinoma cells (C3A) transiently expressing recombinant fluorescently labeled DNPS proteins. Using parallel immunolabeling of various DNPS enzymes and confocal fluorescent microscopy, we proved purinosome assembly in HeLa, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2), sarcoma osteogenic cells (Saos-2), human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), human skin fibroblasts (SF) and primary human keratinocytes (KC) cultured in purine-depleted media. Using the identical approach, we proved in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with AICA-ribosiduria and ADSL deficiency that various mutations of ATIC and ADSL destabilize to various degrees of purinosome assembly and found that the ability to form purinosomes correlates with clinical phenotypes of individual ADSL patients. Our results thus shown that the assembly of functional purinosomes is fully dependent on the presence of structurally unaffected ATIC and ADSL complexes and presumably also on the presence of all the other DNPS proteins. The results also corroborate the hypothesis that the phenotypic severity of ADSL deficiency is mainly determined by structural stability and residual catalytic capacity of the corresponding mutant ADSL protein complexes, as this is prerequisite for the formation and stability of the purinosome and at least partial channeling of succinylaminoimidazolecarboxamide riboside-ADSL enzyme substrates-through the DNPS pathway. PMID:22180458

  1. Primary chicken embryo fibroblasts seeded acellular dermal matrix (3-D ADM) improve regeneration of full thickness skin wounds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Naveen; Khangembam, Sangeeta Devi; Kumar, Vineet; Singh, Rajendra

    2015-06-01

    Rat skins were deepithelialized and decellularized by hypertonic saline and sodium deoxycholate (SDC), respectively. Primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (P-CEF) were cultured and seeded on prepared acellular dermal matrix (ADM). A full thickness skin defect (20×20mm(2)) was created in thirty-six rats and randomly divided into three equal groups. Defect was left open, repaired with ADM and ADM seeded with P-CEF (3-D ADM) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. By day 28, the treated wounds healed completely without scar. By day 7 hydroxyproline contents was higher in group 3 as compared to groups 1 and 2. There was slightly more B cell response in animals implanted with ADM and 3-D ADM. At day 21, stimulation index was lower with acellular dermis antigen as compared to 3-D ADM antigen. In group 1 on day 3, the granulation tissue showed more inflammatory reaction, fibroplasia and neovascularization as compared to group 2 and 3. By day 28, there was complete epithelization was observed in all groups over. However, a large scar was observed in group 1. The graft was completely absorbed and replaced with densely thick and best arranged collagen fibers. On day 7, malonyldialdehyde and superoxide dismutase levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased in group 1. Reduced glutathione values increased and reached to near normal in groups 2 and 3. Catalase values were significantly (P<0.05) higher in group 1 at different time intervals. SEM samples of group 2 showed ingrowth of fibroblasts into acellular matrix at host graft junction. However, in group 3 fibroblasts were infiltrated within the pores of graft. It was concluded that P-CEF cells seeded ADM facilitated early and better healing. PMID:25907656

  2. Immunomodulatory Effects of Bee Venom in Human Synovial Fibroblast Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Vatanpour, Hossein; H Shirazi, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    As in Iranian traditional medicine, bee venom (BV) is a promising treatment for the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is considered as a problematic human chronic inflammatory disease in the present time. Smoking is considered to be a major risk factor in RA onset and severity. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effects of BV on cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory response in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and bee venom were determined by the tetrazolium (MTT) method in cultured synovial fibroblastes. The expression of interleukin-1? and sirtuin1 mRNA were analyzed by SYBR green real-time quantitative PCR. Differences between the mean values of treated and untreated groups were assessed by student t-test. Based on MTT assay, CSC and BV did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects up to 40 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL, respectively. Our results showed that interleukin-1? mRNA level was significantly up-regulated by CSC treatments in LPS-stimulated synoviocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, the expressions of IL-1? and Sirt1 were up-regulated even in lower concentrations of BV and attenuated at higher concentrations. Also, BV attenuated the CSC-induced and LPS-induced inflammatory responses in synovial fibroblasts. Our results support the epidemiological studies indicating pro-inflammatory effects of CSC and anti-inflammatory effects of BV on FLS cell line. PMID:25561937

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of bee venom in human synovial fibroblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Vatanpour, Hossein; H Shirazi, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    As in Iranian traditional medicine, bee venom (BV) is a promising treatment for the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is considered as a problematic human chronic inflammatory disease in the present time. Smoking is considered to be a major risk factor in RA onset and severity. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effects of BV on cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory response in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and bee venom were determined by the tetrazolium (MTT) method in cultured synovial fibroblastes. The expression of interleukin-1? and sirtuin1 mRNA were analyzed by SYBR green real-time quantitative PCR. Differences between the mean values of treated and untreated groups were assessed by student t-test. Based on MTT assay, CSC and BV did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects up to 40 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL, respectively. Our results showed that interleukin-1? mRNA level was significantly up-regulated by CSC treatments in LPS-stimulated synoviocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, the expressions of IL-1? and Sirt1 were up-regulated even in lower concentrations of BV and attenuated at higher concentrations. Also, BV attenuated the CSC-induced and LPS-induced inflammatory responses in synovial fibroblasts. Our results support the epidemiological studies indicating pro-inflammatory effects of CSC and anti-inflammatory effects of BV on FLS cell line. PMID:25561937

  4. ANALYSIS OF DNA DAMAGE AND REPAIR IN SKIN FIBROBLASTS OF INFANT AND OLDER CHILDREN USING THE IN VITRO ALKALINE COMET ASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF DNA DAMAGE AND REPAIR IN SKIN FIBROBLASTS OF INFANT AND OLDER CHILDREN USING THE IN VITRO ALKALINE COMET ASSAY, Alan H. Tennant1, Geremy W. Knapp1 and Andrew D. Kligerman1, 1Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab...

  5. Wound healing morbidity in STS patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy in relation to in vitro skin fibroblast radiosensitivity, proliferative capacity and TGF-? activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: In a recent study, we demonstrated that the ability of dermal fibroblasts, obtained from soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients, to undergo initial division in vitro following radiation exposure correlated with the development of wound healing morbidity in the patients following their treatment with preoperative radiotherapy. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) is thought to play an important role in fibroblast proliferation and radiosensitivity both of which may impact on wound healing. Thus, in this study we examined the interrelationship between TGF-? activity, radiosensitivity and proliferation of cultured fibroblasts and the wound healing response of STS patients after preoperative radiotherapy to provide a validation cohort for our previous study and to investigate mechanisms. Patients and methods: Skin fibroblasts were established from skin biopsies of 46 STS patients. The treatment group consisted of 28 patients who received preoperative radiotherapy. Eighteen patients constituted a control group who were either irradiated postoperatively or did not receive radiation treatment. Fibroblast cultures were subjected to the colony forming and cytokinesis-blocked binucleation assays (low dose rate: ?0.02 Gy/min) and TGF-? assays (high dose-rate: ?1.06 Gy/min) following ?-irradiation. Fibroblast radiosensitivity and initial proliferative ability were represented by the surviving fraction at 2.4 Gy (SF2.4) and binucleation insub>2.4) and binucleation index (BNI), respectively. Active and total TGF-? levels in fibroblast cultures were determined using a biological assay. Wound healing complication (WHC), defined as the requirement for further surgery or prolonged deep wound packing, was the clinical endpoint examined. Results: Of the 28 patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy, 8 (29%) had wound healing difficulties. Fibroblasts from patients who developed WHC showed a trend to retain a significantly higher initial proliferative ability after irradiation compared with those from individuals in the treatment group with normal wound healing, consistent with the results of our previous study. No link was observed between fibroblast radiosensitivity and WHC. Neither active nor total TGF-? levels in cultures were significantly affected by irradiation. Fibroblast proliferation in unirradiated and irradiated cultures, as well as radiosensitivity, was not influenced by TGF-? content. TGF-? expression in fibroblast cultures did not reflect wound healing morbidity. Conclusions: These data are consistent with our previous study and combined the results suggest that in vitro fibroblast proliferation after irradiation may be a useful predictor of wound healing morbidity in STS patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy. TGF-? levels in culture do not predict WHC, suggesting that the role of TGF-? in wound healing is likely controlled by other in vivo factors

  6. Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine photodimer formation and induction of ornithine decarboxylase in human skin fibroblasts after UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine photodimers as well as the induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) may serve as biochemical markers of the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet light (UV). For this reason, it is important to compare the formation of pyrimidine dimers with the induction of ODC in human skin fibroblasts after irradiation with UVC (200-290 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm). In our studies we determined cytosine-thymine (C-T) as well as thymine-thymine dimer yields (T-T) by high-pressure liquid chromatography in cultures of neonatal normal human foreskin-derived fibroblasts after irradiation with UVC and UVB light. It was found that the yield of dimerization and the ratio of T-T/C-T decreased from the UVC to the UVB region. Time-course studies of ODC-induction in the same cells indicated that the maximal activity after UVB irradiation was retarded compared to UVC exposure. For the UV-induced ODC-levels, however, no significant difference in maximal induction could be measured after UVC and UVB irradiation at fluences where comparable yields of thymine dimerization are produced. Similar ODC-maxima were obtained with strains from children, while cells from adults showed significantly less pronounced ODC induction, indicating that ODC-response decreases with age and may therefore be used as a marker of aging

  7. Fibroblasts of skin fragments as a tool for the investigation of genetic diseases: technical recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho Janice Carneiro; Giugliani Roberto

    2000-01-01

    Skin biopsies are frequently indicated for investigation and/or confirmation of genetic disorders. Although relatively simple and noninvasive, these procedures require care in order to increase probability of success and to avoid patient discomfort and unnecessary repeated analyses and associated laboratory fees. The present report highlights the importance of skin biopsies in genetic disorder diagnosis and presents general rules for collecting, storing, transporting and processing samples. W...

  8. The proteolytic potential of normal human melanocytes: comparison with other skin cells and melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizik, J; Bessou, S; Felnerova, D; Vaheri, A; Taïeb, A

    1996-10-01

    To understand the contribution of epidermal melanocytes in the proteolytic potential of human skin, we have studied melanocytes grown in a low-serum medium deprived of phorbol esters, cholera toxin, and other non-physiological supplements. We focused on the plasminogen activation system and certain matrix metalloproteinases (gelatinases). Supposing that the proteolytic activity of cells can influence binding to collagen matrix and its reorganization, we have analyzed these parameters as well. We found that human melanocytes secreted tissue-type plasminogen activator and utilised it to generate cell-bound plasmin. No urokinase-type plasminogen activator was detected in the cultures but its receptor was found in cell extracts. Both the 72 kDa and 92 kDa gelatinases were secreted by the cells and in equal amounts. In addition, melanocytes secreted the wide-spectrum proteinase inhibitor alpha-2-macroglobulin. Melanocytes cast into collagen matrices retained a rounded morphology, did not extend processes, and were unable to contract collagen lattices. As a control, these parameters were investigated in parallel in cultures of human keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and two melanoma cell lines. The obtained characteristics suggest that normal human melanocytes are proteolytically active cells. This function may pertain to skin physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:9014212

  9. In vitro study for laser gene transfer in BHK-21 fibroblast cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aziz, M.; Salem, D. S.; Salama, M. S.; Badr, Y.

    2009-02-01

    Modifications to our previously introduced system for laser microbeam cell surgery were carried out in the present work to match animal cells. These modifications included: 1- Using other laser system that used before, Excimer laser with 193 and 308 nm wavelengths. The used laser here, is He-Cd with low power and 441.5 nm wavelength in the visible region. 2- Instead of using pulsed laser, we used here CW He-Cd chopped by electrical chopper, which is synchronized with the mechanical motion of the mobile stage with step 40 microns, according to cell dimensions to avoid puncturing the same cell twice. The advantages of the modified here laser setup for gene transfer is: it is less damaging to the sensitive animal cell which has thin cell membrane. The present work aimed to: 1- Design a modified laser microbeam cell surgery, applicable to animal cells, such as fibroblast cells 2- To examine the efficiency of such system. 3- To assure gene transfer and its expression in the used cells. 4- To evaluate the ultra damages produced from using the laser beam as a modality for gene transfer. On the other wards, to introduce: safe, efficient and less damaging modality for gene transfer in animal cells. To achieve these goals, we applied the introduced here home-made laser setup with its synchronized parameters to introduce pBK-CMV phagemid, containing LacZ and neomycin resistance (neor )genes into BHK-21 fibroblast cell line. The results of the present work showed that: 1- Our modified laser microbeam cell surgery setup proved to be useful and efficient tool for gene transfer into fibroblast cells. 2- The presence and expression of LacZ gene was achieved using histochemical LacZ assay. 3- Selection of G418 antibiotic sensitivity assay confirmed the presence and expression towards stability of neor gene with time. 4- Presence of LacZ and neor genes in the genomic DNA of transfected fibroblast cells was indicated using PCR analysis. 5- Transmission electron microscopy indicated that, no ultradamages or changes for cell; membrane, organilles or any component of transfected fibroblast cell as a result of using laser microbeam compared with control cell.

  10. Effects of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel on human dermal fibroblasts in vitro and on skin condition in Japanese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Ishizaki, Chiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Aloe is known for its topical use for treating wounds and burns. Many previous studies reported the healing effects of Aloe vera. However, there are few clinical studies on the effect of orally administered A. vera gel on the skin. Aloe sterols are a type of plant sterols that have the capability to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. In a recent study, we confirmed that ingested Aloe sterols reached the peripheral tissues through the bloodstream. However, their influence on dermal fibroblasts has not been investigated. Methods First, we investigated the capability of Aloe sterols (cycloartenol and lophenol) to stimulate human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Then, we investigated the effect of intake of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) containing 40 ?g Aloe sterols on the skin conditions in Japanese women with dry skin in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Results After cocultivation with Aloe sterols, the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid increased by approximately two-fold and 1.5-fold, and gene expression levels of these enzymes responsible for their synthesis were also observed in human dermal fibroblasts. An increase in arm skin hydration was observed at 8 weeks in the AVGP group, whereas a slight decrease in arm skin hydration was noted in the placebo group. However, there was no statistical difference between AVGP and placebo groups in skin moisture. In subgroup analysis, the change in the mean wrinkle depth was significantly lower in the AVGP group than in the control group. In addition, percent body fat after 8 weeks was significantly lower in the AVGP group. No AVGP intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion The present study confirms that daily oral Aloe sterol-containing AVGP significantly reduced facial wrinkles in women aged ?40 years, and Aloe sterols stimulate collagen and hyaluronic acid production by human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:25759593

  11. DNA damage and altered gene expression in cultured human skin fibroblasts exposed to 193-nm excimer laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samid, Dvorit; Flessate, Denise M.; Miller, Alexandra C.; Rimoldi, Donata

    1990-06-01

    Tissue ablation using 193nm excimer lasers is being considered for a variety of surgical procedures, yet little is known regarding the potential mutagenic risk to human cells. The effects of sublethal doses of radiation on cellular DNA and gene expression have been examined in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Northern blot analysis of mRNA revealed an increase in the levels of the c-f. proto-oncogene, interstitial collagenase, and metallothionein transcripts after laser radiation at either 193nm or 248nm. Similar changes in gene expression have been previously observed in cells treated with different carcinogens, including classical UV light (254nm) and phorbol esters. In contrast to the conventional UV light or laser radiation at 248nm, the 193nm radiation did not cause significant pyrimidine dimer formation, as determined by measurements of unscheduled DNA synthesis. However, both 193nm and 248nm radiation induced micronuclei formation, indicative of chromosome breakage. These data indicate that exposure of actively replicating human skin cells to sublethal doses of 193nm laser radiation may result in molecular changes associated with carcinogenesis.

  12. Specific toxicity of aphidicolin to ultraviolet-irradiated excision proficient human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor of the eucaryotic ? polymerase, has been employed to study the role of this enzyme in repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by far u.v. (254 nm) radiation in normal and repair defective primary human fibroblasts. There is a strong concentration dependent specific toxicity to cells treated with a fluence of 6 Jm-2 of far-u.v. radiation and incubated with aphidicolin for 2 days over the concentration range 0.0025-2.5 ?g/ml. A similar effect is seen with a xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) variant (excision proficient) strain but there is no specific toxicity to u.v irradiated excision deficient XP cells of complementation group A. Inactivation of irradiated excision proficient fibroblasts is rapid over the first 6 h of aphidicolin (1 ?g/ml) treatment but the reaction takes 2 days or longer to complete depending on the u.v. dose. These results demonstrate that the apparent uncoupling of excision repair seen previously by other investigators prevents repair of PLD and is lethal to the cells. (author)

  13. Specific toxicity of aphidicolin to ultraviolet-irradiated excision proficient human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor of the eucaryotic alpha polymerase, has been employed to study the role of this enzyme in repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by far u.v. (254 nm) radiation in normal and repair defective primary human fibroblasts. There is strong concentration dependent specific toxicity to cells treated with a fluence of 6 Jm-2 of far-u.v. radiation and incubated with aphidicolin for 2 days over the concentration range 0.0025-2.5 micrograms/ml. A similar effect is seen with a xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) variant (excision proficient) strain but there is no specific toxicity to u.v. irradiated excision deficient XP cells of complementation group A. Inactivation of irradiated excision proficient fibroblasts is rapid over the first 6 h of aphidicolin (1 microgram/ml) treatment but the reaction takes 2 days or longer to complete depending on the u.v. dose. These results demonstrate that the apparent uncoupling of excision repair seen previously by other investigators prevents repair of PLD and is lethal to the cells

  14. Fibroblasts of skin fragments as a tool for the investigation of genetic diseases: technical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Janice Carneiro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin biopsies are frequently indicated for investigation and/or confirmation of genetic disorders. Although relatively simple and noninvasive, these procedures require care in order to increase probability of success and to avoid patient discomfort and unnecessary repeated analyses and associated laboratory fees. The present report highlights the importance of skin biopsies in genetic disorder diagnosis and presents general rules for collecting, storing, transporting and processing samples. We recommend its reading to professionals intending to use this important and sometimes fundamental diagnostic tool.

  15. Cationic star-shaped polymer as an siRNA carrier for reducing MMP-9 expression in skin fibroblast cells and promoting wound healing in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li N

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Na Li,1,* Heng-Cong Luo,1,* Chuan Yang,1 Jun-Jie Deng,2 Meng Ren,1 Xiao-Ying Xie,1 Diao-Zhu Lin,1 Li Yan,1 Li-Ming Zhang2 1Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2DSAPM Lab and PCFM Lab, Institute of Polymer Science, Department of Polymer and Materials Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Excessive expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is deleterious to the cutaneous wound-healing process in the context of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to explore whether a cationic star-shaped polymer consisting of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD core and poly(amidoamine dendron arms (ß-CD-[D3]7 could be used as the gene carrier of small interfering RNA (siRNA to reduce MMP-9 expression for enhanced diabetic wound healing. Methods: The cytotoxicity of ß-CD-(D37 was investigated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (MMT method in the rat CRL1213 skin fibroblast cell line. The transfection efficiency of ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-small interfering RNA (siRNA complexes was determined by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Quantitative real time (RT polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the gene expression of MMP-9 after the transfection by ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes. The ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes were injected on the wounds of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound closure was measured on days 4 and 7 post-wounding. Results: ß-CD-(D37 exhibited low cytotoxicity in fibroblast cells, and easily formed the complexes with MMP-9-siRNA. The ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes were readily taken up by fibroblast cells, resulting in the downregulation of MMP-9 gene expression (P<0.01. Animal experiments revealed that the treatment by ß-CD-(D37/MMP-9-siRNA complexes enhanced wound closure in diabetic rats on day 7 post-wounding (P<0.05. Conclusion: ß-CD-(D37 may be used as an efficient carrier for the delivery of MMP-9-siRNA to reduce MMP-9 expression in skin fibroblast cells and promote wound healing in diabetic rats. Keywords: gene carrier, small interfering RNAs, matrix metalloproteinase-9, diabetic foot ulceration

  16. Photochemical damage to skin fibroblasts caused by protoporphyrin and violet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreskin fibroblasts cultured in a medium containing protoporphyrin and exposed to violet light lose the capacity to proliferate. This phenomenon can be assessed on the basis of the ability of the irradiated cells to form colonies. Potentially lethal injuries can, however, be repaired during post-irradiation incubation under optimal growth conditions. We investigated the photodynamically induced transformations of certain molecular targets in the irradiated cells. Biochemical analysis showed that only traces of unsaturated fatty acids were oxidized, but SH groups of both the membranes and the cytosol appeared to be very sensitive targets. Of the tryptophan content, 20% was damaged during irradiation. Recovery was observed during post-irradiation incubation. The tryptophan content and the SH groups recovered to some extent, and these results showed a good correlation with the regeneration of surviving cells. (orig.)

  17. Usefulness of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF Loaded Dissolving Microneedles for Local Therapy of Skin Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanji Takada

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The usefulness of dissolving microneedles (DMs for local skin therapy by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF was studied in rats. Methods: We prepared four kinds of bFGF-loaded DMs, approximately 500 ?m length and 300 ?m diameter at the bottom. Long-term stability and dissolution studies were performed by HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacological evaluations were performed after administration of bFGF loaded DMs to rats. Results: The bFGF contents were 2.15 ± 0.07, 1.07 ± 0.04, 0.56 ± 0.07 and 0.12 ± 0.03 ?g. The 100.2 ± 3.4%, 100.2 ± 3.3%, 99.3 ± 1.4% and 100.4 ± 3.0% of bFGF were recovered after 1, 3 and 6 months and 1 year incubation at 40°C. The bFGF was released from DMs within 5 min. In a pharmacokinetic study using 2.0 and 1.0 ?g bFGF-loaded DMs, no systemic exposure of bFGF was detected. The initial bFGF concentrations in the rat skin tissue after administration of bFGF-loaded DMs to the hair-removed rat abdominal skin were 510.2 ± 20.1 ng/g wet weight for 2 ?g bFGF DMs and 264.2 ± 56.5 ng/g wet weight for 1 ?g DMs, declining slowly thereafter to 226.3 ± 33.5 and 105.1 ± 27.4 ng/g wet weight at 6 hr after administration. Good dose-dependency was observed. Pharmacological evaluation of bFGF-loaded DMs of 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 ?g, in the wound healing rat model, all used DMs, but 0.1 ?g DMs, showed good healing effects. Considered collectively, these results suggest the usefulness of bFGF-loaded DMs for local therapy of skin wound disease.

  18. Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have shown that UVA (320-380 nm) radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induce a stress protein of approximately 32 kDa in human skin fibroblasts. The synthesis and cloning of cDNA from arsenite-induced mRNA populations have now allowed us to unequivocally identify the 32-kDa protein as heme oxygenase. By mRNA analysis we have shown that the heme oxygenase gene is also induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium chloride, iodoacetamide, and menadione. The known antioxidant properties of heme catabolites taken together with the observation of a high level of induction of the enzyme in cells from an organ not involved in hemoglobin breakdown strongly supports the proposal that the induction of heme oxygenase may be a general response to oxidant stress and constitutes an important cellular defense mechanism against oxidative damage

  19. Redox-dependent induction of antioxidant defenses by phenolic diterpenes confers stress tolerance in normal human skin fibroblasts: Insights on replicative senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana C; Gomes, Andreia C; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina; Lima, Cristovao F

    2015-06-01

    Mild stress-induced hormesis represents a promising strategy for targeting the age-related accumulation of molecular damage and, therefore, for preventing diseases and achieving healthy aging. Fruits, vegetables, and spices contain a wide variety of hormetic phytochemicals, which may explain the beneficial health effects associated with the consumption of these dietary components. In the present study, the induction of cellular antioxidant defenses by the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS) were studied in normal human skin fibroblasts, and insights into the aging process at the cellular level investigated. We observed that CA and CS induced several cytoprotective enzymes and antioxidant defenses in human fibroblasts, whose induction was dependent on the cellular redox state for CS and associated with Nrf2 signaling for both compounds. The stress response elicited by preincubation with CS conferred a cytoprotective action against a following oxidant challenge with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, confirming its hormetic effect. Preincubation of normal fibroblasts with CS also protected against hydrogen peroxide-induced premature senescence. Furthermore, cultivation of middle passage normal human skin fibroblasts in the presence of CS ameliorated the physiological state of cells during replicative senescence. Our results support the view that mild stress-induced antioxidant defenses by CS can confer stress tolerance in normal cells and may have important implications in the promotion of healthy aging. PMID:25744415

  20. The effect of Centella asiatica, vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixtures preparations in stimulating collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Puziah

    2014-03-01

    Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban is well known in promoting wound healing and provides significant benefits in skin care and therapeutic products formulation. Glycolic acid and vitamins also play a role in the enhancement of collagen and fibronectin synthesis. Here, we evaluate the specific effect of Centella asiatica (CA), vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixture preparations to stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human fibroblast cells. The fibroblast cells are incubated with CA, glycolic acid, vitamins and their mixture preparations for 48 h. The cell lysates were analyzed for protein content and collagen synthesis by direct binding enzyme immunoassay. The fibronectin of the cultured supernatant was measured by sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E and C significantly stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in the fibroblast. Addition of glycolic acid and vitamins to CA further increased the levels of collagen and fibronectin synthesis to 8.55 and 23.75 ?g/100 ?g, respectively. CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E, and C, and their mixtures demonstrated stimulatory effect on both extra-cellular matrix synthesis of collagen and fibronectin in in vitro studies on human foreskin fibroblasts, which is beneficial to skin care and therapeutic products formulation. PMID:24577907

  1. Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts and lymphocytes from atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last 30 years or so, the existence of individual differences in in vivo radiation sensitivity has been well recognized in the response of normal tissues, particularly skin tissue, of cancer patients in the course of radiation therapy. If a large variation in radiosensitivity truly exists, it is very important to compare the radiosensitivity between the A-bomb survivors and a general population. If A-bomb survivors include a disproportionately large number of either radioresistant or radiosensitive persons, the surviving population would provide a biased estimate of the true risk of radiogenic cancer. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Fibroblasts of skin fragments as a tool for the investigation of genetic diseases: technical recommendations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janice Carneiro, Coelho; Roberto, Giugliani.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Biópsias de pele são freqüentemente indicadas para a investigação e/ou confirmação de um distúrbio genético. Embora relativamente simples e não invasivo, este procedimento deve ser executado com cuidado de modo a aumentar as chances de sucesso, evitando o desconforto para o paciente e os custos para [...] o laboratório gerados por uma eventual necessidade de repetição da análise. Este trabalho destaca a importância da biópsia de pele para o diagnóstico de doenças genéticas e descreve as normas gerais para coleta, acondicionamento, transporte e processamento da amostra. Sua leitura é recomendável para profissionais que pretendem utilizar esta importante, e às vezes fundamental, ferramenta diagnóstica. Abstract in english Skin biopsies are frequently indicated for investigation and/or confirmation of genetic disorders. Although relatively simple and noninvasive, these procedures require care in order to increase probability of success and to avoid patient discomfort and unnecessary repeated analyses and associated la [...] boratory fees. The present report highlights the importance of skin biopsies in genetic disorder diagnosis and presents general rules for collecting, storing, transporting and processing samples. We recommend its reading to professionals intending to use this important and sometimes fundamental diagnostic tool.

  3. Activation of NF-?B in human skin fibroblasts by the oxidative stress generated by UVA radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the role of the nucleus and the membrane in the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kB by oxidant stress generated via the UVA (320-380 nm) component of solar radiation. Nuclear extracts from human skin fibroblasts that had been irradiated with UVA at doses that caused little DNA damage contained activated NF-?B that bound to its recognition sequence in DNA. The UVA radiation-dependent activation of NF-?B in enucleated cells confirmed that the nucleus was not involved. On the other hand, UVA radiation-dependent activation of NF-?B appeared to be correlated with membrane damage, and activation could be prevented by ?-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene, agents that inhibited UVA radiation-dependent peroxidation of cell membrane lipids. The activation of NF-?B by the DNA damaging agents UVC (200-290 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) radiation also only occurred at doses where significant membrane damage was induced, and, overall, activation was not correlated with the relative levels of DNA damage induced by UVC/UVB and UVA radiations. We conclude that the oxidative modification of membrane components may be an important factor to consider in the UV radiation-dependent activation of NF-?B over all wavelength ranges examined. (Author)

  4. A comparative analysis of collagen VI production in muscle, skin and fibroblasts from 14 Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy patients with dominant and recessive COL6A mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Mallebrera, C; Maioli, M A; Kim, J; Brown, S C; Feng, L; Lampe, A K; Bushby, K; Hicks, D; Flanigan, K M; Bonnemann, C; Sewry, C A; Muntoni, F

    2006-10-01

    Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) is caused by recessive and dominant mutations in COL6A genes. We have analysed collagen VI expression in 14 UCMD patients. Sequencing of COL6A genes had identified homozygous and heterozygous mutations in 12 cases. Analysis of collagen VI in fibroblast cultures derived from eight of these patients showed reduced extracellular deposition in all cases and intracellular collagen VI staining in seven cases. This was observed even in cases that showed normal collagen VI labelling in skin biopsies. Collagen VI immunolabelling was reduced in all the available muscle biopsies. When comparisons were possible no correlation was seen between the extent of the reduction in the muscle and fibroblast cultures, the mode of inheritance or the severity of the clinical phenotype. Mutations affecting glycine substitutions in the conserved triple helical domain were common and all resulted in reduced collagen VI. This study expands the spectrum of collagen VI defects and shows that analysis of skin fibroblasts may be a useful technique for the detection of collagen VI abnormalities. In contrast, immunohistochemical analysis of skin biopsies may not always reveal an underlying collagen VI defect. PMID:16935502

  5. The effects of panduratin A isolated from Kaempferia pandurata on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and type-1 procollagen in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Seok; Kwon, Yi-Young; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2008-02-01

    Exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light on the skin induces photoaging associated with up-regulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities and decreased collagen synthesis. We investigated the effects of panduratin A isolated from Kaempferia pandurata Roxb. on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and type-1 procollagen in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Cultured human fibroblasts were irradiated with UV (20 mJ/cm (2)) and panduratin A was added into the medium of the fibroblast culture. The expressions of MMP-1 and type-1 procollagen levels were measured using Western blot analysis and RT-RCR. Panduratin A in the range of 0.001 - 0.1 microM significantly reduced the expression of MMP-1 and induced the expression of type-1 procollagen at the protein and mRNA gene levels. Panduratin A showed stronger activity than epigallocatechin 3- O-gallate (EGCG) known as a natural anti-aging agent. The results suggest that panduratin A can be a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of skin aging brought about by UV. PMID:18253916

  6. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-04-01

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  7. Frequency changes with time in vivo of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5 Syrian hamster litter mates were each irradiated with X-rays on one flank to 300 rad. Skin biopsies were taken from both the irradiated and unirradiated (control) flanks of each animal at one day and at about 6 months after irradiation. The cells cultured from these biopsies were used to determine the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations. During the 6-month period there were significant reductions in the frequencies of both reciprocal translocations and terminal deletions. Translocations involving the short arm of the Y-chromosome, however, showed a significant increase during this period. It is possible that while the latter phenomenon was due to cell selection in vivo the general fall off in translocations and deletions was the result of a long term in vivo repair mechanism or perhaps the results of certain aberrations proving to be lethal with prolonged expression times. (Auth.)

  8. Effects of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel on human dermal fibroblasts in vitro and on skin condition in Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Miyuki Tanaka,1 Eriko Misawa,1 Koji Yamauchi,1 Fumiaki Abe,1 Chiaki Ishizaki2 1Functional Food Research Department, Food Science and Technology Institute, Morinaga Milk Industry Co, Ltd, Zama, Kanagawa, 2Ebisu Skin Research Center, Inforward, Inc., Tokyo, Japan Background: Aloe is known for its topical use for treating wounds and burns. Many previous studies reported the healing effects of Aloe vera. However, there are few clinical studies on the effect of orally administered A. vera gel on the skin. Aloe sterols are a type of plant sterols that have the capability to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. In a recent study, we confirmed that ingested Aloe sterols reached the peripheral tissues through the bloodstream. However, their influence on dermal fibroblasts has not been investigated. Methods: First, we investigated the capability of Aloe sterols (cycloartenol and lophenol to stimulate human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Then, we investigated the effect of intake of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP containing 40 µg Aloe sterols on the skin conditions in Japanese women with dry skin in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Results: After cocultivation with Aloe sterols, the production of collagen and hyaluronic acid increased by approximately two-fold and 1.5-fold, and gene expression levels of these enzymes responsible for their synthesis were also observed in human dermal fibroblasts. An increase in arm skin hydration was observed at 8 weeks in the AVGP group, whereas a slight decrease in arm skin hydration was noted in the placebo group. However, there was no statistical difference between AVGP and placebo groups in skin moisture. In subgroup analysis, the change in the mean wrinkle depth was significantly lower in the AVGP group than in the control group. In addition, percent body fat after 8 weeks was significantly lower in the AVGP group. No AVGP intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period. Conclusion: The present study confirms that daily oral Aloe sterol-containing AVGP significantly reduced facial wrinkles in women aged ?40 years, and Aloe sterols stimulate collagen and hyaluronic acid production by human dermal fibroblasts. Keywords: aloe sterol, collagen, wrinkle

  9. Mécano-Stimulation™ of the skin improves sagging score and induces beneficial functional modification of the fibroblasts: clinical, biological, and histological evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humbert P

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Humbert,1,2 Ferial Fanian,1,2 Thomas Lihoreau,1,2 Adeline Jeudy,1,2 Ahmed Elkhyat,1,2 Sophie Robin,3 Carol Courderot-Masuyer,3 Hélène Tauzin,3 Christine Lafforgue,1,2,4 Marek Haftek5 1Research and Studies Center on the Integument (CERT, Department of Dermatology, Clinical Investigation Center (CIC 1431, Besançon University Hospital; 2INSERM UMR1098, FED4234 IBCT, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 3SARL BIOEXIGENCE, Besançon, France; 4Dermopharmacology and Cosmetology Unit, University of Paris Sud, France; 5University of Lyon 1, EA4169, Experimental, clinical and therapeutic aspects of the skin barrier function, INSERM US7 – CNRS UMS3453, Lyon, France Background: Loss of mechanical tension appears to be the major factor underlying decreased collagen synthesis in aged skin. Numerous in vitro studies have shown the impact of mechanical forces on fibroblasts through mechanotransduction, which consists of the conversion of mechanical signals to biochemical responses. Such responses are characterized by the modulation of gene expression coding not only for extracellular matrix components (collagens, elastin, etc. but also for degradation enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases [MMPs] and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases [TIMPs]. A new device providing a mechanical stimulation of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue has been used in a simple, blinded, controlled, and randomized study. Materials and methods: Thirty subjects (aged between 35 years and 50 years, with clinical signs of skin sagging, were randomly assigned to have a treatment on hemiface. After a total of 24 sessions with Mécano-Stimulation™, biopsies were performed on the treated side and control area for in vitro analysis (dosage of hyaluronic acid, elastin, type I collagen, MMP9; equivalent dermis retraction; GlaSbox®; n=10 and electron microscopy (n=10. Furthermore, before and after the treatment, clinical evaluations and self-assessment questionnaire were done.Results: In vitro analysis showed increases in hyaluronic acid, elastin, type I collagen, and MMP9 content along with an improvement of the migratory capacity of the fibroblasts on the treated side. Electron microscopy evaluations showed a clear dermal remodeling in relation with the activation of fibroblast activity. A significant improvement of different clinical signs associated with skin aging and the satisfaction of the subjects were observed, correlated with an improvement of the sagging cheek.Conclusion: Mécano-Stimulation is a noninvasive and safe technique delivered by flaps microbeats at various frequencies, which can significantly improve the skin trophicity. Results observed with objective measurements, ie, in vitro assessments and electron microscopy, confirm the firming and restructuring effect clinically observed. Keywords: skin rejuvenation, skin sagging, mechanical stimulation, fibroblast synthesis

  10. Host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated and chemically-treated herpes simplex virus-1 by xeroderma pigmentosum, xp heterozygotes and normal skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated and N-acetoxy-2-acetylamino-fluorene-treated herpes simplex virus type 1 strain MP was studied in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum human skin fibroblasts. Virus treated with either agent demonstrated lower survival in XP cells from complementation groups A, B, C and D than in normal fibroblasts. The relative reactivation ability of XP cells from the different genetic complementation groups was found to be the same for both irradiated and chemically treated virus. In addition, the inactivation kinetics for virus treated with either agent in the XP variant were comparable to that seen in normal skin fibroblasts. The addition of 2 or 4 mmoles caffeine to the post-infection assay medium had no effect on the inactivation kinetics of virus treated by either agent in the XP variant or in XP cells from the different genetic complementation groups. Treatment of the virus with nitrogen mustard resulted in equivalent survival in normal and XP genetic complementation group D cells. No apparent defect was observed in the ability of XP heterozygous skin fibroblasts to repair virus damaged with up to 100 ?g N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene per ml. These findings indicate that the repair of UV-irradiated and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated virus is accomplished by the same pathway or different pathways sharing a common intermediate step and that the excision defect of XP cells plays little if any role in the reactivation of nitrogen any role in the reactivation of nitrogen mustard treated virus. (Auth.)

  11. Gene expression profiling in wild-type and metallothionein mutant fibroblast cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁNGELA D ARMENDÁRIZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of metallothioneins (MT in copper homeostasis is of great interest, as it appears to be partially responsible for the regulation of intracellular copper levels during adaptation to extracellular excess of the metal. To further investigate a possible role of MTs in copper metabolism, a genomics approach was utilized to evaluate the role of MT on gene expression. Microarray analysis was used to examine the effects of copper overload in fibroblast cells from normal and MT I and II double knock-out mice (MT-/-. As a first step, we compared genes that were significantly upregulated in wild-type and MT-/- cells exposed to copper. Even though wild-type and mutant cells are undistinguishable in terms of their morphological features and rates of growth, our results show that MT-/- cells do not respond with induction of typical markers of cellular stress under copper excess conditions, as observed in the wild-type cell line, suggesting that the transcription initiation rate or the mRNA stability of stress genes is affected when there is an alteration in the copper store capacity. The functional classification of other up-regulated genes in both cell lines indicates that a large proportion (>80% belong to two major categories: 1 metabolism; and 2 cellular physiological processes, suggesting that at the transcriptional level copper overload induces the expression of genes associated with diverse molecular functions. These results open the possibility to understand how copper homeostasis is being coordinated with other metabolic pathways.

  12. Gene expression profiling in wild-type and metallothionein mutant fibroblast cell lines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ÁNGELA D, ARMENDÁRIZ; FELIPE, OLIVARES; RODRIGO, PULGAR; ALEX, LOGUINOV; VERÓNICA, CAMBIAZO; CHRISTOPHER D, VULPE; MAURICIO, GONZÁLEZ.

    Full Text Available The role of metallothioneins (MT) in copper homeostasis is of great interest, as it appears to be partially responsible for the regulation of intracellular copper levels during adaptation to extracellular excess of the metal. To further investigate a possible role of MTs in copper metabolism, a geno [...] mics approach was utilized to evaluate the role of MT on gene expression. Microarray analysis was used to examine the effects of copper overload in fibroblast cells from normal and MT I and II double knock-out mice (MT-/-). As a first step, we compared genes that were significantly upregulated in wild-type and MT-/- cells exposed to copper. Even though wild-type and mutant cells are undistinguishable in terms of their morphological features and rates of growth, our results show that MT-/- cells do not respond with induction of typical markers of cellular stress under copper excess conditions, as observed in the wild-type cell line, suggesting that the transcription initiation rate or the mRNA stability of stress genes is affected when there is an alteration in the copper store capacity. The functional classification of other up-regulated genes in both cell lines indicates that a large proportion (>80%) belong to two major categories: 1) metabolism; and 2) cellular physiological processes, suggesting that at the transcriptional level copper overload induces the expression of genes associated with diverse molecular functions. These results open the possibility to understand how copper homeostasis is being coordinated with other metabolic pathways.

  13. CopA3 Peptide Prevents Ultraviolet-Induced Inhibition of Type-I Procollagen and Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Human Skin Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV exposure is well-known to induce premature aging, which is mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 activity. A 9-mer peptide, CopA3 (CopA3 was synthesized from a natural peptide, coprisin, which is isolated from the dung beetle Copris tripartitus. As part of our continuing search for novel bioactive natural products, CopA3 was investigated for its in vitro anti-skin photoaging activity. UV-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of MMP-1 were partially prevented in human skin fibroblasts by CopA3 peptide in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 25 ?M, CopA3 nearly completely inhibited MMP-1 expression. These results suggest that CopA3, an insect peptide, is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of skin aging.

  14. Differential translocation of heat shock factor-1 after mild and severe stress to human skin fibroblasts undergoing aging in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirovic, Dino; de Toda, Irene Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Repeated exposure to mild heat shock (HS) has been shown to induce a wide range of health promoting hormetic effects in various biological systems, including human cells undergoing aging in vitro. In order to understand how cells distinguish between mild and severe stress, we have investigated the extent of early and immediate HS response by analyzing the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), in serially passaged normal adult human facial skin fibroblasts exposed to mild (41°C) or severe (43°C) HS. Cells respond differently when exposed to mild and severe HS at different passage levels in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation. In early passage young cells there was a 5-fold difference between mild and severe HS in the extent of HSF1 translocation. However, in near senescent late passage cells, the difference between mild and severe stress in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation was reduced to less than 2-fold. One of the reasons for this age-related attenuationof heat shock response is due to the fact there was a higher basal level of HSF1 in the nuclei of late passage cells, which is indicative of increased intrinsic stress during cellular aging. These observations are consistent with previously reported data that whereas repeated mild stress given at younger ages can slow down aging and increase the lifespan, the same level of stress given at older ages may not provide the same benefits. Therefore, elucidating the early and immediate steps in the induction of stress response can be useful in deciding whether a particular level of stress is potentially hormetically beneficial or not.

  15. Formation and repair of DNA damage induced by indirect action of ultraviolet light in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definitions of direct and indirect DNA damage are as follows: direct action, ''the attack of DNA occurs by a primary agent or a chemical derivative of the primary agent'', and indirect action, ''the attack of DNA occurs by active-O2 species which are formed by the reaction of a primary agent with a non-DNA target''. Comparative studies were performed on the formation and repair of DNA lesions induced by monochromatic light at 254, 265 and 313 nm. Attention was focused on human cells in culture, in particular on the skin fibroblasts from normal individuals and the patients with the autosomal recessive disease, Xerodermal pigmentosum (XP). The DNA lesions induced by the indirect action of active O2 species (superoxide-radicals, OH-radicals, singlet oxygen) become important. The most remarkable observation after the 313 nm irradiation on XP strains at 37 deg is the increased immediate fragmentation of pre-existing, parental DNA in the XP-variant strains. A late step in excision repair such as the ligation of parental DNA fragments may be deficient in the XP variants. The nuclease function involved in the removal of radiation lesions could be more active in the XP variants, or glycosylase function could be more active. The abnormality in de novo DNA synthesis in the XP variants may be the reflection of the primary defects in the repair of parental DNA templates rather than the defects in ''post-replication repair''. The abnormal function in DNA mn repair''. The abnormal function in DNA metabolism in the XP variants affects in parallel the repair of parental DNA and de novo DNA synthesis. (Yamashita, S.)

  16. Absence of correlations between the radiosensitivity of human T-lymphocytes at G0 and skin fibroblasts at log phase from the same individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matched samples of peripheral T-lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts from a total of 22 patients who underwent various surgical procedures were tested for a dose-survival study using loss of colony-forming ability as the end point. The results showed that the mean D10 (the dose required to kill 90 % of the cells) ±SD was 3.58 ± 0.21 Gy for T-lymphocytes irradiated at G0 and 3.19 ± 0.37 Gy for skin fibroblasts irradiated at log phase. The coefficient of variation was found to be 6 % and 11 %, respectively. Contrary to expectation, regression analysis of the D10 values for the two cell types revealed no significant correlations. The absence of correlation is most probably derived from the fact that the apparent interindividual variability of dose-survival curves is largely caused by random experimental fluctuations, at least for lymphocytes. Possible reasons for the greater variability observed in the fibroblast assay are discussed. (author)

  17. Intravitreal injection of fibroblasts: the pathological effects on the ocular tissues of the rabbit following an intravitreal injection of autologous skin fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Hitchins, C A; Grierson, I.

    1988-01-01

    The intravitreal injection of autologous cultured fibroblasts has been used by many groups to study proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ninety-five New Zealand white rabbits were used to study the pathological effects on the ocular tissues following such an injection over various time periods up to six months. The ocular tissues were studied by light microscopy, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and autoradiography. The cells which contributed to the inflammatory response (initially neu...

  18. PMN Leukocytes and Fibroblasts Numbers on Wound Burn Healing on the Skin of White Rat after Administration of Ambonese Plantain Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniarti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of ambonese plantain banana (Musa paradisiaca var sapientum Lamb treatment in burn wound healing on the skin of white rats (Rattus novergicus has been conducted. The wound healing of burn injuries was evaluated by counting the number of PMN leukocytes and fibroblasts at the 7th, 14th, and 21st days following the treatment. The study showed that the decrease in number of PMN leukocytes of subjects treated with ambonese plantain banana was relatively more significant compared to both negative and positive control (Bioplacenton ®. In contrast, an increasing number of fibroblasts was significantly demonstrated at the 14th and 21st days after treatment. In conclusion, ambonese plantain banana treatment in burn injuries will provide better results compared to both positive and negative controls.

  19. The treatment effects of cultured epidermis, basic fibroblast growth factor and the combination of these two treatments in a radiation skin ulcer model (rat)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment effects of cultured epidermis, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and the combination of these two treatments in a radiation skin ulcer model. The subjects were 9-week-old male inbred line rats and divided into two parts. Rats in one part were applied X-ray and rats in the other part were not. The dose of X-ray was 20 Gy. Wounds were full-thickness wounds. The ways of treatment were divided into four groups: control group, cultured epidermis group, b-FGF group, combination group (cultured epidermis+b-FGF). Wounds were observed on 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26 days after treatment. Wound healing rate was calculated and days needed to heal were counted. Relative hardness of scars was measured on the day of epithelization and on 12 and 21 days after epithelization. Wounds applied X-ray: Mean wound healing rate of cultured epidermis group and combination group was significantly higher than that of the two other groups on 8 and 11 days after treatment. Mean relative hardness of scars of cultured epidermis group and combination group was significantly lower than that of the two other groups on all measurement days. Mean days needed to heal of cultured epidermis group were significantly shorter than those of control group and b-FGF group. And those of combination group were significantly shorter than those of b-FGF group. As the shorter the days from making scars became, relative hardness of scars got lower. Woundslative hardness of scars got lower. Wounds without X-ray: Mean wound healing rate of combination group was significantly lower than that of cultured epidermis group and control group on 5 days after treatment. Cultured epidermis graft can be an effective treatment for radiation skin ulcer. b-FGF can weaken the treatment effect of cultured epidermis graft depending on its density. There can be a positive correlation between relative hardness of scars and the days from making scars. (author)

  20. Effects of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and type I procollagen in UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes premature skin aging that is associated with upregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and decreased collagen synthesis. Macelignan, a natural lignan compound isolated from Myristica fragrans HOUTT. (nutmeg), has been reported to possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. This study assessed the effects of macelignan on photoaging and investigated its mechanisms of action in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts (Hs68) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results show that macelignan attenuated UV-induced MMP-1 expression by suppressing phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) induced by reactive oxygen species. Macelignan also increased type I procollagen expression and secretion through transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?)/Smad signaling. These findings indicate that macelignan regulates the expression of MMP-1 and type I procollagen in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts by modulating MAPK and TGF-?/Smad signaling, suggesting its potential as an efficacious antiphotoaging agent. (author)

  1. Effects of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg) on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and type I procollagen in UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Eun; Mun, Sukyeong; Pyun, Hee-Bong; Kim, Myung-Suk; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes premature skin aging that is associated with upregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and decreased collagen synthesis. Macelignan, a natural lignan compound isolated from Myristica fragrans HOUTT. (nutmeg), has been reported to possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. This study assessed the effects of macelignan on photoaging and investigated its mechanisms of action in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts (Hs68) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results show that macelignan attenuated UV-induced MMP-1 expression by suppressing phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) induced by reactive oxygen species. Macelignan also increased type I procollagen expression and secretion through transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?)/Smad signaling. These findings indicate that macelignan regulates the expression of MMP-1 and type I procollagen in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts by modulating MAPK and TGF-?/Smad signaling, suggesting its potential as an efficacious antiphotoaging agent. PMID:23037157

  2. The Apoptotic Effects of the P300 Activator on Breast Cancer and Lung Fibroblast Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salahshoor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: P300 is an enzyme that acetylates histones during stress. It alsoacetylates several non-histone proteins, including P53 which is the most important tumorsuppressor gene. P53 plays an important role in the apoptosis of tumor cells. Hereby,this study describes the potency of cholera toxin B subunit as a P300 activator to induceapoptosis in a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and a lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5as a non-tumorigenic control sample. Methods: MCF-7 and MRC-5 were cultured in RPMI-1640 and treated with orwithout cholera toxin B subunit at the concentration of 85.43 ?mol/L, based on the half-maximal inhibitory concentration index at different times (24, 48 and 72 h. Thepercentage of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry. Real-time quantitativeRT-PCR was performed to estimate the mRNA expression of P300 in MCF-7 and MRC-5 with cholera toxin B subunit at different times. We used the ELISA and Bradford proteintechniques to detect levels of total and acetylated P53 protein generated in MCF-7 andMRC-5. Results: Our findings indicated that the cholera toxin B subunit effectively andsignificantly induced more apoptosis in MCF-7 compared to MRC-5. We showed thatexpression of P300 up-regulated by increasing the time of the cholera toxin B subunittreatment in MCF-7 but not in MRC-5. In addition, the acetylated and total P53protein levels increased more in MCF-7 cells than in MRC-5 cells.Conclusion: Cholera toxin B subunit induced significant cell death in MCF-7, butit could be well tolerated in MRC-5. Therefore, cholera toxin B subunit can besuggested as an anti-cancer agent.

  3. Germline-Competent Mouse-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Generated on Human Fibroblasts without Exogenous Leukemia Inhibitory Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunliang; Yu, Hongyao; Ma, Yu; Shi, Guilai; Jiang, Jing; Gu, Junjie; Yang, Ying; Jin, Shibo; Wei, Zhe; Jiang, Hua; Li, Jinsong; Jin, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have attracted enormous attention due to their vast potential in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical screening and basic research. Most prior established iPS cell lines were derived and maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells supplemented with exogenous leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Drawbacks of MEF cells impede optimization as well as dissection of reprogramming events and limit the usage of iPS cell derivatives in therapeutic applicati...

  4. Abnormal sensitivity of diploid skin fibroblasts from a family with Gardner's syndrome to the lethal effects of X-irradiation, ultraviolet light and mitomycin-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin fibroblasts isolated from two members of the same family with the cancer-prone disease Gardner's Syndrome (intestinal polyposis, colon cancer, bone and soft tissue tumors) showed enhanced sensitivity to the lethal effects of X-irradiation, ultraviolet light and mitomycin-C. These cells showed no liquid-holding type recovery following UV-irradiation of confluent cultures, but were normal in their capacity for UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis. UV survival was not influenced by post-irradiation incubation with caffeine. (orig.)

  5. Relaxin regulates fibrillin 2, but not fibrillin 1, mRNA and protein expression by human dermal fibroblasts and murine fetal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Chrishan S; Sakai, Lynn Y; Amento, Edward P

    2003-03-01

    Relaxin modulates connective tissue remodeling by altering matrix molecule expression. We have found that relaxin specifically inhibits a microfibril component, fibrillin 2 (FBN2), without affecting fibrillin 1 (FBN1). Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) grown or stimulated to overexpress fibrillin expression were used to show that relaxin specifically down-regulated FBN2 mRNA and protein levels. Continuous exposure of HDFs to relaxin (30ng/ml) significantly (PFBN2 mRNA and protein in fetal skin from pregnant relaxin knockout mice. The regulation of FBN2 expression may be associated with functional changes in elastic tissues during development and growth. PMID:12590922

  6. Characterization of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 overexpression in the human breast cancer cell line SUM-52PE

    OpenAIRE

    Tannheimer, Stacey L.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Ethier, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)2 gene has been shown to be amplified in 5-10% of breast cancer patients. A breast cancer cell line developed in our laboratory, SUM-52PE, was shown to have a 12-fold amplification of the FGFR2 gene, and FGFR2 message was found to be overexpressed 40-fold in SUM-52PE cells as compared with normal human mammary epithelial (HME) cells. Both human breast cancer (HBC) cell lines and HME cells expressed two FGFR2...

  7. A role for Nrf2 in UVA-mediated heme oxygenase induction and protection from membrane damage in human skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; Li, Linhao; Deng, Linhong; Singh, Gurinder; Tyrrell, Rex M.; Zhong, J. Li

    2010-11-01

    Our previous study has shown that Ultraviolet-A (UVA) irradiation induces heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in cultured human primary skin fibroblasts FEK4. In the present study, we demonstrate a coordinated induction of HO-1 and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) following UVA irradiation or hemin treatment. The induction of HO-1 by either UVA irradiation or hemin treatment was largely abolished by down-regulation of Nrf2 with its targeted short interfering RNA (siNrf2). The study further reveals that knockdown of Nrf2 protein increased UVA-induced cell death measured by MTS assay. These findings together indicate that Nrf2-mediated induction of HO-1 expression may provide a cytoprotection for human skin cells from oxidative damage.

  8. Studies of DNA and chromosome damage in skin fibroblasts and blood lymphocytes from psoriasis patients treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of human lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts in vitro to a single, clinically used dose of PUVA, i.e., 0.1 micrograms/ml of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus 0.9-4 J/cm2 of longwave ultraviolet radiation (UVA), lead to the formation of DNA damage as determined by alkaline elution, and to chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). When lymphocyte-enriched plasma was obtained from psoriasis patients 2 h after oral intake of 8-MOP and then UVA irradiated (1.8-3.6 J/cm2) in vitro, an increased frequency of chromosome aberrations and SCE was observed. Normal levels of chromosome aberrations and SCE were found in lymphocytes of psoriasis patients after 3-30 weeks of PUVA treatment in vivo. A small but statistically significant increase in the SCE frequency was observed in the lymphocytes of psoriasis patients treated for 1-6 years with PUVA (mean 18.0 SCE/cell) as compared with before PUVA (mean 15.8, p less than 0.05). Skin fibroblasts of psoriasis patients analyzed 5 years after the start of PUVA treatment showed a normal number of SCE but a high fraction of filter-retained DNA in the alkaline elution assay, suggesting the presence of cross-linked DNA

  9. Collagen expression in fibroblasts with a novel LMNA mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminopathies are a group of genetic disorders caused by LMNA mutations; they include muscular dystrophies, lipodystrophies, and progeroid syndromes. We identified a novel heterozygous LMNA mutation, L59R, in a patient with the general appearance of mandibuloacral dysplasia and progeroid features. Examination of the nuclei of dermal fibroblasts revealed the irregular morphology characteristic of LMNA mutant cells. The nuclear morphological abnormalities of LMNA mutant lymphoblastoid cell lines were less prominent compared to those of primary fibroblasts. Since it has been reported that progeroid features are associated with increased extracellular matrix in dermal tissues, we compared a subset of these components in fibroblast cultures from LMNA mutants with those of control fibroblasts. There was no evidence of intracellular accumulation or altered mobility of collagen chains, or altered conversion of procollagen to collagen, suggesting that skin fibroblast-mediated matrix production may not play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this particular laminopathy

  10. Protective Effect of Processed Panax ginseng, Sun Ginseng on UVB-irradiated Human Skin Keratinocyte and Human Dermal Fibroblast

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyejin; Lee, Joo Yeop; Song, Kyu Choon; KIM, JINHEE; Park, Jeong Hill; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Hwang, Gwi Seo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the protective effects of processed Panax ginseng, sun ginseng (SG) against the UVB-irradiation on epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Pretreatment of SG in HaCaT keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts reduced UVB-induced cell damage as seen by reduced lactate dehydrogenase release. We also found that SG restored the UVB-induced decrease in anti-apoptotic gene expression (bcl-2 and bcl-xL) in these cells, indicating that SG has an anti-apoptotic ...

  11. Repair of chromosome damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase in a line of normal human fibroblasts and its malignant derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A line of normal human skin fibroblasts (KD) differed from its malignant derivative (HUT-14) in the extent of cytogenetic damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase. Malignant cells had significantly more chromatid breaks and gaps after exposure to 25, 50, or 100 rad. The gaps may represent single-strand breaks. Results from alkaline elution of cellular DNA immediately after irradiation showed that the normal and malignant cells in asynchronous population were equally sensitive to DNA single-strand breakage by X-irradiation. Caffeine or beta-cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), inhibitors of DNA repair, when added directly following G2 phase exposure, significantly increased the incidence of radiation-induced chromatid damage in the normal cells. In contrast, similar treatment of the malignant cells had little influence. Ara-C differed from caffeine in its effects; whereas both agents increased the frequency of chromatid breaks and gaps, only ara-C increased the frequency of gaps to the level observed in the irradiated malignant cells. Addition of catalase, a scavenger of the derivative free hydroxyl radical (.OH), to the cultures of malignant cells before, during, and following irradiation significantly reduced the chromatid damage; and catalase prevented formation of chromatid gaps. The DNA damage induced by X-ray during G2 phase in the normal KD cells was apparently repaired by a caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s) that was deficient or absent in their malignat was deficient or absent in their malignant derivatives

  12. Repair of chromosome damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase in a line of normal human fibroblasts and its malignant derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A line of normal human skin fibroblasts (KD) differed from its malignant derivative (HUT-14) in the extent of cytogenetic damage induced by X-irradiation during G2 phase. Malignant cells had significantly more chromatid breaks and gaps after exposure to 25, 50, or 100 rad. Results from alkaline elution of cellular DNA immediately after irradiation showed that the normal and malignant cells in asynchronous population were equally sensitive to DNA single-strand breakage by X-irradiation. Caffeine or #betta#-cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), inhibitors of DNA repair, when added directly following G2 phase exposure, significantly increased the incidence of radiation-induced chromatid damage in the normal cells. In contrast, similar treatment of the malignant cells had little influence. Ara-C differed from caffeine in its effects; whereas both agents increased the frequency of chromatid breaks and gaps, only ara-C increased the frequency of gaps to the level observed in the irradiated malignant cells. Addition of catalase, which destroys H2O2, or mannitol, a scavenger of the derivative free hydroxyl radical (.OH), to the cultures of malignant cells before, during, and following irradiation significantly reduced the chromatid damage; and catalase prevented formation of chromatid gaps. The DNA damage induced by X-ray during G2 phase in the normal KD cells was apparently repaired by a caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s caffeine- and ara-C-sensitive mechanism(s) that was deficient or absent in their malignant derivatives

  13. Immunomodulatory Effects of Bee Venom in Human Synovial Fibroblast Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Vatanpour, Hossein; H. Shirazi, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    As in Iranian traditional medicine, bee venom (BV) is a promising treatment for the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is considered as a problematic human chronic inflammatory disease in the present time. Smoking is considered to be a major risk factor in RA onset and severity. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effects of BV on cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory response in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and bee venom were d...

  14. The wavelength dependence of u.v.-induced pyrimidine dimer formation, cell killing and mutation induction in human diploid skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined the wavelength dependence of u.v.-induced pyrimidine dimer formation, cell killing and mutation induction in human diploid skin fibroblasts. Pyrimidine dimers were quantified using the T4 endonuclease V assay, cell killing was measured as loss of colony forming ability and mutation induction was detected at the HPRT locus. U.v. irradiation was performed with monochromatic light of four different wavelengths (254, 297, 302 and 365 nm) and with polychromatic light of a Philips TL-01 lamp (predominantly 312 nm). The relative wavelength dependence for cell killing and mutation induction did not correlate with that for dimer formation. Toxicity and mutagenicity per equivalent initial dimer load increase with increasing wavelength. The relative wavelength dependence for cell killing and mutation induction is essentially the same, except at 365 nm. (author)

  15. Cutis laxa: reduced elastin gene expression in skin fibroblast cultures as determined by hybridizations with a homologous cDNA and an exon 1-specific oligonucleotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblast cultures were established from six patients with cutis laxa, and elastin gene expression was analyzed by RNA hybridizations with a 2.5-kilobase human elastin cDNA or an exon 1-specific 35-base oligomer. Northern analyses using either probe detected mRNA transcripts of ? 3.5 kilobases, and no qualitative difference between the control and cutis laxa mRNAs was detected. However, quantitation of the elastin mRNA abundance by slot blot hybridizations revealed markedly reduced levels in all cutis laxa cell strains. Assuming equal translational activity of the control and cutix laxa mRNAs, the reduced mRNA levels could result in diminished elastin production, providing an explanation for the paucity of elastic fibers in the skin and other tissues in cutis laxa

  16. Induction of the heme oxygenase gene in human skin fibroblasts by hydrogen peroxide and UVA (365 nm) radiation: evidence for the involvement of the hydroxyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of heme oxygenase by both hydrogen peroxide and UVA (365 nm) radiation in normal human skin fibroblasts is prevented by prior treatment of cells with the specific iron chelators, o-phenanthroline or desferrioxamine. In addition, both iron chelators protected cells against the lethal effects of H2O2 treatment or UVA irradiation. We propose that the generation of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical by an iron catalyzed Fenton reaction is involved both in the induction of this stress response and, at least in part, in cell killing by the two treatments. These results are also consistent with the idea that the heme oxygenase gene is induced in response to oxidative stress and that its induction may constitute an inducible protective mechanism against oxidative damage induced by both hydrogen peroxide and UVA radiation. (author)

  17. Comparative microscopic and biochemical study of the uptake of fluorescent and 125I-labeled lipoproteins by skin fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and peritoneal macrophages in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and of acetyl LDL was compared in skin fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and peritoneal macrophages with the use of lipoproteins labeled with either 125I or the fluorescent probe 3,3'-dioctadecylindocarbocyanine (DiI). The uptake of DiI-labeled lipoproteins was assessed by quantitative spectrofluorometry and by fluorescence microscopy. The DiI was quantitatively retained by the cells, while the 125I-LDL was degraded and 125I-labeled degradation products were excreted from the cells. In smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts the uptake of LDL was virtually the same whether measured with the use of the DiI or 125I-label. The labeling of acetyl LDL with DiI enhanced its uptake in peritoneal macrophages by an average of 18%. With the DiI label, lipoprotein uptake could be determined after as little as 10 minutes of incubation at 37 C. The pattern of uptake of the DiI-labeled lipoproteins was consistent with binding to specific receptors, because no DiI could be detected in mutant cells without LDL receptors, and uptake was competitively inhibited by addition of excess unlabeled lipoprotein. When the DiI-labeled lipoproteins were removed from the medium, there was a 5-15% loss of DiI from all cell types studied over the first 24 hours

  18. Overproduction of topoisomerase II in an ataxia telangiectasia fibroblast cell line: comparison with a topoisomerase II-overproducing hamster cell mutant.

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Davies; Harris, A.L.; Hickson, I.D.

    1989-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cell lines are characterised by their hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and bleomycin, and their failure to inhibit DNA synthesis after DNA damage. A recent report [Singh et al. (1988) Nucl. Acids Res. 16, 3919-3929] indicated that a reduction in topoisomerase II (topo II) activity was a feature of AT lymphoblast cell lines. We have studied the possible role of DNA topoisomerases in determining the phenotype of an AT fibroblast cell line. AT5BIVA cells are sens...

  19. HPV-positive HNSCC cell lines but not primary human fibroblasts are radiosensitized by the inhibition of Chk1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Despite the comparably high cure rates observed for HPV-positive HNSCC, there is still a great need for specific tumor radiosensitization due to the often severe side effects resulting from intense radiochemotherapy. We recently demonstrated that HPV-positive HNSCC cell lines are characterized by a defect in DNA double-strand break repair associated with a pronounced G2-arrest. Here we tested whether abrogation of this radiation-induced G2-arrest by the inhibition of Chk1 results in specific radiosensitization of HPV-positive HNSCC cells. Materials and methods: Experiments were performed with five HPV and p16-positive (93-VU-147T, UM-SCC-47, UT-SCC-45, UD-SCC-2, UPCI-SCC-154) and two HPV and p16-negative HNSCC cell lines, as well as two normal human fibroblast strains. Chk1 was inhibited by the selective inhibitor PF-00477736. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry, Chk1-activity via Western blot and cell survival by colony formation assay. Results: With the exception of UPCI-SCC-154, the inhibition of Chk1 was found to abolish the pronounced radiation-induced G2-arrest in all HPV-positive cells utilized. All tumor cell lines that demonstrated the abrogation of G2-arrest also demonstrated radiosensitization. Notably, in G1-arrest-proficient normal human fibroblasts no radiosensitization was induced. Conclusion: Abrogation of the G2 checkpoint through the inhibition of Chk1 may be used to selectively increase the cellular radiosensitivity of HPV-positive HNSCC without affecting the surrounding normal tissue

  20. Photoprotective potential of emulsions formulated with Buriti oil (Mauritia flexuosa) against UV irradiation on keratinocytes and fibroblasts cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, C F; Mitjans, M; Urgatondo, V; Rocha-Filho, P A; Vinardell, M P

    2010-01-01

    Considering the belief that natural lipids are safer for topical applications and that carotenoids are able to protect cells against photooxidative damage, we have investigated whether topical creams and lotions, produced with Buriti oil and commercial surfactants, can exert photoprotective effect against UVA and UVB irradiation on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Cell treatment was divided into two steps, prior and after exposition to 30 min of UVA plus UVB radiation or to 60 min of UVA radiation. Emulsions prepared with ethoxylated fatty alcohols as surfactants and containing alpha-tocopherol caused phototoxic damage to the cells, especially when applied prior to UV exposure. Damage reported was due to prooxidant activity and phototoxic effect of the surfactant. Emulsions prepared with Sorbitan Monooleate and PEG-40 castor oil and containing panthenol as active ingredient, were able to reduce the damages caused by radiation when compared to non-treated cells. When the two cell lines used in the study were compared, keratinocytes showed an increase in cell viability higher than fibroblasts. The Buriti oil emulsions could be considered potential vehicles to transport antioxidants precursors and also be used as adjuvant in sun protection, especially in after sun formulations. PMID:19766688

  1. Cytotoxicity of endodontic irrigants containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from mouse L929 cell line

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sérgio Valmor, Barbosa; Cristiane Maria Sodré, Barroso; Patrícia Alvarez, Ruiz.

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a citotoxicidade de soluções irrigadoras de canais radiculares contendo hidróxido de cálcio e lauril sulfato de sódio em linhagem de fibroblastos L929. Solução aquosa saturada de hidróxido de cálcio, lauril sulfato de sódio e HCT20 (lauril sulfato de sódio e hid [...] róxido de cálcio) foram diluídos em água destilada em concentrações de 50%, 20%, 10% e 5%. O grupo controle foi representado por meio de cultura de células (MEM - minimum essential medium). A citotoxicidade das soluções sobre os fibroblastos foi avaliada em 4 e 24 h de contato, pelo método do cromo radioativo. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Em todas as análises, o intervalo de confiança referente às médias entre os grupos foi estabelecido em 95%. As soluções saturadas de hidróxido de cálcio e o HCT20 apresentaram toxicidade nas concentrações de 50%. O lauril sulfato de sódio foi tóxico em todas as concentrações. As soluções de hidróxido de cálcio em concentrações menores que 50% apresentaram tolerância celular, assim como combinadas ao lauril sulfato de sódio. Tal comportamento não foi observado na solução pura de lauril sulfato de sódio em todas as concentrações. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigating solutions containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from L929 cell line. Saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and SLS associated with calciu [...] m hydroxide (HCT20) were diluted with sterile distilled water at 50%, 20%, 10% and 5% concentrations. Minimum essential medium (MEM) served as the control group. The cytotoxicity of the solutions was evaluated on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line, at 4 and 24 h of contact time by the 51Cr radiotracer method. Data were compared and statistical inferences were made with the chi-square test. In all analysis, significance level was set at 5%. CH and HCT20 showed toxicity at 50% concentration, while at concentrations lower than 50% these solutions showed cell tolerance. SLS was cytotoxic at all concentrations. In conclusion, the association of calcium hydroxide and SLS (HCT20) combines the beneficial properties of these solutions and was not harmful to the fibroblast cell line, seeming to be a suitable endodontic irrigating solution.

  2. In Vitro Culture of Fibroblast-Like Cells From Sheep Ear Skin Stored at 25-26°C for 10 Days After Animal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahipal Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful somatic cell nuclear transfer aka cloning requires good quality undamaged nuclear DNA from desired cell types. In vitro culture of cells is one way of ensuring nuclear integrity. Cellular contents including nucleus gradually decompose postmortem, if not preserved within a reasonable time, leading to cell and ultimately nuclear DNA damage. The goal of this study was to determine time limits within which live and culturable cells can be obtained, after death of an animal, using sheep as a model. How long the somatic cells are alive and have potential to replicate after the animal death is not precisely known. Here we show, for the first time, that the sheep ear skin stored at 25-26°C after animal death can be cultured up to 10 days postmortem. The culture confluence is inversely correlated with increasing postmortem time interval. The cultured fibroblast-like cells have 95±5.2 % post cryopreservation cell-viability; have normal karyotype, and a comparable growth profile to that of fresh tissue derived cells. This study shows that sheep skin has potential for in vitro culture of its cells up to 10 days postmortem. Cultured cells can be successfully used for preservation of biodiversity for possible future cloning of animals.

  3. Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Li, Juan

    2011-01-01

    We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based docking vector harbouring a selection gene, an eGFP reporter gene, and an Flp recombinase site for locus-directed gene insertion. PFV cells have insertion of a single docking vector with stable eGFP expression and generated phenotypic normal blastocysts with transgene expression after somatic cell nuclear transfer. PFV cells supported Flp mediated cassette exchange for transgene substitution of eGFP with dsRED, and the dsRED transgenic PFV cells generated blastocysts with transgene expression. Hence, the PFV cell line constitutes a valuable pig equivalent to transformed cell lines from other mammalian species suitable for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and, in addition, for transgene analyses in the very early embryonic stages.

  4. Effects of PUVA on a human skin epithelial cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An established human epithelial cell line was exposed to photoactivated 8-methoxy psoralen (PUVA) during exponential growth. Effects of PUVA treatment on cell growth were measured by cell kinetic methods (counting of cell numbers, flow cytometric measurements (FCM) of DNA and calculations of labelling indices (LI)). Doses of 8-methoxy psoralen and UVA were comparable to those used in patients. The cell number in PUVA treated cultures remained almost constant, and very few mitoses were seen for 144 h. About 9 h after PUVA, both FCM and LI showed an increase in the fraction of cells in S-phase, reaching a maximum of 85-90% after 24 h. DNA synthesis took place at a low rate in these cells. FCM showed an increasing fraction of polyploid cells after PUVA treatment. The possibility that inhibition of cell proliferation is one of the main effects of PUVA, is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Electrical stimulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 secretion by human dermal fibroblasts and the U937 human monocytic cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, I; Clothier, R H; Huggins, M L; Patel, N; Searle, K C; Jeyarajah, S; Pradel, L; Lacey, K L

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro effects on human dermal fibroblasts and the U937 human monocytic cell line of three phases of electrical microcurrents generated by the ACE Stimulator were investigated. The growth and viability of growing and confluent dermal fibroblasts were not directly influenced by the separate microcurrent phases. One form of microcurrent (designated phase 1) stimulated both dermal fibroblasts and U937 cells to secrete transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), which is an important regulator of cell-mediated inflammation and tissue regeneration, but none of the three phases stimulated secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 by U937 cells. The stimulation of TGF-beta 1 secretion in these experiments was not dramatic (a median increase over control levels of 20-30%), although it could be biologically significant. PMID:11709043

  6. Quantitative differences in host cell reactivation of ultraviolet-damaged virus in human skin fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes cultured from the same foreskin biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repair efficiency of cultured cells may be estimated by measuring the ability of a particular cell type to support virus damaged by an appropriate agent. In this study we have compared the inactivation of ultraviolet (254 nm)-damaged herpes simplex virus in human fibroblast and epidermal keratinocyte cell lines derived from the same foreskin biopsy and found the epithelial cells to be a factor of 3 times less efficient in supporting the damaged virus. The two different cell types show comparable ultraviolet inactivation of clone-forming ability, indicating that the difference is specific to viral host cell reactivation. This study required the development of a quantitative infectious centers assay for the measurement of viral titer in human epithelial cells, a system which may be of more general application in studies of potential human carcinogens

  7. Molecular analysis of gamma-ray-induced mutations at the hprt locus in primary human skin fibroblasts by multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 153 hprt mutants (23 spontaneous, 130 ?-ray-induced) of primary human skin fibroblasts were isolated and genetic alterations at the locus were studied by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The analyses showed that 51% (66/130) of ?-ray-induced genetic changes were large deletions, whereas the majority of spontaneous mutants (21/23) exhibited point mutations. The spectrum of large genetic alterations appeared to be dependent on dose in ?-ray-induced (1-4 Gy) mutations; mutants with complete loss of the hprt locus comprised 21 (3/14) or 39% (15/38) of clones isolated after irradiation with 1 or 4 Gy, respectively. The frequency of partial deletions was found to be higher in the mutants isolated from clones irradiated with 2 Gy (38%) than from those irradiated with 4 Gy (8%). Mapping of all intragenic depletion breakpoints exhibited a nonrandom distribution of breakpoints toward the 3' end of the hprt gene. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. A correlation between ultraviolet-induced sister chromatid exchanges and ultraviolet-indced mutagenesis in ''Muntiacus muntjak'' (Indian Muntjac) skin fibroblasts in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop the capability of simultaneously assaying SCEs and mutations in Indian muntjac cells to determine (1) the relationship between the ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induction of SCEs and the UVR induction of mutations at the (UVR) HGPRT locus in Indian muntjac cells and (2) the possible role of DNA repair in the UVR induction of these two events. Indian muntjac skin fibroblasts were chosen for this study because of a unique karyotype consisting of a diploid chromosome number of 6 in females and 7 in males. An HGPRT mutation assay in Indian muntjac cells was developed by this author since at the time this study was undertaken no mutational assay system utilizing Indian muntjac cells existed. It is concluded from this study that a linear correlation exists betwen the UVR-induction of SCEs and of mutations to 6TG resistance in Indian muntjac cells. As more time is allowed between the UVR-induced DNA damage and onset of DNA replication, more of the lesions leading to both mutations and SCE formation are repaired. The fact that SCE and mutation frequencies are reduced at different rates may indicate that the lesions responsible for SCEs and for mutations are repaired differently

  9. Both near ultraviolet radiation and the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide induce a 32-kDa stress protein in normal human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analyzed the pattern of protein synthesis in solar near ultraviolet (334 nm, 365 nm) and near visible (405 nm) irradiated normal human skin fibroblasts. Two hours after irradiation we find that one major stress protein of approximately 32 kDa is induced in irradiated cells. This protein is not induced by ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths shorter than 334 nm and is not inducible by heat shock treatment of these cells. Although sodium arsenite, diamide, and menadione all induced a 32-kDa protein, they also induced the major heat shock proteins. In contrast, the oxidizing agent, hydrogen peroxide, induced the low molecular weight stress protein without causing induction of the major heat shock proteins. A comparison of the 32-kDa proteins induced by sodium arsenite, H2O2, and solar near ultraviolet radiation using chemical peptide mapping shows that they are closely related. These results imply that the pathways for induction of the heat shock response and the 32-kDa protein are not identical and suggest that, at least in the case of radiation and treatment with H2O2, the 32-kDa protein might be induced in response to cellular oxidative stress. This conclusion is supported by the observation that depletion of endogenous cellular glutathione prior to solar near ultraviolet irradiation lowers the fluence threshold for induction of the 32-kDa stress protein

  10. Abnormal sensitivity to UV-radiation in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with hereditary cutaneous malignant melanoma and dysplastic nevus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P J; Greene, M H; Devlin, D A; McKeen, E A; Paterson, M C

    1982-07-15

    The dysplastic nevus syndrome (DNS) is a preneoplastic melanocyte abnormality which occurs in families affected by hereditary cutaneous malignant melanoma (HCMM). Although environmental exposures, especially solar UV-irradiation, have been implicated as risk factors in sporadic melanoma, the role of such exposures in the pathogenesis of HCMM is unknown. We have studied the in vitro radiation responses of six non-tumor skin fibroblast strains from HCMM/DNS patients representing five families. All six HCMM/DNS strains were found to show some degree of enhanced cell killing sensitivity, compared with normal controls, following 254 nm UV-irradiation. The abnormal survival responses appeared to relate to specific characteristics of HCMM/DNS cells since the six strains had essentially normal sensitivity to gamma-radiation. The enhanced photosensitivity was not associated with abnormal patterns in either DNA repair synthesis or UV-induced inhibition and recovery of de novo DNA synthesis. The survival results are consistent with the hypothesis that the genetically determined predisposition to malignant melanoma may directly or indirectly be the consequence of increased susceptibility to UV-induced cellular damage. PMID:7118297

  11. The specific binding of transferrin to the murine fibroblast cell lines AKR-2B and its malignant counterpart AKR-MCA may be related to the transformed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific binding of radiolabelled transferrin to AKR-2B and AKR-MCA murine fibroblasts was studied. The binding of radioligand to both cell lines was specific, being displaced by excess of unlabelled transferrin but not myoglobin, or lactoperoxidase. Under equilibrium conditions the transformed line AKR-MCA bound significantly more radioactive transferrin (22.5 ± 3.5 fmol/?g DNA) than the parental line AKR-2B (14.5 ± 1.5 fmol/?g DNA). The differences in the amount of ligand bound was due to altered receptor numbers. Treatment of AKR-MCA and AKR-2B cells with DMF eliminated the difference in transferrin binding capacities. The maximum decrease in specific ligand binding to AKR-MCA cells brought about by polar solvent was observed after 48 h. These data suggest an association between transferrin binding and the transformed state of AKR-2B fibroblasts. (author) 15 refs

  12. Messenger RNA stabilization accounts for elevated basic fibroblast growth factor transcript levels in a human astrocytoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P R; Guo, J Z; Friesen, H G

    1990-02-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a potent autocrine and paracrine mitogen for cells of mesodermal origin. Although the protein is present in substantial amounts in a variety of tissues, the level of mRNA is undetectable in most normal tissues. This has led to speculation that bFGF mRNA is very unstable, but the half-life of this mRNA has not been described. A number of mRNAs encoding growth factors and growth-related proteins are known to be short-lived and posttranscriptionally regulated. In the present study we have examined the half-life of bFGF mRNA in two human tumor cell lines, which contain high (U87-MG) and low (T98-G) steady state bFGF mRNA levels. The half-life of bFGF mRNA, determined after transcriptional arrest with actinomycin-D, was approximately 10 min in T98-G cells, but was extended to 120 min in the presence of cycloheximide. In contrast, bFGF transcripts in U87-MG cells were very stable with a half-life considerably greater than 5 h. This was not attributable to a general stabilization of mRNA in the U87-MG line, since the half-life of c-myc mRNA in the two cell lines was similar (10 and 15 min in T98-G and U87-MG, respectively). Cycloheximide had no effect on the steady state level of bFGF in U87-MG cells. These findings suggest that posttranscriptional processes play an important role in the regulation of bFGF transcript levels and demonstrate that loss of posttranscriptional regulation could contribute to elevated bFGF expression in some tumors. PMID:2329999

  13. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visibility of changes, accessibility for sampling and measuring and extensive past study, make skin the premier model for the assessment of dose-time fractionation relationships. The primary pathophysiologic basis of radiation-induced reactions in the skin is disruption of the reproductive activity of the basal cells. Radiation reactions in the skin increase in proportion to: (a) increased absorption of energy related to the quality of radiation used; (b) increased area irradiated; (c) increased total dose, and (d) decreased overall period of treatment. Radiation-induced reactions may decrease per unit dose with very low dose rates (i.e. 100 cGy/h) and very high dose rates (i.e. 10 Gy/s). Radiation-induced reactions may decrease per unit dose with prolongation of the individual treatment or overall time of the series of treatments. The proportionality between early and late reactions can be altered by various factors such as dose increment size or the quality of the radiations. The most dangerous changes clinically reduce the intensity of the acute reaction in proportion to the late injury

  14. Antagonism of phenanthrene cytotoxicity for human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I by green tea polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some commercial teas around the world and pose a threat to tea consumers. However, green tea polyphenols (GTP) possess remarkable antioxidant and anticancer effects. In this study, the potential of GTP to block the toxicity of the model PAH phenanthrene was examined in human embryo lung fibroblast cell line HFL-I. Both GTP and phenanthrene treatment individually caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. A full factorial design experiment demonstrated that the interaction of phenanthrene and GTP significantly reduced growth inhibition. Using the median effect method showed that phenanthrene and GTP were antagonistic when the inhibitory levels were less than about 50%. Apoptosis and cell cycle detection suggested that only phenanthrene affected cell cycle significantly and caused cell death; GTP lowered the mortality of HFL-I cells exposed to phenanthrene; However, GTP did not affect modulation of the cell cycle by phenanthrene. - Green tea polyphenols antagonised cytotoxicity of a low-ring PAH phenanthrene.

  15. Cytotoxicity and Proliferation Studies with Arsenic in Established Human Cell Lines: Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Dendritic Cells, Dermal Fibroblasts, Microvascular Endothelial Cells, Monocytes and T-Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cohly, Hari H. P.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Barbara Graham-Evans

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: Based on the hypothesis that arsenic exposure results in toxicity and mitogenecity, this study examined the dose-response of arsenic in established human cell lines of keratinocytes (HaCaT), melanocytes (1675), dendritic cells (THP-1/A23187), dermal fibroblasts (CRL1904), microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC), monocytes (THP-1), and T cells (Jurkat). Cytotoxicity was determined by incubating THP-1, THP-1+ A23187 and JKT cells in RPMI 1640, 1675 in Vitacell, HMEC in EBM, and dermal ...

  16. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  17. Transformation and radiosensitivity of human diploid skin fibroblasts transfected with activated RAS oncogene and SV40 T-antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three normal human diploid cell strains were transfected with an activated Ha-ras oncogene (EJ ras) or SV40 T-antigen. Multiple clones were examined for morphological alterations, growth requirements, ability to grow under anchorage independent conditions, immortality and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Clones expressing SV40 T-antigen alone or in combination with ras protein p21 were significantly radioresistant as compared with their parent cells or clones transfected with the neo gene only. This radioresistant phenotype persisted in post-crisis, immortalized cell lines. These data suggest that expression of the SV40 T-antigen but not activated Ha-ras plays an important role in the radiosensitivity of human diploid cells. The radioresistant phenotype in SV40 T transfected cells was not related to the enhanced level of genetic instability seen in pre-crisis and newly immortalized cells, nor to the process of immortalization itself. (author)

  18. A new shielding effectiveness measurement method based on a skin-effect transmission line coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kleine-Ostmann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new convenient material shielding effectiveness measurement method based on a skin-effect transmission line coupler. The method is somewhat similar to the arrangement with two coupled TEM cells known from literature. The transmission line coupler consists of a pair of identical transmission line 2-port devices. Each device contains a coaxial waveguide, with a circular inner conductor and an outer conductor having a square cross section. One side of the outer conductor is left completely open as a slot. The slot is surrounded by a large metal housing to contact the two halves. As a measure for the shielding effectiveness the coupling between the two devices is measured in terms of scattering parameters after the test material is brought between the two halves. The devices can be used in a range from low frequencies to a few GHz.

  19. Down syndrome fibroblasts are hyperresponsive to beta-adrenergic stimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    McSwigan, J D; Hanson, D R; Lubiniecki, A; Heston, L. L.; Sheppard, J R

    1981-01-01

    The hormonal response to human skin fibroblasts after exposure to beta-adrenergic agonists, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and cholera toxin was monitored by intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation. Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21) cells had an approximately 10-fold greater response to beta-adrenergic agonists than did either normal diploid skin fibroblasts or other aneusomic fibroblast strains (trisomy 13, 18, and 22). The altered response in DS fibroblasts was specific for beta-adrenergic agonists, b...

  20. Abnormal ultraviolet mutagenic spectrum in plasmid DNA replicated in cultured fibroblasts from a patient with the skin cancer-prone disease, xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shuttle vector plasmid, pZ189, was utilized to assess the types of mutations that cells from a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D, introduce into ultraviolet (UV) damaged, replicating DNA. Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum have clinical and cellular UV hypersensitivity, increased frequency of sun-induced skin cancer, and deficient DNA repair. In comparison to UV-treated pZ189 replicated in DNA repair-proficient cells, there were fewer surviving plasmids, a higher frequency of plasmids with mutations, fewer plasmids with two or more mutations in the marker gene, and a new mutagenic hotspot. The major type of base substitution mutation was the G:C to A:T transition with both cell lines. These results, together with similar findings published earlier with cells from a xeroderma pigmentosum patient in complementation group A, suggest that isolated G:C to A:T somatic mutations may be particularly important in generation of human skin cancer by UV radiation

  1. Monoclonal antibody to the type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) receptor blocks IGF-I receptor-mediated DNA synthesis: clarification of the mitogenic mechanisms of IGF-I and insulin in human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) stimulate an overlapping spectrum of biological responses in human skin fibroblasts. Although insulin and IGF-I are known to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA in these cells, the identify of the receptor(s) that mediates this effect has not been fully clarified. The mouse anti-human IGF-I receptor antibody ?IR-3 binds with specificity to IGF-I but not to insulin receptors in human placental membranes; it also specifically inhibits the binding of 125I-labeled IGF-I but not 125I-labeled insulin to suspensions of human skin fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. ?IR-3 competitively inhibits IGF-I-mediated stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. This inhibition is dependent on the concentration of ?IR-3 and in the presence of a fixed antibody concentration can be partially overcome by high concentrations of IGF-I. In contrast, at concentrations of 3H]thymidine incorporation is not inhibited by ?IR-3. However, the incremental effects of higher concentrations (> 1 ?g/ml) of insulin on [3H]thymidine incorporation are inhibited by ?IR-3. ?IR-3 is a highly specific antagonist of IGF-I receptor-mediated mitogenesis in human skin fibroblasts. By using this antibody, it is shown directly that insulin can act through the IGF-I receptor to stimulate DNA synthesis but can also mulate DNA synthesis but can also activate this effect through the insulin receptor itself

  2. Stimulation of MMP-11 (stromelysin-3 expression in mouse fibroblasts by cytokines, collagen and co-culture with human breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthaei Klaus I

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are central to degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membrane during both normal and carcinogenic tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP (MMP-14 and stromelysin-3 (MMP-11 are two members of the MMP family of proteolytic enzymes that have been specifically implicated in breast cancer progression. Expressed in stromal fibroblasts adjacent to epithelial tumour cells, the mechanism of MT1-MMP and MMP-11 induction remains unknown. Methods To investigate possible mechanisms of induction, we examined the effects of a number of plausible regulatory agents and treatments that may physiologically influence MMP expression during tumour progression. Thus NIH3T3 and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs were: a treated with the cytokines IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-? for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours; b grown on collagens I, IV and V; c treated with fibronectin, con-A and matrigel; and d co-cultured with a range of HBC (human breast cancer cell lines of varied invasive and metastatic potential. Results Competitive quantitative RT-PCR indicated that MMP-11 expression was stimulated to a level greater than 100%, by 48 hour treatments of IL-1?, IL-2, TGF-?, fibronectin and collagen V. No other substantial changes in expression of MMP-11 or MT1-MMP in either tested fibroblast culture, under any treatment conditions, were observed. Conclusion We have demonstrated significant MMP-11 stimulation in mouse fibroblasts using cytokines, matrix constituents and HBC cell lines, and also some inhibition of MT1-MMP. Our data suggest that the regulation of these genes in the complex stromal-epithelial interactions that occur in human breast carcinoma, is influenced by several mechanisms.

  3. Skin lumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipomas, which are fatty lumps under the skin Enlarged lymph glands , usually in the armpits, neck, and groin Cyst , a closed sac in or under the skin that is lined with skin tissue and contains fluid or semisolid material Benign skin growths ...

  4. DNA double-strand break induction and repair in irradiated lymphoblastoid, fibroblast cell lines and white blood cells from ATM, NBS and radiosensitive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and Purpose: DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), fibroblasts and white blood cells from healthy donors, cancer patients with and without late effects of grade 3-4 (RTOG) as well as donors with known radiosensitivity syndromes were examined with the aim to detect dsb repair ability as a marker for radiosensitivity. Material and Methods: LCLs from six healthy donors, seven patients with a heterozygous or homozygous genotype for ataxiatelangiectasia (ATM) and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), two patients with a late toxicity of grade 3-4 (RTOG), and one cell line with a ligase IV-/- status and its parental cell line were examined. Furthermore, fibroblasts from patients with ATM, NBS, two healthy control individuals, and leukocytes from 16 healthy and 22 cancer patients including seven patients with clinical hypersensitivity grade 3 (RTOG) were examined. Cells were irradiated in vitro with 0-150 Gy. Initial damage as well as remaining damage after 8 and 24 h were measured using constant field gel electrophoresis. Results: In contrast to cells derived from patients homozygous for NBS, impaired dsb repair ability could be detected both in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cells from ATM and ligase IV-/- patients. The dsb repair ability of all 38 leukocyte cell lines (patients with grade 3-4 late effects and controls) was similar, whereas the initial damage among healthy donors was less. Con damage among healthy donors was less. Conclusion: Despite showing a clinically elevated radiosensitivity after irradiation, the DNA repair of the patients with clinical hypersensitivity grade 3 (RTOG) appeared to be normal. Other mechanisms such as mutations, altered cell cycle or defective apoptosis could play a critical role toward determining radiosensitivity. (orig.)

  5. Cloning of a new fibroblast cell line from an early primary culture from mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) fry for efficient proliferation of megalocytiviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanfu; Shuang, Fan; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

    2014-12-01

    Megalocytiviruses are important emerging pathogens in both freshwater and marine finfish aquaculture. However, a limited number of piscine cell lines are persistently susceptible to these viruses, which greatly limits the study of megalocytiviruses. In this study, a new fibroblast-like cell line was established from an early primary culture from mandarin fish fry by a single cell cloning and was designated as MFF-8C1. The MFF-8C1 cells grow well in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum and had been subcultured more than 60 passages since the initial recovery culture in October 2009. Chromosomal analysis revealed that 91 % of the MFF-8C1 cells maintained a normal diploid chromosome number (2n = 48) in the 46th passage. Infection experiments showed that both freshwater-borne and marine-borne megalocytiviruses induce severe cytopathic effects in infected MFF-8C1 cells characterized by the rounding and enlargement of cells, which are highly consistent with the previous description of the infection in other susceptible cells with megalocytivirus. Megalocytivirus infections were further confirmed by a transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the MFF-8C1-cultured megalocytiviral suspension was highly virulent to infected mandarin fish. In summary, a new fibroblast cell line from mandarin fish fry that was highly permissive to megalocytiviruses was established. The MFF-8C1 cell line is a promising cellular substrate candidate for cell-cultured vaccine production of megalocytivirus. PMID:24101440

  6. Characteristic Gene Expression Profiles of Human Fibroblasts and Breast Cancer Cells in a Newly Developed Bilateral Coculture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Takayuki; Utsumi, Jun; Toi, Masakazu; Shimizu, Kazuharu

    2015-01-01

    The microenvironment of cancer cells has been implicated in cancer development and progression. Cancer-associated fibroblast constitutes a major stromal component of the microenvironment. To analyze interaction between cancer cells and fibroblasts, we have developed a new bilateral coculture system using a two-sided microporous collagen membrane. Human normal skin fibroblasts were cocultured with three different human breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7, SK-BR-3, and HCC1937. After coculture, mRNA was extracted separately from cancer cells and fibroblasts and applied to transcriptomic analysis with microarray. Top 500 commonly up- or downregulated genes were characterized by enrichment functional analysis using MetaCore Functional Analysis. Most of the genes upregulated in cancer cells were downregulated in fibroblasts while most of the genes downregulated in cancer cells were upregulated in fibroblasts, indicating that changing patterns of mRNA expression were reciprocal between cancer cells and fibroblasts. In coculture, breast cancer cells commonly increased genes related to mitotic response and TCA pathway while fibroblasts increased genes related to carbohydrate metabolism including glycolysis, glycogenesis, and glucose transport, indicating that fibroblasts support cancer cell proliferation by supplying energy sources. We propose that the bilateral coculture system using collagen membrane is useful to study interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells by mimicking in vivo tumor microenvironment. PMID:26171396

  7. Degradation of blood-group A glycolipids in cultures of human skin fibroblasts; an approach to investigation of some lysosomal enzyme defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of blood group A glycosphingolipid A-6-2 has been studied by loading experiments in cultured human skin from controls and from patients with inherited lysosomal enzymopathies (?-N-acetylgactosaminidase, ?-fucosidase, ?-glucocerebrosidase, GM1 ?-galactosidase, ceramidase, sap B and sap-precursor deficiencies). In the cell lines from the most unrelated enzymopathies, accumulation of the glycosphingolipids was found corresponding to the inherent enzyme defect. The technique of feeding of radiolabelled glycolipids to cells in culture and analysis of their metabolism was used to examine whether cells from patients with deficiency of ?-N-acetylgactosaminidase (?-NAGA deficiency, Schindler disease). Further we have extended our study with the same probe to other lysosomal enzymophatic cell lines. For this purpose we isolated glycosphingolipid A-6-2 (IV2-?-fucosyl-IV3-?-N-acetylgactosaminylnelactotetraosylceramide) from erythrocyte membrane and labelled it on the ceramide moiety with tritium. The results of this study clearly show that loading experiments in cell culture are a valuable tool to analyze general degradation pathways, assess the physiological significance and the substrate specificity in vivo of the enzymes involved and estimate their residual activities or that of alternative degradation pathways. (authors)

  8. Injury induces in vivo expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF receptor mRNAs in skin epithelial cells and PDGF mRNA in connective tissue fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates many of the processes important in tissue repair, including proliferation of fibroblasts and synthesis of extracellular matrices. In this study, the authors have demonstrated with in situ hydridization and immunocytochemistry the reversible expression of 3-sis/PDGF-2 and PDGF receptor (PDGF-R) b mRNAs and their respective protein products in epithelial cells and fibroblasts following cutaneous injury in pigs. Epithelial cells in control, unwounded skin did not express c-sis and PDGF-R mRNAs, and fibroblasts expressed only PDGF-R mRNA. The expression levels in the injured site were correlated with the stage of tissue repair, being highest during the initial stages of the repair process and declining at the time of complete re-epithelialization and tissue remodeling. These studies provide a mulecular basis for understanding the mechanisms contributing to normal tissue repair. They suggest the possibility that a defect in these mechanisms may be associated with defective wound healing. It is also conceivable that chronic injury may induce irreversible gene expression leading to pathologic, unregulated cell growth

  9. The determination of the topological structure of skin friction lines on a rectangular wing-body combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Leslie A.; Fearn, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    A short tutorial in the application of topological ideas to the intepretation of oil flow patterns is presented. Topological concepts such as critical points, phase portraits, topological stability, and indexing are discussed. These concepts are used in an ordered procedure to construct phase portraits of skin friction lines with oil flow patterns for a wing-body combination and two angles of attack. The relationship between the skin friction phase portrait and planar cuts of the velocity field is also discussed.

  10. Microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claeys Geert

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina in male-to-female transsexuals is a recently created microbial niche which thus far has been characterized only to a very limited extent. Yet the knowledge of this microflora can be considered as essential to the follow-up of transsexual women. The primary objective of this study was to map the neo-vaginal microflora in a group of 50 transsexual women for whom a neovagina was constructed by means of the inverted penile skin flap technique. Secondary objectives were to describe possible correlations of this microflora with multiple patients' characteristics, such as sexual orientation, the incidence of vaginal irritation and malodorous vaginal discharge. Results Based on Gram stain the majority of smears revealed a mixed microflora that had some similarity with bacterial vaginosis (BV microflora and that contained various amounts of cocci, polymorphous Gram-negative and Gram-positive rods, often with fusiform and comma-shaped rods, and sometimes even with spirochetes. Candida cells were not seen in any of the smears. On average 8.6 species were cultured per woman. The species most often found were: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus anginosus group spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium sp., Mobiluncus curtisii and Bacteroides ureolyticus. Lactobacilli were found in only one of 30 women There was no correlation between dilatation habits, having coitus, rinsing habits and malodorous vaginal discharge on the one hand and the presence of a particular species on the other. There was however a highly significant correlation between the presence of E. faecalis on the one hand and sexual orientation and coitus on the other (p = 0.003 and p = 0.027 respectively. Respectively 82%, 58% and 30% of the samples showed an amplicon after amplification with M. curtisii, Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis primer sets. Conclusion Our study is the first to describe the microflora of the penile skin-lined neovagina of transsexual women. It reveals a mixed microflora of aerobe and anaerobe species usually found either on the skin, in the intestinal microflora or in a BV microflora.

  11. PDZ domain-binding motif of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein augments the transforming activity in a rat fibroblast cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with the development of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-2 has not been reported to be associated with such malignant leukemias. HTLV-1 Tax1 oncoprotein transforms a rat fibroblast cell line (Rat-1) to form multiple large colonies in soft agar, and this activity is much greater than that of HTLV-2 Tax2. We have demonstrated here that the increased number of transformed colonies induced by Tax1 relative to Tax2 was mediated by a PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) in Tax1, which is absent in Tax2. Tax1 PBM mediated the interaction of Tax1 with the discs large (Dlg) tumor suppressor containing PDZ domains, and the interaction correlated well with the transforming activities of Tax1 and the mutants. Through this interaction, Tax1 altered the subcellular localization of Dlg from the detergent-soluble to the detergent-insoluble fraction in a fibroblast cell line as well as in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. These results suggest that the interaction of Tax1 with PDZ domain protein(s) is critically involved in the transforming activity of Tax1, the activity of which may be a crucial factor in malignant transformation of HTLV-1-infected cells in vivo

  12. Differentiation of normal and transformed human fibroblasts in vitro is influenced by electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effect of symmetric, biphasic sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (EMF) (20 Hz, 6 mT) on the differentiation of normal human skin fibroblasts (HH-8), normal human lung fibroblasts (WI38), and SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts (WI38SV40) in in vitro cultures. Cells were exposed up to 21 days for 2 x 6 h per day to EMF. Normal mitotic human skin and lung fibroblasts could be induced to differentiate into postmitotic cells upon exposure to EMF. Concomitantly, the synthesis of total collagen as well as total cellular protein increased significantly by a factor of 5-13 in EMF-induced postmitotic cells. As analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of [35S]methionine-labeled polypeptides, EMF-induced postmitotic cells express the same differentiation-dependent and cell type-specific marker proteins as their spontaneously arising counterparts. In SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts (cell line WI38SV40) the exposure to EMF induced the differentiation of mitotic WI38SV40 cells into postmitotic and degenerating cells in subpopulations of WI38SV40 cell cultures. Other subpopulations of WI38SV40 cells did not show any effect of EMF on cell proliferation and differentiation. These results indicate that long-term EMF exposure of fibroblasts in vitro induces the differentiation of mitotic to postmitotic cells that are characterized by differentiation-specific proteins and differentiation-dependent enhanced metabolic activitiesced metabolic activities

  13. Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates production of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 by human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J L; Baxter, R C

    1991-03-01

    Human neonatal fibroblasts in monolayer culture produce insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), the IGF-binding subunit of the circulating 140-kDa IGFBP complex. We now report that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) is a potent stimulator of IGFBP-3 production by fibroblasts. After 72-h incubation with 1 ng/ml TGF beta, the levels of IGFBP-3 in conditioned medium were increased 5.8 +/- 1.2-fold (mean +/- SE; n = 9). Half-maximal stimulation of IGFBP-3 production was seen at 0.4 +/- 0.05 ng/ml TGF beta (n = 4). Coincubation of fibroblasts with TGF beta and either IGF-I or IGF-II at 50 ng/ml enhanced IGFBP-3 production 1.5- to 2-fold compared to TGF beta alone. As previously reported, fetal calf serum (FCS) stimulated IGFBP-3 production 5- to 6-fold; 1 ng/ml TGF beta increased the stimulated production of IGFBP-3 by FCS a further 2.5- to 3.5-fold. Acidification of FCS before addition enhanced the stimulation of IGFBP-3 compared to that caused by untreated FCS, but decreased further potentiation by TGF beta. This effect of acidified FCS was reversed by a neutralizing antibody to TGF beta. Similarly, the stimulation of IGFBP-3 levels by human serum or conditioned serum-free fibroblast medium was significantly increased by acidification of serum or medium before addition and was reversed by TGF beta antibody. These observations are consistent with acid-mediated activation of latent TGF beta added in serum or secreted by fibroblasts. Since IGFBP-3 is known to regulate IGF activity in fibroblasts, these results raise the possibility that TGF beta may modulate IGF actions in these cells by stimulating the production of IGFBP-3. PMID:1705505

  14. Cytotoxicity and Proliferation Studies with Arsenic in Established Human Cell Lines: Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Dendritic Cells, Dermal Fibroblasts, Microvascular Endothelial Cells, Monocytes and T-Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari H. P. Cohly

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Based on the hypothesis that arsenic exposure results in toxicity and mitogenecity, this study examined the dose-response of arsenic in established human cell lines of keratinocytes (HaCaT, melanocytes (1675, dendritic cells (THP-1/A23187, dermal fibroblasts (CRL1904, microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC, monocytes (THP-1, and T cells (Jurkat. Cytotoxicity was determined by incubating THP-1, THP-1+ A23187 and JKT cells in RPMI 1640, 1675 in Vitacell, HMEC in EBM, and dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT in DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% streptomycin and penicillin for 72 hrs in 96-well microtiter plates, at 37oC in a 5% CO2 incubator with different concentrations of arsenic using fluorescein diacetate (FDA. Cell proliferation in 96-well plates was determined in cultured cells starved by prior incubation for 24 hrs in 1% FBS and exposed for 72 hours, using the 96 cell titer proliferation solution (Promega assay. Cytotoxicity assays yielded LD50s of 9 μg/mL for HaCaT, 1.5 μg/mL for CRL 1675, 1.5 μg/mL for dendritic cells, 37 μg/mL for dermal fibroblasts, 0.48 μg/mL for HMEC, 50 μg/mL for THP-1 cells and 50 μg/mL for JKT-T cells. The peak proliferation was observed at 6 μg/mL for HaCaT and THP-1 cells, 0.19 μg/mL for CRL 1675, dendritic cells, and HMEC, and 1.5 μg/mL for dermal fibroblasts and Jurkat T cells. These results show that arsenic is toxic at high doses to keratinocytes, fibroblasts, monocytes and T cells, and toxic at lower doses to melanocytes, microvascular endothelial cells and dendritic cells. Proliferation studies showed sub-lethal doses of arsenic to be mitogenic.

  15. Increased susceptibility of spinal muscular atrophy fibroblasts to camptothecin is p53-independent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funanage Vicky L

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deletion or mutation(s of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1 gene causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. The SMN protein is known to play a role in RNA metabolism, neurite outgrowth, and cell survival. Yet, it remains unclear how SMN deficiency causes selective motor neuron death and muscle atrophy seen in SMA. Previously, we have shown that skin fibroblasts from SMA patients are more sensitive to the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, supporting a role for SMN in cell survival. Here, we examine the potential mechanism of camptothecin sensitivity in SMA fibroblasts. Results Camptothecin treatment reduced the DNA relaxation activity of DNA topoisomerase I in human fibroblasts. In contrast, kinase activity of DNA topoisomerase I was not affected by camptothecin, because levels of phosphorylated SR proteins were not decreased. Upon camptothecin treatment, levels of p53 were markedly increased. To determine if p53 plays a role in the increased sensitivity of SMA fibroblasts to camptothecin, we analyzed the sensitivity of SMA fibroblasts to another DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor, ?-lapachone. This compound is known to induce death via a p53-independent pathway in several cancer cell lines. We found that ?-lapachone did not induce p53 activation in human fibroblasts. In addition, SMA and control fibroblasts showed essentially identical sensitivity to this compound. By immunofluorescence staining, SMN and p53 co-localized in gems within the nucleus, and this co-localization was overall reduced in SMA fibroblasts. However, depletion of p53 by siRNA did not lessen the camptothecin sensitivity in SMA fibroblasts. Conclusion Even though p53 and SMN are associated, the increased sensitivity of SMA fibroblasts to camptothecin does not occur through a p53-dependent mechanism.

  16. Gene Expression Profile in Prion Protein-Deficient Fibroblasts in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Jun-ichi; Kuroda, Yasuo; Katamine, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the physiological function of the cellular isoform of prion protein (PrPC), the gene expression profile was studied by analyzing a cDNA expression array containing 597 clones of various functional classes in two distinct skin fibroblast cell lines designated SFK and SFH, established from PrP-deficient (PrP?/?) mice and PrP+/+ mice, respectively. The cells were incubated in the culture medium with or without inclusion of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). When SFK cells were...

  17. Laser Doppler line scanner for monitoring skin perfusion changes of port wine stains during vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Defu; Ren, Jie; Wang, Ying; Gu, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT) is known to be an effective therapeutic modality for the treatment of port wine stains (PWS). Monitoring the PWS microvascular response to the V-PDT is crucial for improving the effectiveness of PWS treatment. The objective of this study was to use laser Doppler technique to directly assess the skin perfusion in PWS before and during V-PDT. In this study, 30 patients with PWS were treated with V-PDT. A commercially laser Doppler line scanner (LDLS) was used to record the skin perfusion of PWS immediately before; and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 minutes during V-PDT treatment. Our results showed that there was substantial inter- and intra-patient perfusion heterogeneity in PWS lesion. Before V-PDT, the comparison of skin perfusion in PWS and contralateral healthy control normal skin indicated that PWS skin perfusion could be larger than, or occasionally equivalent to, that of control normal skin. During V-PDT, the skin perfusion in PWS significantly increased after the initiation of V-PDT treatment, then reached a peak within 10 minutes, followed by a slowly decrease to a relatively lower level. Furthermore, the time for reaching peak and the subsequent magnitude of decrease in skin perfusion varied with different patients, as well as different PWS lesion locations. In conclusion, the LDLS system is capable of assessing skin perfusion changes in PWS during V-PDT, and has potential for elucidating the mechanisms of PWS microvascular response to V-PDT.

  18. Insulin stimulates the biosynthesis of chiro-inositol-containing phospholipids in a rat fibroblast line expressing the human insulin receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Y; Paule, C R; Bao, Y D; Huang, L C; Larner, J

    1993-01-01

    HIRc-B cells (rat fibroblasts expressing the human insulin receptor) were incubated with myo-[3H]inositol for 48 hr, and the biosynthesis of chiro-[3H]inositol was investigated in the absence and presence of insulin following a time course up to 60 min. After phase separation, treatment with insulin for 15 min caused a 2.2-fold increase in the specific radioactivity of chiro-[3H]inositol-containing phospholipids in contrast to a 1.2-fold increase in the specific radioactivity of myo-[3H]inosi...

  19. Abnormal response to DNA crosslinking agents of Fanconi anemia fibroblasts can be corrected by transfection with normal human DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Diatloff-Zito, C; Papadopoulo, D.; Averbeck, D; Moustacchi, E

    1986-01-01

    Primary skin fibroblast cell lines from patients with Fanconi anemia were cotransfected with UV-irradiated pSV2neo plasmids and high molecular weight DNA from normal human cells. Restoration of a normal cellular resistance to mitomycin C (MMC) was observed provided that a Fanconi anemia cell line is selected for DNA-mediated transformation (neo gene) and that at least two successive rounds of transfection are performed. Cells were selected by taking advantage of the higher proliferation rate ...

  20. Characteristics of changes in the number of yH2AX and Rad51 protein foci in human skin fibroblasts after prolonged exposure to low-dose rate X-ray radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozerov I.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to compare the repair process of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells after acute versus prolonged exposure to X-ray irradiation with different dose rates. Material and methods. Studies were performed on primary human fibroblasts isolated from skin biopsies of healthy volunteers (women, 29 and 30 years. Cells were irradiated using an X-ray machine RUB RUST-M1 (JSC "Ruselectronics", Moscow, Russia at 37°C temperature with a dose rate of 400 mGy/min (200 kV, 2*2.4 mA, a filter of 1.5mm AI or 4 mGy/min (50 kV, 2*0.4 mA, a filter of 1.5 mm AI. Immuno-cytochemical protein staining was utilized for yH2AX and Rad51 foci analysis. Results. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (yH2AX and the key protein of homologous recombination Rad51 foci formation and disappearance kinetics were investigated simultaneously in primary human dermal fibroblasts after acute and prolonged exposure to X-ray radiation at a same dose. It was shown that the relative yield of yH2AX foci per dose reduces with decrease in dose rate, while the relative yield of Rad51 foci conversely increases. Conclusion. Our findings suggest the fundamental differences in the ratio of non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination DNA repair in acute versus prolonged irradiated cells.

  1. Modulation of radio-induced oxidative damage by the combination of pentoxifylline and ?-tocopherol in skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical or accidental localized ionizing radiation exposure can induce severe skin damage constituting the cutaneous radiological syndrome which is divided in acute and late phases. The combination of pentoxifylline (PTX), antioxidant phytochemical, and ?-tocopherol, antioxidant nutrient shows effectiveness in reducing the late radio-induced skin damage with a long period. This work aims to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the effects of this combination

  2. Organotypic cocultures as skin equivalents: A complex and sophisticated in vitro system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark Hans-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the role of genes required for skin organogenesis, tissue regeneration and homeostasis, we have established in vitro skin equivalents composed of primary cells or cell lines, respectively. In these organotypic cocultures keratinocytes generate a normal epidermis irrespective of the species and tissue origin of fibroblasts. The combination of cells derived from mouse and human tissues facilitates the identification of the origin of compounds involved in epidermal tissue reconstitution and thus the precise analysis of growth regulatory mechanisms.

  3. Harpagophytum procumbens suppresses lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in fibroblast cell line L929.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi-Hyeon; Lim, Sabina; Han, Seung-Moo; Park, Hi-Joon; Shin, Insop; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Nam-Jae; Lee, Ji-Suk; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2003-11-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens (Pedaliaceae) has been used for the treatment of pain and arthritis. The effect of Harpagophytum procumbens against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation was investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) immunoassay, and nitric oxide detection on mouse fibroblast cell line L929. The aqueous extract of Harpagophytum procumbens was shown to suppress PGE(2) synthesis and nitric oxide production by inhibiting lipopolysaccharide-stimulated enhancement of the cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNAs expressions in L929 cells. These results suggest that Harpagophytum procumbens exerts anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects probably by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 and iNOS expressions. PMID:14646256

  4. Fibroblast activation protein increases metastatic potential of fibrosarcoma line HT1080 through upregulation of integrin-mediated signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Sarah K; Allan, Laura; Renner, Christoph; Scott, Fiona E; Scott, Andrew M

    2015-06-01

    The serine protease fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is selectively expressed on tumour-associated fibroblasts in most human epithelial tumours, as well as on some mesenchymal tumours such as sarcoma. High FAP expression is most often associated with poor outcome and increased metastasis. Here, we compare the in vitro metastatic potential of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells with and without FAP expression in order to elucidate the mechanism by which FAP may influence metastasis. In the presence of FAP, cells were more adhesive to extracellular matrix proteins and migrated and invaded through Matrigel to a greater degree. The anti-FAP antibody ESC11, which caused internalization of FAP, decreased adhesion and migration, but only when cells expressed FAP. It was also found that blocking activity of integrins ?1 and ?v?3 reduced both cell adhesion and migration and this effect was much more marked in FAP-expressing HT1080 cells than mock-transfected HT1080 cells. The expression or activation of intracellular proteins that form part of the downstream signaling of integrins, including integrin-linked kinase, Rac1 and focal adhesion kinase, was also upregulated when FAP was expressed, suggesting that FAP not only upregulates metastatic-like cell behaviours through interaction with integrins, but also influences the intracellular signaling of integrins. This was confirmed using both PI3 kinase and Src kinase inhibitors, which decreased adhesion and migration in FAP-expressing cells, but did not affect mock-transfected HT1080 cells. FAP is therefore a useful target for anti-cancer therapy, as not only is its expression tumour-selective, but its downregulation has the potential to reduce incidence of metastasis. PMID:25995078

  5. Tropoelastin regulates chemokine expression in fibroblasts in Costello syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly associated with growth and mental retardation, cardiac and skeletal anomalies, and a predisposition to develop neoplasia. Comprehensive expression analysis revealed remarkable up-regulation of several cytokines and chemokines including Gro family proteins, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-8 and MCP-1 but down-regulation of extracellular matrix components including collagens and proteoglycans of skin fibroblasts derived from a Japanese Costello syndrome patient characterized by significantly reduced tropoelastin mRNA, impaired elastogenesis and enhanced cell proliferation. In contrast, decreases in these chemokines and IL-1? expression were observed in Costello fibroblastic cell lines stably expressing the bovine tropoelastin (btEln) gene and in restored elastic fibers. These results strongly suggest that the human TE gene (ELN) transfer could be applicable for the gene therapy of a group of Costello syndrome patients with reduced ELN gene expression

  6. Radiosensitivity of pig fibroblasts. In-vitro clonal growth assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivity of dermal fibroblasts, freshly extracted from pig skin, was characterised during primary culture. Cells were irradiated either in vitro or in vivo. The radiosensitivity of cells in primary culture (D0 = 2.3 Gy) was different from that of the cell lines derived from them (D0 = 1.3 Gy). The clonal growth parameters of primary cells (number of colonies at 72h, doubling time during exponential growth phase) were correlated with radiation dose. The in-vitro clonal growth assay could be used for dosimetric purposes in accidental cases of local exposure to radiation. (author)

  7. Development of an artificial lock for the skin-pass section in a hot dip galvanising line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present the application of data mining techniques to develop an artificial lock for the skin-pass in an attempt to solve a problem that can arise during the galvanising manufacturing process:the wrong labelling of the steel grade of a coil. In order to detect these errors and thus to avoid that coils with different properties than expected end up with a client, we propose neural network-based models for on-line predicting the strip elongation in the skin-pass section according to the manufacturing conditions and its chemical composition. thus, a significant difference between estimated and measured elongation would mean that the coil must be removed from the line for further analyses. (Author) 14 refs

  8. Evaluation of the effect of laser radiation on fibroblast proliferation in repair of skin wounds of rats with iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Isabele C. V.; Oliveira-Sampaio, Susana C. P.; Monteiro, Juliana S. de C.; Ferreira, Maria de Fátima L.; Cangussu, Maria T.; N. dos Santos, Jean; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz B.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) on fibroblast proliferation on wound repair of rats with Iron deficiency anemia since there is no reports on literature about this subject. Iron deficiency anemia was induced on 36 newborn rats then an excisional wound was created on the dorsum of the animals which were divided into four groups: (I) - non-anemic, (II) - Anemic, (III) - non-anemic + LLLT, (IV) Anemic+ LLLT. The animals in each group were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 days. Laser irradiation was performed on each group (?660nm,40Mw,CW) by contact mode with a dose of 2,5J/ cm2 in four points on the area of the wound and total of 10J/cm2 per session. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Paired t-test. The results showed LLLT was able to stimulate fibroblastic proliferation in rats with iron deficiency anemia at the 21st day while at control group (III) no statistically significant differences was found.

  9. Microprobe analysis of human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Melbourne Proton Microprobe has been used to study the copper content in human skin fibroblast cells derived from patients with the genetic disease Menkes Syndrome. Both normal and diseased cells have been studied to investigate any elemental differences occurring between the two cell types. This paper details the preparatory techniques necessary for individual cell analysis and presents the elemental information with a new three dimensional contour mapping technique. These maps are used to highlight elemental differences between normal and mutant fibroblasts. The work also confirms the expected copper excess found in the Menkes cell and indicates that the microprobe can be used for rapid identification of a Menkes carrier

  10. Replication and phenotypic expression of control and scleroderma human fibroblasts: responses to growth factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, E. C.; Mercurio, S.; Sherer, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of increased collagen synthesis by scleroderma skin fibroblasts in vitro, control and scleroderma fibroblasts were compared in confluent monolayer cultures growth-arrested by serum deprivation; responses to optimal mitogenic doses of platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor were compared. Platelet-derived growth factor had a selective mitogenic effect on control skin fibroblasts not observed with sclerod...

  11. The potentiation by caffeine of X-ray damage to cultured human skin fibroblasts from normal subjects and ataxia-telangiectasia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffeine was found to potentiate X-ray-induced killing of human diploid fibroblasts from a normal subject and an ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) patient when it was present at 2 mM concentration for 30 to 66 hr postirradiation. The dose-modifying factor for caffeine-treated normal cells had an average value of 1.26 +/- 0.13 which did not vary significantly with treatment time or X-ray dose. The dose-modifying factor for caffeine-treated AT cells was 1.12 +/- 0.12 at 30 hr, rose to 1.66 +/- 0.17 at 41 hr, and decreased to 1.31 +/- 0.13 at 66 hr. Thus no clear difference was observed between these two cell strains' susceptibility to postirradiation caffeine treatment

  12. Potentiation by caffeine of x-ray damage to cultured human skin fibroblasts from normal subjects and ataxia-telangiectasia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffeine was found to potentiate x-ray-induced killing of human diploid fibroblasts from a normal subject and an ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) patient when it was present at 2 mM concentration for 30 to 66 h postirradiation. The dose-modifying factor for caffeine-treated normal cells had an average value of 1.26 +- 0.13 which did not vary significantly with treatment time or x-ray dose. The dose-modifying factor for caffeine-treated AT cells was 1.12 +- 0.12 at 30 h, rose to 1.66 +- 0.17 at 41 h, and decreased to 1.31 +- 0.13 at 66 h. Thus no clear difference was observed between these two cell strains' susceptibility to postirradiation caffeine treatment

  13. Differential spontaneous transformation in vitro of newly established mouse fibroblast lines carrying or lacking the viable yellow mutation (Avy) of the mouse agouti locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, W L; Wolff, G L; North, B M; Ollmann, M M; Barsh, G S; Fan, H

    1996-01-01

    The pleiotropic effects of the viable yellow mutation (Avy), an allele of the mouse agouti coat-color locus, include increased susceptibility to spontaneous and chemically induced tumors that affect a wide variety of tissues. As a first step toward understanding the molecular basis of this phenomenon, we established permanent fibroblast-like cell lines from newborn Avy/a and control congenic a/a mice and compared their growth characteristics in vitro. From the VY/WffC3Hf/Nctr and YS/WffCH3f/Nctr-Avy inbre strains, each of which carries the Avy allele on a congenic background, 38 clonal Avy/a and 16 clonal a/a lines were established. Regardless of inbred strain, all Avy/a cell lines exhibited a significant degree of spontaneous transformation, as assessed by focus formation in monolayer culture, whereas none of the a/a cell lines formed foci in prolonged cultures. To test whether changes in dosage of the Avy- or a-bearing chromosomes were related to these events, we analyzed each cell line with a closely linked molecular probe from the Emv-15 locus, which in the VY strain detects a restriction fragment length variant (RFLV) informative for the Avy- and a-bearing chromosomes. Most of the transformed foci maintained heterozygosity for RFLVs detected by the probe, but two of the transformants lost the a-associated RFLV, and at least one of the transformants exhibited amplification of the Avy-associated RFLV. When the transformants were analyzed with 5' sequences derived from the recently cloned agouti gene, three of eight transformants lost the a-associated RFLV, and two of the transformants showed amplification of the Avy-associated RFLV. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays indicated that agouti RNA was detected in Avy/a, not a/a cell lines. Surprisingly, some of the Avy/a transformants lacked agouti RNA. These results suggest that deregulated expression of the Avy allele is required for the initiation but not for the maintenance of transformation of the Avy/a cell cultures. These cell lines may provide an in vitro culture system for studying the effect of the agouti gene on tumorigenicity as well as to potentially study other pleiotropic phenotypes. PMID:8561869

  14. Fibroblast cultures in duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary skin fibroblast cultures were grown from forearm pinch skin biopsies obtained from 24 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and ten normal controls matched for sex and age. The first subcultures were grown for 7 days and incubated with L-(3H)-proline for 24 hours. Intracellular collagen incoption was significantly decreased (2.2 X) and extracellular collagen incorporation significantly increased (1.8 X) in fibroblast cultures from patients with DMD by both collagenase assay and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The synthesis of noncollagen proteins showed low values from the DMD fibroblast cultures. The alterations in synthesis and secretion of collagen and noncollagen proteins were characteristic only for the log phase of DMD fibroblasts. (author)

  15. Studies of molecular species of the human androgen receptor (AR): comparison of the physicochemical properties of the [3H]methyltrienolone-AR complex formed in cytosol to the complex produced in intact genital skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two forms of the human genital skin fibroblast (GSF) androgen receptor (AR) complexed with [3H]17 alpha-methyltrienolone were compared: 1) the intact complex formed in cytosol at 4 C (broken cell or B/C complex); and 2) the complex formed in the whole cell at 37 C (W/C complex). The intact form of the B/C complex was distinguished from partly degraded forms by the gel filtration profile in 0.5 M KCl. The W/C complex was considered to represent the transformed state of the receptor. The W/C complex had a smaller molecular radius than the B/C complex by gel filtration (Kav = 0.26-0.28 vs. 0.11-0.18). By low salt density gradient centrifugation, the B/C complex sedimented at 8.8S and the W/C complex at 6.6S. However, in 0.5 M KCl, each sedimented at 5.1S, and they were homogeneous, indicating that the monomeric forms differed markedly in molecular radius, but by only about 20,000 daltons in calculated mol wt (134,500 vs. 114,300 daltons). The complexes were separated from DNA, desalted, and compared by chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and hydroxylapatite (HAP). The B/C complex bound readily to both column matrices and eluted from each as a sharp homogeneous peak: from DEAE at 172-190 mM KCl and from HAP at 123 mM phosphate. The W/C complex, however, was heterogeneous. One component did not bind to DEAE, and one eluted at 22-40 mM KCl. The W/C complex eluted from HAP as a peak at 42 mM, with a shoulder at 102 mM phosphate. Thus, transformation of the human genital skin fibroblast androgen receptor involves a major decrease in molecular radius and loss of negative charge with a possible loss of a 20,000-dalton macromolecular component

  16. Antiseptic effectiveness with fibroblast preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, P J; Lehr, G S; Leist, P; Welling, R E

    1991-09-01

    The efficacy of topical antiseptic therapy for wounds and skin ulcers has been shown to be at the expense of fibroblast and leukocyte function and, in general, wound healing. Specifically, continued fibroblast function after exposure to antiseptics has been correlated to the concentration of the antiseptic. At concentrations that preserve fibroblast function, 0.005% sodium hypochlorite, 0.001% providone-iodine, 0.0025% acetic acid, and 0.003% hydrogen peroxide were tested for their effectiveness against various clinical isolates. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Group D enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacteroides fragilis were exposed to the antiseptics and plated in a standard microbiological fashion. The cultures showed that sodium hypochlorite inhibited the growth of all the bacteria (p less than 0.001), whereas povidone-iodine reduced the colonies of S. aureus and acetic acid inhibited P. aeruginosa. Our study suggests that 0.005% sodium hypochlorite can be used as a debriding and topical antibacterial agent for wounds and skin ulcers without inhibiting fibroblast activity essential to normal wound repair. PMID:1952753

  17. Expression of gelatinase A and TIMP-2 mRNAs in desmoplastic fibroblasts in both mammary carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsom, R.; Hanby, A. M.; Pignatelli, M.; Jeffery, R. E.; Longcroft, J. M.; Rogers, L.; Stamp, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To compare the localisation of mRNAs for the basement membrane degrading enzyme gelatinase A (72 kilodalton type IV collagenase) and its inhibitor TIMP-2 in carcinomas of the breast and basal cell carcinomas of the skin which have little or no ability to metastasize. METHODS--In situ hybridisation was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded blocks using 35S-labelled riboprobes on 16 mammary carcinomas, three fibroadenomas, and a benign phyllodes tumour, and on 15 basal cell c...

  18. Use of metabolic inhibitors to compare the excision repair of pyrimidine dimers and nondimer DNA damages in human skin fibroblasts exposed to 254-nm and sunlamp-produced > 310-nm ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal human skin fibroblasts were exposed to either 0-5 J/m2 of 254-nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation or 0-50 kJ/m2 of the Mylar-filtered UV (>310 nm) produced by a fluorescent sunlamp. These cells were then incubated for 0-20 min in medium containing 10 mM hydroxyurea (HU) and 0.1 mM 1-?-D-arabinofuranosyl cytosine (ara C), and the yield of DNA strand breaks was measured by means of the alkaline elution technique. For cells irradiated with 254-nm UV, which results primarily in the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, a rapid increase in DNA strand breaks was detected following incubation with these metabolic inhibitors. In contrast, only a low level of strand breaks formed in cells incubated with HU and ara C after irradiation with approximately equitoxic fluences of sunlamp UV >310 nm, which mainly causes the induction of nondimer DNA lesions. Hence, these results are consistent with the conclusion that the pathways involved in the repair of nondimer DNA damages induced by UV wavelengths >310 nm differ from the repair of pyrimidine dimers

  19. Nanofiber diameter as a critical parameter affecting skin cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelipenko, Jan; Kocbek, Petra; Kristl, Julijana

    2014-10-01

    Electrospun polymer nanofibers have opened new opportunities in the rapidly evolving field of tissue engineering, particularly due to their topography and variability of available biomaterials. In order to better understand nanofiber influence on cell growth, the impact of their diameter was systematically examined. In this study homogenous, randomly oriented poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers with five different average diameters, ranging from 70nm to 1120nm, were produced, characterized and their impact on morphology, proliferation and mobility of keratinocytes and skin fibroblasts was evaluated. The results have shown that nanofiber diameter affects cell response and that this response is cell line specific. Nanofiber thickness affected size, morphology and actine organization of keratinocytes much more than fibroblasts. Specifically, the keratinocyte grown on nanofibers were more spherical and smaller compared to the control cells, while the fibroblasts were much less affect. They stayed almost unchanged and spread across growth surface. The cell proliferation determined based on their metabolic activity was the highest, when keratinocytes were grown on 305nm thick nanofibers, whereas proliferation of fibroblasts grown similar nanofibers was decreased. Finally, fibroblasts exerted higher mobility than keratinocytes. Both tested cell lines on nanofiber diameters of 300nm resulted in decreased cell mobility. These findings suggest that the control over nanofiber diameter offers promising possibility to better design the tissue scaffolds, since cells distinguish between differently sized nanofibers and respond accordingly. PMID:25301202

  20. Differential susceptibilities of human lung, breast and skin cancer cell lines to killing by five sea anemone venoms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Ramezanpour; K, Burke da Silva; BJ, Sanderson.

    Full Text Available Although sea anemones are well known for being rich sources of toxins, including cytolysins and neurotoxins, their venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. In the present study, the venoms from five sea anemones (Heteractis crispa, Heteractis magnifica, Heteractis malu, Cryptodendrum adhaesivum a [...] nd Entacmaea quadricolor) were obtained by the milking technique, and the potential of these venoms to kill cancer cells was tested on three cell lines (A549 lung cancer, T47D breast cancer and A431 skin cancer). The total protein level in the crude extract was determined by the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay. The cytotoxicity on different cell lines was assayed using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay which measures survival based on the detection of mitochondrial activity and by the crystal violet assay, which measures survival based on the ability of cells to remain adherent to microplates. The results indicate that the sea anemone venom is cytotoxic to human cancer cells. The A549 cell line was the most sensitive of the cell lines tested with a significant reduction in viability observed at 40 µg/mL. H. malu, C. adhaesivum and E. quadricolor had a significant inhibitory effect on A431 cells. Furthermore, H. malu and C. adhaesivum had a significant inhibitory effect on T47D cell line at 40 µg/mL. In conclusion, the sea anemone venoms tested have the potential to be developed as anticancer agents.

  1. The effect of postirradiation holding at 22 degrees C on the repair of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially neoplastic transforming damage in gamma-irradiated HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of postirradiation holding at 22 degrees C on cell growth, progression of cells through the cell cycle, and the repair of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially neoplastic transforming damage in ?-irradiated HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells has been examined. Cell growth and cell cycle progression were essentially stopped at this reduced temperature. Cell survival was dramatically reduced by holding confluent cultures for 6 h at 22 degrees C, as opposed to 37 degrees C, after 7.5 Gy ? radiation delivered at a rate of 2 Gy/min. Return of the cells to 37 degrees C for 6 h after holding at 22 degrees C did not result in increased survival. A similar effect was obtained when the cells were held at 22 degrees C between split-dose irradiation of log-phase cultures where no increase in survival was observed over a split-dose interval of 4 h. In this case a partial increase in survival was observed upon returning the cells to 37 degrees C for 3 h after holding at 22 degrees C for the first 3 h of the split-dose interval. Neoplastic transformation frequency was not enhanced by holding confluent cultures for 6 h at 22 degrees C after 7.5 Gy ? radiation. This is consistent with previous observations that misrepair of potentially neoplastic transforming damage already occurs at 37 degrees C. The overall results are interpreted in terms of the reduced temperature favoring misrepair, rather than inhibition of repair, of sublethal, potentially lethal anir, of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially transforming radiation damage. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Comparative study on cytotoxicity effect of biological and commercial synthesized nanosilver on human gastric carcinoma and normal lung fibroblast cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Rashmezad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biosynthesis of nanoparticles has attracted the attention of the scientific community in nanotechnology and biotechnology due to their extensive application in the area of material sciences and medicine. Nowadays, despite a various application of nanomaterial’s, there is a little information about their impact on human health. In this study, we investigated the comparative study on cytotoxicity effect of biological and commercial synthesized nanosilver on human gastric carcinoma (AGS and normal lung fibroblast (MRC-5 cell lines. Methods: The current experimental study was carried out in Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch, from April to November 2014. The biological synthesis of nanosilver was obtained from Eucalyptus plant extract as a reducing agent. Further to more analysis, morphological study on size and shape of developed biological nanosilver was characterized by performing scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. AGS and MCR-5 cell lines were treated with various concentration of nanosilver for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Finally, the cell viability was evaluated by using MTT assay. Results: The results show that the nanosilver exerts a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on viability of cells. At 100µg/mL of commercial and biological synthesized nanosilver, the viability of AGS was reduced to 7.47±0.002% (P=0.002 and 3.65±0.01% (P=0.003 after 72 hours, respectively. In addition, the viability of MRC-5 at the same condition was reduced to 10.27±0.19% (P=0.001 and 9.16±1.53% (P=0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Based on a thorough literature surveys, the present study is the first research about biosynthesis of nanosilver using Eucalyptus plant extract. This eco-friendly and cost effective method can be used for large scale production of silver nanoparticle. In addition, based on the current obtained data, commercial and biological synthesized nanosilver can more inhibitory effect on cancer cells compared to the normal cells. Hence, silver nanoparticles might be used as a new strategy for treating many human cancers. However, further studies are necessary to ascertain their potential as anticancer agents.

  3. A Comparison between the Colony Formation of Adult Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells in Co cultures with Sertoli and STO (Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Koruji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the colony formation of spermatogonialstem cells (SSCs on sertoli and STO (Mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line feeder celllayers during a two-week period.Materials and Methods: Initially, sertoli cells and SSCs were isolated from adultmouse testes using a two-step enzymatic digestion and lectin immobilization. Characteristicsof the isolated cells were immunocytochemically confirmed by examiningfor the presence of Oct-4, CDH1, promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger factor (PLZF,SSC C-kit, and the distribution of Sertoli cell vimentin. SSCs were then cultured abovethe Sertoli, STO and the control (without co-culture separately for two weeks. In allthree groups, the number and diameter of colonies were evaluated using an invert microscopeon the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day. ?1 and ?6-integrin m-RNA expressions wereassessed using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and realtimePCR. Furthermore, Oct-4 m RNA expression was assessed using real time PCR.Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA; and the paired two-sample t test andTukey’s test were used as post-hoc tests for the data analysis of the three sertoli, STOand control cocultures.Results: At the four specified time points, our results showed significant differences (p<0.05in colony numbers and diameters among the sertoli, STO and control groups. The numberand diameter of colonies increased more rapidly in the sertoli coculture than in the othertwo Our results at all four time points also showed significant differences (p<0.05 in themean colony numbers and diameters between the three groups, with the Sertoli coculturehaving the highest mean values for colony numbers and diameters. The RT-PCR results,after two-weeks of culturing, showed that ?1-integrin was expressed in all three groups cocultures,but ?6-integrin was not expressed. Additionally, based on real time PCR results,the three genes (?1-integrin, ?6-integrin, Oct-4 mentioned were also expressed in all threeco cultures groups.Conclusion: Based on the optimal effects of sertoli feeder cells on spermatogonial stemcells in a co culture system, as also confirmed by several other studies, their use is suggestedto achieve better colonization of SSCs.

  4. The ultrastructure and etiology of chronic radiotherapy damage in human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulcerated and nonulcerated skin from 5 patients with chronic radiation skin damage was examined using electron microscopy. Noticeable fibroblast disorganization was seen, with swollen and degenerating mitochondria, multiple vacuoles, and dilated irregular rough endoplasmic reticulum. Unusual crystalline inclusions were seen in some fibroblasts. In the ulcerated skin, contractile fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) were seen in 2 of 4 specimens. Stroma showed dense collagen and prominent elastosis. The microvasculature in the radiation-damaged tissue showed occasional lumen occlusion and vacuolization of endothelial cells, without consistent abnormality. These data suggest that permanent damage to fibroblasts or fibroblast stem cells may play an important role in chronic radiation skin ulceration

  5. Chromosome aberration induction in human diploid fibroblast and epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative sensitivity of cultured human fibroblasts and epithelial cells to radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations was investigated. Lung fibroblast and kidney epithelial cells from the same fetus were compared, as were skin fibroblasts and epithelial keratinocytes from the same foreskin sample. After exposure of proliferating fetal cells to 1.5 Gy X-rays there was a very similar aberration yield in the fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Observations of either little or no difference in chromosomal sensitivity between human fibroblasts and epithelial cells give added confidence that quantitative cytogenetic data obtained from cultured fibroblasts are relevant to the question of sensitivity of epithelial cells which are the predominant cell type in human cancers. (author)

  6. On-line diffusion profile of a lipophilic model dye in different depths of a hair follicle in human scalp skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Ylva Y; Whitehead, Lynne; Lamers, Gerda; Sturmann, Nico; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2005-10-01

    In skin and hair research, drug targeting to the hair follicle is of great interest in the treatment of skin diseases. The aim of this study is to visualize on-line the diffusion processes of a model fluorophore into the hair follicle at different depths using fresh human scalp skin and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Up to a depth of 500 microm in the skin, a fast increase of fluorescence is observed in the gap followed by accumulation of the dye in the hair cuticle. Penetration was also observed via the stratum corneum and the epidermis. Little label reached depths greater than 2000 microm. Fat cells accumulated the label fastest, followed by the cuticular area and the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. Sweat glands revealed very low staining, whereas the bulb at a depth of 4000 microm was visualized only by autofluorescence. From this study, we conclude that on-line visualization is a promising technique to access diffusion processes in deep skin layers even on a cellular level. Furthermore, we conclude that the gap and the cuticle play an important role in the initial diffusion period with the label in the cuticle originating from the gap. PMID:16185278

  7. Skin moisturizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Malakooti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The function of the horny layer of the skin as a barrier is to protect the underlying tissues from infection, dryness, and mechanical stress. Disruption of this function results in increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL and is associated with conditions like atopic dermatitis and other chronic skin diseases. Moisturizers have been shown to improve these conditions through restoration of the integrity of the stratum corneum, acting as a barrier to water loss and replacement of skin lipids and other compounds. Also, moisturizers are commonly used to reduce fine lines and make the skin appear smooth and soft. They contain varying combinations of emollients, occlusives, and humectants to achieve their beneficial effects, and there are an overwhelming number of formulations available.

  8. Preparation of Proper Immunogen by Cloning and Stable Expression of cDNA coding for Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Marker CD34 in NIH-3T3 Mouse Fibroblast Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Abbasi-Kenarsari, Hajar; Majidi, Jafar; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Kazemi, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Transmembrane CD34 glycoprotein is the most important marker for identification, isolation and enumeration of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We aimed in this study to clone the cDNA coding for human CD34 from KG1a cell line and stably express in mouse fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3. Such artificial cell line could be useful as proper immunogen for production of mouse monoclonal antibodies. Methods: CD34 cDNA was cloned from KG1a cell line after total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Pfu DNA polymerase-amplified specific band was ligated to pGEMT-easy TA-cloning vector and sub-cloned in pCMV6-Neo expression vector. After transfection of NIH-3T3 cells using 3 ?g of recombinant construct and 6 ?l of JetPEI transfection reagent, stable expression was obtained by selection of cells by G418 antibiotic and confirmed by surface flow cytometry. Results: 1158 bp specific band was aligned completely to reference sequence in NCBI database corresponding to long isoform of human CD34. Transient and stable expression of human CD34 on transfected NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was achieved (25% and 95%, respectively) as shown by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Cloning and stable expression of human CD34 cDNA was successfully performed and validated by standard flow cytometric analysis. Due to murine origin of NIH-3T3 cell line, CD34-expressing NIH-3T3 cells could be useful as immunogen in production of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies against human CD34. This approach could bypass the need for purification of recombinant proteins produced in eukaryotic expression systems. PMID:25789221

  9. Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on expression of kynurenine pathway enzymes in human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegel Magdalena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kynurenine pathway (KP is the main route of tryptophan degradation in the human body and generates several neuroactive and immunomodulatory metabolites. Altered levels of KP-metabolites have been observed in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders as well as in patients with affective disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if skin derived human fibroblasts are useful for studies of expression of enzymes in the KP. Methods Fibroblast cultures were established from cutaneous biopsies taken from the arm of consenting volunteers. Such cultures were subsequently treated with interferon (IFN-? 200 U/ml and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?, 100 U/ml for 48 hours in serum-free medium. Levels of transcripts encoding different enzymes were determined by real-time PCR and levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA were determined by HPLC. Results At base-line all cultures harbored detectable levels of transcripts encoding KP enzymes, albeit with considerable variation across individuals. Following cytokine treatment, considerable changes in many of the transcripts investigated were observed. For example, increases in the abundance of transcripts encoding indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, kynureninase or 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase and decreases in the levels of transcripts encoding tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, kynurenine aminotransferases or quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase were observed following IFN-? and TNF-? treatment. Finally, the fibroblast cultures released detectable levels of KYNA in the cell culture medium at base-line conditions, which were increased after IFN-?, but not TNF-?, treatments. Conclusions All of the investigated genes encoding KP enzymes were expressed in human fibroblasts. Expression of many of these appeared to be regulated in response to cytokine treatment as previously reported for other cell types. Fibroblast cultures, thus, appear to be useful for studies of disease-related abnormalities in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation.

  10. Use of postmortem human dura mater and scalp for deriving human fibroblast cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Lindsay A; Sams, Malik R; Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Ren-Patterson, Renee; Jaffe, Andrew E; Chenoweth, Josh G; Jaishankar, Amritha; Kleinman, Joel E; Hyde, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblasts can be collected from deceased individuals, grown in culture, reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and then differentiated into a multitude of cell types, including neurons. Past studies have generated iPSCs from somatic cell biopsies from either animal or human subjects. Previously, fibroblasts have only been successfully cultured from postmortem human skin in two studies. Here we present data on fibroblast cell cultures generated from 146 scalp and/or 53 dura mater samples from 146 postmortem human brain donors. In our overall sample, the odds of successful dural culture was almost two-fold compared with scalp (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: [1.01, 3.9], p = 0.047). Using a paired design within subjects for whom both tissues were available for culture (n = 53), the odds of success for culture in dura was 16-fold as compared to scalp (OR = 16.0, 95% CI: [2.1-120.6], p = 0.0007). Unattended death, tissue donation source, longer postmortem interval (PMI), and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with unsuccessful culture in scalp (all p<0.05), but not in dura. While scalp cells proliferated more and grew more rapidly than dura cells [F (1, 46) = 12.94, p<0.008], both tissues could be generated and maintained as fibroblast cell lines. Using a random sample of four cases, we found that both postmortem scalp and dura could be successfully reprogrammed into iPSC lines. Our study demonstrates that postmortem dura mater, and to a lesser extent, scalp, are viable sources of living fibroblasts for culture that can be used to generate iPSCs. These tissues may be accessible through existing brain tissue collections, which is critical for studying disorders such as neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:23028905

  11. Parental somatic and germ-line mosaicism for a FBN2 mutation and analysis of FBN2 transcript levels in dermal fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Putnam, E. A.; Park, E. S.; Aalfs, C. M.; Hennekam, R. C.; Milewicz, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant disorder that is phenotypically related to the Marfan syndrome. CCA has recently been shown to result from mutations in the FBN2 gene, which encodes an elastin-associated microfibrillar protein called fibrillin-2. Two siblings are reported here with classic manifestations of CCA with unaffected parents. Analysis of the FBN2 cDNA from dermal fibroblasts from one of the affected siblings revealed a heterozygous exon splicing ...

  12. Radiosensitivity in cultured human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caution is urged in the use of freshly isolated cultures of human diploid fibroblasts for quantitative studies of radiosensitivity. The distribution of x ray sensitivities of 'normal' human fibroblast cultures of foetal origin (10 subjects, skin or lung biopsy) and post-foetal origin (34 subjects, skin biopsy) are compared with the distribution in 12 patients with ataxia telangiectasia (probability of including any one of these in a normal post-foetal distribution is 0.01%). Cultures from nominally normal subjects showed a broad distribution of D0 range of 98 +- 160 rad and assuming normal distribution, a mean +- one standard deviation of 122 +- 17 rad. Mean D0 values for foetal origin cultures were 117 +- 12; values for post-foetal cultures D0 were 124 +- 18. No systematic variation in D0 was observed for age of donor, number of cell divisions in culture or for cloning efficiency. For ataxia telangiectasia D0 values were 46 +- 7 rad. (U.K.)

  13. [Preparation and characteristics of a new transformed cell line G11 by transfection of NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts with DNA from the SA7 oncogene of simian adenovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solov'ev, G Ia; Pantin, V I; Surin, V L; Zhukova, E L; Kotel'nikov, V M

    1989-07-01

    Murine fibroblasts NIH 3T3 were transfected with the plasmid pASP containing simian adenovirus oncogene insertion. Focus forming transformants were cloned with a final dilution technique and a new cell line G11 was created as a result. Transformed status of this cell line is evidenced by changes in morphology, specific cytochemical and adhesion properties, ability to grow in semisolid agar and FCS concentration growth independence. Presence of intact integrated E1a-region of adenovirus SA7 oncogene was shown by blot-hybridization technique. Transformed status of G11 cells can be explained by integration of SA7 oncogene, that is evidenced indirectly by the increased resistance to heat shock. PMID:2509897

  14. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility

  15. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Kanae [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shishido, Mayumi [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Fujimoto, Keiko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirota, Yuko [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa [Skin Research Department, POLA Chemical Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Tanaka, Yoshitaka, E-mail: tanakay@bioc.phar.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Division of Pharmaceutical Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Organelle Homeostasis Research Center, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility.

  16. Endoscope-assisted second branchial cleft cyst resection via an incision along skin line on lateral neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junming; Chen, Weixiong; Zhang, Jianli; He, Fayao; Zhu, Zhaofeng; Tang, Sucheng; Wang, Yuejian

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study is to report the feasibility of endoscope-assisted second branchial cleft cyst resection via a small incision along the skin line on the lateral neck. In total, 41 patients from the Department of Otolaryngology, Foshan Hospital of Yat-sen University were randomly assigned to conventional (20 patients) or endoscope-assisted (21 patients) second branchial cleft cyst resection. The patient clinical characteristics, operation time, operative bleeding volume, postoperative complications, and subjective satisfaction with the incision scar (measured using a visual analog scale) were compared between the groups. All 41 s branchial cleft cyst resections were successfully performed, and the wounds healed uneventfully. The bleeding volume (6.3 ± 2.5 ml) and incision length (2.7 ± 0.3 cm) differed between the groups (P cyst resection via a small incision along the dermatoglyph on the lateral neck is a feasible technique. This procedure may serve as an alternative approach, allowing a minimally invasive incision and better cosmetic results. PMID:24292216

  17. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin self-exam Skin self-exam Squamous cell skin cancer Related Health Topics Melanoma Skin Conditions Sun Exposure Cancers Skin, Hair and Nails National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Skin ...

  18. Parental somatic and germ-line mosaicism for a FBN2 mutation and analysis of FBN2 transcript levels in dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, E A; Park, E S; Aalfs, C M; Hennekam, R C; Milewicz, D M

    1997-04-01

    Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant disorder that is phenotypically related to the Marfan syndrome. CCA has recently been shown to result from mutations in the FBN2 gene, which encodes an elastin-associated microfibrillar protein called fibrillin-2. Two siblings are reported here with classic manifestations of CCA with unaffected parents. Analysis of the FBN2 cDNA from dermal fibroblasts from one of the affected siblings revealed a heterozygous exon splicing error deleting nt 3722-3844 of the FBN2 mRNA. This cDNA deletion resulted in selective removal of one of the 43 calcium-binding EGF-like domains of the fibrillin-2 protein. Analysis of the FBN2 gene in the affected siblings' DNA indicated that the splicing error resulted from an A-to-G transition 15 nt upstream from the 3' splice site of the intron. The genomic mutation resulting in the splicing error alters a putative branch point sequence important for lariat formation, an intermediate structure of normal splicing. The mutation was detectable in DNA from the father's hair bulbs and buccal cells but not his white blood cell DNA, indicating that the father was a somatic mosaic. Analysis of transcript levels by use of dermal fibroblasts from the proband demonstrated that the FBN2 allele containing the exon deletion was expressed at a higher level than the allele inherited from the mother. These results indicate that FBN2 exon splicing errors are a cause of CCA, furthering the understanding of the molecular basis of this disorder. In addition, the demonstration of gonadal mosaicism in the FBN2 gene is important for accurate genetic counseling of families with sporadic cases of CCA. Finally, the preferential expression of the mutated FBN2 allele in dermal fibroblasts may have implications for understanding the pathogenesis and rarity of CCA. PMID:9106527

  19. Cytotoxicity and Selectivity in Skin Cancer by SapC-DOPS Nanovesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Abu-Baker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and melanoma are malignant human cancers of the skin with an annual mortality that exceeds 10,000 cases every year in the USA alone. In this study, the lysosomal protein saposin C (SapC and the phospholipid dioloylphosphatidylserine (DOPS were assembled into cancer-selective nanovesicles (SapC-DOPS and successfully tested using several in vitro and in vivo skin cancer models. Using MTT assay that measures the percentage of cell death, SapC-DOPS cytotoxic effect on three skin tumor cell lines (squamous cell carcinoma, SK-MEL-28, and MeWo was compared to two normal nontumorigenic skin cells lines, normal immortalized keratinocyte (NIK and human fibroblast cell (HFC. We observed that the nanovesicles selectively killed the skin cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death whereas untransformed skin cancer cells remained unaffected. Using subcutaneous skin tumor xenografts, animals treated with SapC-DOPS by subcutaneous injection showed a 79.4% by volume tumor reduced compared to the control after 4 days of treatment. We observed that the nanovesicles killed skin cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death compared to the control as revealed by TUNEL staining of xenograft tumor sections.

  20. Cytotoxicity and Selectivity in Skin Cancer by SapC-DOPS Nanovesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Baker, Shadi; Chu, Zhengtao; Stevens, Ashley M; Li, Jie; Qi, Xiaoyang

    2012-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma are malignant human cancers of the skin with an annual mortality that exceed 10,000 cases every year in the USA alone. In this study, the lysosomal protein saposin C (SapC) and the phospholipid dioloylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were assembled into cancer-selective nanovesicles (SapC-DOPS) and successfully tested using several in vitro and in vivo skin cancer models. Using MTT assay that measures the percentage of cell death, SapC-DOPS cytotoxic effect on three skin tumor cell lines (squamous cell carcinoma, SK-MEL-28, and MeWo) was compared to two normal nontumorigenic skin cells lines, normal immortalized keratinocyte (NIK) and human fibroblast cell (HFC). We observed that the nanovesicles selectively killed the skin cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death whereas untransformed skin cancer cells remained unaffected. Using subcutaneous skin tumor xenografts, animals treated with SapC-DOPS by subcutaneous injection showed a 79.4 % tumor reduced compared to the control after 4 days of treatment. We observed that the nanovesicles killed skin cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death compared to the control as revealed by TUNEL staining of xenograft tumor sections. PMID:25485166

  1. Replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts irradiated in obtaining feeder layer for the culture of human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human autologous epithelia cultivated in vitro, have been used successfully in treating damage to skin integrity. The methodology allowed the cultivation of these epithelia was described by Rheinwald and Green in 1975, this methodology consisted in seeding keratinocytes onto a feeder layer composed of lineage 3T3 murine fibroblasts, the proliferation rate is controlled through the action of ionizing radiation. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and murine viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, in this present work, we replaced the feeder layer originally composed of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts. To obtain this new feeder layer was necessary to standardize the enough irradiation dose to inhibit the replication of human fibroblasts and the verification of effectiveness of the development of keratinocytes culture on a feeder layer thus obtained. According to the obtained results we can verify that the human fibroblasts irradiated at various tested doses (60, 70, 100, 200, 250 and 300 Gy) had their mitotic activity inactivated by irradiation, allowing the use of any of these doses to confection of the feeder layer, since these fibroblasts irradiated still showed viable until fourteen days of cultivation. In the test of colony formation efficiency was observed that keratinocytes seeded on irradiated human fibroblasts were able to develop satisfactorily, preserving their clonogenic potential. Therefore it was possible the replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts in confection of the feeder layer, in order to eliminate this xenobiotic component of the keratinocytes culture. (author)

  2. The small Rho GTPase Rac1 controls normal human dermal fibroblasts proliferation with phosphorylation of the oncoprotein c-myc.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolova, Ekaterina; Mitev, Vanio; Zhelev, Nikolai; Deroanne, Christophe; Poumay, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Proliferation of dermal fibroblasts is crucial for the maintenance of skin. The small Rho GTPase, Rac1, has been identified as a key transducer of proliferative signals in various cell types, but in normal human dermal fibroblasts its significance to cell growth control has not been studied. In this study, we applied the method of RNA interference to suppress endogenous Rac1 expression and examined the consequences on human skin fibroblasts. Rac1 knock-down resulted in inhibition of DNA synth...

  3. Small interfering RNA mediated Poly (ADP-ribose Polymerase-1 inhibition upregulates the heat shock response in a murine fibroblast cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zingarelli Basilia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 is a highly conserved multifunctional enzyme, and its catalytic activity is stimulated by DNA breaks. The activation of PARP-1 and subsequent depletion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ and adenosine triphosphate (ATP contributes to significant cytotoxicity in inflammation of various etiologies. On the contrary, induction of heat shock response and production of heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70 is a cytoprotective defense mechanism in inflammation. Recent data suggests that PARP-1 modulates the expression of a number of cellular proteins at the transcriptional level. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA mediated PARP-1 knockdown in murine wild-type fibroblasts augmented heat shock response as compared to untreated cells (as evaluated by quantitative analysis of HSP-70 mRNA and HSP-70 protein expression. These events were associated with increased DNA binding of the heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1, the major transcription factor of the heat shock response. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments in nuclear extracts of the wild type cells demonstrated that PARP-1directly interacted with HSF-1. These data demonstrate that, in wild type fibroblasts, PARP-1 plays a pivotal role in modulating the heat shock response both through direct interaction with HSF-1 and poly (ADP-ribosylation.

  4. Hyaluronic Acid and Skin Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abdol Tehrani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA, the main and most important constituent of extracellular matrix, is a glycosaminologycan with water-absorbing capacity found in large amount in growing and repairing tissues. One of the main causes of skin problems, particulary in aging skin, is HA deficiency. More than half of the body HA is in the skin and is necessary for the maintenance of internal matrix and several cellular functions. Filler gels containing HA are used to repair skin defects. As these substances are derived from animals and bacteria, not the human, may cause skin reactions and have short half-life. So efforts to maintain and/or increase HA secretion from skin fibroblasts are important in the prevention and treatment of skin aging.

  5. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stasis dermatitis and ulcers Striae Subcutaneous emphysema Vesicles Wood's lamp examination Xanthoma Xeroderma pigmentosa Xerosis Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Eczema Impetigo Itching Psoriasis Rashes Scleroderma Skin Aging Skin Cancer Skin Infections Skin Pigmentation Disorders Skin, ...

  6. DNA hypomethylation and oxidative stress-mediated increase in genomic instability in equine sarcoid-derived fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocki, Leszek; Lewinska, Anna; Klukowska-Rötzler, Jolanta; Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika; Koch, Christoph; Mählmann, Kathrin; Janda, Josef; Wnuk, Maciej

    2012-09-01

    It is widely accepted that equine sarcoid disease, the most common skin associated neoplasm in equids, is induced by bovine papillomavirus (BPV-1). Although BPV-1 DNA has been found in almost all examined sarcoids so far, its detailed impact on the horse's host cell metabolism is largely unknown. We used equine fibroblast cell lines originating from sarcoid biopsies to study BPV-1-associated changes on DNA methylation status and oxidative stress parameters. Sarcoid-derived fibroblasts manifested increased proliferation in vitro, transcriptional rDNA activity (NORs expression) and DNA hypomethylation compared to control cells. Cells isolated from equine sarcoids suffered from oxidative stress: the expression of antioxidant enzymes was decreased and the superoxide production was increased. Moreover, increased ploidy, oxidative DNA damage and micronuclei formation was monitored in sarcoid cells. We postulate that both altered DNA methylation status and redox milieu may affect genomic stability in BPV-1-infected cells and in turn contribute to sarcoid pathology. PMID:22659572

  7. Potentiation of calcium-mediated stimulation of DNA synthesis by ethanol in human and mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilly, K S; Li, J; Anderson, W H; Kiss, Z

    1999-05-01

    Alcohol abuse is a risk factor for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, and it also can precipitate psoriasis characterized by hyperproliferation of epidermal cells. Because these effects of alcohol may involve stimulation of cell growth, and ethanol (EtOH) was shown to enhance DNA synthesis in mouse fibroblasts and epidermal cells, we conducted a study to determine whether EtOH can also stimulate mitogenesis in human fibroblasts and keratinocytes. In keratinocytes, EtOH had no effects on mitogenesis after shorter (17-hr) treatments, but it partially prevented inhibition of DNA synthesis elicited by longer treatments (3-4 days) with 2 mM calcium (Ca2+), a differentiation-inducing agent. In contrast, treatment of serum-starved zinc-treated (40 microM) human skin fibroblasts with 50-60 mM EtOH for 17 hr resulted in increased DNA synthesis. EtOH-induced DNA synthesis was blocked by 1 mM EGTA, a specific Ca2+ chelator. Despite the presence of 1.8 mM Ca2+ in the cell culture medium, the addition of 1 mM extra Ca2+ (final concentration, 2.8 mM) for 17 hr induced DNA synthesis, presumably mediated by Ca2+ receptors. In eight independent human skin fibroblast lines examined, treatment with EtOH for 46 hr, but not for 17 hr, invariably enhanced the effects of Ca2+ on DNA synthesis, consistent with synergistic stimulation of cell proliferation by EtOH and Ca2+. Neomycin, a Ca2+ receptor agonist, and EtOH also exerted synergistic effects on DNA synthesis after longer (46-hr) treatments. In mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, both EtOH- and Ca2+-enhanced DNA synthesis after 17-hr treatment, but they stimulated cell proliferation only in combination. The results indicate that in human fibroblasts, EtOH can potentiate the longer-term effects of high concentrations of Ca2+ on DNA synthesis whereas, in keratinocytes, EtOH may inhibit Ca2+-induced differentiation. PMID:10371396

  8. Oxidative Stress and Skin Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff, Anjali; Mamalis, Andrew; Jagdeo, Jared

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is defined as increased fibroblast proliferation and deposition of extracellular matrix components with potential clinical ramifications including organ dysfunction and failure. Fibrosis is a characteristic finding of various skin diseases which can have life-threatening consequences. These implications call for research into this topic as only a few treatments targeting fibrosis are available. In this review, we discuss oxidative stress and its role in skin fibrosis. Recent studies ...

  9. The Effects of Brazilian Green Propolis against Excessive Light-Induced Cell Damage in Retina and Fibroblast Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromi Murase; Masamitsu Shimazawa; Mamoru Kakino; Kenji Ichihara; Kazuhiro Tsuruma; Hideaki Hara

    2013-01-01

    Background. We investigated the effects of Brazilian green propolis and its constituents against white light- or UVA-induced cell damage in mouse retinal cone-cell line 661W or human skin-derived fibroblast cells (NB1-RGB). Methods. Cell damage was induced by 3,000lx white light for 24?h or 4/10?J/cm2 UVA exposure. Cell viability was assessed by Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide staining or by tetrazolium salt (WST-8) cell viability assay. The radical scavenging activity of propolis induc...

  10. Modulation of the UVA activation of haem oxygenase, collagenase and cyclooxygenase gene expression by epigallocatechin in human skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriani, M; Rice-Evans, C; Tyrrell, R M

    1998-11-20

    We have investigated the modifying effects of epigallocatechin, a major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, on ultraviolet-A-activated gene expression in human fibroblasts and keratinocytes using the stress responsive enzymes: haem oxygenase-1, interstitial collagenase and cyclooxygenase-2. Although epigallocatechin strongly reduced ultraviolet-A-induced haem oxygenase-1 activation in skin-derived 'fibroblasts, the same compound activated collagenase and cyclooxygenase expression. In a keratinocyte cell line, ultraviolet-A-mediated haem oxygenase-1 over-expression was low and epigallocatechin failed to modulate it further. In contrast to the results with fibroblasts, ultraviolet-A activation of cyclooxygenase in keratinocytes was reduced by epigallocatechin. The results indicate that the effect of this green tea polyphenol on cellular stress responses is complex and may involve direct effects on signal transduction as well as changes that may be associated with its antioxidant activity. PMID:9845332

  11. Physiological ER Stress Mediates the Differentiation of Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Hiratsuka, Toru; Taniguchi, Manabu; Shingaki, Kenta; Kubo, Tateki; Kiya, Koichiro; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Kanematsu, Ryutaro; Maeda, Tameyasu; Takamura, Hironori; Yamada, Kohe; Miyoshi, Ko; Hosokawa, Ko; Tohyama, Masaya; Katayama, Taiichi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, accumulating reports have suggested the importance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling in the differentiation of several tissues and cells, including myoblasts and osteoblasts. Secretory cells are easily subjected to ER stress during maturation of their secreted proteins. Skin fibroblasts produce and release several proteins, such as collagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and the production of these proteins is increased at wound sites. Differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is one of the key factors for wound healing and that TGF-? can induce fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts, which express ?-smooth muscle actin. Well-differentiated myofibroblasts show increased production of collagen and TGF-?, and bring about wound healing. In this study, we examined the effects of ER stress signaling on the differentiation of fibroblasts, which is required for wound healing, using constitutively ER stress-activated primary cultured fibroblasts. The cells expressed positive ?-smooth muscle actin signals without TGF-? stimulation compared with control fibroblasts. Gel-contraction assays suggested that ER stress-treated primary fibroblasts caused stronger shrinkage of collagen gels than control cells. These results suggest that ER stress signaling could accelerate the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts at injured sites. The present findings may provide important insights for developing therapies to improve wound healing. PMID:25928708

  12. Physiological ER Stress Mediates the Differentiation of Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Manabu; Shingaki, Kenta; Kubo, Tateki; Kiya, Koichiro; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Kanematsu, Ryutaro; Maeda, Tameyasu; Takamura, Hironori; Yamada, Kohe; Miyoshi, Ko; Hosokawa, Ko; Tohyama, Masaya; Katayama, Taiichi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, accumulating reports have suggested the importance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling in the differentiation of several tissues and cells, including myoblasts and osteoblasts. Secretory cells are easily subjected to ER stress during maturation of their secreted proteins. Skin fibroblasts produce and release several proteins, such as collagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and the production of these proteins is increased at wound sites. Differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is one of the key factors for wound healing and that TGF-? can induce fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts, which express ?-smooth muscle actin. Well-differentiated myofibroblasts show increased production of collagen and TGF-?, and bring about wound healing. In this study, we examined the effects of ER stress signaling on the differentiation of fibroblasts, which is required for wound healing, using constitutively ER stress-activated primary cultured fibroblasts. The cells expressed positive ?-smooth muscle actin signals without TGF-? stimulation compared with control fibroblasts. Gel-contraction assays suggested that ER stress-treated primary fibroblasts caused stronger shrinkage of collagen gels than control cells. These results suggest that ER stress signaling could accelerate the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts at injured sites. The present findings may provide important insights for developing therapies to improve wound healing. PMID:25928708

  13. The Effect of p38MAPK on Cyclic Stretch in Human Facial Hypertrophic Scar Fibroblast Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qi-cui; Zhang, Dai-zun; Chen, Xiu-juan; Lan-Sun, Gui; Wu, Min; Xiao, Wen-lin

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS), the excessive deposition of scar tissue by fibroblasts, is one of the most common skin disorders. Fibroblasts derived from surgical scar tissue produce high levels of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). However, the molecular mechanisms for this phenomenon is poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of HTS and their potential therapeutic implications. Fibroblasts derived from...

  14. Use of Postmortem Human Dura Mater and Scalp for Deriving Human Fibroblast Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Bliss, Lindsay A.; Sams, Malik R.; Deep-soboslay, Amy; Ren-patterson, Renee; Jaffe, Andrew E.; Chenoweth, Josh G.; Jaishankar, Amritha; Kleinman, Joel E.; Hyde, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblasts can be collected from deceased individuals, grown in culture, reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and then differentiated into a multitude of cell types, including neurons. Past studies have generated iPSCs from somatic cell biopsies from either animal or human subjects. Previously, fibroblasts have only been successfully cultured from postmortem human skin in two studies. Here we present data on fibroblast cell cultures generated from 146 scalp and/or 53 dur...

  15. Skin intervention of fullerene-integrated nanoemulsion in structural and collagen regeneration against skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Cheng Loong; Basri, Mahiran; Tripathy, Minaketan; Abedi Karjiban, Roghayeh; Abdul-Malek, Emilia

    2015-04-01

    Despite the fact that intrinsic oxidative stress is inevitable, the extrinsic factor such as ultraviolet radiation enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulting in premature skin aging. Nanoemulsion was loaded with fullerene, a strong free radical scavenger, and its efficacy to provide protection and regenerative effect against ROS-induced collagen breakdown in human skin was studied. Stable fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated using high shear homogenization and ultrasonic dispersion technique. An open trial was conducted using fullerene nanoemulsion on skin twice a day for 28 days. The mean collagen score significantly increased (Pskin revealed that skin hydration was increased significantly (P<0.05) from 40.91±7.01 to 58.55±6.08 corneometric units (43.12% increment) and the water was able to contain within the stratum corneum without any increased in transepidermal water loss. In the in vitro safety evaluation, fullerene nanoemulsion showed no acute toxicity on 3T3 fibroblast cell line for 48h and no indication of potential dermal irritation. Hence, the fullerene nanoemulsion may assist in protecting collagen from breakdown with cosmeceutical benefit. PMID:25619806

  16. Zeaxanthin inhibits PDGF-BB-induced migration in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan-Lin; Chiang, Yuh-Chiau; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Fang, Jia-You; Chen, Der-Fang; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2010-08-01

    Zeaxanthin is the dihydroxy carotenoid and is distributed in our daily foods. Various natural carotenoids, including zeaxanthin, have been shown to inhibit proliferation of several types of cancer cells, but available data on the effect of zeaxanthin on skin fibroblasts and melanoma cells are limited. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) functions as a chemotactic factor for dermal fibroblasts and plays an important role in the progression of melanoma. In this study, we investigated the effects of zeaxanthin on the migration of skin fibroblasts induced by PDGF-BB and melanoma cells. We demonstrated that zeaxanthin inhibited PDGF-BB-induced skin fibroblast migration on collagen and gelatin by a modified Boyden chamber system. The electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) method also showed similar inhibitory effects of zeaxanthin on the migration of fibroblasts. In functional studies, zeaxanthin decreased melanoma-induced fibroblast migration in a non-contact coculture system and also the migration stimulated by melanoma-derived conditioned medium. Further analysis showed that zeaxanthin attenuated PDGF-BB and melanoma-conditioned medium induced phosphorylation of PDGFR-beta and MAP kinase in a concentration-dependent manner in human skin fibroblasts. However, these effects did not result from direct interaction of zeaxanthin with PDGF-BB. Thus, our results provide the first evidence showing that zeaxanthin is an effective inhibitor of migration of stromal fibroblasts induced by PDGF-BB and melanoma cells and this effect may further support its antitumor potential. PMID:20482615

  17. Establishment and transformation diminish the ability of fibroblasts to contract a native collagen gel

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Cultures of established and transformed fibroblasts were less able to contract a hydrated collagen gel than normal precrisis cells. Postcrisis fibroblasts from different rodent strains and species underwent a further reduction in contraction ability and either spontaneous or simian virus 40 (SV40) transformation. Human precrisis fibroblasts contracted much more efficiently than two SV40-transformed human lines. Fibroblasts from a patient with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia were intermediate betwe...

  18. Multiple functions of gingival and mucoperiosteal fibroblasts in oral wound healing and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquet, Matthias; Katsaros, Christos; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblasts are cells of mesenchymal origin. They are responsible for the production of most extracellular matrix in connective tissues and are essential for wound healing and repair. In recent years, it has become clear that fibroblasts from different tissues have various distinct traits. Moreover, wounds in the oral cavity heal under very special environmental conditions compared with skin wounds. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the various interconnected functions of gingival and mucoperiosteal fibroblasts during the repair of oral wounds. The MEDLINE database was searched with the following terms: (gingival OR mucoperiosteal) AND fibroblast AND (wound healing OR repair). The data gathered were used to compare oral fibroblasts with fibroblasts from other tissues in terms of their regulation and function during wound healing. Specifically, we sought answers to the following questions: (i) what is the role of oral fibroblasts in the inflammatory response in acute wounds; (ii) how do growth factors control the function of oral fibroblasts during wound healing; (iii) how do oral fibroblasts produce, remodel and interact with extracellular matrix in healing wounds; (iv) how do oral fibroblasts respond to mechanical stress; and (v) how does aging affect the fetal-like responses and functions of oral fibroblasts? The current state of research indicates that oral fibroblasts possess unique characteristics and tightly controlled specific functions in wound healing and repair. This information is essential for developing new strategies to control the intraoral wound-healing processes of the individual patient. PMID:25867977

  19. Characterization of a new fibroblast cell line from a tail fin of red sea bream, Pagrus major, and phylogenetic relationships of a recent RSIV isolate in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajoh, Masayuki; Ikawa, Takuya; Oshima, Syun-Ichirou

    2007-06-01

    Red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) is a causative agent of red sea bream iridoviral disease (RSIVD) in marine fish species in Japan. Fibroblast cells were developed from a tail fin of red sea bream, Pagrus major, and then underwent single cell cloning. The successful cloned cells were named CRF-1 cells. Most CRF-1 cells had a normal diploid karyotype with 2n=48 by chromosomal analysis. RSIV-infected CRF-1 cells showed typical morphological changes that were associated with apoptosis by EGFP-annexin V staining. The serial viral passages were successful in CRF-1 cells but failed in BF-2 cells as judged by MTT assay. The expression of three genes obviously decreased in BF-2 cells compared with CRF-1 cells and finally was below detectable level. Because the expression of 591R gene showed the fastest decrease among three transcripts, the suppression of IE transcript may be responsible for the restricted replication in BF-2 cells. MCP and ATPase phylogenetic trees showed that RSIV strain U-1 belongs to a distinct group from RSIV strain ehime-1. Therefore, possibly recent epizootics of RSIVD in Japan do not originate directly from RSIV strain ehime-1. Taken together, this study confirmed that RSIV strain U-1 is more closely related to Korean RSIV isolates. PMID:17335926

  20. DNA repair in human fibroblasts, as reflected by host-cell reactivation of a transfected UV-irradiated luciferase gene, is not related to donor age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of donor age on the ability of mammalian cells to repair ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage has been studied using several approaches, most recently via assays that measure the host-cell reactivation (HCR) of UV-irradiated reporter gene-containing plasmid vectors following their transfection into cells. Plasmid HCR assays indirectly quantify a cell line's ability to perform nucleotide excision repair (NER) by measuring the enzyme activity of the repaired reporter gene, e.g., chloramphenical acetyltransferase (cat) or luciferase (luc), and are useful in studies investigating whether increasing age may be a risk factor for the deficient repair of potentially cancer-causing, sunlight-induced, DNA lesions in skin cells. In our study, we quantified the DNA repair ability of cultured, nontransformed, human skin fibroblast lines through their HCR of a transfected UV-C-irradiated plasmid containing luc. HCR was measured at various times after transfection in five lines from normal donors of ages 21-96 years, and from one donor who had xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The normal lines displayed increasing HCR at successive post-transfection time points and showed no significant correlation between HCR and donor age. The XP-A line, known to be markedly deficient in NER of UV-induced DNA damage, showed minimal evidence of HCR compared to the normal lines. To further assess potential variation in HCR with donor age, fibroblast lines from five old donors, ages 84-94 years, s from five old donors, ages 84-94 years, were compared with lines from five young donors, ages 17-26 years. While significant differences in HCR were found between some lines, no significant difference was found between the young and old age groups (P=0.44). Our study provides no indication that the higher incidence of skin cancer observed with increasing age is due to an age-related decrease in the ability to repair UV-induced DNA damage

  1. Loss of PPAR? expression by fibroblasts enhances dermal wound closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Wei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR? may be a key regulator of connective tissue deposition and remodeling in vivo. PPAR? expression is reduced in dermal fibroblasts isolated from fibrotic areas of scleroderma patients; PPAR? agonists suppress the persistent fibrotic phenotype of this cell type. Previously, we showed that loss of PPAR? expression in fibroblasts resulted in enhanced bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis. However, whether loss of PPAR? expression in skin fibroblasts affects cutaneous tissue repair or homeostasis is unknown. Results Mice deleted for PPAR? in skin fibroblasts show an enhanced rate of dermal wound closure, concomitant with elevated phosphorylation of Smad3, Akt and ERK, and increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, collagen, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA and CCN2. Conversely, dermal homeostasis was not appreciably affected by loss of PPAR? expression. Conclusion PPAR? expression by fibroblasts suppresses cutaneous tissue repair. In the future, direct PPAR? antagonists and agonists might be of clinical benefit in controlling chronic wounds or scarring, respectively.

  2. Photoprotective potential of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) extract against UV-A irradiation damage on human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè M; Tulipani, Sara; Gonzàles-Paramàs, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Bompadre, Stefano; Quiles, José L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to UV-A radiation is known to induce discrete lesions in DNA and the generation of free radicals that lead to a wide array of skin diseases. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) contains several polyphenols with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Because the major representative components of strawberry are anthocyanins, these may significantly contribute to its properties. To test this hypothesis, methanolic extracts from the Sveva cultivar were analyzed for anthocyanin content and for their ability to protect human dermal fibroblasts against UV-A radiation, as assayed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenytetrazolium bromide and Comet assays. Five anthocyanin pigments were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. Moreover, the strawberry extract showed a photoprotective activity in fibroblasts exposed to UV-A radiation, increasing cellular viability, and diminishing DNA damage, as compared to control cells. Overall, our data show that strawberry contains compounds that confer photoprotective activity in human cell lines and may protect skin against the adverse effects of UV-A radiation. PMID:22304566

  3. Differential activation of nuclear factor kappa B subunits in a skin dendritic cell line in response to the strong sensitizer 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, MT; Duarte, CB; Gonçalo, Margarida; Figueiredo, A.; Carvalho, AP; Lopes, MC

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is essential for the initiation of T-dependent immune responses. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) transcription factors are ubiquitously expressed signalling molecules, known to regulate the transcription of a large number of genes involved in immune responses, including cytokines and cell surface molecules. In this work, we studied the time-dependent activation of five members of the NF-kappaB family, p50, p52, p65, RelB and cRel, in a mouse skin DC line in r...

  4. Establishment and characterization of a fibroblast cell line derived from the dorsal fin of red sea bream, Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, C-C; Lu, C-H; Wang, C-S

    2010-03-01

    The establishment and partial characterization of a continuous cell line from the dorsal fin of red sea bream, Pagrus major, are described. The cell line, designated RSBF-2, has been subcultured for more than 100 passages since its initiation in November 2000. It was optimally maintained at 28 degrees C in Leibovitz L-15 medium with 10% foetal bovine serum. Propagation of RSBF-2 cells was serum dependent and exhibited low plating efficiency (Pagrus major. PMID:20102463

  5. Polypeptide structure of a human dermal fibroblast-activating factor (FAF) derived from the U937 cultured line of human monocyte-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six liter batches of 1 x 106 U937 cells/ml of serum-free RPMI medium were incubated with 100 ng/ml of phorbol myristate acetate for 48 hr at 370C in 5% CO2 in air to generate FAFs, as quantified by the stimulation of uptake of [3H]thymidine by quiescent human dermal fibroblasts. Filtration of the supernatants on Sephadex G-75 resolved two FAFs of approximately 40,000 and 10-13,000 daltons. The latter principle was purified to homogeneity by sequential Sephadex G-50 filtration, revealing an apparent m.w. of 7-8000, Mono-Q FPLC anion-exchange chromatography with a linear gradient from 20 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.3) to 0.5 M NaCl-20 mM Tris-HCl in 30 min, and two cycles of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a 300 A pore 10 ?m C4 column at 1 ml/min with 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water to 30:70 (v:v) and then to 60:40 (v:v) acetonitrile: 0.05% TFA linearly in 15 min and 30 min, respectively, The FAF activity eluted from HPLC in a sharp peak of O.D. 215 nm at 45% acetonitrile. Analyses of amino acid composition of the highly purified 7-8000 dalton FAF-U937 revealed 37% hydrophobic, 14% basic, and 21% acidic or amide residues, as well as one tryrosine and one methionine. This U937 cell-derived FAF appears to be a unique acidic polypeptide growth factor

  6. Fibroblast differentiation in subcutaneous fibrosis after postmastectomy radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, C; Johansen, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to acquire a better understanding of the mechanism of radiation-induced fibrosis, we studied the differentiation of normal skin fibroblasts cultured from breast cancer radiotherapy patients with different risk of fibrosis. The differentiation state of fibroblasts was characterized in clonal cultures using established cytomorphological criteria. Collagen synthesis was determined by 3H-proline incorporation into pepsin-resistant protein. Radiation-induced inactivation of fibroblasts was paralleled by an increase in terminally differentiated fibrocytes, demonstrating that premature terminal differentiation is an important response to irradiation of fibroblasts from radiotherapy patients. Surviving colony-forming fibroblasts showed a change in differentiation with an increase in the ratio L:E of progenitor fibroblasts in late (L) compared to early (E) differentiation states. Furthermore, increased collagen production was observed after irradiation. The results provide evidence supporting a role of terminal fibroblast differentiation in radiation-induced fibrosis and imply that the progenitor population surviving radiotherapy might be more prone to terminal differentiation than before radiotherapy.

  7. Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. ? ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. ? UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. ? SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-?, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.

  8. Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzone, Santina, E-mail: santina.bruzzone@unige.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Battaglia, Florinda [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Mannino, Elena [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Parodi, Alessia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Fruscione, Floriana [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Basile, Giovanna [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Salis, Annalisa; Sturla, Laura [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132 Genova (Italy); Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Negrini, Simone; Kalli, Francesca; Stringara, Silvia [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Filaci, Gilberto [Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova (Italy); Department of Internal Medicine, Viale Benedetto XV 6, 16132 Genova (Italy); and others

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-{beta}, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.

  9. Polycomponent mesotherapy formulations for the treatment of skin aging and improvement of skin quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhnenko S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sergey Prikhnenko Private Practice, Novosibirsk, Russia Abstract: Skin aging can largely be attributed to dermal fibroblast dysfunction and a decrease in their biosynthetic activity. Regardless of the underlying causes, aging fibroblasts begin to produce elements of the extracellular matrix in amounts that are insufficient to maintain the youthful appearance of skin. The goal of mesopreparations is primarily to slow down and correct changes in skin due to aging. The rationale for developing complex polycomponent mesopreparations is based on the principle that aging skin needs to be supplied with the various substrates that are key to the adequate functioning of the fibroblast. The quintessential example of a polycomponent formulation – NCTF® (New Cellular Treatment Factor – includes vitamins, minerals, amino acids, nucleotides, coenzymes and antioxidants, as well as hyaluronic acid, designed to help fibroblasts function more efficiently by providing a more optimal environment for biochemical processes and energy generation, as well as resisting the effects of oxidative stress. In vitro experiments suggest that there is a significant increase in the synthetic and prophylactic activity of fibroblasts with treated NCTF, and a significant increase in the ability of cells to resist oxidative stress. The current article looks at the rationale behind the development of polycomponent mesopreparations, using NCTF as an example. Keywords: mesotherapy, skin aging, skin quality

  10. Derivation and Characterization of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Equine Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Amandine; Sharma, Ruchi; Diaz, Andrea Catalina; Parham, Alea Gillian; Graham, Audrey; Neil, Claire; Whitelaw, Christopher Bruce; Milne, Elspeth

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells offer unprecedented potential not only for human medicine but also for veterinary medicine, particularly in relation to the horse. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are particularly promising, as they are functionally similar to embryonic stem cells and can be generated in vitro in a patient-specific manner. In this study, we report the generation of equine iPSCs from skin fibroblasts obtained from a foal and reprogrammed using viral vectors coding for murine Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 sequences. The reprogrammed cell lines were morphologically similar to iPSCs reported from other species and could be stably maintained over more than 30 passages. Immunostaining and polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that these cell lines expressed an array of endogenous markers associated with pluripotency, including OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, REX1, LIN28, SSEA1, SSEA4, and TRA1-60. Furthermore, under the appropriate conditions, the equine iPSCs readily formed embryoid bodies and differentiated in vitro into cells expressing markers of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm, and when injected into immunodeficient mice, gave raise to tumors containing differentiated derivatives of the 3 germ layers. Finally, we also reprogrammed fibroblasts from a 2-year-old horse. The reprogrammed cells were similar to iPSCs derived from neonatal fibroblasts in terms of morphology, expression of pluripotency markers, and differentiation ability. The generation of these novel cell lines constitutes an important step toward the understanding of pluripotency in the horse, and paves the way for iPSC technology to potentially become a powerful research and clinical tool in veterinary biomedicine. PMID:22897112

  11. Lumpy skin disease: attempted propagation in tick cell lines and presence of viral DNA in field ticks collected from naturally-infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, E S M; Venter, E H; Coetzer, J A W; Bell-Sakyi, L

    2015-03-01

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is of substantial economic importance for the cattle industry in Africa and the Near and Middle East. Several insect species are thought to transmit the disease mechanically. Recent transmission studies have demonstrated the first evidence for a role of hard (ixodid) ticks as vectors of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). The aim of this study was to attempt in vitro growth of the virus in Rhipicephalus spp. tick cell lines and investigate in vivo the presence of the virus in ticks collected from cattle during LSD outbreaks in Egypt and South Africa. No evidence was obtained for replication of LSDV in tick cell lines although the virus was remarkably stable, remaining viable for 35 days at 28°C in tick cell cultures, in growth medium used for tick cells and in phosphate buffered saline. Viral DNA was detected in two-thirds of the 56 field ticks, making this the first report of the presence of potentially virulent LSDV in ticks collected from naturally infected animals. PMID:25468765

  12. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... moles to develop into melanoma, a type of skin cancer. Because of this, you should have a health care professional check your moles if they look ...

  13. Inducible responses to DNA damage in the mouse embryo fibroblasts cell line C3H/10T1/2 and its transformed counterpart C3H/MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early passage mouse embryo fibroblasts cells (C3H/10T1/2) were treated with ultraviolet (UV) radiation of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in order to determine whether such treatment induced DNA repair processes, measured as increased survival and mutagenesis of Herpes simplex (HSV-1). No enhanced host cell reactivation of UV-irradiated virus was observed following treatment of cells with UV-irradiation or TPA. Replication of undamaged virus in untreated C3H cells resulted in an increase over the background mutation frequency. When the cells were UV-irradiated and infected with unirradiated virus, a decrease in mutagenesis was observed. Decreased untargeted mutagenesis was shown to be dose- and time-dependent, reaching a minimum at a fluence of 5-7 Jm/sup /minus/2/ for 24 hours between irradiation and infection of cells. There was no change in mutagenesis of UV-irradiated virus grown in UV-irradiated cells compared to untreated cells. The repair capacity of methylcholanthrene-transformed C3H cells (MCA cells) was compared with untransformed C3H cells. The cell lines demonstrated similar cell survival curves following UV-irradiation but differed markedly in their ability to repair damaged HSV-1

  14. Chronic actinic damage of facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilaç, Cemal; ?ahin, Mustafa Turhan; Öztürkcan, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Chronic actinic damage of the skin manifests itself as extrinsic skin aging (photoaging) and photocarcinogenesis. During the last decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of photoaging. DNA photodamage and ultraviolet-generated reactive oxygen species are the initial events that lead to most of the typical histologic and clinical manifestations of chronic photodamage of the skin. Chronic actinic damage affects all layers of the skin. Keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells are altered by ultraviolet radiation and can result in numerous changes in human skin, particularly the skin of fair-skinned individuals. These changes include actinic keratosis, thickening and wrinkling, elastosis, telengiectasia, solar comedones, diffuse or mottled hyperpigmentation, and skin cancers. There are many options in the treatment of changes caused by chronic actinic damage. The most effective measure of prevention of the photoaging and photocarcinogenesis is sun protection. PMID:25441468

  15. Induction of chromosomal aberrations in human primary fibroblasts and immortalized cancer cells exposed to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidly increasing possibilities of exposure to environmental extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields have become a topic of worldwide investigation. Epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields may increase cancer risk therefore assessment of chromosomal damage in various cell lines might be of predictive value for future risk estimation. Materials and Methods: Primary cultures of fibroblasts from human skin biopsy were exposed to continuous extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (3, 50 and 60 Hz, sinusoidal, 3h, and 4 m T). Also immortalized cell lines, SW480, MCF-7 and 1321N1 were exposed to continuous extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (50 Hz, sinusoidal, 3 h, 4 m T). Metaphase plates Were prepared according to standard methods and stained in 5% Giemsa solution. Chromosomal aberrations of both chromosome and chromatid types were scored to evaluate the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on primary or established cell lines. Results: Results indicate that by increasing the frequency of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields, chromosomal aberrations were increased up to 7-fold above background levels in primary human fibroblast cells. In addition, continuous exposure to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field led to a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations in SW480, MCF-7 and 1321N1 cell lines compared to sham control. Conclusion: Results obtaine sham control. Conclusion: Results obtained indicate that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields has the potential for induction of chromosomal aberrations in all cell types.

  16. Recombinant human epidermal growth factor accelerates the proliferation of irradiated human fibroblasts and keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation causes the impaired proliferation of cells lining mucosal membranes. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) facilitates proliferation of various skin cells; however, the wound healing effects of EGF on radiation-damaged cells is less well known. To evaluate the effects of recombinant human EGF (rhEGF) on the proliferation of cells following irradiation, we tested two types of fibroblast cell lines and one keratinocyte cell line. The viable cell numbers were significantly increased by rhEGF treatment for 24 h immediately after 8 Gy of irradiation. The most effective dose of rhEGF was 10 nM in all cell lines used in this study. The percentage of BrdU-labeled cells was also significantly increased by rhEGF treatment. To evaluate the effects of rhEGF on radiation-induced oral mucosal damage in BALB/c mice, we systematically injected 1 mg/kg/day EGF for three days after 17 Gy of irradiation. Administered rhEGF ameliorated radiation-induced mucosal damage in vivo. rhEGF significantly increased the epithelial cell layer thickness and the proliferation of basal layer cells as detected by Ki-67 staining. Our results suggest that rhEGF can be a therapeutic treatment for radiation-induced wounds by stimulating the proliferation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes following irradiation. (author)

  17. Immortalization of Werner syndrome and progeria fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human fibroblast cells from two different progeroid syndromes, Werner syndrome (WS) and progeria, were established as immortalized cell lines by transfection with plasmid DNA containing the SV40 early region. The lineage of each immortalized cell line was confirmed by VNTR analysis. Each of the immortalized cell lines maintained its original phenotype of slow growth. DNA repair ability of these cells was also studied by measuring sensitivity to killing by uv or the DNA-damaging drugs methyl methansulfonate, bleomycin, and cis-dichlorodiamine platinum. The results showed that both WS and progeria cells have normal sensitivity to these agents

  18. Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  19. Microarray Analysis of Host Cell Gene Transcription in Response to Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection of Human T Cells and Fibroblasts In Vitro and SCIDhu Skin Xenografts In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Jeremy O.; ARVIN, ANN M.

    2003-01-01

    During primary infection, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is spread via lymphocytes to skin, where it induces a rash and establishes latency in sensory ganglia. A live, attenuated varicella vaccine (vOka) was generated by using the VZV Oka strain (pOka), but the molecular basis for vOka attenuation remains unknown. Little is known concerning the effects of wild-type or attenuated VZV on cellular gene regulation in the host cells that are critical for pathogenesis. In this study, transcriptional ...

  20. How to Approach Finnish Retail Market when Launching a New Skin Care Line: a Case Study of Créations Couleurs

    OpenAIRE

    Nordenswan, Katarina; Huttunen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The cosmetics industry is one of the biggest lines of businesses in the world. In Finland people spend thousands of Euros per year on cosmetic and hygiene products. Everything changes constantly and this has reflected to the cosmetics industry as well as consumers. People increasingly desire several options to choose from and want quick results. The topic for this thesis came from a French cosmetic company Créations Couleurs which develops and manufactures raw materials for different cos...

  1. LINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S L

    1991-12-01

    LINEs are ubiquitous transposable elements of eukaryotes. Significant information has accumulated in the past year concerning the mechanism of transposition and the intermediates involved. In addition, progress has been made in the understanding of LINE structure and evolution, and several laboratories have exploited the interspersed, repetitive nature of LINEs for use in genome mapping. PMID:1726579

  2. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during the middle of the day, ... skin. Sunburns and suntans are signs that your skin has been damaged. The more damage the sun does to your skin, the more likely you ...

  3. Polycomponent mesotherapy formulations for the treatment of skin aging and improvement of skin quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikhnenko, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Skin aging can largely be attributed to dermal fibroblast dysfunction and a decrease in their biosynthetic activity. Regardless of the underlying causes, aging fibroblasts begin to produce elements of the extracellular matrix in amounts that are insufficient to maintain the youthful appearance of skin. The goal of mesopreparations is primarily to slow down and correct changes in skin due to aging. The rationale for developing complex polycomponent mesopreparations is based on the principle that aging skin needs to be supplied with the various substrates that are key to the adequate functioning of the fibroblast. The quintessential example of a polycomponent formulation – NCTF® (New Cellular Treatment Factor) – includes vitamins, minerals, amino acids, nucleotides, coenzymes and antioxidants, as well as hyaluronic acid, designed to help fibroblasts function more efficiently by providing a more optimal environment for biochemical processes and energy generation, as well as resisting the effects of oxidative stress. In vitro experiments suggest that there is a significant increase in the synthetic and prophylactic activity of fibroblasts with treated NCTF, and a significant increase in the ability of cells to resist oxidative stress. The current article looks at the rationale behind the development of polycomponent mesopreparations, using NCTF as an example. PMID:25897252

  4. Biosynthesis of collagen by fibroblasts kept in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sinthesis of collagen is studied in fibroblasts of different origins with the purpose of obtaining an appropriate system for the study of its biosynthesis and processing. The percentage of collagen synthesis vary according to the fibroblast origin. Experiences are performed with fibroblasts kept in culture from: chicken - and guinea pig embryos, carragheenin - induced granulomas in adult guinea pig and from human skin. The collagen pattern synthesized after acetic acid - or saline extractions in the presence of inhibitors is also determined. This pattern is then assayed by poliacrilamide - 5% - SDS gel electrophoresis accompanied by fluorography. The importance of the cell culture system in the elucidation of collagen biosynthesis is pointed out. (M.A.)

  5. Detect Skin Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Hike!™ Melanoma Monday® Learn about skin cancer Types of skin cancer Prevent skin cancer Detect skin ... public Community programs & events Learn about skin cancer Types of skin cancer Prevent skin cancer Detect skin ...

  6. Artificial skin

    OpenAIRE

    Lommen, Etienne Joseph Carolus Martinus Petrus

    1988-01-01

    The skin provides a protective barrier between the living organism and its environment. When the skin is lost or damaged, the individual is threatened by dehydration and infection through the open wound surface. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the requirements of a skin substitute and to design and test such an ''artifical skin'' in vitro and in the primary surgical treatment of various skin defects. ... Summary and conclusions

  7. Development and evaluation of a skin organ model for the analysis of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: the reaction of tissues to ionizing radiation involves alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions mediated by cellular adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an artificial skin organ model for the analysis of radiation effects. Material and methods: a human co-culture system consisting of the spontaneously immortalized keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and primary HDFa fibroblasts embedded into a collagen sponge was established. This skin organ model has been characterized and evaluated for its suitability for radiobiological investigations. For that purpose, expression of ?1-integrin following irradiation was compared in the skin organ model and in HaCaT monolayer cells (FACScan and immunohistochemistry). Furthermore, the influence of ionizing radiation on DNA fragmentation was investigated in the skin organ model (TUNEL assay). Results: the novel skin organ model showed characteristics of human skin as demonstrated by cytokeratin and Ki-67 immunoreactivity and by electron microscopy. A single dose of 5 Gy X-irradiation induced an upregulation of ?1-integrin expression both in the skin organ model and in HaCaT cells. Following irradiation, ?1-integrin immunoreactivity was intensified in the upper layers of the epidermis equivalent whereas it was almost absent in the deeper layers. Additionally, irradiation of the skin organ model also caused a marked increase of DNA fragmo caused a marked increase of DNA fragmentation. Conclusion: these results demonstrate that the novel skin organ model is suitable to investigate cellular radiation effects under three-dimensional conditions. This allows to investigate radiation effects which cannot be demonstrated in monolayer cell cultures. (orig.)

  8. Repair of DNA strand breaks in progeric fibroblasts and aging human diploid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of rejoining of DNA strand breaks induced by 10 krad of ?-irradiation has been studied in normal human diploid skin fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts from six patients with symptoms of progeria. Although slightly more rapid in very early passage, the repair rate in normal cells was similar throughout most of their life span in vitro. The appearance of cells with reduced repair capacity was evident as the cultures became senescent. The progeric fibroblasts varied greatly in their response to irradiation. The rate of repair was greatly reduced in two strains, whereas in two others extensive DNA degradation was consistently observed in unirradiated cells. Degradation was apparently related to the radiation received from the incorporated radiolabel. Normal repair was seen in progeric fibroblasts transformed by SV40 virus

  9. Differential gene expression associated with tumorigenicity of cultured green turtle fibropapilloma-derived fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, L H; Chakrabarti, R; Klein, P A; Achary, M

    2001-08-01

    Fibroblast cell lines derived from normal skin and experimentally induced fibropapillomas of green turtles (Chelonia mydas), were propagated in vitro and tested for tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice. Differential display RT-PCR was used to identify differences in messenger RNA expression between normal and tumorigenic fibropapillomatosis (FP)-derived fibroblasts from the same individual. Four unique products that were apparently overexpresed in FP and three that were apparently underexpressed were cloned and sequenced. Differential expression was confirmed for three products by Northern blotting. Two overexpressed products showed extensive sequence matches to the known mammalian cellular genes, beta-hexosaminidase and chain termination factor. The product that was underexpressed in FP showed homology with mammalian thrombospondin, a known tumor-suppressor gene and an inhibitor of angiogenesis. All of the partial gene sequences identified are novel and will require full length cDNA sequencing to further analyze their identities. These results, however, provide the foundation for further investigation to determine the role of each of these gene products in FP pathogenesis and cellular transformation. The potential for some of these products to serve as biomarkers for FP is discussed. PMID:11520563

  10. Fibroblasts From Longer-Lived Species of Primates, Rodents, Bats, Carnivores, and Birds Resist Protein Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Andrew M; Lehr, Marcus; Kohler, William J; Han, Melissa L; Miller, Richard A

    2015-07-01

    Species differ greatly in their rates of aging. Among mammalian species life span ranges from 2 to over 60 years. Here, we test the hypothesis that skin-derived fibroblasts from long-lived species of animals differ from those of short-lived animals in their defenses against protein damage. In parallel studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, birds, and species from the Laurasiatheria superorder (bats, carnivores, shrews, and ungulates), we find associations between species longevity and resistance of proteins to oxidative stress after exposure to H2O2 or paraquat. In addition, baseline levels of protein carbonyl appear to be higher in cells from shorter-lived mammals compared with longer-lived mammals. Thus, resistance to protein oxidation is associated with species maximal life span in independent clades of mammals, suggesting that this cellular property may be required for evolution of longevity. Evaluation of the properties of primary fibroblast cell lines can provide insights into the factors that regulate the pace of aging across species of mammals. PMID:25070662

  11. Gene expression changes induced by skin sensitizers in the KeratinoSens™ cell line: Discriminating Nrf2-dependent and Nrf2-independent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emter, Roger; van der Veen, Jochem W; Adamson, Greg; Ezendam, Janine; van Loveren, Henk; Natsch, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    The KeratinoSens™ assay is an in vitro screen for the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. It is based on a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the antioxidant response element of the aldoketoreductase gene AKR1C2. The transferability, reproducibility, and predictivity of the KeratinoSens™ assay have been investigated in detail and it is currently under assessment at the European Center for Validation of Alternatives to animal testing (ECVAM). Here we investigate the sensitizer-induced gene expression in the KeratinoSens™ cell line at the mRNA level and discriminate Nrf2-dependent and Nrf2-independent events by using siRNA to better characterize this test system at the molecular level. The results show that (i) the sensitizer-induced luciferase signal in KeratinoSens™ cells is completely dependent on Nrf2. The same holds true for the luciferase induction observed for the false positive chemical Tween80, indicating that the false positive result is not due to recruitment of an alternative transcription factor. (ii) Luciferase induction parallels the induction of endogenous Nrf2-dependent genes, indicating that the luciferase signal is representative for the sensitizer-induced Nrf2-response. (iii) The induction by sensitizers of additional genetic markers related to heat shock proteins and cellular stress could be reproduced in the KeratinoSens™ cell line and they were shown to be Nrf2-independent. These results confirm that the KeratinoSens™ cell line is a rapid and adequate screening tool to assess the sensitizer-induced Nrf2-response in keratinocytes. PMID:24055896

  12. Cell survival and DNA damage in fibroblasts following irradiation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vitro radiosensitivity of fibroblasts derived from patients undergoing radiotherapy has been investigated by a number of groups for possible prediction of normal tissue effects. Some studies have suggested a weak correlation between radiosensitivity and late normal tissue effects, such as fibrosis, but others have not. One possible reason may be that radiosensitivity in vivo is not always reflected by radiosensitivity in vitro. We are investigating whether heterogeneity in the normal tissue response of individual soft tissue sarcoma patients receiving pre-operative radiotherapy can be assessed by determining the number of micronuclei (DNA damage) in fibroblasts obtained and assayed directly from their skin after irradiation. The micronuclei are counted in binucleate cells in primary cultures of the fibroblasts at 72 hrs after treatment with cytochalasin B. This endpoint is dose responsive and in rats we have demonstrated that the presence of micronuclei can be detected months after irradiation. The assay can thus provide data for fibroblasts irradiated with fractionated doses in situ in tissue or for fibroblasts irradiated in vitro following outgrowth from the tissue. We have demonstrated that fibroblasts obtained directly from irradiated skin at surgery (approx 5-6 weeks after the end of radiotherapy) from a small number of soft tissue sarcoma patients given nominally similar preoperative irradiation (50Gy in 20 fractions to the tumor) show significant variabions to the tumor) show significant variability in response. Estimates of radiation dose to the skin have suggested that much of this variability may be dose related but further studies are underway with skin samples from regions given carefully measured doses. Comparisons with micronucleus formation for fibroblasts from the same patient irradiated in vitro are also underway. Our results demonstrate that DNA damage in fibroblasts in irradiated tissue can be assessed directly ex vivo and that DNA damage can be detected at 1-2 months after irradiation

  13. Stiffness-Modulated Water Retention and Neovascularization of Dermal Fibroblast-Encapsulating Collagen Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jae Hyun; Liang, Youyun; Jang, Michelle; Cha, Chaenyung; Chu, Cathy; Lee, Haekwang; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jin Woong; Boppart, Stephen. A.; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that matrix stiffness modulates various phenotypic activities of cells surrounded by a three-dimensional (3D) matrix. These findings suggest that matrix stiffness can also regulate dermal fibroblasts activities to remodel, repair, and recreate skin dermis, but this has not yet been systematically demonstrated to date. This study examines the effects of matrix rigidity on the morphology, growth rates, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production of dermal fibroblasts cul...

  14. Evaluation of cytotoxic activities of snake venoms toward breast (MCF-7) and skin cancer (A-375) cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Michael J; Saviola, Anthony J; Fesler, Elizabeth; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2014-11-19

    Snake venoms are mixtures of bioactive proteins and peptides that exhibit diverse biochemical activities. This wide array of pharmacologies associated with snake venoms has made them attractive sources for research into potentially novel therapeutics, and several venom-derived drugs are now in use. In the current study we performed a broad screen of a variety of venoms (61 taxa) from the major venomous snake families (Viperidae, Elapidae and "Colubridae") in order to examine cytotoxic effects toward MCF-7 breast cancer cells and A-375 melanoma cells. MTT cell viability assays of cancer cells incubated with crude venoms revealed that most venoms showed significant cytotoxicity. We further investigated venom from the Red-bellied Blacksnake (Pseudechis porphyriacus); venom was fractionated by ion exchange fast protein liquid chromatography and several cytotoxic components were isolated. SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used to identify the compounds in this venom responsible for the cytotoxic effects. In general, viper venoms were potently cytotoxic, with MCF-7 cells showing greater sensitivity, while elapid and colubrid venoms were much less toxic; notable exceptions included the elapid genera Micrurus, Naja and Pseudechis, which were quite cytotoxic to both cell lines. However, venoms with the most potent cytotoxicity were often not those with low mouse LD50s, including some dangerously venomous viperids and Australian elapids. This study confirmed that many venoms contain cytotoxic compounds, including catalytic PLA2s, and several venoms also showed significant differential toxicity toward the two cancer cell lines. Our results indicate that several previously uncharacterized venoms could contain promising lead compounds for drug development. PMID:25407733

  15. Accumulation of Cholesterol Esters in ex vivo Lymphocytes from Scrapie-susceptible Sheep and in Scrapie-infected Mouse Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Pani; Claudia Norfo; Claudia Abete; Claudia Mulas; Marirosa Putzolu; Sergio Laconi; Christina Doriana Orrù; Dolores Cannas, M.; Sarah Vascellari; Paolo La Colla; Sandra Dessì

    2007-01-01

    Our studies on the role of cholesterol homeostasis in the pathogenesis of scrapie in sheep, revealed abnormal accumulation of cholesterol esters in brains and in ex vivo skin fibroblasts from genetically scrapie-susceptible, as compared to sheep with resistant genotype. We now report that PBMCs isolated from scrapie-susceptible sheep, as well as mouse neuroblastoma cell lines persistently infected with two different mouse-adapted strains of scrapie, showed similar alterations with up to 3-fol...

  16. Light Microscopic, Electron Microscopic, and Immunohistochemical Comparison of Bama Minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) and Human Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Jun-ying; Shang, Hai-tao; Liu, Chang-e; Wang, Yong; Niu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Wei, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Here we sought to evaluate the possibility of using Chinese Bama miniature pig skin as a suitable animal model for human skin. Morphologic features of the skin of Bama miniature pigs resemble those of human skin, including skin layer thickness, development of a superficial vascular system, structure of the dermal–epidermal interface, and extracellular matrix. The characteristics and densities of Langerhans cells, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and mast cells were similar between B...

  17. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E.; Warram, Jason M.; Knowles, Joseph A.; Sweeny, Larrisa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were co-cultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into SCID mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Co-culture experiments demonstrated fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN silenced cells compared to control vector transfected cells, while inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast co-culture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed EMMPRIN silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared to control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast independent tumor growth. PMID:21665938

  18. Age-related skin changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božani? Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related skin changes can be induced by chronological ageing, manifested in subcutaneous fat reduction, and photo-ageing eliciting increased elastotic substance in the upper dermis, destruction of its fibrilar structure, augmented intercellular substance and moderate inflammatory infiltrate. Forty-five biopsy skin samples of the sun-exposed and sun-protected skin were analyzed. The patients were both males and females, aged from 17 to 81 years. The thickness of the epidermal layers and the number of cellular living layers is greater in younger skin. The amount of keratohyaline granules is enlarged in older skin. Dermoepidermal junction is flattened and the presence of elastotic material in the dermis is pronounced with age. The amount of inflammatory infiltrate is increased, the fibrous trabeculae are thickened in older skin and the atrophy of the hypodermis is observed. Chronological ageing alters the fibroblasts metabolism by reducing their life span, capacity to divide and produce collagen. During ageing, the enlargement of collagen fibrils diminishes the skin elasticity.

  19. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  20. Skin Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... Use mild soap with moisturizer and apply skin cream after bathing. Diabetes-Related Skin Conditions Acanthosis Nigricans ...

  1. The effects of strontium chloride on viability of mouse connective tissue fibroblast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Özge Kaya; Sedat Özçelik; Zübeyde Ak?n Polat; Melih Akyol

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aim. Strontium salts are effective and selective anti-irritants for chemically induced sensory irritation associated with stinging, burning, or itching. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxic and/or proliferative effects of strontium chloride on fibroblast cell culture. Method. A mouse connective tissue fibroblast cell line, L929 (ATCC cell line, NCTC clone 929) was cultured. Fibroblast cell lines were examined with 20%, 10%, 5%, 2.5%, 1.25%, 0.6%, and 0.3% (w/v)...

  2. Skin manifestations in a case of trisomy 16 mosaicism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Brandrup, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    We present a 48-year-old man with unilateral dermatological manifestations including hypertrichosis, telangiectasia, hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation. Additional findings included skeletal abnormalities and left-sided hearing loss. Skin biopsies showed changes characteristic of porokeratosis. Fibroblast karyotyping from affected skin demonstrated trisomy 16 mosaicism, in contrast to the normal karyotype in unaffected skin and blood lymphocytes. The possible role of trisomy 16 in porokeratosis is discussed.

  3. Evaluation of the Behaviour of Wrinkles Fibroblasts and Normal Aged Fibroblasts in the Presence of Poly-L-Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Tauzin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wrinkles are characterized by changes in the organization and structure of the dermis. Human wrinkle fibroblasts (WF have a different functional behaviour in comparison with normal-aged fibroblasts (NF. Decreases in migration capacities and collagen I synthesis are observed. Mitochondrial function is impaired with an increase in lactate production during aging. Sculptra® (poly-L-lactic acid: PLLA, a biodegradable synthetic polymer, is used for subcutaneous volume restoration. Thus we decided to investigate different fibroblast functions when placed in contact with PLLA. Objectives: The potential of PLLA to compensate for the reduction of metabolic activity, to restore the migration capacity of WF and to inhibit the lactate production, was investigated and compared to NF. Methods: Two different skin samples were used from each of the three women’s facelift (one inside a face wrinkle and one from normal aged skin. Collagen I, lactate productions and proliferation capacities were investigated on monolayer cultures. Migration properties were evaluated using three-dimensional collagen lattices. Results: PLLA increased collagen I synthesis, restored migration capacities and tended to decrease lactate production in WF, whereas PPLA stimulated proliferation in NF and tended to improve the migration of NF. Conclusion: These results suggested that PLLA from Sculptra® acted as a stimulus for collagen production in WF and that it is suitable for correcting skin depressions, such as wrinkles.

  4. Accelerated telomere shortening and replicative senescence in human fibroblasts overexpressing mutant and wild-type lamin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LMNA mutations are responsible for a variety of genetic disorders, including muscular dystrophy, lipodystrophy, and certain progeroid syndromes, notably Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria. Although a number of clinical features of these disorders are suggestive of accelerated aging, it is not known whether cells derived from these patients exhibit cellular phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. We examined a series of isogenic skin fibroblast lines transfected with LMNA constructs bearing known pathogenic point mutations or deletion mutations found in progeroid syndromes. Fibroblasts overexpressing mutant lamin A exhibited accelerated rates of loss of telomeres and shortened replicative lifespans, in addition to abnormal nuclear morphology. To our surprise, these abnormalities were also observed in lines overexpressing wild-type lamin A. Copy number variants are common in human populations; those involving LMNA, whether arising meiotically or mitotically, might lead to progeroid phenotypes. In an initial pilot study of 23 progeroid cases without detectable WRN or LMNA mutations, however, no cases of altered LMNA copy number were detected. Nevertheless, our findings raise a hypothesis that changes in lamina organization may cause accelerated telomere attrition, with different kinetics for overexpession of wild-type and mutant lamin A, which leads to rapid replicative senescence and progroid phenotypes

  5. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of skin infections are Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies Treatment of skin infections depends on the cause.

  6. Gene targeting in adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene targeting in nonhuman primates has the potential to produce critical animal models for translational studies related to human diseases. Successful gene targeting in fibroblasts followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been achieved in several species of large mammals but not yet in primates. Our goal was to establish the protocols necessary to achieve gene targeting in primary culture of adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts as a first step in creating nonhuman primate models of genetic disease using nuclear transfer technology. Results A primary culture of adult male fibroblasts was transfected with hTERT to overcome senescence and allow long term in vitro manipulations. Successful gene targeting of the HPRT locus in rhesus macaques was achieved by electroporating S-phase synchronized cells with a construct containing a SV40 enhancer. Conclusion The cell lines reported here could be used for the production of null mutant rhesus macaque models of human genetic disease using SCNT technology. In addition, given the close evolutionary relationship and biological similarity between rhesus macaques and humans, the protocols described here may prove useful in the genetic engineering of human somatic cells.

  7. Induction of MMP-9 release from human dermal fibroblasts by thrombin: involvement of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway in MMP-9 release

    OpenAIRE

    He Shaoheng; Luo Jianmin; Wang Li

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been recognized that dermal fibroblasts and matrix metalloproteases (MMP) play crucial roles in wound healing process in skin. Thrombin was found to stimulate IL-8 release from human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). However, little is known of the effect of thrombin on secretion of MMPs from dermal fibroblasts. In the present study, the influence of thrombin on proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity release from primary cultured HDFs, and its potential signaling pathways were inv...

  8. Gold Nanoparticles effect on Human Dermal Fibroblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironava, Tatsiana; Pernodet, Nadine; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2009-03-01

    Recently many researchers brought to the light the fact that due to high surface/bulk ratio nanoparticles can penetrate unusually deep human organs and case health problems. Gold nanoparticles are widely used nowadays, however, their effects on cells are still under investigation. Here, we studied the effect of inert citrate/gold nanoparticles as a function of size (13 nm and 45 nm), concentration and time exposure (from 1 to 6 days) on human dermal fibroblasts, since skin is one of the major routs to exposure to nanoparticles. We measured apoptosis rate as a function of nanoparticles size, time exposure and concentration. We found that the presence of 45-nm gold particles had more severe effects on these cells when compared to 13-nm nanoparticles, as the nanoparticles entry use 2 different pathways. In addition the question of cells recovery as a function of time exposure and concentration was investigated.

  9. The effect of chronological age on the inflammatory response of human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Juliane; Weinberger, Birgit; Arnold, Christoph R.; Maier, Andrea B.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2012-01-01

    The immune system undergoes profound age-related changes, including a gradual increase in the production and circulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Despite the known capacity of fibroblasts to produce cytokines, little is known so far about the inflammatory response of fibroblasts to cellular stress such as viral and/or bacterial infection in the context of aging. Therefore the aim of this study was to analyze the levels of IL6 and IL8 secretion in supernatants of human skin fibroblasts from young and elderly persons. Cytokine and chemokine secretion was analyzed before and after in vitro infection of the cells with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and/or stimulation with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The exposure of fibroblasts to these agents caused inflammatory changes, reflected by the secretion of both the cytokine IL6 and the chemokine IL8 by fibroblasts from young as well as elderly persons. The cytokine/chemokine production induced by either agent alone could be further increased by co-stimulation of the cells with both stimuli. The level of protein secretion was dependent on the chronological age of the fibroblasts. Stimulated human skin fibroblasts from elderly donors produced higher amounts of IL6 as well as IL8 than fibroblasts from young donors. These differences were more pronounced for IL6 than for IL8. The inflammatory response of fibroblasts to stimulation differed among donors and did not correspond to the responsiveness of whole blood derived from the same person. In summary lifelong CMV-infection may act as an in vivo trigger for inflammatory changes by increasing the inflammatory response to bacterial products such as LPS. It may thus contribute to age-related inflammatory processes, referred to as ‘inflamm-aging’. PMID:22790019

  10. The role of cytokines in skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M; Brincat, S; Camilleri, G; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Brincat, M; Calleja-Agius, J

    2013-10-01

    Cutaneous aging is one of the major noticeable menopausal complications that most women want to fight in their quest for an eternally youthful skin appearance. It may contribute to some maladies that occur in aging which, despite not being life-threatening, affect the well-being, psychological state and quality of life of aged women. Skin aging is mainly affected by three factors: chronological aging, decreased levels of estrogen after menopause, and environmental factors. Aged skin is characterized by a decrease in collagen content and skin thickness which result in dry, wrinkled skin that is easily bruised and takes a longer time to heal. Cytokines play a crucial role in the manifestation of these features of old skin. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits collagen synthesis and enhances collagen degradation by increasing the production of MMP-9. It also lowers the skin immunity and thus increases the risk of cutaneous infections in old age. Deranged levels of several interleukins and interferons also affect the aging process. The high level of CCN1 protein in aged skin gives dermal fibroblasts an 'age-associated secretory phenotype' that causes abnormal homeostasis of skin collagen and leads to the loss of the function and integrity of skin. Further research is required especially to establish the role of cytokines in the treatment of cutaneous aging. PMID:23659624

  11. Gene expression profiling reveals new protective roles for vitamin C in human skin cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Tiago L.; Cooke, Marcus S.; Jones, George D. D.

    2009-01-01

    The skin is a protective barrier against external insults and any lesion must be rapidly and efficiently repaired. Dermal fibroblasts are the major source of extracellular connective tissue matrix and play an important role in wound healing. Vitamin C is an important water-soluble free radical scavenger and an essential cofactor for collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts and, consequently, may contribute to the maintenance of healthy skin. Using microarray analysis, we investigated the effe...

  12. In vitro investigations on the effect of dermal fibroblasts on keratinocyte responses to ultraviolet B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Tara L; Van Lonkhuyzen, Derek R; Dawson, Rebecca A; Kimlin, Michael G; Upton, Zee

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is closely linked to the development of skin cancers in humans. The ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation wavelength (280-320 nm), in particular, causes DNA damage in epidermal keratinocytes, which are linked to the generation of signature premalignant mutations. Interactions between dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes play a role in epidermal repair and regeneration after UVB-induced damage. To investigate these processes, established two and three-dimensional culture models were utilized to study the impact of fibroblast-keratinocyte crosstalk during the acute UVB response. Using a coculture system it was observed that fibroblasts enhanced keratinocyte survival and the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) after UVB radiation exposure. These findings were also mirrored in irradiated human skin coculture models employed in this study. Fibroblast coculture was shown to play a role in the expression and activation of members of the apoptotic cascade, including caspase-3 and Bad. Interestingly, the expression and phosphorylation of p53, a key player in the regulation of keratinocyte cell fate postirradiation, was also shown to be influenced by fibroblast-produced factors. This study highlights the importance of synergistic interactions between fibroblasts and keratinocytes in maintaining a functional epidermis while promoting repair and regeneration following UVB radiation-induced damage. PMID:25039640

  13. The effect of p38MAPK on cyclic stretch in human facial hypertrophic scar fibroblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qi-cui; Zhang, Dai-zun; Chen, Xiu-juan; Lan-Sun, Gui; Wu, Min; Xiao, Wen-lin

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS), the excessive deposition of scar tissue by fibroblasts, is one of the most common skin disorders. Fibroblasts derived from surgical scar tissue produce high levels of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). However, the molecular mechanisms for this phenomenon is poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of HTS and their potential therapeutic implications. Fibroblasts derived from skin HTS were cultured and characterized in vitro. The fibroblasts were synchronized and randomly assigned to two groups: cyclic stretch and cyclic stretch pre-treated with SB203580 (a p38MAPK inhibitor). Cyclic stretch at 10% strain was applied at a loading frequency of 10 cycles per minute (i.e. 5 seconds of tension and 5 seconds of relaxation) for 0 h, 6 h and 12 h. Cyclic stretch on HTS fibroblasts led to an increase in the expression of ?-SMA and TGF-?1 mRNA and protein and the phosphorylation of p38MAPK. SB203580 reversed these effects and caused a decrease in matrix contraction. Furthermore, HTS fibroblast growth was partially blocked by p38MAPK inhibition. Therefore, the mechanism of cyclic stretch involves p38 MAPK, and its inhibition is suggested as a novel therapeutic strategy for HTS. PMID:24130728

  14. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Multiforme Pityriasis Rosea Paronychia A to Z: Pilonidal Cyst Molluscum Contagiosum Abscess Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin Impetigo Abscess Cellulitis Paronychia Impetigo Pityriasis Rosea Ringworm ...

  15. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin color changes Skin dryness Skin (pressure) sores Sleep problems Stomas (or ostomies) Swallowing problems Sweating Swelling Treatment ... more References Previous Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore ...

  16. Feasibility of skin surface elastography by tracking skin surface topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Louise V; Miller, Naomi R; Harland, Christopher C; Bamber, Jeffrey C

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances have led to a multitude of image modalities being used for visualization of tissue stiffness. High-resolution images of tissue stiffness are desirable, as they have the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. A noncontact optical imaging method has the attractions of low cost, simplicity, and utility when skin contact is undesirable. However, previous optical techniques have required the application of paint or ink to the surface of the skin and so have required contact. Therefore, the present study assessed the feasibility of tracking skin surface topography to produce elastograms. The study showed, by analyzing a variety of silicone skin surface replicas from various body sites of subjects of different ages, that skin surface elastography by tracking surface topography would be feasible. The study further showed that the quality of the strain images can be optimized by measuring skin line pattern frequency. Skin samples with high skin line frequency will achieve best spatial resolution, in the order of 1 mm, comparable to contact techniques reported previously. A mechanically inhomogeneous silicone replica was then imaged, illustrating the technique's ability to detect strain contrast. Finally, the feasibility of implementing the technique in vivo was illustrated using a single pigmented skin lesion. PMID:24343434

  17. ???????????????? Research on Detecting Skin Grooves in Skin Aging Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Detecting skin grooves plays an important role in the objective quantification of human skin aging, and the detection accuracy directly influences the subsequent computation of two-dimensional geometrical characteristics of the skin surface. Based on the combined control strategies consisting of data-driven and model-driven control, a novel seg-mentation approach to skin grooves detection was proposed in this paper. In data-driven control, the rough segmentation result was obtained by applying watershed transform to the enhanced image. In model-driven control, the information acquired from the data-driven control and prior knowledge derived from sense of vision were used for constructing a region merging model. The model was used for removing redundant watershed lines. Subjective and objective evalua-tions demonstrate the favorable performance of the proposed method in detecting precisely skin grooves and restraining false skin grooves.

  18. Phenotype change and migration of adventitial fibroblasts during postangioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To verify fibroblasts translocation from adventitia into neointima by labeling adventitia cells with bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU) after angioplasty, and to explore the relationship of adventitial fibroblast with restenosis. Methods: Vascular restenosis model was created by injured intima of common carotid artery (CCA) of mouse with guide wire, adventitial fibroblasts were labeled with BrDU, and dynamic distribution of myofibroblasts in adventitia, media and neoitima was observed at different times (3 d, 7 d, 14 d and 28 d) by means of single/double-label immunohistochemistry, light microscope, electronic microscope and image analysis system. Results: 1.Immunohistochemistry: More adventitial fibroblasts combined with BrDU could be found in adventitia on the 3rd day of postangioplasty, and the number of this kind of cells reached the peak on 7th day, and at the same time fibroblasts changed their phenotypes and became myofibroblasts, which produced ?-actin and extracellular matrix (ECM). On 14th day, the number of the positive cells decreased in adventitia, increased in media and neointima associated with intima thickening; on 28th day, while the number of fibroblasts labeled by BrDU returned to the basic-line in adventitia, media and intima, nevertheless, intima thickening and vascular stenosis and intimal ELM precipitation were still present. There were significant differences in the number of fibroblasts labeled with BrDU located in three layers of artery (P< rDU located in three layers of artery (P<0.05). 2. Electronic microscope: After angioplasty, the plasm of fibroblasts became rich, mitochondrious and increase of Golgi apparatus; and the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulums rose with more secretory granules, together with a great amount of collagen synthesized forming the microfilaments; on days of 7th and 14th, the wide pseudopodia of myofibroblasts could be found extending into the windows on the external elastic lamina (ELL) and the internal elastic lamina (ILL); and showing the tendency of cellular migration. Conclusions: Adventitial fibroblasts change their phenotype in postangioplasty and become myofibroblasts, which can synthesize ?-actin, and translocate into the neointima. The adventitial fibroblasts are correlated with the postangioplasty restenosis. (authors)

  19. Upregulation of the N-formyl Peptide receptors in scleroderma fibroblasts fosters the switch to myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca Wanda; Napolitano, Filomena; Pesapane, Ada; Mascolo, Massimo; Staibano, Stefania; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Guiducci, Serena; Ragno, Pia; di Spigna, Gaetano; Postiglione, Loredana; Marone, Gianni; Montuori, Nunzia; de Paulis, Amato

    2015-06-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis. N-Formyl peptide (fMLF) receptors (FPRs) are chemotactic receptors involved in inflammation. Three FPRs have been identified: FPR1, FPR2, and FPR3. We have examined, by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry, FPRs expression in skin fibroblasts from 10 normal subjects and 10 SSc patients, showing increased expression in SSc fibroblasts. Several functions of FPRs occur through the interaction with a region of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR88-92), able to interact with FPRs and to mediate urokinase (uPA) or fMLF-dependent cell migration. Soluble uPAR84-95 peptide can act as a direct ligand of FPRs. Furthermore, uPA or its aminoterminal fragment (ATF) can promote the exposure of the uPAR88-92 region. The WKYMVm peptide is a FPRs pan-agonist. We investigated the functional effects of these agonists on normal and SSc fibroblasts. ATF, uPAR84-95, and WKYMVm regulated adhesion, migration, and proliferation of normal fibroblasts. Despite FPR overexpression, the response of SSc fibroblasts to the same agonists was greatly reduced, except for the proliferative response to ATF. SSc fibroblasts showed increased ?-smooth muscle actin expression and improved capability to induce wound closure. Indeed, they overexpressed a cleaved uPAR form, exposing the uPAR88-92 region, and vitronectin, both involved in fibrosis and in the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition. FPR stimulation promoted ?-smooth muscle actin expression in normal fibroblasts as well as motility, matrix deposition, ?v?5 integrin expression, and radical oxygen species generation in normal and SSc fibroblasts. This study provides evidence that FPRs may play a role in fibrosis and in the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition. PMID:25917089

  20. Evaluation of X-Inactivation Status and Cytogenetic Stability of Human Dermal Fibroblasts after Long-Term Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Gang Xue; Zhan-Ping Shi; Juan Dong; Ting-Ting Liao; Yan-Peng Wang; Xue-Ping Sun; Zheng-Jie Yan; Xiao-Qiao Qian; Yu-Gui Cui; Juan Chen; Jia-Yin Liu; Guoping Fan

    2010-01-01

    Human primary fibroblasts are a popular type of somatic cells for the production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here we characterized biological properties of primary fibroblasts in terms of cell-growth rate, cytogenetic stability, and the number of inactive X chromosomes during long-term passaging. We produced eight lines of female human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and found normal karyotype and expected pattern of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) at low passages (Passage P1-5). Howe...

  1. Mitomycin C-induced postmitotic fibroblasts retain the capacity to repair pyrimidline photodimers formed after UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation and excision of UV-C light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidline photodimers were determined in cultures of human skin fibroblasts at time zero and several weeks following treatment with mitomycin C (MMC). Characteristic morphological changes of the fibroblasts (PMF). No descernible difference could be detected between the fluence-response curves of pyrimidine dimers for untreated and MMC-treated repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells of group A. Furthermore we inverstigated the removal of pyrimidine dimers in 3 normal human skin fibroblast strains frequently used in mutation, transformation and aging research. The authors were able to demonstrate that no significant difference exists in the rate and extent of the excision-repair response to thymine-containing pyrimidine dimers following UV-irradiation shortly after MMC treatment of fibroblasts and in the MMC-induced PMF stage of these cells. (Author). 42 rafs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Wnt-3a-activated human fibroblasts promote human keratinocyte proliferation and matrix destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Katrin; Tham, Marius; Stark, Hans-Jürgen; Stammer, Hermann; Prätzel-Wunder, Silke; Bickenbach, Jackie R; Boukamp, Petra

    2015-06-15

    Aberrant Wnt regulation, detectable by nuclear translocation of beta-catenin, is a hallmark of many cancers including skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). By analyzing primary human skin SCCs, we demonstrate that nuclear beta-catenin is not restricted to SCC cells but also detected in stromal fibroblasts, suggesting an important role for aberrant Wnt regulation also in the tumor microenvironment. When human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were treated with Wnt-3a, fibroblasts proved to be more responsive. Accordingly, Wnt-3a did not alter HaCaT cell functions in a cell-autonomous manner. However, when organotypic cultures (OTCs) were treated with Wnt-3a, HaCaT keratinocytes responded with increased proliferation. As nuclear beta-catenin was induced only in the fibroblasts, this argued for a Wnt-dependent, paracrine keratinocyte stimulation. Global gene expression analysis of Wnt-3a-stimulated fibroblasts identified genes encoding interleukin-8 (IL-8) and C-C motif chemokine 2 (CCL-2) as well as matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) as Wnt-3a targets. In agreement, we show that IL-8 and CCL-2 were secreted in high amounts by Wnt-3a-stimulated fibroblasts also in OTCs. The functional role of IL-8 and CCL-2 as keratinocyte growth regulators was confirmed by directly stimulating HaCaT cell proliferation in conventional cultures. Most important, neutralizing antibodies against IL-8 and CCL-2 abolished the Wnt-dependent HaCaT cell hyperproliferation in OTCs. Additionally, MMP-1 was expressed in high amounts in Wnt-3a-stimulated OTCs and degraded the stromal matrix. Thus, our data show that Wnt-3a stimulates fibroblasts to secrete both keratinocyte proliferation-inducing cytokines and stroma-degrading metalloproteinases, thereby providing evidence for a novel Wnt deregulation in the tumor-stroma directly contributing to skin cancer progression. PMID:25403422

  3. Suppressive effects of induced pluripotent stem cell-conditioned medium on in vitro hypertrophic scarring fibroblast activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ye; Deng, Chen-Liang; Wan, Wei-Dong; Zheng, Jiang-Hong; Mao, Guang-Yu; Yang, Song-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Hypertrophic scarring (HS) is a type of fibrosis that occurs in the skin, and is characterized by fibroblast activation and excessive collagen production. However, at present, therapeutic strategies for this condition are ineffective. Previous studies have identified that the mutual regulation of chronic inflammation, mechanical force and fibroblast activation leads to the formation of HS. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are novel bioengineered embryonic?like stem cells, initially created from mouse adult fibroblasts. The current study demonstrated that iPSC?conditioned medium (iPSC?CM) may significantly suppress hypertrophic scar fibroblast activation. It was observed that in the presence of iPSC?CM, the level of collagen I was markedly reduced and ??smooth muscle actin, a marker for myofibroblasts (activated fibroblasts that mediate mechanical force?induced HS formation), exhibited a significantly lower level of expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) activated with transforming growth factor??1. Additionally, iPSC?CM attenuated the local inflammatory cell response by blocking the adhesion of human acute monocytic leukemia cell monocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. In addition, the contractile ability of HDFs may be reduced by iPSC?CM. These observations suggest that iPSC?CM may protect against processes leading to hypertrophic scarring by attenuating fibroblast activation, blocking inflammatory cell recruitment and adhesion and reducing the contractile ability of fibroblasts. PMID:25524174

  4. Skin and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2006-02-13

    In this lesson, students learn about the importance of proper protection from common skin conditions when they engage in sports-related activities. This lesson draws attention to fact that the body's own first line of defense against infectious agents is to keep them from entering or settling in the body. The students break into groups to provide a list of risk factors for each sports-related activity. They come together and compare notes. This sparks the lesson and instruction on how one should protect the skin when participating in sports. Links to other resources for further inquiry are given.

  5. Effects of the basic fibroblast growth factor and its anti-factor in the healing and collagen maturation of infected skin wound Efeitos do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básico e do seu anti-fator na cicatrização e maturação do colágeno de feridas infectadas de pele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Medeiros Dantas Filho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The infection is one of the main factors that affect the physiological evolution of the surgical wounds. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of fibroblast growth factor (FGFâ and anti-FGFâ in the healing, synthesis and maturation of collagen when topically used on infected skin wounds of rats. METHODS: An experimental study was perfomed in 60 male Wistar rats. All animals were divided in two groups (A and B. Each group was divided in three subgroups A1, B1; A2, B2 and A3, B3. After anesthesia with pentobarbital, two open squared wounds (1cm², 4cm distant to each other, were done in the dorsal skin of all the rats. In group A (n=30 the wounds were contaminated with multibacterial standard solution, and in group B(n=30 the wounds were maintained sterile. These wounds were named F1 (for inflammation analysis and F2 (for collagen study. The open wounds of A1 and B1 rats were topically treated with saline solution, A2 and B2 were treated with FGFâ and subgroups A3 and B3 were treated with FGFâ and anti-FGFâ. The rats were observed until complete epitelization of F2 wounds for determination of healing time and the expression of types I and III collagen, using Picro Sirius Red staining. Inflammatory reaction in F1 wounds was studied using hematoxilineosin staining. The three variable was measured by the Image Pro-Plus Média Cybernetics software. The statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tukey test, considering pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básico (FCFâ e do anti-FCFâ na cicatrização e maturação do colágeno em feridas infectadas na pele de ratos. MÉTODOS: Um estudo experimental foi realizado em 60 ratos Wistar, divididos em dois grupos (A e B. Cada grupo foi divididos em 03 subgrupos A1,B1; A2,B2 e A3,B3. Após anestesia com pentobarbital sódico intraperitoneal, foram feitas duas feridas abertas de 1cm² na pele no dorso distando 4cm uma da outra. Essas feridas foram denominadas feridas F1 (para análise inflamatória e F2 (para estudo do colágeno. No grupo A(n=30, as feridas foram contaminadas com solução multibateriana e no grupo B (n=30 as feridas não foram contaminadas. As feridas receberam tratamento tópico com aplicação única. Nos subgrupos A1 e B1 foram tratadas com solução salina tópica, as dos subgrupos A2 e B2 foram tratadas com o FCFâ e nos subgrupos A3 e B3 foram tratadas com FCFâ e com o anti-FCFâ. Os dados formam analisados pelos testes ANOVA de Tukey, considerando p<0,05 como significante. RESULTADOS: A infecção retardou de modo significante o tempo de cicatrização e a aplicação do FCFâ foi capaz de reverter a inibição da cicatrização provocada pela infecção(p<0.05. A resposta inflamatória foi maior nos grupos tratados com o FCFâ, e a aplicação do anti-FCFâ inibiu a reação inflamatória(p<0.05. Houve aumento significante dos colágenos tipo I e III em todos os subgrupos tratados com FCFâ, comparando com os não tratados, sendo a expressão do tipo I mais intensa do que do tipo III (p<0.05. A aplicação do anti-FCFâ inibiu a expressão das moléculas do colágeno. CONCLUSÕES: O FCFâ foi capaz de acelerar a cicatrização de feridas abertas infectadas e contribui para a maturação do colágeno, ao aumentar a expressão do colágeno tipo I, fenômeno que foi atenuado pela ação do anti-FCFâ.

  6. Effects of the basic fibroblast growth factor and its anti-factor in the healing and collagen maturation of infected skin wound / Efeitos do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básico e do seu anti-fator na cicatrização e maturação do colágeno de feridas infectadas de pele

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Medeiros, Dantas Filho; José Lamartine de Andrade, Aguiar; Luís Reginaldo de Menezes, Rocha; Ítalo Medeiros, Azevedo; Esdras, Ramalho; Aldo Cunha, Medeiros.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básico (FCFâ) e do anti-FCFâ na cicatrização e maturação do colágeno em feridas infectadas na pele de ratos. MÉTODOS: Um estudo experimental foi realizado em 60 ratos Wistar, divididos em dois grupos (A e B). Cada grupo foi dividid [...] os em 03 subgrupos A1,B1; A2,B2 e A3,B3. Após anestesia com pentobarbital sódico intraperitoneal, foram feitas duas feridas abertas de 1cm² na pele no dorso distando 4cm uma da outra. Essas feridas foram denominadas feridas F1 (para análise inflamatória) e F2 (para estudo do colágeno). No grupo A(n=30), as feridas foram contaminadas com solução multibateriana e no grupo B (n=30) as feridas não foram contaminadas. As feridas receberam tratamento tópico com aplicação única. Nos subgrupos A1 e B1 foram tratadas com solução salina tópica, as dos subgrupos A2 e B2 foram tratadas com o FCFâ e nos subgrupos A3 e B3 foram tratadas com FCFâ e com o anti-FCFâ. Os dados formam analisados pelos testes ANOVA de Tukey, considerando p Abstract in english PURPOSE: The infection is one of the main factors that affect the physiological evolution of the surgical wounds. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of fibroblast growth factor (FGFâ) and anti-FGFâ in the healing, synthesis and maturation of collagen when topically used on infected skin [...] wounds of rats. METHODS: An experimental study was perfomed in 60 male Wistar rats. All animals were divided in two groups (A and B). Each group was divided in three subgroups A1, B1; A2, B2 and A3, B3. After anesthesia with pentobarbital, two open squared wounds (1cm²), 4cm distant to each other, were done in the dorsal skin of all the rats. In group A (n=30) the wounds were contaminated with multibacterial standard solution, and in group B(n=30) the wounds were maintained sterile. These wounds were named F1 (for inflammation analysis) and F2 (for collagen study). The open wounds of A1 and B1 rats were topically treated with saline solution, A2 and B2 were treated with FGFâ and subgroups A3 and B3 were treated with FGFâ and anti-FGFâ. The rats were observed until complete epitelization of F2 wounds for determination of healing time and the expression of types I and III collagen, using Picro Sirius Red staining. Inflammatory reaction in F1 wounds was studied using hematoxilineosin staining. The three variable was measured by the Image Pro-Plus Média Cybernetics software. The statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tukey test, considering p

  7. High-Glucose Inhibits Human Fibroblast Cell Migration in Wound Healing via Repression of bFGF-Regulating JNK Phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Xuan, Yuan Hu; Huang, Bin Bin; Tian, Hai Shan; Chi, Li Sha; Duan, Yuan Meng; Wang, Xi; Zhu, Zhong Xin; Cai, Wan Hui; Zhu, Yu Ting; Wei, Tie Min; Ye, Hong Bo; Cong, Wei Tao; Jin, Li Tai

    2014-01-01

    One of the major symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM) is delayed wound healing, which affects large populations of patients worldwide. However, the underlying mechanism behind this illness remains elusive. Skin wound healing requires a series of coordinated processes, including fibroblast cell proliferation and migration. Here, we simulate DM by application of high glucose (HG) in human foreskin primary fibroblast cells to analyze the molecular mechanism of DM effects on wound healing. The resu...

  8. Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darby IA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ian A Darby,1 Betty Laverdet,2 Frédéric Bonté3, Alexis Desmoulière2 1School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Physiology and EA 6309, FR 3503, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Limoges, Limoges, France; 3LVMH Recherche, Saint Jean de Braye, France Abstract: (Myofibroblasts are key players for maintaining skin homeostasis and for orchestrating physiological tissue repair. (Myofibroblasts are embedded in a sophisticated extracellular matrix (ECM that they secrete, and a complex and interactive dialogue exists between (myofibroblasts and their microenvironment. In addition to the secretion of the ECM, (myofibroblasts, by secreting matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, are able to remodel this ECM. (Myofibroblasts and their microenvironment form an evolving network during tissue repair, with reciprocal actions leading to cell differentiation, proliferation, quiescence, or apoptosis, and actions on growth factor bioavailability by binding, sequestration, and activation. In addition, the (myofibroblast phenotype is regulated by mechanical stresses to which they are subjected and thus by mechanical signaling. In pathological situations (excessive scarring or fibrosis, or during aging, this dialogue between the (myofibroblasts and their microenvironment may be altered or disrupted, leading to repair defects or to injuries with damaged and/or cosmetic skin alterations such as wrinkle development. The intimate dialogue between the (myofibroblasts and their microenvironment therefore represents a fascinating domain that must be better understood in order not only to characterize new therapeutic targets and drugs able to prevent or treat pathological developments but also to interfere with skin alterations observed during normal aging or premature aging induced by a deleterious environment. Keywords: myofibroblast, fibroblast, ?-smooth muscle actin, mechanical signaling, fibrosis, scarring 

  9. Progressive lipo-lymphedema associated with increased activity of dermal fibroblasts in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: is there a causal relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielitz, A; Bellutti, M; Bonnekoh, B; Franke, I; Wiede, A; Lotzing, M; Reinhold, D; Gollnick, H

    2012-09-01

    The pathophysiology of skin diseases associated with monoclonal gammopathies is generally unknown. Our aim was to investigate whether a monoclonal gammopathy could be a causal factor in progressive lymphedema. We describe a 75 year old patient with a rapidly progressive lipo-lymphedema and a monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) suspected as a key etiological factor. Dermal fibroblasts were cultured from lesional lower leg skin and non-lesional abdominal skin and compared to healthy control fibroblasts. We found 10-fold elevated basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in the patient's serum and significantly increased basal FGF-2 production of lesional and non-lesional fibroblasts compared to healthy controls. Upon restimulation with patient or healthy control serum, lesional fibroblasts showed significantly increased proliferation rates and FGF-2 production in vitro. Non-lesional abdominal fibroblasts showed an intermediate phenotype between lesional and control fibroblasts. Our findings provide the first evidence that lesional dermal fibroblasts from lipo-lymphedema with plasma cell infiltration show increased proliferation and FGF-2 production and that both local tissue factors and altered FGF-2 serum levels associated with monoclonal gammopathies might contribute to this phenotype. Thus we propose a possible pathophysiologic link between the gammopathy-associated factors and the generation of lymphedema with initial fibrogenesis aggravating pre-existing lipedema. PMID:23342932

  10. Lysine hydroxylation of collagen in a fibroblast cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Yeowell, Heather N.; Yamamoto, Kazushi; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Tanzawa, Hideki; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    The lysine (Lys) hydroxylation pattern of type I collagen produced by human fibroblasts in culture was analyzed and compared. Fibroblasts were cultured from normal human skin (NSF), keloid (KDF), fetal skin (FDF), and skin tissues of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIA and VIB patients (EDS-VIA and -VIB). The type I collagen alpha chains with or without non-helical telopeptides were purified from the insoluble matrix and analyzed. In comparison with NSFs, KDF and FDF showed significantly higher Lys hydroxylation, particularly in the telopeptide domains of both alpha chains. Both EDS-VIA and -VIB showed markedly lower Lys hydroxylation in the helical domains of both alpha chains whereas that in the telopeptides was comparable with those of NSFs. A similar profile was observed in the tissue sample of the EDS-VIB patient. These results demonstrate that the Lys hydroxylation pattern is domain-specific within the collagen molecule and that this method is useful to characterize the cell phenotypes in normal/pathological connective tissues.

  11. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color.

  12. A quantitative in vitro study of fibroblast and endothelial cell migration in response to serum and wound fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemoattractant activity for irradiated and nonirradiated rabbit skin fibroblast and bovine aortic arch endothelial cells was assayed in rabbit wound fluid and sera using a modification of the agarose well method originally described for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Both serum and wound fluid contained chemoattractants for fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Fibroblast migration was decreased by 70 to 80% when the serum or wound fluid was heated to 56 degrees C for 30 min while endothelial cell migration was reduced by 50 to 60%. Platelet-poor plasma-derived serum had no directive effect on the migration of either cell type

  13. Low dose radiation effects on the transcription of consensus radiation response genes in primary and immortalized human fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. OBJECTIVE: The linear non-threshold model suggests that tumors might be induced even by low radiation doses. Still, most of the conventional methods are unable to detect damages below 100 mGy. We have studied whether transcriptional responses of consensus radiation response genes can be detected after low dose radiation exposure in directly exposed or bystander primary human fibroblast cells. The short term proliferation capacity of primary fibroblast cells in culture limits their long term application. Therefore we tried to immortalize the cells by the introduction of the human telomerase gene using retroviral vectors. METHODS: Primary human fibroblast cell lines were established from skin biopsies of cancer patients and foreskin samples of young children. To create immortalized cell lines the human telomerase gene was cloned into a retroviral vector. Primary fibroblast cells were transduced and their proliferation capacity studied. To investigate radiation induced transcriptional alterations, cells were irradiated with 60Co ?-rays (0; 0.01; 0,04; 0,1; 2 and 8 Gy) and 2 hours later total cellular RNA was isolated both from directly exposed and bystander cells. Transcriptional alterations were followed in consensus radiation response genes (CDKN1, GADD45, GDF15, IER5, PLK3, TP53INP1) with quantitative real time PCR (Corbett/ SybrGreen). RESULTS: There is an elevated expression of CDKN1, GADD45, GDF15, PLK3, TP53INP1 inf CDKN1, GADD45, GDF15, PLK3, TP53INP1 in the exposed cells. We see only for the PLK3 a dose-dependent increase which manifested also at low doses. It seems this gene is the most sensitive to radiation at low doses. The hTERT-immortalized cells were morphologically identical to the primary cells. the radiation-induced transcriptional profile of immortalized cells were very similar to the primary ones. CONCLUSIONS: hTERT immortalized cells can be used to mimic alterations in primary cells. Low dose irradiation doesn't influence the expression of most of the studied genes. PLK3 might be an efficient marker to estimate individually low dose effects.

  14. Dry skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your home will also help. Moisturizers and emollients work best when they're applied to skin ... right away. You can use different types of emollients or moisturizers at different times of the day. ...

  15. Hyperelastic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperelastic skin is most often seen in the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?

  16. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Q - T Rosacea Scabies Scalp psoriasis Sebaceous carcinoma Seborrheic dermatitis Seborrheic keratoses Shingles Skin cancer Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment Tips Squamous cell carcinoma Stasis dermatitis Tattoo removal Tinea versicolor U - W Dermatology A ...

  17. Skin dimples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Kanojia, Rajesh K; Saili, Arvind

    2014-07-01

    Skin dimples are a common occurrence in children. Besides being of cosmetic significance, they may give an important clue to an underlying genetic or metabolic problem. A simplified location-based algorithmic approach to diagnose the underlying cause of skin dimples is presented. Clinical significance of medically important dimples, especially sacral dimples, its association with occult spinal dysraphism, and a cost-effective diagnostic strategy for its imaging is discussed. PMID:24738724

  18. Sun & Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Netlinks

    2005-03-10

    In this lesson from Science NetLinks, students discuss what they already know about the impact sun exposure has on their skin and what they typically do to protect themselves, if anything. Using a number of online resources, they then learn how to care for their skin, about the damaging effects of sunburns and tanning, and how sunscreens provide protection from the sun's harmful UV rays.

  19. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) What is prevention? Cancer prevention is ... keep cancer from starting. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  20. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Skin Cancer Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®) What is screening? Screening is looking ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  1. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a sample from an open skin rash or skin sore. A sample of skin may need to be ... infection. Common skin infections caused by bacteria include: Impetigo Diabetes foot ulcers Common skin infections caused by ...

  2. Skin care and incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  3. Detect Skin Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Skin Cancer, Take a Hike!™ Melanoma Monday® Learn about skin cancer Types of skin cancer Prevent ... de Salud For the public Community programs & events Learn about skin cancer Types of skin cancer Prevent ...

  4. Study of mast cell count in skin tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Hesham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags or acrochordons are common tumors of middle-aged and elderly subjects. They consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur mainly on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Objectives: The aim was to compare the mast cells count in skin tags to adjacent normal skin in diabetic and nondiabetic participants in an attempt to elucidate the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of skin tags. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into group I (15 nondiabetic participants and group II (15 diabetic participants. Three biopsies were obtained from each participant: a large skin tag, a small skin tag and adjacent normal skin. Mast cell count from all the obtained sections was carried out, and the mast cell density was expressed as the average mast cell count/high power field (HPF. Results: A statistically significant increase in mast cells count in skin tags in comparison to normal skin was detected in group I and group II. There was no statistically significant difference between mast cell counts in skin tags of both the groups. Conclusion: Both the mast cell mediators and hyperinsulinemia are capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia that are the main pathologic abnormalities seen in all types of skin tags. However, the presence of mast cells in all examined skin tags regardless of diabetes and obesity may point to the possible crucial role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  5. Effect of mitomycin on normal dermal fibroblast and HaCat cell: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yao-wen; Ren, Ji-hao; Xia, Kun; Wang, Shu-hui; Yin, Tuan-fang; Xie, Ding-hua; Li, Li-hua

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of mitomycin on the growth of human dermal fibroblast and immortalized human keratinocyte line (HaCat cell), particularly the effect of mitomycin on intracellular messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis of collagen and growth factors of fibroblast. Methods: The normal dermal fibroblast and HaCat cell were cultured in vitro. Cell cultures were exposed to 0.4 and 0.04 mg/ml of mitomycin solution, and serum-free culture medium was used as control. The cellular morpholog...

  6. Irradiated murine fibroblasts as feeder layer used in human cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1975, Rheinwald and Green published an in vitro model for keratinocyte cell cultures in which the use of murine fibroblasts, as a feeder layer was introduced. These cells are modified fibroblasts, which presence render keratinocyte cells to remain proliferative for longer periods of time. This optimization of culture outputs has allowed for several clinical applications of confluent keratinocyte cultures as skin substitutes or wound dressings in situations such as post burn extensive skin loss, loss of oral mucosa, and other skin disorders. Nevertheless, proliferation of fibroblast in co-culture with keratinocytes must be controlled by anti-proliferative measures such as irradiation; at the same time, keratinocytes require specific nutrients in the culture medium, which may interfere with the fibroblast feeder layer viability. Therefore, the thorough understanding of the impact of different issues such as culture media composition, irradiation dose and pre-plating storage conditions of irradiated fibroblast to be used as feeder layer in these co-culture systems is important. In this work, changes as far as viability and proliferative rates of irradiated fibroblasts in culture were evaluated in relation to the type of culture medium used, dose of gamma radiation exposure, storage and timing of cell plating post irradiation. Results indicate that the type of culture medium used and time-lag between irradiation, refrigeration and plating of irradiated cells do not havand plating of irradiated cells do not have significant impact in culture outcomes. However, the dose of gamma radiation administered to the cells may influence the final quality of these cells if to be used as a feeder layer. (author)

  7. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Enhances the Growth Hormone Receptor Expression in Tendon Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsun Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to explore the effect of BPC 157 on tendon fibroblasts isolated from Achilles tendon of male Sprague-Dawley rat. From the result of cDNA microarray analysis, growth hormone receptor was revealed as one of the most abundantly up-regulated genes in tendon fibroblasts by BPC 157. BPC 157 dose- and time-dependently increased the expression of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels as measured by RT/real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The addition of growth hormone to BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts dose- and time-dependently increased the cell proliferation as determined by MTT assay and PCNA expression by RT/real-time PCR. Janus kinase 2, the downstream signal pathway of growth hormone receptor, was activated time-dependently by stimulating the BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts with growth hormone. In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon.

  8. Altered TGF-? signaling in fetal fibroblasts: what is known about the underlying mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, Mariëlle; Gouverneur, Mirella; Middelkoop, Esther; Beelen, Rob H J; Ulrich, Magda M W

    2014-01-01

    Scarless wound healing is a unique and intrinsic capacity of the fetal skin that is not fully understood. Further insight into the underlying mechanisms of fetal wound healing may lead to new therapeutic approaches promoting adult scarless wound healing. Differences between fetal and adult wound healing are found in the extracellular matrix, the inflammatory reaction and the levels of growth factors present in the wound. This review focuses specifically on transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?), as this growth factor is prominently involved in wound healing and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. Although fetal fibroblasts do respond to TGF-?, they lack a proliferative and a contractile response and display short-lived myofibroblast differentiation, autocrine response, and collagen up-regulation in comparison with adult fibroblasts. Curiously, prolonged TGF-? activation is associated with fibrosis, and therefore, this short-lived response in fetal fibroblasts might contribute to scarless healing. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge on TGF-? signaling and the intracellular TGF-? signaling pathway in fetal fibroblasts. Furthermore, this review also describes the various components that regulate the cellular TGF-? response and hypothesizes about the possible roles these components might play in the altered response of fetal fibroblasts to TGF-?. PMID:24134669

  9. Wnt signaling in skin homeostasis and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Iris

    2015-04-01

    The mammalian skin mediates the primary interphase between the body and the external environment and provides the first line of defense against pathogens, mechanical trauma, sunlight injuries, and chemical stress. Proper physical, biochemical, and immunological composition of the skin is necessary to maintain its barrier function. Therefore, the skin reflects a complex dynamic organ with high cellular turnover during normal tissue replacement and wound repair. Stem cell reservoirs ensure constant skin renewal. Wnt signaling controls stem cell maintenance and fate decisions in various tissues and also reflects a key pathway in controlling skin development and homeostasis. Disruption of Wnt signaling in the skin causes disorders such as alopecia, chronic inflammatory skin diseases or cancer. This review summarizes the role of Wnt signaling during skin development, homeostasis, and disease. PMID:25819237

  10. Other uses of homologous skin grafts and skin bank bioproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimiani, Michele; Pianigiani, Elisa; Di Simplicio, Francesca Cherubini; Sbano, Paolo; Cuccia, Aldo; Pompella, Gerarda; De Aloe, Giovambattista; Petraglia, Felice

    2005-01-01

    The main use of homologous skin grafts or grafts of related bioproducts is in the treatment of severe burns. However, various new clinical and experimental sectors, in which this type of skin substitute can be useful, have recently emerged. The main new clinical indications for skin allografts include: skin loss, surgical wounds and bullous diseases. In these fields donor skin can be used for different purposes: as a physiological biological dressing to control pain and protect deep structures such as tendons, bones, cartilage and nerves, and to promote reepithelization with a significant reduction in healing time, and as skin substitute with dermal tissue to guide repair and make it as physiological as possible. In particular, skin bank bioproducts are currently used in the treatment of several conditions such venous and arterial leg ulcers, pressure ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, pyoderma gangrenosum, post traumatic lesions, Mohs surgery, reconstructive surgery, wound cover in critical areas, aesthetic surgery, congenital epidermolysis bullosa and Lyell's syndrome. Skin bank bioproducts have also been used for experimental indications, to study in vitro toxicology and in vitro skin biology. Recently the demonstration that de-epidermized dermis (DED) has all the characteristics of an excellent dermal substitute into which various types of cells can be introduced and made to develop, opens exciting new possibilities of research in the field of wound healing and tissue engineering. Our preliminary observations seems to indicate that CD 34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood can survive in DED and in a few weeks populate collagen bundles. The observation of tubular structures without lumina close to collagen bundles as well as clusters of epithelioid or fibroblast-shaped cells may represent aspects of differentiation of CD 34+ stem cells. More detailed and sophisticated studies are clearly needed to answer all the questions that these initial observations pose. Anyway the 3-dimensional model proposed seems to be suitable for the study of the behaviour of peripheral CD 34+ and perhaps also other types of stem cells in 3-dimensional dermal matrix. PMID:16023935

  11. Overexpression of phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase in human dermal fibroblasts abrogates UVA irradiation-induced expression of interstitial collagenase/matrix metalloproteinase-1 by suppression of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide-mediated NFkappaB activation and interleukin-6 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Jutta; Schüller, Jutta; Hinrichs, Christina; Syrovets, Tatjana; Azoitei, Ninel; Podda, Maurizio; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Brenneisen, Peter; Schneider, Lars-A; Sabiwalsky, Andrea; Peters, Thorsten; Sulyok, Silke; Dissemond, Joachim; Schauen, Matthias; Krieg, Thomas; Wirth, Thomas; Simmet, Thomas; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2004-10-29

    Phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) exhibits high specific activity in reducing phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PCOOHs) and thus may play a central role in protecting the skin against UV irradiation-triggered detrimental long term effects like cancer formation and premature skin aging. Here we addressed the role of PHGPx in the protection against UV irradiation-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). For this purpose, we created human dermal fibroblast cell lines overexpressing human PHGPx. Overexpression led to a significant increase in PHGPx activity. In contrast to a maximal 4.5-fold induction of specific MMP-1 mRNA levels in vector-transfected cells at 24 h after UVA irradiation, no MMP-1 induction occurred at any studied time point after UVA treatment of PHGPx-overexpressing fibroblasts. As interleukin-6 (IL-6) was earlier shown to mediate the UVA induction of MMP-1, we studied whether PHGPx overexpression might interfere with the NFkappaB-mediated IL-6 induction and downstream signaling. Using transient transfections of IL-6 promoter constructs containing NFkappaB binding sites, we observed a high induction of the reporter gene luciferase in vector-transfected control cells and a significantly lower induction in PHGPx-overexpressing fibroblasts following UVA irradiation. Consistently both UVA irradiation and treatment of fibroblasts with PCOOHs led to phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, whereas cells overexpressing PHGPx exhibited impaired NFkappaB activation, p65 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation. In line with this, the PHGPx-overexpressing fibroblasts showed a reduced constitutive and UVA irradiation-induced IL-6 release. After incubating PHGPx-overexpressing cells with PCOOHs a reduced induction of IL-6 was observed. This together with the suppression of UVA irradiation-induced IL-6 release in the presence of Trolox, a chain breaker of PCOOH-initiated lipid peroxidation, indicates that UVA irradiation-induced PCOOHs and subsequent lipid peroxides initiate the NFkappaB-mediated induction of IL-6, which mediates the induction of MMP-1. Our finding is particularly relevant in light of the already available small molecule mimetics of PHGPx. PMID:15308634

  12. Studies on cultured fibroblasts in a case of methylmalonic aciduria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of methylmalonic aciduria is described. The clinical course was unusually mild, the child surviving to the age of 8 years. Studies on cultured fibroblasts confirmed a defect in propionate metabolism which was non-responsive to hydroxycobalamin in vitro. Polyethylene-glycol-induced cell fusion with a known methylmalonyl co-enzyme apomutase-deficient cell line showed genetic complementation indicating that in this patient the defect was in one of the enzymes required for 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin synthesis

  13. Effect of uranium on proliferation and mortality of the major constitutive cell types of the skin: influence on skin barrier integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The skin is the initial barrier against mechanical, chemical or biological external stresses. It is a complex, multilayered organ. The upper layer is the epidermis that is mainly constituted by keratinocytes. The fibroblast is the major cell type of the dermis which is underlying the epidermis. In the case of an external contamination, uranium is able to diffuse through the skin [1-3] and can affect skin barrier integrity after chronic topical exposure[1, 3]. Our study tried to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to this skin alteration after uranyl nitrate contamination. Proliferation rate and mortality of primary cultures of rat skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes contaminated in vitro with different concentration of depleted-uranyl nitrate or 233-uranyl nitrate were measured. The huge difference between 233U and depleted-U specific activities, respectively 3.57 x 108Bq.g-1 and 1.45 x 104Bq.g-1', allowed to distinguish cellular radiotoxicity and chemotoxicity of uranium. Concerning fibroblasts, a significant radiotoxicity of the emitted alpha particles of 233U was observed with no chemotoxicity for the lowest concentrations, i.e. 2?M and 4?M, of uranyl nitrate. Keratinocytes were more sensitive to both uranium radiotoxicity and chemotoxicity than fibroblasts. This can be explained by the about three times higher ability of keratinocytes to incorporate uranium compared to fibroblasts. This greatnium compared to fibroblasts. This greater capacity of epidermal cells than dermal cells to incorporate uranium was confirmed in vivo for the hairless rat following a uranyl nitrate topical contamination. As a conclusion, the important toxic effect of uranium on keratinocyte demonstrated in our study can explain the previous observations [1, 3] that epidermis was atrophied and so skin permeability increased after an in vivo chronic topical exposure of rat skin to uranyl nitrate. These results are of great importance concerning radiation protection of exposed workers and public, and are not taken into consideration by ICRP recommendations at the present time. (orig.)

  14. Use of lymphoblastoid cell lines to evaluate the hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation in Cockayne syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by acute sun sensitivity, cachectic dwarfism, and neurologic and skeletal abnormalities. Cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with this disease are known to be hypersensitive to the lethal effects of 254-nm UV radiation. The authors have studied the sensitivity of 254-nm UV radiation of lymphoblastoid lines derived from 3 typical CS patients, 1 atypical CS patient who had a very late age of onset of clinical manifestations, 2 patients who had both xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and typical CS, and 3 heterozygous parents of these patients. Post-UV survival was determined by the trypan-blue dye-exclusion method. The lymphoblastoid lines from the 3 typical CS patients, the atypical CS patient, and the 2 patients with both CS and XP had decreased post-UV viability in comparison with lines from normal donors. Lines from the heterozygous parents had normal post-UV viability. The post-UV viability of the typical CS lines was similar to that of a XP complementation group C line. The relative post-UV viability of lymphoblastoid lines from the typical CS patients was similar to the relative post-UV survival of their fibroblast lines. The lymphoblastoid line from the atypical CS patient had a post-UV viability similar to that of the typical CS patients. Thus, the relative hypersensitivity of CS patients cells in vitro does not reflect the severity or age of onset of the patients clinical manifestations. Thf the patients clinical manifestations. The lymphoblastoid lines from the 2 patients who had both CS and XP were significantly more sensitive to the UV radiation than those from patients with only CS. Our studies demonstrate that lymphoblastoid lines from patients with CS are appropriate and useful cell lines for the study of the inherited hypersensitivity to UV radiation

  15. Identification of fibroblasts as a major site of albumin catabolism in peripheral tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat serum albumin has been labeled with dilactitol-125I-tyramine, (125I-DLT) a radioactive tracer which remains entrapped within lysosomes following cellular uptake and degradation of the carrier protein. Similar kinetics of clearance from the rat circulation were observed for albumin labeled conventionally with 125I or 125I-DLT-albumin, both proteins having circulating half-lives of approximately 2.2 days. In contrast, the recovery of whole body radioactivity had half-lives of approximately 2.2 and 5.1 days, respectively, for the two protein preparations, indicating substantial retention of degradation products derived from catabolism of 125I-DLT-albumin. Measurement of total and acid-soluble radioactivity in tissues 2 or 4 days after injection of 125I-DLT-albumin revealed that skin and muscle accounted for the largest fraction (50-60%) of degradation products in the body. Fibroblasts were identified by autoradiography as the major cell type containing radioactive degradation products in skin and muscle. Fibroblasts were isolated from skin by collagenase digestion, followed by density gradient centrifugation. The amount of acid-soluble radioactivity recovered in these cells was in excellent agreement with that predicted based on acid precipitation of solubilized whole skin preparations. These studies demonstrate for the first time that fibroblasts are a major cell type involved in the degradation of albumin in vivo

  16. Proliferation and motility of HaCaT keratinocyte derivatives is enhanced by fibroblast nemosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raesaenen, Kati, E-mail: kati.rasanen@helsinki.fi [Haartman Institute, POB 21, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Vaheri, Antti, E-mail: antti.vaheri@helsinki.fi [Haartman Institute, POB 21, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-06-10

    The role of paracrine tumor-stroma regulation in the progression of cancer is under intense investigation. Activated fibroblasts are key components of the tumor microenvironment providing the soluble factors mediating the regulation. Nemosis is an experimental model to study these parameters: formation of a multicellular spheroid activates fibroblasts and leads to increased production of soluble factors involved in the promotion of growth and motility. Role of nemosis was investigated in the tumorigenesis of HaCaT derivatives representing skin carcinoma progression. Conditioned medium from fibroblast spheroids increased proliferation rate of HaCaT derivatives. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 increased significantly in benign A5 and low-grade malignant II-4 cells, but did not further increase in the metastatic RT3 cells. Expression of p63, keratinocyte stem cell marker linked to cancer progression, was augmented by medium from nemotic fibroblasts; this increase was also seen in RT3 cells. Scratch-wound healing of the keratinocytes was enhanced in response to fibroblast nemosis. Neutralizing antibodies against growth factors inhibited wound healing to some extent; the response varied between benign and malignant keratinocytes. Migration and invasion were enhanced by conditioned medium from nemotic fibroblasts in benign and low-grade malignant cells. RT3 keratinocyte migration was further augmented, but invasion was not, indicating their intrinsic capacity to invade. Our data demonstrate that fibroblast nemosis increases proliferation and motility of HaCaT keratinocyte derivatives, and thus nemosis can be used as a model to study the role of soluble factors secreted by fibroblasts in tumor progression.

  17. Differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into dermal fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential seed cells for tissue-engineered skin. ? Tissue-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UCMSCs) can readily be isolated in vitro. ? We induce UCMSCs to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts via conditioned medium. ? Collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA level was higher in differentiated cells. ? UCMSCs-derived fibroblast-like cells strongly express fibroblast-specific protein. -- Abstract: Tissue-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) can be readily obtained, avoid ethical or moral constraints, and show excellent pluripotency and proliferation potential. UCMSCs are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In this study, we collected newborn umbilical cord tissue under sterile conditions and isolated UCMSCs through a tissue attachment method. UCMSC cell surface markers were examined using flow cytometry. On the third passage, UCMSCs were induced to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts in conditioned induction media. The induction results were detected using immunofluorescence with a fibroblast-specific monoclonal antibody and real time PCR for type I and type III collagen. UCMSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and reached 90% confluency 14 to 18 days after primary culture. Cultured UCMSCs showed strong positive staining for CD73, CD29, CD44, CD105, and HLA-I, but not CD34, CD45, CD31, or HLA-DR. After differentiation, immunostaining for collagen type I, type III, fibroblast-specific protein, vimentin, and desmin were all strongly positive in induced cells, and staining was weak or negative in non-induced cells; total transcript production of collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA was higher in induced cells than in non-induced cells. These results demonstrate that UCMSCs can be induced to differentiate into fibroblasts with conditioned induction media and, in turn, could be used as seed cells for tissue-engineered dermis.

  18. Proliferation and motility of HaCaT keratinocyte derivatives is enhanced by fibroblast nemosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of paracrine tumor-stroma regulation in the progression of cancer is under intense investigation. Activated fibroblasts are key components of the tumor microenvironment providing the soluble factors mediating the regulation. Nemosis is an experimental model to study these parameters: formation of a multicellular spheroid activates fibroblasts and leads to increased production of soluble factors involved in the promotion of growth and motility. Role of nemosis was investigated in the tumorigenesis of HaCaT derivatives representing skin carcinoma progression. Conditioned medium from fibroblast spheroids increased proliferation rate of HaCaT derivatives. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 increased significantly in benign A5 and low-grade malignant II-4 cells, but did not further increase in the metastatic RT3 cells. Expression of p63, keratinocyte stem cell marker linked to cancer progression, was augmented by medium from nemotic fibroblasts; this increase was also seen in RT3 cells. Scratch-wound healing of the keratinocytes was enhanced in response to fibroblast nemosis. Neutralizing antibodies against growth factors inhibited wound healing to some extent; the response varied between benign and malignant keratinocytes. Migration and invasion were enhanced by conditioned medium from nemotic fibroblasts in benign and low-grade malignant cells. RT3 keratinocyte migration was further augmented, but invasion was not, indicating their intrinsic capacity to invade. Our data demonstrate that fibroblast nemosis increases proliferation and motility of HaCaT keratinocyte derivatives, and thus nemosis can be used as a model to study the role of soluble factors secreted by fibroblasts in tumor progression.

  19. Photoprotective Potential of Anthocyanins Isolated from Acanthopanax divaricatus Var. albeofructus Fruits against UV Irradiation in Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, Su-Yun; Park, Won-Bong

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) A penetrates deeply into the skin and induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing damage to fibroblasts, which leads to aging of the skin. However, the body has developed an antioxidant defence system against the harmful effects of ROS. Enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) play critical roles on the removal of excess ROS in living organisms. In this study, the antioxidant activities of anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-galactoside and cyani...

  20. Expression of a mutant androgen receptor in cloned fibroblasts derived from a heterozygous carrier for the syndrome of testicular feminization.

    OpenAIRE

    Elawady, M. K.; Allman, D. R.; Griffin, J. E.; Wilson, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Thermolability of androgen binding was compared in fibroblasts cloned from normal female skin, skin from a subject with testicular feminization whose mutation is known to be associated with a thermolabile androgen receptor, and from the mother of the subject with testicular feminization. Seven of 28 clones studied from the mother exhibited thermolability of binding, indicating that the mutant gene that causes thermolability of binding, like the gene responsible for the normal androgen recepto...

  1. Human fibroblasts (KMST-6/RAS line) transformed with 60Co gamma-rays and c-Ha-ras oncogene constitutively produce a large amount of human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human fibroblasts (KMST-6/RAS) transformed with 60Co gamma-rays and the Ha-ras oncogene formed tumors in nude mice. These mice showed splenomegaly and an increase in granulocytes in the peripheral blood. There was a direct correlation between tumor size and spleen size. Histologically, prominent proliferation of granulocytes was observed in the enlarged spleen. These findings indicated that KMST-6/RAS cells might have been producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the nude mice. In fact, in vitro studies demonstrated that the cells produced G-CSF in the culture medium and that production of G-CSF was greater during the logarithmic growth than during the stationary phase. Nearly equal amounts of G-CSF were produced by cells grown in serum-free or 10% serum-supplemented medium. Neither expression of the ras oncogene nor the tumorigenicity of cells correlated with the production of G-CSF. G-CSF production in KMST-6/RAS cells was significantly stimulated by butyrate, but not by dexamethasone or 5-azacytidine. (author)

  2. Enhancement of metastatic capacity of fibroblast-tumor cell interaction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Mori, Y; Ishii, H; Akedo, H

    1988-03-15

    A low metastatic clone, G6, was isolated from the B16 melanoma cell line by cloning procedure. When the cells were cultured in vitro with fibroblasts from newborn mice, the lung-colonizing potential of G6 cells was substantially increased. The effect of coculture depended on the number of the fibroblasts. The elevated colonizing potential of G6 cells was reversed to the original low potential by subculturing them for 20 days without the fibroblasts. The culture medium conditioned by G6-fibroblast coculture demonstrated an activity to enhance the lung-colonizing potential of G6 cells, whereas the medium from the culture of fibroblasts alone showed only a little activity. The growth rate and plating efficiency of G6 cells cultured with the fibroblasts or in the conditioned medium did not differ from those of uncocultured G6 cells. The potentiating activity in the conditioned medium was nondialyzable and stable to heating at 80 degrees C for 10 min, but was lost after heating for 10 min at 120 degrees C, or by the treatment with trypsin. These results indicate that the enhancement of lung-colonizing potential of G6 cells could be mediated by a soluble factor(s) released from cocultured fibroblasts. PMID:3345517

  3. Detect Skin Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SPOTme® skin cancer screenings Play Sun Smart™ Shade Structure Program Skin Cancer, Take a Hike!™ Melanoma Monday® ... to look for How to SPOT Skin Cancer™ Body mole map Dangers of indoor tanning SPOT Skin ...

  4. Detect Skin Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Free resources Meet our partners Español Detect skin cancer Anyone can get skin cancer , regardless of skin ... a hand mirror. Find a FREE SPOTme® Skin Cancer Screening Enter Zip Code State Search Find a ...

  5. Detect Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Free resources Meet our partners Español Detect skin cancer Anyone can get skin cancer , regardless of skin ... a hand mirror. Find a FREE SPOTme® Skin Cancer Screening Enter Zip Code State Search Find a ...

  6. Detect Skin Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... involved Free resources Meet our partners Detect skin cancer Anyone can get skin cancer , regardless of skin ... a hand mirror. Find a FREE SPOTme® Skin Cancer Screening Enter Zip Code State Search Find a ...

  7. Photoreactivation in bacteria and in skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many procaryotic and eucaryotic cells, photoreactivating enzyme mediates light-dependent repair of UV-induced damage: the enzyme binds to a pyrimidine dimer in DNA, and, on absorption of a photon (300-600 nm), specifically monomerizes the dimer, thus repairing the DNA. Photoreactivating enzyme has been found in human tissues and human cells in culture; human cells in culture can photoreactivate cellular dimers, and can mediate photoreactivation of Herpes (human fibroblasts) and Epstein-Barr virus (human leukocytes). Measurements of pyrimidine dimer formation and repair in human skin indicate that detectable numbers of dimers are formed at 1 minimal erythemal dose, that the dimers are rapidly removed in skin kept in the absence of light, and they are more rapidly removed when the skin is exposed to visible light

  8. Ultrastructure of elastosis in facial rhytidectomy skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin from 19 facial rhytidectomies performed in patients with chronic solar damage was compared with postauricular skin from patients of similar age. Light microscopy demonstrated large areas of amorphous material that stained PAS positive in all 19 face-lift specimens, while none of the controls had such material. Electron microscopy of the ''elastotic'' material revealed large amorphous masses of granular material, with loss of the microfilament component of normal elastin. Current theories suggest that the elastotic material in solar-damaged skin is a product of radiation-damaged fibroblasts, rather than being either collagen or degenerated elastin. Such knowledge may help the plastic surgeons encourage rhytidectomy patients to protect themselves from solar radiation

  9. Induction of sensitivity of fibroblast cultures to pituitary growth hormone by a thermostable serum factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents data to show that highly purified pituitary growth hormone (GH) preparations, themselves unable to stimulate DNA biosynthesis in cultures of adult human skin fibroblasts, acquire this ability if the cells are treated simultaneously with a factor present in a thermostable and acid-resistant fraction of rat blood serum. Activity of this factor in rat blood serum has been shown to depend on the pituitary, and to increase after hypophysectomy. Human GH, while not exhibiting activity itself, if added to the medium simultaneously with serum fraction from hypophysectomized rats, stimulated DNA biosynthesis by fibroblasts significantly. The increase in tritium-thymidine incorporation under the influence of the hormone together with the serum fraction amounted to 233%. It is important to not that serum fraction of intact rats of the same age in a concentration of 1% was unable to induce sensitivity of the fibroblasts to human GH

  10. Antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yinghua, Song; Lubing, Zhu; Ming, Li.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in sclerotic mice. METHODS: Skin fibroblasts that were isolated from three systemic scleroderma (SSc) patients and three healthy subjects were treated with crocetin (0.1, 1 or 10 ?M). Cell proliferation [...] was measured with an MTT assay. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was detected via an immunohistochemical method. Alpha 1 (I) procollagen (COL1A1), alpha 1 (III) procollagen (COL3A1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. SSc mice were established by the subcutaneous injection of bleomycin. Crocetin (50 mg/kg/d) was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. Dermal thickness and lung fibrosis were assessed with Masson's trichrome staining. Plasma ET-1 was detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Skin and lung ET-1 and COL1A1 mRNA levels were measured via real-time PCR. RESULTS: Crocetin inhibited the proliferation of SSc and normal fibroblasts, an effect that increased with crocetin concentration and incubation time. Crocetin decreased the expression of ?-SMA and the levels of mRNA for COL1A1, COL3A1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1, while crocetin increased TIMP-1 mRNA levels in both SSc and normal fibroblasts. Skin and lung fibrosis was induced, and the levels of ET-1 in the plasma, skin and lungs were elevated in bleomycin-injected mice. Crocetin alleviated the thickening of the dermis and lung fibrosis; decreased COL1A1 mRNA levels in the skin and lung; and simultaneously decreased ET-1 concentrations in the plasma and ET-1 mRNA levels in the skin and lungs of the bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice, especially during the early phase (weeks 1-3). CONCLUSION: Crocetin inhibits cell proliferation, differentiation and collagen production in SSc fibroblasts. Crocetin alleviates skin and lung fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, in part due to a reduction in ET-1.

  11. Age-dependent biomechanical properties of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlaczyk, Mariola; Lelonkiewicz, Monika; Wieczorowski, Micha?

    2013-10-01

    The skin fulfills one of its most important functions, that is protection from mechanical injuries, due to the mechanism of reversible deformation of the structure. Human skin is a complex living material but in biomechanical tests it reveals its homogeneous nature. Biomechanical skin parameters change with time. Results of thickness measurements, where the skin was subjected to pressure, revealed that the Young's modulus increased linearly with age. The process of ageing is the reason why the skin becomes thinner, stiffer, less tense and less flexible. Skin tension measured during in vivo uniaxial load and the elasticity modulus are higher in children than in elderly adults. Furthermore, mean ultimate skin deformation before bursting is 75% for newborns and 60% for the elderly. Several types of the main lines were distinguished on the skin. The static lines, described by Langer, correspond to the lines of maximum tension, the Kraissl's lines correspond to the movements of the skin during muscle work, whereas the Borges lines are the relaxed skin tension lines. Biomechanical tests of the human skin help to quantify the effectiveness of dermatological products, detect skin diseases, schedule and plan surgical and dermatological interventions and treatments. PMID:24353490

  12. Gallic Acid Induces a Reactive Oxygen Species-Provoked c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase-Dependent Apoptosis in Lung Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu-Yuan Chen; Kun-Chieh Chen; Tsung-Ying Yang; Hsiang-Chun Liu; Shih-Lan Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic lung disorder characterized by fibroblasts proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation. Induction of fibroblast apoptosis therefore plays a crucial role in the resolution of this disease. Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a common botanic phenolic compound, has been reported to induce apoptosis in tumor cell lines and renal fibroblasts. The present study was undertaken to examine the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)...

  13. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Health topics A-Z > Skin Care and Aging: How Aging Affects Skin In This Topic How Aging Affects Skin Skin Cancer Keep Your Skin ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, and related issues.

  14. Amphibian Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore the concept of permeability to better understand why amphibians are extremely sensitive to pollution. Learners soak one regular hard-boiled egg and one peeled hard-boiled egg in dyed water and then record how the eggs' circumference and appearance change after 24 hours. Learners investigate how the peeled egg represents amphibian skin and how amphibians are affected by pollution.

  15. Intracrine sex steroid synthesis and signaling in human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomari, Elena; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Pertile, Paolo; Colombo, Lorenzo; Thornton, M Julie

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral intracrine sex steroid synthesis from adrenal precursors dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate has evolved in humans. We sought to establish if there are differences in intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine regulation of sex steroids by primary cultures of human skin epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Microarray analysis identified multifunctional genes modulated by steroids, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) mRNA expression, enzymatic assay aromatase activity, scratch assay cell migration, immunocytochemistry ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and collagen gel fibroblast contraction. All steroidogenic components were present, although only keratinocytes expressed the organic anion organic anion transporter protein (OATP) 2B1 transporter. Both expressed the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER1). Steroids modulated multifunctional genes, up-regulating genes important in repair and aging [angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), lamin B1 (LMNB1), and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP)]. DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), DHEA, and 17?-estradiol stimulated keratinocyte and fibroblast migration at early (4 h) and late (24-48 h) time points, suggesting involvement of genomic and nongenomic signaling. Migration was blocked by aromatase and steroid sulfatase (STS) inhibitors confirming intracrine synthesis to estrogen. Testosterone had little effect, implying it is not an intermediate. Steroids stimulated fibroblast contraction but not ?-SMA expression. Mechanical wounding reduced fibroblast aromatase activity but increased keratinocyte activity, amplifying the bioavailability of intracellular estrogen. Cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes provide a biologically relevant model system to investigate the complex pathways of sex steroid intracrinology in human skin. PMID:25392269

  16. Reduced growth factor requirement of keloid-derived fibroblasts may account for tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keloids are benign dermal tumors that form during an abnormal wound-healing process is genetically susceptible individuals. Although growth of normal and keloid cells did not differ in medium containing 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid culture grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid cultures grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) plasma or 1% fetal bovine serum. Conditioned medium from keloid cultures did not stimulate growth of normal cells in plasma nor did it contain detectable platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Keloid fibroblasts responded differently than normal adult fibroblasts to transforming growth factor ?. Whereas transforming growth factor ? reduced growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from keloids. Normal and keloid fibroblasts also responded differently to hydrocortisone: growth was stimulated in normal adult cells and unaffected or inhibited in keloid cells. Fetal fibroblasts resembled keloid cells in their ability to grow in plasma and in their response to hydrocortisone. The ability of keloid fibroblasts to grow to higher cell densities in low-serum medium than cells from normal adult ski medium than cells from normal adult skin or from normal early or mature scars suggests that a reduced dependence on serum growth factors may account for their prolonged growth in vivo. Similarities between keloid and fetal cells suggest that keloids may result from the untimely expression of growth-control mechanism that is developmentally regulated

  17. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo; Kim, So Young; Jang, Hwan-Hee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Taehoon G

    2012-11-23

    The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the ?1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate peptide for the treatment of skin aging and wrinkles. PMID:23111328

  18. Age-Related Changes in the Mechanical Properties of Human Fibroblasts and Its Prospective Reversal After Anti-Wrinkle Tripeptide Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Duli?ska-Molak, Ida; Pasikowska, Monika; Pogoda, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Ma?gorzata; Eris, Irena; Lekka, Ma?gorzata

    2013-01-01

    One of an essential characteristic of human skin are time dependent mechanical properties. Here, we demonstrate that stiffness of human dermal fibroblast correlates with age and it can be restored after anti-wrinkle tripeptide treatment. The stiffness of human fibroblasts isolated from donors of 30-, 40- and 60 years old were examined. Additionally the effect of anti- wrinkle tripeptide of latter cells was investigated. The atomic force microscopy measurements were performed on untreated fibr...

  19. Skin Structure and Wound Healing Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abdol Tehrani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin injury caused by burns, surgery and other traumas may result in unpleasant psychological experiences and be reflected in behaviors. Extracellular matrix (ECM is the largest component of natural skin which is gel-like and is produced by skin cells. ECM synthesis is a key factor for filling up skin wounds such as burns, leishmaniasis, chicken pox, acne, etc. ECM is composed of a variety of polysaccharides, water, and collagen proteins. Considering its weight, natural skin strength and its expandability are like steel, while it has high elasticity and compaction capacities. These characteristics are due to dual effects of main ECM molecules, which are secreted by fibroblasts and epidermal cells: 1 structural fiber proteins like: elastin, fibronectin and laminin which give strength and flexibility to ECM, and 2 proteoglycans such as dermatan sulfate and hyaluronic acid which are consisted of few glycosaminoglycan chains that branch out from a linear protein core. Proteoglycans are large and hydrated molecules which are resistant to external forces and protect underneath cells. In general, understanding the skin structure and wound healing phases can help us to design useful experiments and to conduct proper researches in this area.

  20. Question of bone marrow stromal fibroblast traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow stromal fibroblasts (CFU-F) normally do not exchange bone marrow sites in vivo. Restitution of the CFU-F after radiation damage is primarily recovery by the local fibroblasts from potentially lethal damage. Migration of stromal fibroblasts from shielded sites to an irradiated site makes a minimal contribution, if any, to CFU-F recovery. Determination of the relative contribution of donor stromal cells in bone marrow transplants by karyotyping the proliferating bone marrow stromal cells in vitro may not reflect the relative distribution of fibroblasts in the marrow. If there is residual damage to the host stromal fibroblasts from treatment before transplantation, these cells may not be able to proliferate in vitro. Therefore, an occasional transplanted fibroblast may contribute most of the metaphase figures scored for karyotype

  1. Treatment for skin loss using bilayered tissue engineered skin in an allograft model in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The ability of the skin to repair itself following minor injuries is remarkable but when the injury is severe, medical intervention is required both to speed the recovery of the skin itself and to protect the body from infection and fluid loss. The injuries of severe burn patients must quickly be covered and traditionally, this has involved the use of cadaver skin. Our previous study demonstrates that the autologous bilayered skin via tissue engineering promotes healing better. Now, we try to propose a new approach to promote wound healing by using allograft tissue engineered skin. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usage and functionality of the allograft skin comprises of keratinocytes and fibroblasts after irradiation of wound healing therapy in sheep model. Bilayered tissue engineered skin (BSE) was reconstructed. The sheep skin were cleaned, digested using collagenase I and cultured using Define Keratinocytes layer. The BSE was irradiated with gamma ray at the dosage of 2 Gy and implanted on the circumferential lesion that was created at the dorsum of the sheep. After 3 weeks, the sheep were euthanized and the excised tissues were fixed in formalin for histological examination via Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichome. Macroscopically, lesions implanted with the irradiated BSE showed better healing compared to unirradiated BSE that served as control. H and E staining demonstrated lesions implanted with irradiated BSE produced continuoused with irradiated BSE produced continuous multiple layer of epidermal layer with presence of keratin pearls. In contrary, the control lesions showed no better layer of skin formation. Throughout Masson Trichome, the collagen formation more clear in irradiated BSE compared to control. Our allograft bilayered skin tissue engineering after irradiated could be accepted and migrate with the native skin. (Author)

  2. Amplification of the Ect2 proto-oncogene and over-expression of Ect2 mRNA and protein in nickel compound and methylcholanthrene-transformed 10T1/2 mouse fibroblast cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposure of humans to mixtures of insoluble and soluble nickel (Ni) compounds correlates with increased incidences of lung, sinus, and pharyngeal tumors. Specific insoluble Ni compounds are carcinogenic to animals by inhalation and induce morphological and neoplastic transformation of cultured rodent cells. Our objectives were to (1) understand mechanisms of nickel ion-induced cell transformation, hence carcinogenesis and (2) develop biomarkers of nickel ion exposure and nickel ion-induced cell transformation. We isolated mRNAs from green nickel oxide (NiO), crystalline nickel monosulfide (NiS), and 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) transformed C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 cell lines, and determined by mRNA differential display that nine mRNA fragments were differentially expressed between Ni transformed and non-transformed 10T1/2 cell lines. Fragment R2-5 was expressed at higher steady-state levels in the transformed cell lines. R2-5 had 100% sequence identity to part of the coding region of Ect2, a mouse proto-oncogene encoding a GDP-GTP exchange factor. The 3.9-kb Ect2 transcript was expressed at 1.6- to 3.6-fold higher steady-state levels in four Ni transformed, and in two MCA-transformed, cell lines. Ect2 protein was expressed at 3.0- to 4.5-fold higher steady-state levels in Ni-transformed and in MCA-transformed cell lines. The Ect2 gene was amplified by 3.5- to 10-fold in Ni transformed, and by 2.5- to 3-fold in MCA transformed cell lines. Binding of nickel ions to end cell lines. Binding of nickel ions to enzymes of DNA synthesis likely caused amplification of the Ect2 gene. Ect2 gene amplification and over-expression of Ect2 mRNA and protein can cause microtubule disassembly and cytokinesis, contributing to induction and maintenance of morphological, anchorage-independent, and neoplastic transformation of these cell lines. Over-expression of Ect2 protein is a useful biomarker to detect exposure to nickel compounds and nickel ion-induced morphological and neoplastic cell transformation

  3. Dermal fibroblasts in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome with the lamin A G608G mutation have dysmorphic nuclei and are hypersensitive to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worman Howard J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670 is a rare sporadic disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 per 8 million live births. The phenotypic appearance consists of short stature, sculptured nose, alopecia, prominent scalp veins, small face, loss of subcutaneous fat, faint mid-facial cyanosis, and dystrophic nails. HGPS is caused by mutations in LMNA, the gene that encodes nuclear lamins A and C. The most common mutation in subjects with HGPS is a de novo single-base pair substitution, G608G (GGC>GGT, within exon 11 of LMNA. This creates an abnormal splice donor site, leading to expression of a truncated protein. Results We studied a new case of a 5 year-old girl with HGPS and found a heterozygous point mutation, G608G, in LMNA. Complementary DNA sequencing of RNA showed that this mutation resulted in the deletion of 50 amino acids in the carboxyl-terminal tail domain of prelamin A. We characterized a primary dermal fibroblast cell line derived from the subject's skin. These cells expressed the mutant protein and exhibited a normal growth rate at early passage in primary culture but showed alterations in nuclear morphology. Expression levels and overall distributions of nuclear lamins and emerin, an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, were not dramatically altered. Ultrastructural analysis of the nuclear envelope using electron microscopy showed that chromatin is in close association to the nuclear lamina, even in areas with abnormal nuclear envelope morphology. The fibroblasts were hypersensitive to heat shock, and demonstrated a delayed response to heat stress. Conclusion Dermal fibroblasts from a subject with HGPS expressing a mutant truncated lamin A have dysmorphic nuclei, hypersensitivity to heat shock, and delayed response to heat stress. This suggests that the mutant protein, even when expressed at low levels, causes defective cell stability, which may be responsible for phenotypic abnormalities in the disease.

  4. Cell motility and local viscoelasticity of fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S; Koch, D; Cardenas, R; Käs, J; Shih, C K

    2005-12-01

    Viscoelastic changes of the lamellipodial actin cytoskeleton are a fundamental element of cell motility. Thus, the correlation between the local viscoelastic properties of the lamellipodium (including the transitional region to the cell body) and the speed of lamellipodial extension is studied for normal and malignantly transformed fibroblasts. Using our atomic force microscopy-based microrheology technique, we found different mechanical properties between the lamellipodia of malignantly transformed fibroblasts (H-ras transformed and SV-T2 fibroblasts) and normal fibroblasts (BALB 3T3 fibroblasts). The average elastic constants, K, in the leading edge of SV-T2 fibroblasts (0.48 +/- 0.51 kPa) and of H-ras transformed fibroblasts (0.42 +/- 0.35 kPa) are significantly lower than that of BALB 3T3 fibroblasts (1.01 +/- 0.40 kPa). The analysis of time-lapse phase contrast images shows that the decrease in the elastic constant, K, for malignantly transformed fibroblasts is correlated with the enhanced motility of the lamellipodium. The measured mean speeds are 6.1 +/- 4.5 microm/h for BALB 3T3 fibroblasts, 13.1 +/- 5.2 microm/h for SV-T2 fibroblasts, and 26.2 +/- 11.5 microm/h for H-ras fibroblasts. Furthermore, the elastic constant, K, increases toward the cell body in many instances which coincide with an increase in actin filament density toward the cell body. The correlation between the enhanced motility and the decrease in viscoelastic moduli supports the Elastic Brownian Ratchet model for driving lamellipodia extension. PMID:16199496

  5. Skin to skin care:heat balance.

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, H.

    1996-01-01

    Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed skin to skin on their mothers' chests. The mean (SD) rectal temperature increased by 0.7 (0.4) degrees C to 37.0 de...

  6. Senescent Fibroblasts Promote Neoplastic Transformation of Partially Transformed Ovarian Epithelial Cells in a Three-dimensional Model of Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Lawrenson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Most epithelial ovarian cancers are diagnosed postmenopausally, although the well-established epidemiological risk factors (parity, oral contraceptive use are premenopausal. We hypothesized that accumulation of senescent fibroblasts, together with concomitant loss of presenescent fibroblasts within the ovarian cortex, promotes initiation and early development of ovarian cancer from ovarian surface epithelial (OSE cells. To test this, we established immortalized OSE (IOSE cell lines that mimic early neoplastic transformation by overexpressing the CMYC oncogene (IOSECMYC and normal ovarian presenescent (PSN and senescent (SEN fibroblast cell lines. We then evaluated the ability of PSN and SEN fibroblasts to transform IOSE and IOSECMYC after coculture. SEN fibroblasts significantly enhanced neoplastic development of IOSECMYC cells; there was an up to 15-fold increase in migration of IOSECMYC cells cocultured with SEN fibroblasts compared with PSN fibroblasts. Conditioned medium from SEN fibroblasts promoted anchorage-independent growth of IOSECMYC cells. We studied fibroblast-epithelial cell interactions in heterotypic three-dimensional spheroid models. Dual immunohistochemical staining of spheroids for a proliferation marker (MIB-1 and cytokeratin-18 indicated that SEN fibroblasts induce approximately a five-fold increase in proliferation of IOSECMYC cells relative to cocultures with PSN fibroblasts. SEN, but not PSN fibroblasts, also induced nuclear atypia in epithelial cells in three-dimensional spheroids. These data suggest for the first time that the accumulation of senescent, or loss of presenescent fibroblasts, can promote neoplastic development of partially transformed OSE cells in vitro and illustrates the power of using three-dimensional heterotypic modeling to gain better insights into the etiology underlying the development of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  7. Keratinocytes in tissue engineering of human skin: invitro and in vivo studies

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Full thickness wounds, such as deep burns, need restoration of both the dermal and epidermal layers of the skin. In normal wound healing, re-epithelialization occurs by migration and proliferation of keratinocytes from the wound edges and by differentiation of stem cells from remaining hair follicles. Restoration of dermis occurs by influx of growth factors secreted by macrophages, platelets, and fibroblasts; by fibroblast proliferation and subsequent synthesis and remodeling of collagenous d...

  8. Mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase in cystic fibrosis: enzyme kinetics in cultured fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, B L; Lam, L F; Feigal, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Differences among cystic fibrosis (CF) genotypes (CF, obligate carriers for CF [HZ], and controls) in mitochondrial calcium pool size, oxygen (O2) consumption, and rotenone inhibition of O2 consumption led to examination of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (NADH: [acceptor] oxidoreductase, E.C. 1.6.99.3). pH optima of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase were different in enzyme derived from whole cell homogenates of cultured skin fibroblasts of subjects with CF, HZ, and controls. We describe her...

  9. Fibroblast-to-myofibroblast switch is mediated by NAD(PH oxidase generated reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirija Alili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour–stroma interaction is a prerequisite for tumour progression in skin cancer. Hereby, a critical step in stromal function is the transition of tumour-associated fibroblasts to MFs (myofibroblasts by growth factors, for example TGF? (transforming growth factor beta(. In this study, the question was addressed of whether fibroblast-associated NAD(PH oxidase (NADH/NADPH oxidase, known to be activated by TGF?1, is involved in the fibroblast-to-MF switch. The up-regulation of ?SMA (alpha smooth muscle actin, a biomarker for MFs, is mediated by a TGF?1-dependent increase in the intracellular level of ROS (reactive oxygen species. This report demonstrates two novel aspects of the TGF?1 signalling cascade, namely the generation of ROS due to a biphasic NAD(PH oxidase activity and a ROS-dependent downstream activation of p38 leading to a transition of dermal fibroblasts to MFs that can be inhibited by the selective NAD(PH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. These data suggest that inhibition of NAD(PH oxidase activity prevents the fibroblast-to-MF switch and may be important for chemoprevention in context of a ‘stromal therapy’ which was described earlier.

  10. If I Had - Signs of Aging Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... topical treatments, oral treatments, and surgical treatments to improve the appearance of aging skin. What does the ... of all moisturizing is the quickest way to improve fine lines and wrinkles of the face. With ...

  11. Inflammasome signaling pathways exert antiviral effect against Chikungunya virus in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekchariyawat, Peeraya; Hamel, Rodolphe; Bernard, Eric; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Talignani, Loïc; Thomas, Frédéric; Choumet, Valérie; Yssel, Hans; Desprès, Philippe; Briant, Laurence; Missé, Dorothée

    2015-06-01

    Arboviruses represent an emerging threat to human. They are transmitted to vertebrates by the bite of infected arthropods. Early transmission to vertebrates is initiated by skin puncture and deposition of virus in this organ. However, events at the bite site remain largely unknown. Here, we report that Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV), despite belonging to distinct viral families, elicit a common antiviral signature in primary human dermal fibroblasts, attesting for the up regulation of interferon signaling pathways and leading to an increased expression of IFN-?, interleukins and chemokines. Remarkably, CHIKV and WNV enhance IL-1? expression and induce maturation of caspase-1, indicating the capacity of these pathogens to elicit activation of the inflammasome program in resident skin cells. CHIKV and WNV also induce the expression of the inflammasome sensor AIM2 in dermal fibroblasts, whereas inhibition of caspase-1 and AIM2 with siRNA interferes with both CHIKV- and WNV-induced IL-1? production by these cells. Finally, inhibition of the inflammasome via caspase-1 silencing was found to enhance CHIKV replication in dermal fibroblasts. Together, these results indicate that the skin contributes to the pro-inflammatory and anti-viral microenvironment via the activation of the inflammasome in the early stages following infection with arboviruses. PMID:25847693

  12. Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Formation of Skin Wrinkling and Sagging I: Reduced Skin Elasticity, Highly Associated with Enhanced Dermal Elastase Activity, Triggers Wrinkling and Sagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genji Imokawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The repetitive exposure of skin to ultraviolet B (UVB preferentially elicits wrinkling while ultraviolet A (UVA predominantly elicits sagging. In chronically UVB or UVA-exposed rat skin there is a similar tortuous deformation of elastic fibers together with decreased skin elasticity, whose magnitudes are greater in UVB-exposed skin than in UVA-exposed skin. Comparison of skin elasticity with the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in the dermis of ovariectomized rats after UVB or UVA irradiation demonstrates that skin elasticity is more significantly decreased in ovariectomized rats than in sham-operated rats, which is accompanied by a reciprocal increase in elastase activity but not in the activities of collagenases I or IV. Clinical studies using animal skin and human facial skin demonstrated that topical treatment with a specific inhibitor or an inhibitory extract of skin fibroblast-derived elastase distinctly attenuates UVB and sunlight-induced formation of wrinkling. Our results strongly indicated that the upregulated activity of skin fibroblast-derived elastase plays a pivotal role in wrinkling and/or sagging of the skin via the impairment of elastic fiber configuration and the subsequent loss of skin elasticity.

  13. Multidimensional two-photon imaging of diseased skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Massi, D.; Lotti, T.; Pavone, F. S.

    2008-02-01

    We used combined two photon intrinsic fluorescence (TPE), second harmonic generation microscopy (SHG), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), and multispectral two photon emission detection (MTPE) to investigate different kinds of human cutaneous ex-vivo skin lesions. Morphological and spectroscopic analyses allowed to characterize both healthy and pathological skin samples, including tumors, as well as to discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue, in a good agreement with common routine histology. In particular, we examined tissue samples from normal and pathological scar tissue (keloid), and skin tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). By using combined TPE-SHG microscopy we investigated morphological features of different skin regions, as BCC, tumor-stroma interface, healthy dermis, fibroblastic proliferation, and keloids. The SHG to autofluorescence aging index of dermis (SAAID) score was used to characterize each region, finding differences between BCC, healthy skin, tumor-stroma interface, keloids, and fibroblastic proliferation. Further comparative analysis of healthy skin and neoplastic samples was performed using FLIM. In particular, BCC showed a blue-shifted fluorescence emission, a higher absorption at 800 nm excitation wavelength, and a slightly longer mean fluorescence lifetime. MM showed a lifetime distribution similar to the corresponding melanocytic nevus (MN) lifetime distribution for the slow lifetime component, and different for the fast lifetime component.

  14. The small Rho GTPase Rac1 controls normal human dermal fibroblasts proliferation with phosphorylation of the oncoprotein c-myc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proliferation of dermal fibroblasts is crucial for the maintenance of skin. The small Rho GTPase, Rac1, has been identified as a key transducer of proliferative signals in various cell types, but in normal human dermal fibroblasts its significance to cell growth control has not been studied. In this study, we applied the method of RNA interference to suppress endogenous Rac1 expression and examined the consequences on human skin fibroblasts. Rac1 knock-down resulted in inhibition of DNA synthesis. This effect was not mediated by inhibition of the central transducer of proliferative stimuli, ERK1/2 or by activation of the pro-apoptotic p38. Rather, as a consequence of the suppressed Rac1 expression we observed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of c-myc, revealing for the first time that in human fibroblasts Rac1 exerts control on proliferation through c-myc phosphorylation. Thus Rac1 activates proliferation of normal fibroblasts through stimulation of c-myc phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 activity

  15. Analysis of the cell cycle of fibroblasts derived from the LEC rat after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LEC rat is reported to exhibit hypersensitivity to X-irradiation, deficiency in DNA double-strand break repair, and radio-resistant DNA synthesis. This character of the LEC rat has been thought to be due to abnormal G1 arrest in cells after X-irradiation. In this report, we re-investigated the effect of X-irradiation on the cell cycle in primary-cultured fibroblasts. Primary-cultured fibroblasts derived from LEC and BN rats were exposed to 4 Gy of X-ray and their cell cycle analysis was performed with a flow cytometer. Fibroblasts derived from both rats showed normal response of the cell cycle, indicating the arrest at both G1- and G2/M-phase and no difference in the cell cycle population between fibroblasts derived from both rats. In contrast, when the same analysis was performed using the cell line, L7 and W8, which had been established from the lung fibroblasts of LEC and control WKAH rats, respectively, by immortalizing with SV40 T-antigen, L7 cells but not W8 cells showed impaired G1 arrest and abnormal cell cycle. These results suggest that fibroblasts derived from LEC rats possess the normal cell cycle response after X-irradiation, if they are kept naive as not immortalized with SV40 T-antigen

  16. Gingival fibroblasts "in vitro" and Down's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmi, R; Rossetti, A; Talassi, O; Tomasini, G L; Fato, R; Estornell, E; Lucarini, G; Lenaz, G; Simonelli, L; Brunelli, M A; Biagini, G

    1993-01-01

    Gingival fibroblast cultures from four patients with Down's Syndrome (DS) and periodontal disease were compared with four in vitro age-matched fibroblast cultures of handicapped subjects (ND) also affected by periodontitis. The extra copy of cromosome 21 could alter growth regulation and biochemical mechanisms, so we examined quantitatively some DS phenotypical aspects to detect possible differences from those of controls. The growth properties of gingival fibroblast cultures from DS patients were more elevated than their ND age-matched controls. There were no differences in plasma membrane polarization and in neutral endopeptidase activity. The succinate-cytochrome C reductase activity decreases in DS fibroblasts compared with ND. Our results outline the difficulties to inusing fibroblast cultures as an in vitro system to study premature ageing Down's Syndrome. PMID:22358711

  17. Adaptive skin detection based on online training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Jie; Rong, Gang

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a widely used cue for porn image classification. Most conventional methods are off-line training schemes. They usually use a fixed boundary to segment skin regions in the images and are effective only in restricted conditions: e.g. good lightness and unique human race. This paper presents an adaptive online training scheme for skin detection which can handle these tough cases. In our approach, skin detection is considered as a classification problem on Gaussian mixture model. For each image, human face is detected and the face color is used to establish a primary estimation of skin color distribution. Then an adaptive online training algorithm is used to find the real boundary between skin color and background color in current image. Experimental results on 450 images showed that the proposed method is more robust in general situations than the conventional ones.

  18. Detect Skin Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Español | Shop SPOT | Contact SPOT Donate Now Community programs & events SPOTme® skin cancer screenings Play Sun Smart™ ... quiz Get involved Free resources Meet our partners Español Detect skin cancer Anyone can get skin cancer , ...

  19. Detect Skin Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for How to SPOT Skin Cancer™ Body mole map Dangers of indoor tanning SPOT Skin Cancer™ quiz ... checking your skin. Download the AAD's body mole map to document your self-examination, or the How ...

  20. Learning about Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  1. Detect Skin Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Online Learning Center Clinical guidelines PQRS DataDerm State melanoma reporting Appropriate use criteria MOC Patient safety Awards, ... Shade Structure Program Skin Cancer, Take a Hike!™ Melanoma Monday® Learn about skin cancer Types of skin ...

  2. Effect of periodontal dressings on human gingiva fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro cytotoxicity studies of periodontal dressings have not generally produced a result consistent with in vivo observations. These prior in vitro studies have not used human intraoral cell lines. We tested the effects of two eugenol containing and two non-eugenol periodontal dressings on cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) (ATCC No. 1292). Replicate HGF cultures grown in microtiter plates were exposed to stock, 1:4 and 1:16 dilutions of extracts made from each of the four periodontal dressings. The HGF cultures were pulse labelled with tritiated thymidine (3HTdR) after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Incorporations of the labelled thymidine were measured using liquid scintillation counting and expressed as counts per minute. The results showed that undiluted extracts from all four periodontal dressings totally inhibited 3HTdR uptake (P less than 0.05). The 1:4 dilution of eugenol dressings inhibited 3HTdR uptake significantly more than non-eugenol dressings (P less than 0.05). Interestingly, at 72 hours the 1:16 dilution of the non-eugenol dressings caused significantly increased 3HTdR uptake which was not observed with the eugenol dressings. The present results suggest that the use of a human fibroblastic cell line for testing the effects of periodontal dressings may provide information about the relative biological effects of these dressings. Using this cell line, we have found that eugenol dressings inhibit fibroblast proliferation to a greater extent than non-eugiferation to a greater extent than non-eugenol dressings

  3. Clues to epidermal cancer proneness revealed by reconstruction of DNA repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum skin in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Bernerd, Françoise; Asselineau, Daniel; Vioux, Corinne; Chevallier-Lagente, Odile; Bouadjar, Bakar; Sarasin, Alain; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    Sun exposure has been clearly implicated in premature skin aging and neoplastic development. These features are exacerbated in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a hereditary disease, the biochemical hallmark of which is a severe deficiency in the nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced DNA lesions. To develop an organotypic model of DNA repair deficiency, we have cultured several strains of primary XP keratinocytes and XP fibroblasts from skin biopsies of XP patients. XP skin compris...

  4. Linear fibroblast alignment on sinusoidal wave micropatterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Jessica R; Mohandes, Samir; Tran, Phat L; Slepian, Marvin J; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2013-04-01

    Micrometer and nanometer grooved surfaces have been determined to influence cellular orientation, morphology, and migration through contact guidance. Cells typically elongate along the direction of an underlying groove and often migrate with guidance provided by constraints of the pattern. This phenomenon has been studied primarily using linear grooves, post, or well patterns. We investigated the behavior of mouse embryonic fibroblasts on non-linear, sinusoidal wave grooves created via electron beam lithography on a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) substrate that was spin-coated onto a positively charged glass surface. Three different wave patterns, with varying wavelengths and amplitudes, and two different line patterns were created. Cell orientation and adhesion was examined after 4, 24, and 48 h after cell seeding. Attachment strength was studied via subjecting cells on substrates to centrifugal force following a 24-h incubation period. For all wave patterns studied, it was noted that cells did not reside within the groove, rather they were observed to cross over each groove, residing both inside and outside of each wave pattern, aligning linearly along the long axis of the pattern. For the linear patterns, we observed that cells tended to reside within the grooves, consistent with previous observations. The ability to add texture to a surface to manipulate cell adhesion strength and growth with only localized attachment, maintaining free space in curvilinear microtopography underlying the cell, may be a useful addition for tissue engineering and the fabrication of novel biomedical devices. PMID:23375052

  5. Lung fibroblasts from patients with emphysema show markers of senescence in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima M

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The loss of alveolar walls is a hallmark of emphysema. As fibroblasts play an important role in the maintenance of alveolar structure, a change in fibroblast phenotype could be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. In a previous study we found a reduced in vitro proliferation rate and number of population doublings of parenchymal lung fibroblasts from patients with emphysema and we hypothesized that these findings could be related to a premature cellular aging of these cells. In this study, we therefore compared cellular senescence markers and expression of respective genes between lung fibroblasts from patients with emphysema and control patients without COPD. Methods Primary lung fibroblasts were obtained from 13 patients with moderate to severe lung emphysema (E and 15 controls (C undergoing surgery for lung tumor resection or volume reduction (n = 2. Fibroblasts (8E/9C were stained for senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal. In independent cultures, DNA from lung fibroblasts (7E/8C was assessed for mean telomere length. Two exploratory 12 k cDNA microarrays were used to assess gene expression in pooled fibroblasts (3E/3C. Subsequently, expression of selected genes was evaluated by quantitative PCR (qPCR in fibroblasts of individual patients (10E/9C and protein concentration was analyzed in the cell culture supernatant. Results The median (quartiles percentage of fibroblasts positive for SA-?-Gal was 4.4 (3.2;4.7 % in controls and 16.0 (10.0;24.8 % in emphysema (p = 0.001, while telomere length was not different. Among the candidates for differentially expressed genes in the array (factor ? 3, 15 were upregulated and 121 downregulated in emphysema. qPCR confirmed the upregulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-rP1 (p = 0.029, p = 0.0002, while expression of IGFBP-5, -rP2 (CTGF, -rP4 (Cyr61, FOSL1, LOXL2, OAZ1 and CDK4 was not different between groups. In line with the gene expression we found increased cell culture supernatant concentrations of IGFBP-3 (p = 0.006 in emphysema. Conclusion These data support the hypothesis that premature aging of lung fibroblasts occurs in emphysema, via a telomere-independent mechanism. The upregulation of the senescence-associated IGFBP-3 and -rP1 in emphysema suggests that inhibition of the action of insulin and insulin-like growth factors could be involved in the reduced in vitro-proliferation rate.

  6. Gene expression profiling reveals novel TGF? targets in adult lung fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Jeremy D

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transforming growth factor beta (TGF?, a multifunctional cytokine, plays a crucial role in the accumulation of extracellular matrix components in lung fibrosis, where lung fibroblasts are considered to play a major role. Even though the effects of TGF? on the gene expression of several proteins have been investigated in several lung fibroblast cell lines, the global pattern of response to this cytokine in adult lung fibroblasts is still unknown. Methods We used Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays U95v2, containing approximately 12,000 human genes, to study the transcriptional profile in response to a four hour treatment with TGF? in control lung fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic and scleroderma-associated pulmonary fibrosis. A combination of the Affymetrix change algorithm (Microarray Suite 5 and of analysis of variance models was used to identify TGF?-regulated genes. Additional criteria were an average up- or down- regulation of at least two fold. Results Exposure of fibroblasts to TGF? had a profound impact on gene expression, resulting in regulation of 129 transcripts. We focused on genes not previously found to be regulated by TGF? in lung fibroblasts or other cell types, including nuclear co-repressor 2, SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (SMURF2, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1, and confirmed the microarray results by real time-PCR. Western Blotting confirmed induction at the protein level of AGTR1, the most highly induced gene in both control and fibrotic lung fibroblasts among genes encoding for signal transduction molecules. Upregulation of AGTR1 occurred through the MKK1/MKK2 signalling pathway. Immunohistochemical staining showed AGTR1 expression by lung fibroblasts in fibroblastic foci within biopsies of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Conclusions This study identifies several novel TGF? targets in lung fibroblasts, and confirms with independent methods the induction of angiotensin II receptor type 1, underlining a potential role for angiotensin II receptor 1 antagonism in the treatment of lung fibrosis.

  7. Establishment and Biological Characteristics of Hereford Cattle Fibroblast Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Guan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fibroblast line from kindey tissue of Hereford cattle was established successfully by direct culture of explants and biology cryopreservation techniques. The cell line contained 101 tubes of frozen cells from 34 primary kidney samples. Biological analysis showed that the cells were morphologically consistent with fibroblasts and the growth curve was sigmoidal with a Population Doubling Time (PDT of 35 h.The average viability of the cells was 95.8% before freezing and 93.4% after thawing. Cross-contamination among cell lines was excluded by isoenzyme analysis of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH and Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH. The frequency of cells having the diploid chromosome number (60 was 97.5%. Detection of bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycoplasmas was verified negative. At 24, 48 and 72 h after transfection, the expression efficiency of fluorescent protein genes (pEGFP-N3, pEYFP-N1 and pDsRed1-N1 were between 18.6~32%; The fluorescence could be observed well-distributed in cytoplasm and nucleus in addition to some cryptomere vesicles at 12 h after transfection.

  8. Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Formation of Skin Wrinkling and Sagging II: Over-Expression of Neprilysin Plays an Essential Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genji Imokawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies strongly indicated that the up-regulated activity of skin fibroblast-derived elastase plays a pivotal role in wrinkling and/or sagging of the skin via the impairment of elastic fiber configuration and the subsequent loss of skin elasticity. Fortunately, we succeeded in identifying human skin fibroblast-derived elastase as a previously known enzyme, neprilysin or neutral endopeptidase (NEP. We have also characterized epithelial-mesenchymal paracrine cytokine interactions between UVB-exposed-keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts and found that interleukin-1? and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulatory factor (GM-CSF are intrinsic cytokines secreted by UVB-exposed keratinocytes that stimulate the expression of neprilysin by fibroblasts. On the other hand, direct UVA exposure of human fibroblasts significantly stimulates the secretion of IL-6 and also elicits a significant increase in the gene expression of matrix metallo-protease(MMP-1 as well as neprilysin (to a lesser extent, which is followed by distinct increases in their protein and enzymatic activity levels. Direct UVA exposure of human keratinocytes also stimulates the secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF but not of IL-1 and endothelin-1. These findings suggest that GM-CSF secreted by UVA-exposed keratinocytes as well as IL-6 secreted by UVA-exposed dermal fibroblasts play important and additional roles in UVA-induced sagging and wrinkling by up-regulation of neprilysin and MMP-1, respectively, in dermal fibroblasts.

  9. Chemosensitivity of primary human fibroblasts with defective unhooking of DNA interstrand cross-links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterised by defects in nucleotide excision repair, ultraviolet (UV) radiation sensitivity and increased skin carcinoma. Compared to other complementation groups, XP-F patients show relatively mild cutaneous symptoms. DNA interstrand cross-linking agents are a highly cytotoxic class of DNA damage induced by common cancer chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin and nitrogen mustards. Although the XPF-ERCC1 structure-specific endonuclease is required for the repair of ICLs cellular sensitivity of primary human XP-F cells has not been established. In clonogenic survival assays, primary fibroblasts from XP-F patients were moderately sensitive to both UVC and HN2 compared to normal cells (2- to 3-fold and 3- to 5-fold, respectively). XP-A fibroblasts were considerably more sensitive to UVC (10- to 12-fold) but not sensitive to HN2. The sensitivity of XP-F fibroblasts to HN2 correlated with the defective incision or 'unhooking' step of ICL repair. Using the comet assay, XP-F cells exhibited only 20% residual unhooking activity over 24 h. Over the same time, normal and XP-A cells unhooked greater than 95% and 62% of ICLs, respectively. After HN2 treatment, ICL-associated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are detected by pulse field gel electrophoresis in dividing cells. Induction and repair of DNA DSBs was normal in XP-F fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that in primary human fibroblasts, XPF is required for the unhooking of ICLs and not forired for the unhooking of ICLs and not for the induction or repair of ICL-associated DNA DSBs induced by HN2. In terms of cancer chemotherapy, people with mild DNA repair defects affecting ICL repair may be more prevalent in the general population than expected. Since cellular sensitivity of primary human fibroblasts usually reflects clinical sensitivity such patients with cancer would be at risk of increased toxicity

  10. Targeting autophagy in skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Teng; Zuber, Joshua; Li, Jinchao

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a major intracellular degradative process by which cytoplasmic materials are sequestered in double-membraned vesicles and degraded upon fusion with lysosomes. Under normal circumstances, basal autophagy is necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis by scavenging dysfunctional or damaged organelles or proteins. In addition to its vital homeostatic role, this degradation pathway has been implicated in many different cellular processes such as cell apoptosis, inflammation, pathogen clearance, and antigen presentation and thereby has been linked to a variety of human disorders, including metabolic conditions, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers, and infectious diseases. The skin, the largest organ of the body, serves as the first line of defense against many different environmental insults; however, only a few studies have examined the effect of autophagy on the pathogenesis of skin diseases. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of autophagy and highlights recent findings relevant to the role of autophagy in skin diseases and strategies for therapeutic modulation. PMID:25404245

  11. Radio-induced fibrosis of skin: contribution to its development and treatmentRadio-induced fibrosis of skin: contribution to its development and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibrosis of skin is frequently observed after therapeutic and accidental irradiations, and is characterized by the appearance of activated fibroblasts called myo-fibroblasts and the accumulation of extracellular matrix compounds. We postulated that radiation fibrosis could be considered as a chronic scar, where constant production of activating signals are emitted, whereas no negative feed back regulation occur. However, recent studies demonstrated that radiation-induced fibrosis could be treated using therapeutic agents like the superoxide dismutase. In order to better understand the mechanisms leading to skin fibrosis, we studied both the early reactions and the late fibrotic tissue induced by high radiation doses in normal skin. In particular, we investigated in the role of growth factors in these reactions. The synthesis of TGF-?1 was found to be increased, both the epidermis and the dermis, immediately after irradiation. This overexpression sustained during the development and the persistence phases of fibrosis, suggesting that the immediate cellular response induce a cascade of activation for genes and proteins which will result in the late effect of radiation in skin. Furthermore, these observations showed that the TGF-?1 could be a target for anti-fibrotic treatment. In order to test this hypothesis and to investigate further in the mechanisms leading to fibrosis regression after SOD treatment, we develop normal and fibrosis-like reconstructed skin models. These reconstructed skins were treated with liposomal and carrier-free Cu/Zn SOD, and examined for their effects on cell number, apoptosis and phenotypic differentiation. The results showed that SOD did not induce myo-fibroblast cell death or apoptosis whereas it significantly reduced TGF-?1 expression, thus demonstrating that SOD might be considered as a potent antagonist of the major fibro-genic growth factor. We also found that SOD significantly lowered the levels of the myo-fibroblast marker ?-sm actin, of the ?-actin, and of the extracellular matrix components ?1(I) collagen and tenascin-C. In conclusion, our results suggest that SOD anti-fibrotic action occurred in vitro through the reversion of myo-fibroblasts into normal fibroblasts. (author)Fibrosis of skin is frequently observed after therapeutic and accidental irradiations, and is characterized by the appearance of activated fibroblasts called myo-fibroblasts and the accumulation of extracellular matrix compounds. We postulated that radiation fibrosis could be considered as a chronic scar, where constant production of activating signals are emitted, whereas no negative feed back regulation occur. However, recent studies demonstrated that radiation-induced fibrosis could be treated using therapeutic agents like the superoxide dismutase. In order to better understand the mechanisms leading to skin fibrosis, we studied both the early reactions and the late fibrotic tissue induced by high radiation doses in normal skin. In particular, we investigated in the role of growth factors in these reactions. The synthesis of TGF-?1 was found to be increased, both the epidermis and the dermis, immediately after irradiation. This overexpression sustained during the development and the persistence phases of fibrosis, suggesting that the immediate cellular response induce a cascade of activation for genes and proteins which will result in the late effect of radiation in skin. Furthermore, these observations showed that the TGF-?1 could be a target for anti-fibrotic treatment. In order to test this hypothesis and to investigate further in the mechanisms leading to fibrosis regression after SOD treatment, we develop normal and fibrosis-like reconstructed skin models. These reconstructed skins were treated with liposomal and carrier-free Cu/Zn SOD, and examined for their effects on cell number, apoptosis and phenotypic differentiation. The results showed that SOD did not induce myo-fibroblast cell death or apoptosis whereas it significantly reduced TGF-?1 expression, thus demonstrating that SOD might be conside

  12. Royal Jelly Increases Collagen Production in Rat Skin After Ovariectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Min; Cho, Min Hyoung; Cho, Yunhi; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2012-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) is a honeybee product that contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats, free amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. RJ has been reported to have antitumor, antibacterial, and wound-healing activities. We previously reported that RJ enhanced the migration of human dermal fibroblasts and altered the levels of cholesterol and sphinganine in an in vitro wound-healing model in addition to regulating skin photoaging following exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation. We established an animal m...

  13. Studies on the metabolism and biological effects of nitropyrene and related nitro-polycyclic aromatic compounds in diploid human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, V M; Patton, J D; McCormick, J J

    1988-03-01

    Nitro derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are produced primarily as the result of incomplete combustion. Nitropyrenes have been identified as primary mutagenic compounds of diesel emission particulate and are tumorigenic in laboratory animals. Since nitropyrenes do not react directly with DNA, their effects presumably are mediated through cellular conversion of the parent compounds into reactive species. For example, 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) is activated by enzymatic reduction to 1-nitrosopyrene (1-NOP), followed by reduction to the hydroxylamine, which undergoes decomposition to yield a nitrenium ion, that reacts with DNA. The cytotoxic effects of 1-nitropyrene and 1-nitrosopyrene were compared in fibroblasts from normal persons, from excision-repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients, and from a patient with an inherited predisposition to malignant melanoma of the skin (hereditary cutaneous malignant melanoma [HCMM]). HCMM cells are more sensitive than normal cells to the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, and they form more DNA adducts per concentration of this agent than do normal cells. However, the HCMM cells exhibit the same sensitivity as normal cells to 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide, which suggests they are more capable than normal cells of metabolizing the parent compound into a more reactive form. On the basis of concentration, 1-NOP was much more cytotoxic than 1-NP. With both compounds, the normal cells exhibited a shoulder on their survival curves that was lacking for the XP cells. The dose of 1-NP giving 37% survival was 46 microM for a series of four normal cell lines, 22 microM for the HCMM cell line tested, and 12 microM for the XP cell line. The slope of the 1-nitropyrene survival curve for XP cells was 2.5 times steeper than the slope of the curve of the normal cells; the slope of the 1-NP survival curve for the HCMM cells was intermediate between the XP cells and the normal fibroblasts. The slope of the 1-nitrosopyrene survival curve for XP cells was also 2.5 times steeper than that for the normal cells, but the HCMM cells showed a normal response. If the resistance of normal cells to the cytotoxic effect of these compounds reflects their ability to remove potentially cytotoxic adducts from their DNA before these lesions cause cell death, normal cells should require a higher initial number of DNA adducts than XP cells do to cause a particular degree of cell killing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3269256

  14. Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Human Skin Cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CRISTIAN A, ACEVEDO; ELIZABETH Y, SÁNCHEZ; JUAN G, REYES; MANUEL E, YOUNG.

    Full Text Available Skin produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released to the environment with emission patterns characteristic of climatic conditions. It could be thought that these compounds are intermediaries in cell metabolism, since many intermediaries of metabolic pathways have a volatile potential. In this [...] work, using gas chromatography, we answered the question of whether VOC profiles of primary cultures of human dermal fibroblasts were affected by the type of culture conditions. VOCs were determined for different types of culture, finding significant differences between skin cells grown in classical monolayer culture -2D- compared with 3D matrix immobilized cultures. This indicates that VOC profiles could provide information on the physiological state of skin cells or skin

  15. Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Human Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN A ACEVEDO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs released to the environment with emission patterns characteristic of climatic conditions. It could be thought that these compounds are intermediaries in cell metabolism, since many intermediaries of metabolic pathways have a volatile potential. In this work, using gas chromatography, we answered the question of whether VOC profiles of primary cultures of human dermal fibroblasts were affected by the type of culture conditions. VOCs were determined for different types of culture, finding significant differences between skin cells grown in classical monolayer culture -2D- compared with 3D matrix immobilized cultures. This indicates that VOC profiles could provide information on the physiological state of skin cells or skin

  16. A variant of human nonmuscle tropomyosin found in fibroblasts by using two-dimensional electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an analysis of 12 human fibroblast cell lines by two-dimensional electrophoresis, one cell line (1493) was found to contain a major protein variant (Cytosk:12) not present in any of the other 11 cell lines. Biochemical characterization of the variant protein included determination of its subcellular location, partial amino acid composition, behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) versus SDS/urea gels, and partial proteolytic digestion patterns. All of these methods showed that Cytosk:12 is related to Cytosk:11. Both proteins are located in the cytoskeleton, contain little cysteine or proline and no detectable tryptophan, shift together to a higher apparent molecular weight when electrophoresed in the presence of SDS and 8/sub M/ urea versus SDS alone. Preparation of nonmuscle tropomyosin resulted in the partial purification of both Cytosk:11 and :12. The data suggest that Cytosk:11 is fibroblast nonmuscle tropomyosin and that Cytosk:12 in cell line 1493 is a charge variant of that protein

  17. E-Cadherin and EpCAM expression by NSCLC tumour cells associate with normal fibroblast activation through a pathway initiated by integrin ?v?6 and maintained through TGF? signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, C; Rooney, C; Ross, S J; Farren, M; Weir, H M; Barry, S T

    2015-02-01

    Fibroblasts in the tumour stroma (cancer-associated fibroblasts) influence tumour progression and response to therapeutics; little is known about the mechanisms through which the tumour cell co-opts a normal fibroblast. To study the activation of fibroblasts by tumour cells, a panel of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and normal human dermal fibroblasts were co-cultured. A subset of the NSCLC cells induced an activated cancer-associated fibroblast-like fibroblast phenotype defined by induction of fibroblast ?-smooth muscle actin expression. Tumour cells that activated fibroblasts were associated with E-Cadherin and EpCAM expression and expression of integrin ?v?6. Co-culture of activating tumour cells with fibroblasts resulted in induction of transcripts associated with tumour cell invasion and growth, TGF?1 and TGFBR1, SERPINE-1, BMP6, SPHK1 and MMP9. Fibroblast activation was inhibited by an ?v?6/8 integrin blocking antibody (264RAD) and a small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-beta type I receptor activin-like kinase (ALK5) (SB431542), demonstrating that transactivation of the TGF? pathway initiates fibroblast activation. Both integrin and ALK5 antagonists inhibited initiation. Only ALK5 was effective when added after 3 days of co-culture. This suggests that although activation is ?v?6-dependent, once fibroblasts are activated alternative TGF? pathway regulators maintain an activation loop. In co-culture activating cells had reduced sensitivity to selumetinib, AZD8931 and afatinib compared with mono-culture. In contrast, non-activating cells were insensitive to selumetinib and AZD8931 in both mono-culture and co-culture. In conclusion NSCLC cell lines, positive for E-Cadherin, EpCAM and ?v?6 expression, activate normal fibroblasts through av?6/TGF? signalling in vitro, and influence both gene expression and response to therapeutic agents. PMID:24488011

  18. Simvastatin induces apoptosis by a Rho-dependent mechanism in cultured cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several clinical trials have shown the beneficial effects of statins in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Additionally, statins promote apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells, in renal tubular epithelial cells and also in a variety of cell lines; yet, the effects of statins on cardiac fibroblast and myofibroblast, primarily responsible for cardiac tissue healing are almost unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of simvastatin on cardiac fibroblast and myofibroblast viability and studied the molecular cell death mechanism triggered by simvastatin in both cell types. Methods: Rat neonatal cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts were treated with simvastatin (0.1-10 ?M) up to 72 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by trypan blue exclusion method and by flow cytometry, respectively. Caspase-3 activation and Rho protein levels and activity were also determined by Western blot and pull-down assay, respectively. Results: Simvastatin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis of cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with greater effects on fibroblasts than myofibroblasts. These effects were prevented by mevalonate, farnesylpyrophosphate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate, but not squalene. These last results suggest that apoptosis was dependent on small GTPases of the Rho family rather than Ras. Conclusion: Simvastatin triggered apoptosis of cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts by a mechanism independent of chooblasts by a mechanism independent of cholesterol synthesis, but dependent of isoprenilation of Rho protein. Additionally, cardiac fibroblasts were more susceptible to simvastatin-induced apoptosis than cardiac myofibroblasts. Thus simvastatin could avoid adverse cardiac remodeling leading to a less fibrotic repair of the damaged tissues. - Research Highlights: ? Simvastatin decreases CF and CMF viability independent of cholesterol synthesis. ? Simvastatin induces CF and CMF apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner being CMF more resistant than CF. ? CMF has higher expression and active RhoA protein levels.

  19. Integrin-linked kinase: Dispensable for radiation survival of three-dimensionally cultured fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cancer treatment by conventional radiotherapy is limited by normal tissue side-effects. Fibroblasts as 'non-target' stromal cell type are considered as strong promoter of tumor growth and for developing a therapy resistant phenotype. Regarding application of novel molecular therapeutics combined with radiotherapy, evaluation of a specific targeted molecule in both tumor and normal cells is mandatory for efficacy and tolerability assessment. Previous work showed integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a mediator of ?-integrin signals and putative phosphorylator of AKT, as potent anti-survival regulator in human cancer cell lines. Materials and methods: To evaluate the role of ILK in normal fibroblast survival, ILK-wild-type (ILKfl/fl), ILK-/- and ILKN-terminal and ILKC-terminal domain expressing fibroblasts were irradiated with X-rays on different substrata or in three-dimensional laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM). Results: On control substrata, ILK-deficient and ILK-mutant fibroblasts showed significant increase in radiation survival relative to ILK-wild-type cells. This effect was compensated by growth on ECM proteins and in 3D lrECM. ILK regulated AKT activity in a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner. Upon PI3K inhibition, only ILK-wild-type fibroblasts showed significant radiosensitization. Conclusions: These findings obtained in 3D cell cultures suggest ILK to be dispensable for the radiation suLK to be dispensable for the radiation survival response of normal fibroblasts. However, targeting the PI3K/AKT signaling axis pharmacologically might be critical for survival of normal fibroblasts exposed to ionizing radiation

  20. LL37 peptide@silver nanoparticles: combining the best of the two worlds for skin infection control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoni, Mariana; de Alwis Weerasekera, Hasitha; Simpson, Madeline J.; Phopase, Jaywant; Mah, Thien-Fah; Griffith, May; Alarcon, Emilio I.; Scaiano, Juan C.

    2014-05-01

    Capping silver nanoparticles with LL37 peptide eradicates the antiproliferative effect of silver on primary skin cells, but retains the bactericidal properties of silver nanoparticles with activities comparable to silver nitrate or silver sulfadiazine. In addition, LL37 capped silver nanoparticles have anti-biofilm formation activity.Capping silver nanoparticles with LL37 peptide eradicates the antiproliferative effect of silver on primary skin cells, but retains the bactericidal properties of silver nanoparticles with activities comparable to silver nitrate or silver sulfadiazine. In addition, LL37 capped silver nanoparticles have anti-biofilm formation activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Changes on AgNP-SPB absorption; changes on AgNP-SPB as A/A0 measured in LB or DMEM media; number of survival colonies in the presence of LL37; human skin fibroblasts cell toxicity in the presence of different silver sources measured using MTS assay; effect of LL37@AgNP on the proliferation profile of human skin fibroblasts; effect of AgSD and AgNO3 on the proliferation profile of human skin fibroblasts in the presence of LL37 peptide; representative flow cytometry profiles for human skin fibroblasts stained with Alexa Fluor®488 annexin V/Dead cell apoptosis kit. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01284d

  1. The influence of different nanostructured scaffolds on fibroblast growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, I.-Cheng; Li, Ching-Wen; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2013-08-01

    Skin serves as a protective barrier, modulating body temperature and waste discharge. It is therefore desirable to be able to repair any damage that occurs to the skin as soon as possible. In this study, we demonstrate a relatively easy and cost-effective method for the fabrication of nanostructured scaffolds, to shorten the time taken for a wound to heal. Various scaffolds consisting of nanohemisphere arrays of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polylactide and chitosan were fabricated by casting using a nickel (Ni) replica mold. The Ni replica mold is electroformed using the highly ordered nanohemisphere array of the barrier-layer surface of an anodic aluminum oxide membrane as the template. Mouse fibroblast cells (L929s) were cultured on the nanostructured polymer scaffolds to investigate the effect of these different nanohemisphere arrays on cell proliferation. The concentration of collagen type I on each scaffold was then measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to find the most effective scaffold for shortening the wound-healing process. The experimental data indicate that the proliferation of L929 is superior when a nanostructured PLGA scaffold with a feature size of 118 nm is utilized.

  2. The influence of different nanostructured scaffolds on fibroblast growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin serves as a protective barrier, modulating body temperature and waste discharge. It is therefore desirable to be able to repair any damage that occurs to the skin as soon as possible. In this study, we demonstrate a relatively easy and cost-effective method for the fabrication of nanostructured scaffolds, to shorten the time taken for a wound to heal. Various scaffolds consisting of nanohemisphere arrays of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polylactide and chitosan were fabricated by casting using a nickel (Ni) replica mold. The Ni replica mold is electroformed using the highly ordered nanohemisphere array of the barrier-layer surface of an anodic aluminum oxide membrane as the template. Mouse fibroblast cells (L929s) were cultured on the nanostructured polymer scaffolds to investigate the effect of these different nanohemisphere arrays on cell proliferation. The concentration of collagen type I on each scaffold was then measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to find the most effective scaffold for shortening the wound-healing process. The experimental data indicate that the proliferation of L929 is superior when a nanostructured PLGA scaffold with a feature size of 118 nm is utilized. (paper)

  3. The influence of different nanostructured scaffolds on fibroblast growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Cheng Chung, Ching-Wen Li and Gou-Jen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin serves as a protective barrier, modulating body temperature and waste discharge. It is therefore desirable to be able to repair any damage that occurs to the skin as soon as possible. In this study, we demonstrate a relatively easy and cost-effective method for the fabrication of nanostructured scaffolds, to shorten the time taken for a wound to heal. Various scaffolds consisting of nanohemisphere arrays of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, polylactide and chitosan were fabricated by casting using a nickel (Ni replica mold. The Ni replica mold is electroformed using the highly ordered nanohemisphere array of the barrier-layer surface of an anodic aluminum oxide membrane as the template. Mouse fibroblast cells (L929s were cultured on the nanostructured polymer scaffolds to investigate the effect of these different nanohemisphere arrays on cell proliferation. The concentration of collagen type I on each scaffold was then measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to find the most effective scaffold for shortening the wound-healing process. The experimental data indicate that the proliferation of L929 is superior when a nanostructured PLGA scaffold with a feature size of 118 nm is utilized.

  4. Fibroblasts in fibrosis: novel roles and mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RyanThomasKendall

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are the most common cell type of the connective tissues found throughout the body and the principal source of the extensive extracellular matrix (ECM characteristic of these tissues. They are also the central mediators of the pathological fibrotic accumulation of ECM and the cellular proliferation and differentiation that occurs in response to prolonged tissue injury and chronic inflammation. The transformation of the fibroblast cell lineage involves classical developmental signaling programs and includes a surprisingly diverse range of precursor cell types—most notably, myofibroblasts that are the apex of the fibrotic phenotype. Myofibroblasts display exaggerated ECM production; constitutively secrete and are hypersensitive to chemical signals such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors; and are endowed with a contractile apparatus allowing them to manipulate the ECM fibers physically to close open wounds. In addition to ECM production, fibroblasts have multiple concomitant biological roles, such as in wound healing, inflammation, and angiogenesis, which are each interwoven with the process of fibrosis. We now recognize many common fibroblast-related features across various physiological and pathological protracted processes. Indeed, a new appreciation has emerged for the role of noncancerous fibroblast interactions with tumors in cancer progression. Although the predominant current clinical treatments of fibrosis involve nonspecific immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative drugs, a variety of potential therapies under investigation specifically target fibroblast biology.

  5. Maintenance of telomeres in SV40-transformed pre-immortal and immortal human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, M B; Hubbard, K; Pardinas, J R; Marcus, A M; Dhanaraj, S N; Sethi, K A

    1996-09-01

    Shortening of telomeres has been hypothesized to contribute to cellular senescence and may play a role in carcinogenesis of human cells. Furthermore, activation of telomerase has frequently been demonstrated in tumor-derived and in vitro immortalized cells. In this study, we have assessed these phenomena during the life span of simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed preimmortal and immortal human fibroblasts. We observed progressive reduction in telomere length in preimmortal transformed cells with extended proliferative capacity, with the most dramatic shortening at late passage. Telomere lengths became stabilized (or increased) in immortal fibroblasts accompanied, in one case, by the activation of telomerase. However, an independent immortal cell line that displayed stable telomeres did not have detectable telomerase activity. Furthermore, we found significant telomerase activity in two preimmortal derivatives. Our results provide further evidence for maintenance of telomeres in immortalized human fibroblasts, but they suggest a lack of causal relationship between telomerase activation and immortalization. PMID:8816928

  6. PRL-3 overexpression in epithelial cells is induced by surrounding stromal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Ramon

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We isolate and culture carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs from primary tumour (CAFpt, CAFs from corresponding synchronous liver metastasis (CAFlm as well as normal colonic fibroblasts (NCF from the same patient. From these cultures, conditioned media (CM was obtained. Culture of a wide panel of colorectal and pancreatic cell lines in CM from CAFlm resulted in overexpression of mRNA PRL-3 and higher overexpression in CAFs than in non-activated fibroblasts. Moreover PRL-3 mRNA expression correlates with expression of ?-SMA and deposition of collagen fibrils in the stroma. We demonstrate that products secreted by CAFs trigger PRL-3 overexpression in cancer cells. Identification of these factors may contribute to new stroma-targeted therapies for desmoplastic tumours.

  7. Transdifferentiation of macrophages into fibroblasts as a result of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, S; Godoy, M; Semal, P; Van Gansen, P

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of transdifferentiation of macrophages into fibroblasts which could be at the origin of fibrotic tissue in schistosome-infected mice was studied using immunocytochemical techniques. Macrophage cell samples extracted from the peritoneal cavity of schistosome-infected mice were fractionated on a Percoll gradient. The cultures were purified by treatment with a trypsin solution to eliminate any fibroblasts possibly collected along with the macrophages. Immunocytochemical methods were then used to characterize the cells at different points in time. The fibroblastic property of the morphologically transformed cells was confirmed by their positive labeling with the anti-procollagen antibody. However, these cells still possessed the mac-1 and mac-2 antigens which characterize the monomacrophage line. PMID:1445570

  8. KL-6, a human MUC1 mucin, promotes proliferation and survival of lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serum level of KL-6, a MUC1 mucin, is a clinically useful marker for various interstitial lung diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that KL-6 promotes chemotaxis of human fibroblasts. However, the pathophysiological role of KL-6 remains poorly understood. Here, we further investigate the functional aspects of KL-6 in proliferation and apoptosis of lung fibroblasts. KL-6 accelerated the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of all human lung fibroblasts examined. An anti-KL-6 monoclonal antibody counteracted both of these effects induced by KL-6 on human lung fibroblasts. The pro-fibroproliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of KL-6 are greater than and additive to those of the maximum effective concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor-?. These findings indicate that increased levels of KL-6 in the epithelial lining fluid may stimulate fibrotic processes in interstitial lung diseases and raise the possibility of applying an anti-KL-6 antibody to treat interstitial lung diseases

  9. Methodology of fibroblast and mesenchymal stem cell coating of surgical meshes: a pilot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Liu, Li-Jia; Blatnik, Jeffrey A; Krpata, David M; Anderson, James M; Criss, Corry N; Posielski, Natasza; Novitsky, Yuri W

    2014-05-01

    Coating of various synthetic, absorbable, and biologic meshes with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and fibroblasts was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Five hernia meshes-light weight monofilament polypropylene (Soft Mesh), polyester (Parietex-TET), polylactide composite (TIGR), heavy weight monofilament polypropylene (Marlex), and porcine dermal collagen (Strattice)-were coated with three cell lines: human dermal fibroblasts (HFs), rat kidney fibroblasts (NRKs), and rat MSCs. Cell densities were determined at different time points. Samples also underwent histology and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses. It required HFs 3 weeks to cover the entire mesh, while only 2 weeks for NRKs and MSCs to do so. MSCs had no preference for any of the meshes and produced the highest cell densities on Parietex and TIGR. Substrate-preference accounted for the significantly lower fibroblast densities on TIGR than Parietex. Fibroblasts failed to coat Marlex. Strattice, which had the least surface area, generated comparable cell densities to Parietex. Both histology and TEM confirmed cell coating of mesh surface. Various prosthetics can be coated by certain cell strains. Both mesh composition and cell preference dramatically influence the coating process. This methodology provides foundation for novel avenues of modulation of host response to various modern synthetic and biologic meshes. PMID:24142485

  10. Fibromyxoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T; Okochi, H; Kikuchi, K; Furue, M

    1998-11-01

    A patient presented with a solitary large subcutaneous tumor homogeneously composed of loose fibroblasts interspersed with abundant mucinous material. The literature was reviewed, and the origin, pathogenesis and clinical course of this rare neoplasm were briefly discussed. PMID:9863290

  11. Operative treatment of functional facial skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rettinger, Gerhard

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the principal interface between the body and the surrounding world and thus serves as a protective barrier against trauma, temperature extremes and radiation. With receptors for pressure, movement, heat and cold, it also acts as sensory organ and through sweat secretion plays a role in thermoregulation and electrolyte metabolism. Not all of these functions are relevant to facial skin, however, cosmetic aspects are of vital importance.Disorders primarily affect the protective skin function in defect and scar areas. For operative correction, the following principles should be applied: Minimization of scar development by adherence to indicated incision lines in the face, preferred use of local skin flaps for defect coverage in order to obtain optimal results regarding texture, complexion and sensitivity of skin, as well as consideration of aesthetic units. Recent developments in this field are tissue culture, occlusive dressings, and the use of growth factors.Age-related skin changes with impairment of cosmetic function are characterized by the development of creases and looseness of skin. Rejuvenation has become an important segment of skin surgery. For surface treatment, especially of creases and acne scars, various types of laser treatment are employed. Deeper lines can be filled with filler materials. The integration of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS into face lift procedures has lead to more viable and natural results. Due to protruding tissue, blepharoplasty of the upper lid is often carried out in combination with forehead lift and eyebrow lift procedures. The optimized use of growth factors and synthetic materials, which serve as a matrix, are aimed at skin replacement which mimics the quality and functions of skin as closely as possible. On the whole, however, the reconstruction of defect through local tissue transfer is still considered as the treatment of choice.

  12. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. ? YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. ? There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. ? The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. ? The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929–933 sequence of the ?1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate peptide for the treatment of skin aging and wrinkles.

  13. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo [NovaCell Technology Inc., Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So Young [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hwan-Hee [Functional Food and Nutrition Division, Department of Agrofood Resources, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-853 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Sung Ho [Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Beom Joon [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taehoon G., E-mail: taehoon@novacelltech.com [NovaCell Technology Inc., Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the {beta}1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate peptide for the treatment of skin aging and wrinkles.

  14. Cell survival of human tumor cells compared with normal fibroblasts following 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three tumor cell lines, two of which were shown to be HeLa cells, were irradiated with 60Co gamma irradiation, together with two cell cultures of normal human diploid fibroblasts. Cell survival was studied in three different experiments over a dose range of 2 to 14 gray. All the tumor cell lines showed a very wide shoulder in the dose response curves in contrast to the extremely narrow shoulder of the normal fibroblasts. In addition, the D/sub o/ values for the tumor cell lines were somewhat greater. These two characteristics of the dose response curves resulted in up to 2 orders of magnitude less sensitivity for cell inactivation of HeLa cells when compared with normal cells at high doses (10 gray). Because of these large differences, the extrapolation of results from the irradiation of HeLa cells concerning the mechanisms of normal cell killing should be interpreted with great caution

  15. Premature aging-like phenotype in fibroblast growth factor 23 null mice is a vitamin D mediated process

    OpenAIRE

    Razzaque, Mohammed S.; Sitara, Despina; Taguchi, Takashi; St-Arnaud, René; Lanske, Beate

    2006-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 null mice (Fgf-23?/?) have a short lifespan and show numerous biochemical and morphological features consistent with premature aging-like phenotypes, including kyphosis, severe muscle wasting, hypogonadism, osteopenia, emphysema, uncoordinated movement, T cell dysregulation, and atrophy of the intestinal villi, skin, thymus, and spleen. Furthermore, increased vitamin D activities in homozygous mutants are associated with severe atherosclerosis and widespread so...

  16. Expression of the collagen-related heat shock protein HSP47 in fibroblasts treated with hyperthermia or photodynamic therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Verrico, A. K.; Moore, J V

    1997-01-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 47 is associated with collagen type I metabolism, both constitutively and after stress-inflicted injury. It has been claimed that, in contrast to hyperthermia (HT), photodynamic therapy (PDT) does not damage collagen, as measured at the level of tissue. We have studied HSP47 expression in normal murine skin fibroblasts (3T6) treated with hyperthermia or photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated by three different photosensitizers: (1) haematoporphyrin ester (HpE), (2) meta ...

  17. Down-Regulation by Resveratrol of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Stimulated Osteoprotegerin Synthesis through Suppression of Akt in Osteoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Gen Kuroyanagi; Takanobu Otsuka; Naohiro Yamamoto; Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki; Akira Nakakami; Jun Mizutani; Osamu Kozawa; Haruhiko Tokuda

    2014-01-01

    It is firmly established that resveratrol, a natural food compound abundantly found in grape skins and red wine, has beneficial properties for human health. In the present study, we investigated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells and whether resveratrol affects the OPG synthesis. FGF-2 stimulated both the OPG release and the expression of OPG mRNA. Resveratrol significantly suppressed the FGF-2-stimulated ...

  18. Ceftaroline in complicated skin and skin-structure infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez PO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paul O Hernandez1, Sergio Lema2, Stephen K Tyring3, Natalia Mendoza2,41University of Texas School of Medicine at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 2Woodhull Medical and Mental Health Center, Brooklyn, NY, 3Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 4Department of Dermatology, El Bosque University, Bogotá, ColombiaAbstract: Ceftaroline is an advanced-generation cephalosporin antibiotic recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs. This intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic exerts potent bactericidal activity by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. A high affinity for the penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA makes the drug especially beneficial to patients with MRSA cSSSIs. Ceftaroline has proved in multiple well-conducted clinical trials to have an excellent safety and efficacy profile. In adjusted doses it is also recommended for patients with renal or hepatic impairment. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness and high cure rate demonstrated by ceftaroline in cSSSIs, including those caused by MRSA and other multidrug-resistant strains, warrants its consideration as a first-line treatment option for cSSSIs. This article reviews ceftaroline and its pharmacology, efficacy, and safety data to further elucidate its role in the treatment of cSSSIs.Keywords: ceftaroline, cephalosporin, complicated skin and skin-structure infections, cSSSIs, MRSA, Teflaro®

  19. Contribution of human skin topography to the characterization of dynamic skin tension during senescence: morpho-mechanical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structuring of the dermis with a network of collagen and elastic fibres gives a three-dimensional structure to the skin network with directions perpendicular and parallel to the skin surface. This three-dimensional morphology prints on the surface of the stratum corneum a three dimensional network of lines which express the mechanical tension of the skin at rest. To evaluate the changes of skin morphology, we used a three-dimensional confocal microscopy and characterization of skin imaging of volar forearm microrelief. We have accurately characterize the role of skin line network during chronological aging with the identification of depth scales on the network of lines (z ? 60?m) and the network of lines covering Langer's lines (z > 60 microns). During aging has been highlighted lower rows for elastic fibres, the decrease weakened the tension and results in enlargement of the plates of the microrelief, which gives us a geometric pertinent indicator to quantify the loss of skin tension and assess the stage of aging. The study of 120 Caucasian women shows that ageing in the volar forearm zone results in changes in the morphology of the line network organisation. The decrease in secondary lines (z ? 60 ?m) is counterbalanced by an increase in the depth of the primary lines (z > 60 ?m) and an accentuation of the anisotropy index

  20. N-cadherin is overexpressed in Crohn's stricture fibroblasts and promotes intestinal fibroblast migration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, John P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibroblasts mediate stricture formation in Crohn\\'s disease (CD). Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is important in fibroblast activation, while cell attachment and migration is regulated by the adhesion molecule N-cadherin. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of N-cadherin in intestinal fibroblasts in patients with fibrostenosing CD. METHODS: Intestinal fibroblasts were cultured from seromuscular biopsies from patients undergoing resection for terminal ileal fibrostenosing CD (n = 14) or controls patients (n = 8). N-cadherin expression was assessed using Western blot and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Fibroblasts were stimulated with TGF-beta and selective pathway inhibitors Y27632, PD98050, and LY294002 were used to examine the Rho\\/ROCK, ERK-1\\/2, and Akt signaling pathways, respectively. Cell migration was assessed using a scratch wound assay. N-cadherin was selectively overexpressed using a plasmid. RESULTS: Fibroblasts from fibrostenosing CD express increased constitutive N-cadherin mRNA and protein and exhibit enhanced basal cell migration relative to those from directly adjacent normal bowel. Control fibroblasts treated with TGF-beta induced N-cadherin in a dose-dependent manner which was inhibited by Rho\\/ROCK and Akt pathway modulation. Control fibroblasts exhibited enhanced cell migration in response to treatment with TGF-beta or transfection with an N-cadherin plasmid. CONCLUSIONS: Fibroblasts from strictures in CD express increased constitutive N-cadherin and exhibit enhanced basal cell migration. TGF-beta is a potent inducer of N-cadherin in intestinal fibroblasts resulting in enhanced cell migration. The TGF-beta-mediated induction of N-cadherin may potentiate Crohn\\'s stricture formation.

  1. Galvanic microparticles increase migration of human dermal fibroblasts in a wound-healing model via reactive oxygen species pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nina; Cimetta, Elisa; Villasante, Aranzazu; Kupferstein, Nicolette; Southall, Michael D; Fassih, Ali; Xie, Junxia; Sun, Ying; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Electrical signals have been implied in many biological mechanisms, including wound healing, which has been associated with transient electrical currents not present in intact skin. One method to generate electrical signals similar to those naturally occurring in wounds is by supplementation of galvanic particles dispersed in a cream or gel. We constructed a three-layered model of skin consisting of human dermal fibroblasts in hydrogel (mimic of dermis), a hydrogel barrier layer (mimic of epidermis) and galvanic microparticles in hydrogel (mimic of a cream containing galvanic particles applied to skin). Using this model, we investigated the effects of the properties and amounts of Cu/Zn galvanic particles on adult human dermal fibroblasts in terms of the speed of wound closing and gene expression. The collected data suggest that the effects on wound closing are due to the ROS-mediated enhancement of fibroblast migration, which is in turn mediated by the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway. These results imply that topical low-grade electric currents via microparticles could enhance wound healing. PMID:24113575

  2. Anti-inflammation activities of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in response to UV radiation suggest potential anti-skin aging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Hwang, Jinik; Park, Mirye; Seo, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Shik; Lee, Jeong Hun; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2014-10-01

    Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells. PMID:25317535

  3. The major colonic cell mitogen extractable from colonic mucosa is an N terminally extended form of basic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nice, E C; Fabri, L; Whitehead, R H; James, R; Simpson, R J; Burgess, A W

    1991-08-01

    Colonic growth factors (CGFs) were extracted from porcine intestinal epithelium and mucosa. Under acidic conditions, very little mitogenic activity (as assayed using murine 3T3 fibroblasts and a human colonic cell line) was extractable. However, by extracting at neutral or slightly alkaline pH, significant mitogenic activity for both the murine fibroblasts and human colonic carcinoma cell line could be detected. CGFs are present throughout the intestine and cecum. The epithelial mucosa of the distal colorectal region appeared to contain mitogens which were more potent for the colonic cells than the 3T3 fibroblasts. Purification of CGFs from the colonic mucosa required removal of associated mucin by pH precipitation prior to chromatographic fractionation. It was then possible to develop a complete purification (390,000-fold) scheme for the major CGF, an 18-kDa protein which bound to heparin-Sepharose. N-terminal sequence analysis yielded a single sequence (Q)SPGGAMAAGSITTLPALP, i.e. an N-terminally extended form of basic fibroblast growth factor. Apart from the substitution of Gly in bovine basic fibroblast growth factor by a Ser in porcine CGF, the proteins are identical. A similar extraction procedure using purified human colonic crypt epithelial cells yielded a mitogen for the human colonic cell line with similar chromatographic properties. PMID:1860849

  4. Novel signatures of cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozóky, Benedek; Savchenko, Andrii; Csermely, Péter; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Dúl, Zoltán; Pontén, Fredrik; Székely, László; Klein, George

    2013-07-15

    Increasing evidence indicates the importance of the tumor microenvironment, in particular cancer-associated fibroblasts, in cancer development and progression. In our study, we developed a novel, visually based method to identify new immunohistochemical signatures of these fibroblasts. The method employed a protein list based on 759 protein products of genes identified by RNA profiling from our previous study, comparing fibroblasts with differential growth-modulating effect on human cancers cells, and their first neighbors in the human protein interactome. These 2,654 proteins were analyzed in the Human Protein Atlas online database by comparing their immunohistochemical expression patterns in normal versus tumor-associated fibroblasts. Twelve new proteins differentially expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts were identified (DLG1, BHLHE40, ROCK2, RAB31, AZI2, PKM2, ARHGAP31, ARHGAP26, ITCH, EGLN1, RNF19A and PLOD2), four of them can be connected to the Rho kinase signaling pathway. They were further analyzed in several additional tumor stromata and revealed that the majority showed congruence among the different tumors. Many of them were also positive in normal myofibroblast-like cells. The new signatures can be useful in immunohistochemical analysis of different tumor stromata and may also give us an insight into the pathways activated in them in their true in vivo context. The method itself could be used for other similar analysis to identify proteins expressed in other cell types in tumors and their surrounding microenvironment. PMID:23319410

  5. Fibroblast morphology on dynamic softening of hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtera, Michelle L; Trout, Kevin L; Verma, Devendra; Chippada, Uday; Schloss, Rene S; Langrana, Noshir A

    2012-05-01

    Despite cellular environments having dynamic characteristics, many laboratories utilized static polyacrylamide hydrogels to study the ECM-cell relationship. To attain a more in vivo like environment, we have developed a dynamic, DNA-crosslinked hydrogel (DNA gel). Through the controlled delivery of DNA, we can temporally decrease or increase gel stiffness while expanding or contracting the gel, respectively. These dual mechanical changes make DNA gels a cell-ECM model for studying dynamic mechano-regulated processes, such as wound healing. Here, we characterized DNA gels on a mechanical and cellular level. In contrast to our previous publication, in which we examined the increasing stiffness effects on fibroblast morphology, we examined the effects of decreased matrix stiffness on fibroblast morphology. In addition, we quantified the bulk and/or local stress and strain properties of dynamic gels. Gels generated about 0.5 Pa stress and about 6-11% strain upon softening to generate larger and more circular fibroblasts. These results complemented our previous study, where dynamic gels contracted upon stiffening to generate smaller and longer fibroblasts. In conclusion, we developed a biomaterial that increases and decreases in stiffness while contracting and expanding, respectively. We found that the dynamic deformation directionality of the matrix determined the fibroblast morphology and possibly influences function. PMID:22160600

  6. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Finding ...

  7. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your ... UPDATED: February 5, 2015 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your ...

  8. Detect Skin Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs & events SPOTme® skin cancer screenings Play Sun Smart™ Shade Structure Program Skin Cancer, Take a Hike!™ ... Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Site map Home Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights ...

  9. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating Facial ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating Facial ...

  10. Botox and Skin Elasticity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Botox and Skin Elasticity URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Botox_052215_final.html Botox and Skin Elasticity ...

  11. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease in the natural oils in the outer layer of skin, which makes the skin lose water. ... lose water (dehydrate). Use lukewarm (not hot) water. Limit bath time to 15 minutes. Avoid harsh deodorant ...

  12. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: February 5, 2015 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  13. Laser Skin Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... machine with appropriate settings and pick up a handpiece. The handpiece is placed on the skin, and then either ... listed below. Ablative: Redness Swelling Bleeding Oozing Crusting Infection Pain Skin color change (temporary or permanent) Acne ...

  14. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the top layer of skin using a rotating wheel or small particles to rub away skin cells. ... genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health ...

  15. Artificial skin. Jinko hifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kifune, K. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    In order to restore the human skin wounds, the transplantation is only one measure. The transplantation can take only when own skin is used, and there is no successful example by using other person's skin. When the own skin is not sufficient due to the too vast damage, the artificial skin, which can be regenerated as it is, is required. The artificial skin is said to be the most difficult organ among the artificial organs, even though its function is quite simple. Although there are the pig skin, the collagen membrane and the synthetic materials such as the polyurethane and so forth, as the materials similar to the artificial skin, they cover the wounds just until the cuticle is formed. Recently there is a cultivated skin. Firstly the normal skin with a size of the stamp is cut off, and then the cuticle cells are taken to pieces and cultivated, and consequently it is possible to increase the area by several 10 times. In addition, there is also a trial to make the artificial skin synthetically. Its upper layer is composed of the silicon, and the lower layer is the collagen membrane with a sponge structure. The silicon, membrane can be said to be an ideal artificial skin, because it detaches naturally. The chitin, which has recently appeared as the wound protection material, is also the promising material. 3 figs.

  16. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injecting a small amount of allergen into the skin. The health care provider then watches for a reaction at ... the skin: Possible allergens are taped to the skin for 48 hours. The health care provider will look at the area in ...

  17. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quiz) Structure and Function of the Skin (Video) Skin Cancer (News) Health Tip: Prevent Toenail Fungus (News) Poison Ivy, Oak and Sumac Rashes Can Be Serious Additional Content Medical News Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections by A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD NOTE: ...

  18. Scleroderma fibroblasts: Some aspects of in vitro assessment of collagen synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblasts were cultured from skin biopsies of patients with systemic sclerosis in different stages of the disease. In vitro synthesis of collagen was checked after a pulse with tritiated proline. The ratio between type I and type III collagen was normal in all patients. Six of seven cultures derived from patients in the active state showed an increased synthesis of collagen relative to other proteins. Addition of serum (normal and diseased) to the culture medium did not stimulate synthesis of collagen in any culture with normal collagen synthesis. (orig.)

  19. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... key statistics about melanoma skin cancer? What is melanoma skin cancer? Melanoma is a cancer that starts ... skin tumors, but most are not very common. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins ...

  20. CEMP1 Induces Transformation in Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Mercedes; Imaz-Rosshandler, Ivan; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Arzate, Higinio; Mercado-Celis, Gabriela E.

    2015-01-01

    Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) is a key regulator of cementogenesis. CEMP1 promotes cell attachment, differentiation, deposition rate, composition, and morphology of hydroxyapatite crystals formed by human cementoblastic cells. Its expression is restricted to cementoblasts and progenitor cell subpopulations present in the periodontal ligament. CEMP1 transfection into non-osteogenic cells such as adult human gingival fibroblasts results in differentiation of these cells into a “mineralizing” cell phenotype. Other studies have shown evidence that CEMP1 could have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of bone defects and regeneration of other mineralized tissues. To better understand CEMP1’s biological effects in vitro we investigated the consequences of its expression in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) growing in non-mineralizing media by comparing gene expression profiles. We identified several mRNAs whose expression is modified by CEMP1 induction in HGF cells. Enrichment analysis showed that several of these newly expressed genes are involved in oncogenesis. Our results suggest that CEMP1 causes the transformation of HGF and NIH3T3 cells. CEMP1 is overexpressed in cancer cell lines. We also determined that the region spanning the CEMP1 locus is commonly amplified in a variety of cancers, and finally we found significant overexpression of CEMP1 in leukemia, cervix, breast, prostate and lung cancer. Our findings suggest that CEMP1 exerts modulation of a number of cellular genes, cellular development, cellular growth, cell death, and cell cycle, and molecules associated with cancer. PMID:26011628

  1. Evaluating biotoxicity with fibroblasts derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoying; Li, Shenglin; Cao, Tong; Fu, Xin; Yu, Guangyan

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the use of differentiated fibroblasts from human embryonic stem cells as a cellular model for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity screening. The EBf-H9 cells were derived from human embryonic stem cells (H9) via embryonic body (EB) and treated with Sodium fluoride (NaF) and Formaldehyde (FA). Proliferation, specific gene and protein expression and karyotype of cells were analyzed by MTT assay, RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and karyotype analysis, respectively. Cytotoxicity was detected by MTT assay and flow cytometry, and genotoxicity was studied by micronucleus test (MNT), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and comet assay. EBf-H9s were spindle-shaped with a diploid karyotype. They expressed the fibroblast markers prolyl 4-hydroxylase ? and vimentin but did not express Oct-4 and Sox-2, and decreased expression of Nanog. The proliferation of EBf-H9 and murine L929 cells was inhibited by sodium fluoride (NaF) and formaldehyde (FA), and the cell cycle was arrested in different phases with the treatments. In genotoxicity assays with NaF and FA, positive responses were detected in human EBf-H9s comparable to those in the murine L929 cell line. EBf-H9 may be a suitable new cell source for toxicity research on biomaterials and other agents. PMID:22525295

  2. Differential Gene Expression of Fibroblasts: Keloid versus Normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Angel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study investigated gene regulation and unique gene products in both keloid (KDF and normal (NDF dermal fibroblasts in established cell lines. For gene regulation, NDF versus KDF were compared using Clontech's Atlas™ Human cDNA Expression Array while unique gene products were studied using RNA Fingerprinting Kit. RNA from each sample was converted to cDNA using oligo-dT primers. Down-regulated genes using Atlas Array in KDF were 1 60 S ribosomal protein, 2 Thioredoxin dependent peroxidase, 3 Nuclease sensitive element DNA binding protein, 4 c-myc purine-binding transcription factor, 5 c-AMP dependent protein kinase, and, 6 Heat Shock Protein 90 kDa. Genes that are up regulated in KDF were 1 Tubulin and 2 Heat Shock Protein 27 kDa. With the differential display, we found 17 bands unique to both KDF and NDF. The specific gene and the manner in which they were differentially regulated have direct implications to understanding keloid fibroblast proliferation.

  3. Effects of UV irradiation on a living skin equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Living Skin Equivalent is an organotypic coculture composed of human dermal fibroblasts interspersed in a collagen-containing matrix and overlaid with human keratinocytes forming a stratified epidermis. The LSE has a dry, air-exposed epidermal surface suitable for the application of oils, creams and emulsions. The protective effects of an 8% homosylate standard and of five UV-A sunscreens, topically applied to the LSE, were determined and compared with their reported protection factors in human skin. Morphological changes and the release of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-1-''alpha, tumor necrosis factor-? and prostaglandin E2) implicated in UV-induced erythema were also demonstrated in the LSE exposed to UV-A or UV-B. The data suggest that the LSE can be used for studying the effects of UV radiation on skin and may have utility for assessing the efficacy of certain sunscreens against UV-B and UV-A. (Author)

  4. A co-cultured skin model based on cell support membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue engineering of skin based on collagen: PCL biocomposites using a designed co-culture system is reported. The collagen: PCL biocomposites having collagen: PCL (w/w) ratios of 1:4, 1:8, and 1:20 have been proven to be biocompatible materials to support both adult normal human epidermal Keratinocyte (NHEK) and mouse 3T3 fibroblast growth in cell culture, respectively, by Dai, Coombes, et al. in 2004. Films of collagen: PCL biocomposites were prepared using non-crosslinking method by impregnation of lyophilized collagen mats with PCL/dichloromethane solutions followed by solvent evaporation. To mimic the dermal/epidermal structure of skin, the 1:20 collagen: PCL biocomposites were selected for a feasibility study of a designed co-culture technique that would subsequently be used for preparing fibroblast/biocomposite/keratinocyte skin models. A 55.3% increase in cell number was measured in the designed co-culture system when fibroblasts were seeded on both sides of a biocomposite film compared with cell culture on one surface of the biocomposite in the feasibility study. The co-culture of human keratinocytes and 3T3 fibroblasts on each side of the membrane was therefore studied using the same co-culture system by growing keratinocytes on the top surface of membrane for 3 days and 3T3 fibroblasts underneath the membrane for 6 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry assay revealed good cell attachment and proliferation of both human keratinoc and proliferation of both human keratinocytes and 3T3 fibroblasts with these two types of cells isolated well on each side of the membrane. Using a modified co-culture technique, a co-cultured skin model presenting a confluent epidermal sheet on one side of the biocomposite film and fibroblasts populated on the other side of the film was developed successfully in co-culture system for 28 days under investigations by SEM and immunohistochemistry assay. Thus, the design of a co-culture system based on 1:20 (w/w) collagen: PCL biocomposite membranes for preparation of a bi-layered skin model with differentiated epidermal sheet was proven in principle. The approach to skin modeling reported here may find application in tissue engineering and screening of new pharmaceuticals

  5. Herpes virus production as a marker of repair in ultra-violet irradiated human skin cells of different origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human skin fibroblast cultures were irradiated with ultraviolet light 0 to 48 hours before infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV). Different viral yields were obtained according to the origin of the host cells. Cells from normal donors showed a dose-dependent recovery of HSV production during the 36-40 hours following U.V. exposure. The recovery was maximal for a dose at which a plateau level of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was reached (24Jm-2). In a xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) heterozygote line from a mother of XP children, the level of UDS after irradiation up to 48 Jm-2 was normal whereas the extent of recovery of HSV production capacity was lower than normal. In strains from XP children, with a normal UDS (XP variants), the recovery process was slower and its extent was lower than in normal or XP heterozygote cells. Excision-deficient XP strains from XP children presented little or no recovery, the extent of which was in good agreement with the corresponding level of UDS. Measurement of this recovery seems to be a very sensitive assay for detecting differences in the repair abilities of U.V.-irradiated human skin cells of various origins. (author)

  6. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the skin of rat, mouse, pig, guinea pig, man, and in human skin models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, F; Fabian, E; Guth, K; Landsiedel, R

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of the skin to medical drugs, skin care products, cosmetics, and other chemicals renders information on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) in the skin highly interesting. Since the use of freshly excised human skin for experimental investigations meets with ethical and practical limitations, information on XME in models comes in the focus including non-human mammalian species and in vitro skin models. This review attempts to summarize the information available in the open scientific literature on XME in the skin of human, rat, mouse, guinea pig, and pig as well as human primary skin cells, human cell lines, and reconstructed human skin models. The most salient outcome is that much more research on cutaneous XME is needed for solid metabolism-dependent efficacy and safety predictions, and the cutaneous metabolism comparisons have to be viewed with caution. Keeping this fully in mind at least with respect to some cutaneous XME, some models may tentatively be considered to approximate reasonable closeness to human skin. For dermal absorption and for skin irritation among many contributing XME, esterase activity is of special importance, which in pig skin, some human cell lines, and reconstructed skin models appears reasonably close to human skin. With respect to genotoxicity and sensitization, activating XME are not yet judgeable, but reactive metabolite-reducing XME in primary human keratinocytes and several reconstructed human skin models appear reasonably close to human skin. For a more detailed delineation and discussion of the severe limitations see the "Overview and Conclusions" section in the end of this review. PMID:25370008

  7. Antimicrobial peptides and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardan, Antoanella; Nizet, Victor; Gallo, Richard L

    2004-04-01

    In recent years, hundreds of naturally occurring peptide antibiotics have been discovered based on their ability to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens. These antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) participate in the innate immune response by providing a rapid first-line defence against infection. This review discusses the biology and clinical relevance of the two major families of AMPs, cathelicidins and defensins, with emphasis on their function in mammalian skin and their association with skin pathology. Current evidence shows that cathelicidins and defensins act as both natural antibiotics and as signalling molecules that activate host cell processes involved in immune defence and tissue repair. Alterations in the expression pattern of AMPs have been associated with a variety of pathological processes. Ongoing and future studies are likely to implicate AMPs in several unexplained human inflammatory disorders and to provide novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:15102603

  8. Identification and characterization of a fibroblast marker: FSP1

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    We performed subtractive and differential hybridization for transcript comparison between murine fibroblasts and isogenic epithelium, and observed only a few novel intracellular genes which were relatively specific for fibroblasts. One such gene encodes a filament-associated, calcium-binding protein, fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1). The promoter/enhancer region driving this gene is active in fibroblasts but not in epithelium, mesangial cells or embryonic endoderm. During development, FSP...

  9. Role of prostaglandins in fibroblast activation and fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stratton, Richard; Shiwen, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblasts release prostaglandins and express a range of prostanoid receptors. However the importance of prostaglandins in fibroblast biology have not been fully explored. Our studies showed that the prostaglandin metabolite PGI2 blocks the activation of fibroblasts, antagonising the induction of Ras/MEK/ERK signalling by TGF?. Endogenous PGI2 acts so as to limit the activation of fibroblasts following tissue injury. By contrast PGE2 induced in injured tissues or disease states may promote ...

  10. RhoA signaling modulates cyclin D1 expression in human lung fibroblasts; implications for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoban PR

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF is a debilitating disease characterized by exaggerated extracellular matrix deposition and aggressive lung structural remodeling. Disease pathogenesis is driven by fibroblastic foci formation, consequent on growth factor overexpression and myofibroblast proliferation. We have previously shown that both CTGF overexpression and myofibroblast formation in IPF cell lines are dependent on RhoA signaling. As RhoA-mediated regulation is also involved in cell cycle progression, we hypothesise that this pathway is key to lung fibroblast turnover through modulation of cyclin D1 kinetic expression. Methods Cyclin D1 expression was compared in primary IPF patient-derived fibroblasts and equivalent normal control cells. Quantitative real time PCR was employed to examine relative expression levels of cyclin D1 mRNA; protein expression was confirmed by western blotting. Effects of Rho signaling were investigated using transient transfection of constitutively active and dominant negative RhoA constructs as well as pharmacological inhibitors. Cellular proliferation of lung fibroblasts was determined by BrdU incorporation ELISA. To further explore RhoA regulation of cyclin D1 in lung fibroblasts and associated cell cycle progression, an established Rho inhibitor, Simvastatin, was incorporated in our studies. Results Cyclin D1 expression was upregulated in IPF compared to normal lung fibroblasts under exponential growth conditions (p Conclusion These findings report for the first time that cyclin D1 expression is deregulated in IPF through a RhoA dependent mechanism that influences lung fibroblast proliferation. This potentially unravels new molecular targets for future anti-IPF strategies; accordingly, Simvastatin inhibition of Rho-mediated cyclin D1 expression in IPF fibroblasts merits further exploitation.

  11. In vitro effect of 470 nm LED (Light Emitting Diode in keloid fibroblasts Efeito in vitro do LED (Light Emitting Diode de 470 nm em fibroblastos de quelóide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvilena Bonatti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To quantify keloid fibroblasts after irradiation with 470nm blue LED, in vitro. Methods: Fibroblasts from keloid and adjacent skin have been obtained from 6 patients. Cells have been cultivated and maintained in DMEM culture medium. In Petri dishes, they were irradiated with energy doses of 6J, 12J and 18J. After 24 h, counting was done by the average of the triplicates for each sample. Results: There were no significant differences in the number of irradiated keloid fibroblasts at the studied doses (p=0.261. In adjacent skin fibroblasts, differences were observed (p=0.025 concerning the doses of 18 J and 6 J (p=0.03. Conclusions: There was a reduction in the number of adjacent skin fibroblasts irradiated with 470nm blue LED at the energy dose of 18 J compared to the ones irradiated at the energy dose of 6 J. There were no changes in keloid fibroblasts counting at any of the doses applied, 24 h after irradiation.Objetivo: Quantificar fibroblastos de quelóide após irradiação com LED azul de 470nm, in vitro. Métodos: Foram obtidos fibroblastos de quelóide e pele adjacente, de seis pacientes. As células foram cultivadas e mantidas em meio de cultura DMEM. Em placas de Petri, receberam irradiação com doses de energia de 6J, 12J e 18J. Após 24 horas a contagem foi feita pela média da triplicata para cada amostra. Resultados: Não houve diferença na quantidade de fibroblastos de quelóide irradiados nas doses estudadas (p=0,261. Observou-se diferença nos fibroblastos de pele adjacente (p=0,025, com relação às doses de 18 J e 6 J (p=0,03. Conclusões: Houve redução dos fibroblastos de pele adjacente irradiados com LED azul de 470 nm na dose de energia de 18 J em relação à dose de 6 J. Não houve alteração na quantidade de fibroblastos de quelóide nas doses aplicadas após 24 horas da irradiação.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of radiation levels and dose rates in irradiation of murine fibroblasts used as a feeder layer in the culture of human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1975, Rheinwald and Green published an effective methodology for obtaining and cultivating human keratinocytes. This methodology consisted of seeding keratinocytes onto a feeder layer composed of lineage 3T3 murine fibroblasts, the proliferation rate of which is then controlled through the action of ionizing radiation. The presence of the feeder layer encourages the development of keratinocyte colonies and their propagation in similar cultures, becoming possible several clinical applications as skin substitutes or wound dressings in situations such as post burn extensive skin loss and other skin disorders. However, good development of these keratinocytes depends on a high quality feeder layer among other factors. In the present work, we evaluated the relationship between radiation levels and dose rates applied to fibroblasts used in construction of feeder layers and the radiation effect on keratinocytes colonies forming efficiency. Results indicate 3T3 lineage murine fibroblasts irradiated with doses varying between 60 and 100 Gy can be used as a feeder layer immediately after irradiation or storage of the irradiated cells in suspension at 4 g C for 24 hours with similar results. The exception is when the irradiation dose rate is 2.75 Gyh-1; in this case, results suggested that the fibroblasts should be used immediately after irradiation. (author)

  13. Sensitive Skin in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda A. Farage

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many consumers in the USA and Europe define themselves as having sensitive skin, a phenomenon whose etiology appears to include both physiological and psychosocial factors. Objectives: Sensitive skin data from the developing world is sparse. This study evaluates the prevalence and characteristics of sensitive skin in China and compares data collected to existing data from the western world. Patients/Materials/Methods: A total of 408 Chinese women voluntarily completed a survey on sensitive skin. Results: Some degree of skin sensitivity was claimed by 94 (23% of respondents; most (90.4% said their skin was only slightly or moderately sensitive. Facial sensitivity was claimed by 21% of Chinese women, sensitivity of the body surface by 9% and genital sensitivity by only 6%. Small numbers of respondents reported a history of skin allergy (3% or a familial history of sensitive skin (2%. Many reported making buying decisions based on product claims. Conclusions: Only 23% of Chinese women claimed any degree of sensitive skin, a prevalence substantially lower than that observed in most Western countries. Sensitivity of the genital skin, in particular, was dramatically lower, suggesting at least some cultural component to perceptions of sensitive skin.

  14. Dasatinib reverses Cancer-associated Fibroblasts (CAFs from primary Lung Carcinomas to a Phenotype comparable to that of normal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Kuip Heiko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs play a critical role for growth, invasion, and metastasis of cancer. Therefore, targeting CAFs with small molecule inhibitors may be an attractive anti-tumor strategy. The current study aims to identify small molecule kinase inhibitors affecting CAF's growth and to characterize the biological effects of active compounds on primary CAFs from lung cancer. We screened two individual CAF strains for their sensitivity to a panel of 160 kinase inhibitors. Five kinase inhibitors were identified inhibiting more than 50% of the growth of both cell lines. Three of them were inhibitors of PDGFR at nanomolar concentrations. Therefore, we further tested the FDA approved PDGFR inhibitors Dasatinib, Nilotinib, Sorafenib, and Imatinib. All 37 CAF strains investigated were highly sensitive to Dasatinib at clinically relevant concentrations. Imatinib was slightly less effective, whereas the inhibitory effects of Nilotinib and Sorafenib were significantly less pronounced. We investigated the effect of Dasatinib on the CAF transcriptome by microarray analysis of 9 individual CAF strains. 492 genes were identified whose expression was changed at least twofold. 104 of these encoded cell cycle related proteins with 97 of them being downregulated by Dasatinib. The majority of regulated genes, however, were of diverse biological functions not directly related to proliferation. We compared this Dasatinib expression signature to previously described differential signatures of normal tissue associated fibroblasts (NAFs and CAFs and to a signature of fibroblast serum response. There was a significant overlap between genes regulated by Dasatinib and serum repression genes. More importantly, of the 313 genes downregulated by Dasatinib 64 were also reduced in NAFs compared to CAFs. Furthermore, 26 of 179 genes identified as upregulated by Dasatinib were also found to be elevated in NAFs compared to CAFs. These data demonstrate that Dasatinib partially reverses the phenotype of CAFs to a normal fibroblast like phenotype. This is further supported by the finding that incubation of tumor cells with conditioned medium from CAFs pre-incubated with Dasatinib significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation, suggesting that Dasatinib partially reverses the CAF mediated tumor promoting effect. Therefore, targeting CAFs with Dasatinib represents a promising therapeutic principle.

  15. Protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage due to UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage exposed to UVB and its mechanism, and to provide the experimental basis for the protection of skin damage exposed to UVB. Methods: The skin of guinea pigs was exposed to UVB (28.38 J/cm2 · 30 d) to establish the oxidative damage model. The skin erythema and the rough were observed during the experiment; the thickness of epiderm and the number of fibroblast were observed under light microscope after the experiment. The activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC and the contain of MDA in the supernate of skin homogenate were detected with biochemical methods. Results: The epiderm in UVB exposure group and blank group thickened, but that in protective group weren't observed; the number of fibroblast in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, while that in protective group increased, but that in control group didn't. The content of MDA in the supemate of skin homogenate in UVB exposure group and blank group increased, but that in protective group deceased, and the activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, but those in protective group increased, and control group had no change. Conclusions: Oleum curcumae wenchowensis has the protective effects on skin damage exposed to UVB, which may be mediated by increasing the contain of antioxidases and eliminating the flee radical. (authors)

  16. Aesthetic Considerations in Forehead Reconstruction in Skin Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Abullarade

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the forehead has been a challenge for many surgeons. Some use skin grafts, other microvascular flaps, but local flaps for coverage of forehead skin are still the cornerstone principle in providing the ideal skin color and texture. In this article, the forehead is classified into surgical reconstructive subunits. These subunits are set according to the surrounding structures. Flaps are rectangular in shape in mobility in order to follow the natural lines of the forehead.

  17. Efficacy of a Morinda citrifolia Based Skin Care Regimen

    OpenAIRE

    West, Brett J; Rachel A. Sabin

    2012-01-01

    A six week clinical trial of a Morinda citrifolia (noni) based skin care regimen was conducted with 49 women, ages 38 to 55 years. Daily application of three product formulations to the face and neck resulted in significant reductions in lateral canthal fine lines and wrinkles (crow’s feet), as measured by technician scoring and digital image analysis. Use of the regimen also improved skin elasticity and firmness Cutometer® measurements. No evidence of skin irritation was present in any pa...

  18. Therapeutic Targeting of CC Ligand 21 or CC Chemokine Receptor 7 Abrogates Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced by the Adoptive Transfer of Human Pulmonary Fibroblasts to Immunodeficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Elizabeth M.; Carpenter, Kristin; Jakubzick, Claudia; Kunkel, Steven L.; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Martinez, Fernando J; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are a collection of pulmonary fibrotic diseases of unknown etiopathogenesis. CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is expressed in IIP biopsies and primary fibroblast lines, but its role in pulmonary fibrosis was not previously examined. To study the in vivo role of CCR7 in a novel model of pulmonary fibrosis, 1.0 × 106 primary fibroblasts grown from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, or histologic...

  19. Oxygen enhancement of radiation induced lethality is greatly reduced in glutathione deficient human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vitro clonogenic survival of human fibroblasts with a genetically defined glutathione (GSH) deficiency was studied after irradiation with X-rays in oxygen or in oxygen free argon. Genetically related fibroblasts without GSH deficiency were used as a control. The oxic survival curve of both cell lines was similar. In comparison to the oxic survival curve, the anoxic survival curve of GSH deficient cells indicated an oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) approximately 1.5. An OER approximately 2.9 was calculated in comparing the oxic and anoxic survival curves of the control cell line. The results were discussed in support of the theory according to which oxygen and GSH compete for radiation induced radicals in key molecules, the former irreversibly fixing and the latter repairing the radiation damage

  20. Enhanced skin wound healing by a sustained release of growth factors contained in platelet-rich plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hee Seok; Shin, Jaehoon; Bhang, Suk Ho; Shin, Jung-youn; Park, Jooyeon; Im, Gun-il; Kim, Chang-sung; Kim, Byung-soo

    2011-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors that promote tissue regeneration. Previously, we showed that heparin-conjugated fibrin (HCF) exerts the sustained release of growth factors with affinity for heparin. Here, we hypothesize that treatment of skin wound with a mixture of PRP and HCF exerts sustained release of several growth factors contained in PRP and promotes skin wound healing. The release of fibroblast growth factor 2, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and vascular endothe...

  1. The Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBO) When Used Postoperatively in Skin Grafting Over Radiated Tissue in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Tu?merdem, Burc?ak; Emekli?, Ufuk; O?zden, Burcu C?elet; Aktas?, S?amil

    2004-01-01

    Under conditions that may risk the success of flap surgery, free skin grafting may be an option for the reconstruction of the irradiated area. Clinical observations reveal that skin grafts applied to irradiated area undergo ulceration, resulting in chronic open wounds. The role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) in problem wounds is to increase the tissue oxygen tension to optimize fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis, to enhance the oxidative killing capacity of the white blood ce...

  2. Nuclear localization of SMN and FUS is not altered in fibroblasts from patients with sporadic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Shingo; Sampson, Jacinda B; Northrop, Lesley E; Luccarelli, Christopher M; Naini, Ali B; Re, Diane B; Hirano, Michio; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with no established biological marker. Recent observation of a reduced number of gems (survival motor neuron protein (SMN)-positive nuclear bodies) in cells from patients with familial ALS and the mouse models suggests an involvement of SMN in ALS pathology. At a molecular level, fused in sarcoma (FUS), one of the familial ALS-linked proteins, has been demonstrated to directly interact with SMN, while impaired nuclear localization of mutated FUS causes defective gem formation. Our objective was to determine whether gems and/or nuclear FUS levels in skin derived fibroblasts from sporadic ALS patients are consistently reduced and thus could constitute a novel and readily available biomarker of the disease. Fibroblasts from 20 patients and 17 age-matched healthy controls were cultured and co-immunostained for SMN and FUS. Results showed that no difference was detected between the two groups in the number of gems and in expression pattern of FUS. The number of gems negatively correlated with the age at biopsy in both ALS and control subjects. In conclusion, the expression pattern of SMN and FUS in fibroblasts cannot serve as a biomarker for sporadic ALS. Donor age-dependent gem reduction is a novel observation that links SMN with cellular senescence. PMID:24809826

  3. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Gloria E; Arimilli, Subhashini; Prasad, G L; Howlett, Allyn C

    2014-09-01

    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1h or 5h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1h, IL1? was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1h by tobacco products. IL8, TNF?, VCAM1, and NF?B1 were suppressed after 5h with STE, whereas only TNF? and NF?B1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNF? were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. PMID:24927667

  4. Modulation of mitochondrial morphology by bioenergetics defects in primary human fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillery, O.; Malka, F.

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles with continuous fusion and fission, the equilibrium of which results in mitochondrial morphology. Evidence points to there being an intricate relationship between mitochondrial dynamics and oxidative phosphorylation. We investigated the bioenergetics modulation of mitochondrial morphology in five control cultured primary skin fibroblasts and seven with genetic alterations of oxidative phosphorylation. Under basal conditions, control fibroblasts had essentially filamentous mitochondria. Oxidative phosphorylation inhibition with drugs targeting complex I, III, IV or V induced partial but significant mitochondrial fragmentation, whereas dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (D Psi m) provoked complete fragmentation, and glycolysis inhibition had no effect. Oxidative phosphorylation defective fibroblasts had essentially normal filamentous mitochondria under basal conditions, although when challenged some of them presented with mild alteration of fission or fusion efficacy. Severely defective cells disclosed complete mitochondrial fragmentation under glycolysis inhibition. In conclusion, mitochondrial morphology is modulated by D Psi m but loosely linked to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Its alteration by glycolysis, inhibition points to a severe oxidative phosphorylation defect. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4

  5. Induction of plasminogen activator by UV light in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal and DNA repair-deficient human fibroblasts have been used to study induction of plasminogen activator (PA) by DNA damage. UV light induced the synthesis of PA in skin fibroblasts of all types of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) in XP heterozygotes and in human amniotic cells. Enzyme induction was, however, not observed in fibroblasts of normal adults. In classical XP, which are deficient in excision repair, PA synthesis occurred in a narrow range of low-UV fluences. In such strains, the level of enzyme produced was correlated with the extent of repair deficiency. UV fluences required for PA induction in XP variants and XP heteozygotes were at least 10 times those inducing enzyme synthesis in excision-deficient XP. Maximum enzyme induction occurred 48 hr after irradiation, and the highest levels of enzyme produced were 15-20 times those of PA baseline levels. Electrophoretic analysis showed that UV irradiation enhances the synthesis of the M/sub r/ 60,000 human urokinase-type PA, which is present in low amounts in untreated cells. Our results suggest that PA induction in human cells is caused by unrepaired DNA damage and represents a eukaryotic SOS-like function. In addition, PA induction may provide a sensitive assay for detection of cellular DNA repair deficiencies and identification of XP heterozygotes

  6. Rapid induction of lung adenocarcinoma by fibroblast growth factor 9 signaling through FGF receptor 3

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Yongjun; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Garbow, Joel R.; Miao, Jinbai; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Ornitz, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are expressed in many non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) primary tumors and derived cell lines, and mutations in FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) have been identified in human lung adenocarcinoma. FGF9 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NSCLC by synergizing with EGFR pathways or by providing an escape pathway mediating resistance to EGFR inhibition. To model pathogenic mechanisms mediated by FGF signals, we have established a mouse model in which FGF9 expression...

  7. Electric field-directed fibroblast locomotion involves cell surface molecular reorganization and is calcium independent

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Directional cellular locomotion is thought to involve localized intracellular calcium changes and the lateral transport of cell surface molecules. We have examined the roles of both calcium and cell surface glycoprotein redistribution in the directional migration of two murine fibroblastic cell lines, NIH 3T3 and SV101. These cell types exhibit persistent, cathode directed motility when exposed to direct current electric fields. Using time lapse phase contrast microscopy and image analysis, w...

  8. Dielectrophoretic differentiation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts using contactless dielectrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Kittur, Harsha; Sano, Michael B; C. Roberts, Paul; Eva M. Schmelz; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies in women. The primary challenge is the detection of the cancer at an early stage, since this drastically increases the survival rate. In this study we investigated the dielectrophoretic responses of progressive stages of mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells, as well as mouse fibroblast and macrophage cell lines, utilizing contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP). cDEP is a relatively new cell manipulation techni...

  9. Mannose corrects altered N-glycosylation in carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Panneerselvam, K.; Freeze, H. H.

    1996-01-01

    Type I carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome (CDGS) patients fail to add entire N-linked oligosaccharide chains to some serum glycoproteins. Here we show that four CDGS fibroblast cell lines have two related glycosylation abnormalities. First, they incorporate 3-10-fold less [3H] mannose into proteins, and, second, the size of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor (LLO) is much smaller than in controls. Addition of exogenous mannose, but not glucose, to these CDGS cells corrects b...

  10. Gallic acid induces apoptosis of lung fibroblasts via a reactive oxygen species-dependent ataxia telangiectasia mutated-p53 activation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Cheng-Yen; Liu, Hsiang-Chun; Wu, Li-Chen; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Chang, Jinghua Tsai; Hsu, Shih-Lan

    2010-03-10

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive chronic disorder characterized by the activation of fibroblasts and the overproduction of extracellular matrix. Fibroblast resistance to apoptosis leads to increased fibrosis. Targeting fibroblasts with apoptotic agents represents a major therapeutic intervention for debilitating IPF. Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a naturally occurring plant phenol, has been reported to induce apoptosis in tumor cell lines and renal fibroblasts. However, the effects of gallic acid on lung fibroblasts have not been investigated. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of gallic acid on primary cultured mouse fibroblasts. Our results showed that gallic acid induces the apoptotic death of fibroblasts via both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways by the elevation of PUMA, Fas, and FasL protein levels. Moreover, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine production were observed in gallic acid-stimulated fibroblasts. Mechanistic studies showed that gallic acid induces early phosphorylation of p53(Ser18) and histone 2AX(Ser139) (H2AX) via ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) activation in response to ROS-provoked DNA damage. When mouse lung fibroblasts were treated with caffeine, an ATM kinase inhibitor, the levels of p53, phosphorylated p53(Ser18), and cell death induced by gallic acid were significantly attenuated. Additionally, pretreatment with antioxidants drastically inhibited the gallic acid-induced 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) formation and phosphorylation of p53(Ser18) and ATM(Ser1981), as well as apoptosis. Our results provide the first evidence of the activation of ROS-dependent ATM/p53 signaling as a critical mechanism of gallic acid-induced cell death in primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts. PMID:20151649

  11. Increased skin tearing in broilers and reduced collagen synthesis in skin in vivo and in vitro in response to the coccidiostat halofuginone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, I; Bartov, I; Plavnik, I; Wax, E; Hurwitz, S; Pines, M

    1991-07-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted in an effort to elucidate the mechanism of suppression by halofuginone of skin strength in broilers. In the in vivo study, halofuginone was included at concentrations of 0, 1.5, 3, and 6 mg/kg of diet, corresponding to 0, 50, 100, and 200%, respectively, of the amount recommended for use as a coccidiostat. Each dietary treatment was given to 260 female broiler day-old chickens. Skin tearing was evaluated at the processing plant. Skin collagen and Kjeldahl-nitrogen were determined chemically. At the age of 7 wk, BW and feed efficiency were affected only in birds consuming the diet containing the highest concentration of the drug. Skin tearing increased but skin collagen concentration decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Fibroblasts were obtained by collagenase digestion from chicken skin and cultured. The cultured cells were incubated with various concentrations of halofuginone, monensin, and nicarbazin, and [3H]proline incorporation was evaluated in collagenase-digestible (representing mostly collagen) and nondigestible proteins exported by the cells into the medium. Halofuginone, at a concentration as low as 10(-11) M, inhibited incorporation of [3H]proline into collagenase-digestible proteins, but did not affect incorporation of [3H]proline into collagenase-nondigestible proteins. Even at concentrations as high as 10(-9) M, neither monensin nor nicarbazin affected collagenase-digestible proteins. The in vitro results suggest that halofuginone specifically inhibits collagen synthesis by skin fibroblasts. Results of both in vivo and in vitro trials suggest that the increase of skin tearing during processing, induced by halofuginone, is caused by direct suppression of skin collagen synthesis. PMID:1886867

  12. A recombined skin composed of human keratinocytes cultured on cell-free pig dermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousková, E; Vogtová, D; Königová, R

    1993-04-01

    Treatment of full skin thickness burns requires replacement of both the dermal and the epidermal components of the skin. We describe a method of preparing recombined human/pig skin (RHPS) by cultivating human keratinocytes on dried cell-free pig dermis (CFPD). CFPD dried on a tissue culture dish forms a thin collagen film which behaves like a firm substrate for cell cultures. HK were grown on the epidermal side of the CFPD using lethally irradiated 3T3 cells as feeders. After reaching confluency of human keratinocytes, human fibroblasts can be cultured on the dermal side of the RHPS. It was possible to obtain approximately 500 cm2 of the RHPS from 1 cm2 human split-skin graft in 3 weeks. RHPS is easy to handle, is similar in structural, mechanical and adhesive properties to the normal skin, and can be meshed. This RHPS might be advantageous for permanent covering of wounds in major burns. PMID:8471143

  13. The effects of strontium chloride on viability of mouse connective tissue fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Kaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Strontium salts are effective and selective anti-irritants for chemically induced sensory irritation associated with stinging, burning, or itching. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxic and/or proliferative effects of strontium chloride on fibroblast cell culture. Method. A mouse connective tissue fibroblast cell line, L929 (ATCC cell line, NCTC clone 929 was cultured. Fibroblast cell lines were examined with 20%, 10%, 5%, 2.5%, 1.25%, 0.6%, and 0.3% (w/v concentrations of Strontium chloride hexahydrate (SrCl2.6H2O. The proliferation assay analyzed the number of viable cells by the cleavage of tetrazolium salts added to the culture medium, using the XTT labeling reagent. The optical density of the samples was compared with that of the control to obtain the percentage viability, as follows: cell viability (%=[(OD450 (sample/OD450 negative control×100]. Results. The cytotoxicity value of strontium chloride for all concentrations (w/v was compared with that of the control, and cytotoxicity levels were not higher than those of the controls (p>0.05. The level of viable cell was higher at 1.25% (w/v than 2.5% (w/v (p<0.05. Conclusion. Strontium chloride hexahydrate (SrCl2.6H2O had no negative effect on cell viability at all the concentrations.

  14. What Causes Our Skin to Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help reduce lines caused by squinting. Eat a healthy, well-balanced diet. Findings from a few studies suggest that eating plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables may help prevent damage that leads to premature skin aging. Findings from research studies also suggest that ...

  15. Recommendations for skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further to the reecommendations for determining the surface contamination of the skin and estimating the radiation exposure of the skin after contamination (SAAS-Mitt--89-16), measures for skin decontamination are recommended. They are necessary if (1) after simple decontamination by means of water, soap and brush without damaging the skin the surface contamination limits are exceeded and the radiation exposure to be expected for the undamaged healthy skin is estimated as to high, and if (2) a wound is contaminated. To remove skin contaminations, in general universally applicable, non-aggressive decontamination means and methods are sufficient. In special cases, nuclide-specific decontamination is required taking into account the properties of the radioactive substance

  16. Skin protection for hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2007-01-01

    The application of protective creams in the hairdressing trade forms part of a complex concept for the prevention of occupational skin disorders. To date, no comparative controlled intervention studies have been carried out using different skin-protective creams. Previously published skin protection plans concerning barrier creams for the hairdressing trade are fairly general or rudimentary, reflecting our still limited knowledge on the subject. Bioengineering studies have even demonstrated a paradoxical effect of a certain skin-protective foam designed for hairdressers. Regarding other barrier creams, a certain protective effect could however be shown in studies concerning exposure to wetness and detergents. Pre-exposition skin protection seems to be of particular relevance. Thus, in principle, the regular application of adequate skin protection creams can be recommended in the hairdressing trade, although the protective effect should not be overvalued. PMID:17312363

  17. Enhanced G2 chromatid radiosensitivity in dyskeratosis congenita fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited disorder characterized by reticular pigmentation of the skin, dystrophic nails, mucosal leukoplakia, and a predisposition to cancer in early adult life. In the majority of cases, DC is an X-linked recessive trait. However, one or more autosomal form(s) of DC may exist. Although excessive spontaneous chromatid breakage has been reported in DC, it is not a consistent cytological marker for this disorder. We examined the frequency and specificity of X-irradiation-induced G2 chromatid breakage in fibroblasts from three unrelated DC patients (two males and one female). Metaphase cells from DC patients had significantly more chromatid breaks (16-18-fold and 17-26-fold at 50 and 100 rad X-irradiation, respectively) and chromatid gaps (10-12-fold and 6-7-fold at 50 and 100 rad, respectively) than those from two different controls. Analysis of banded chromosomes revealed a nonrandom distribution of chromatid aberrations in DC but not in controls, a distribution corresponding to some of the known breakpoints for cancer-specific rearrangements, constitutive fragile sites, and/or loci for cellular proto-oncogenes. The significance of this finding for cancer predisposition in DC patients is uncertain, but the increased susceptibility of X-irradiation-induced chromatid breakage may serve as a cellular marker of diagnostic value

  18. The Skin Punch Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeman, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The skin punch biopsy is a simple and safe office procedure which is a valuable aid in diagnosing many skin diseases. It can be performed in a few minutes and offers in most situations a very suitable histological specimen with a minimum amount of scarring and little or no pain or discomfort to the patient. The indications for skin biopsy, selection of a proper site and the technique are described.

  19. Psychorheology of skin cream

    OpenAIRE

    Greenaway, Ruth Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between physical and sensory properties of 40 model skin creams was investigated. Creams were formulated according to an experimental design to ensure that a wide range of textural properties could be produced from a minimal number of ingredients. The core project study comprised of objective sensory profiling of model skin creams (QDA, Quantitative Descriptive Analysis) and the physical characterisation of the textural and flow properties relevant to the use of skin crea...

  20. Sensitive Skin in China

    OpenAIRE

    Farage, Miranda A.; Mandl, Christian P.; Enzo Berardesca; Maibach, Howard I.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many consumers in the USA and Europe define themselves as having sensitive skin, a phenomenon whose etiology appears to include both physiological and psychosocial factors. Objectives: Sensitive skin data from the developing world is sparse. This study evaluates the prevalence and characteristics of sensitive skin in China and compares data collected to existing data from the western world. Patients/Materials/Methods: A total of 408 Chinese women voluntarily completed a survey on ...